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AUIC Tables of Contents: 00010203040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of AUIC'00, Australasian User Interface Conference

Fullname:Proceedings of the 1st Australasian conference on User interface
Editors:Paul Calder; Michael Rees
Location:Canberra, Australia
Dates:2000-Jan-31 to 2000-Feb-03
Standard No:ISBN: 0-7695-0515-5; hcibib: AUIC00
Breaking the Copy/Paste Cycle: The Stretchable Selection Tool BIBAKHTML 3-10
  Mark Apperley; Dale Fletcher; William J. Rogers
Copy and paste, or cut and paste, using a clipboard or paste buffer has long been the principle facility provided to users for transferring data between and within GUI applications. We argue that this mechanism can be clumsy in circumstances where several pieces of information must be moved systematically -- for example, extracting a predetermined set of data fields from a piece of unstructured text. In dealing with the plethora of potentially useful, but not appropriately structured, information on the World Wide Web, interfaces which facilitate manual information gathering are of considerable importance. We present an alternative, more natural, user interface facility to make the task less onerous, and to provide improved visual feedback during the operation. We call our facility the "Stretchable Selection Tool", a semi-transparent overlay augmenting the mouse pointer to automate paste operations and provide information to prompt the user. We describe a prototype implementation that functions in a collaborative software environment, allowing users to cooperate on multiple copy/paste operations.
Keywords: Copy and Paste, Cut and Paste, Paste, Multiple Selection, Collaborative, Transparent Overlay, Augmented Pointer
Finger Tracking for the Digital Desk BIBAKHTML 11-16
  Thomas Brown; Richard C. Thomas
A trend in computing environments today is to move towards more natural interaction, another is to make hardware invisible to the user. Both these ideas converge into ubiquitous computing -- the Digital Desk is an example of this idea. In this paper we concentrate on an input device for the Digital Desk, namely the users fingertip, which is made to act like a mouse. Tracking such an input device is common to a number of augmented reality environments and involves vision and motion analysis. However, previous attempts have focused more on the vision aspect of tracking general objects than on using the information already known about the users hand, which is the approach taken here. We adopted the goal of tracking the users fingertip as fast as possible in real-time so the system could be compared with other input devices, using models such as Fitts Law. Our system is shown to comply with the law adequately.
Keywords: Digital Desk, Fitts Law, augmented reality, finger tracking
Developing Adaptable User Interfaces for Component-Based Systems BIBAKHTML 17-25
  John C. Grundy; John G. Hosking
Developing software components with user interfaces that can be adapted to diverse reuse situations is challenging. Examples of such adaptations include extending, composing and reconfiguring multiple component user interfaces, and adapting component user interfaces to particular user preferences, roles and subtasks. We describe our recent work in facilitating such adaptation via the concept of user interface aspects, which facilitate effective component user interface design and realization using an extended, component-based software architecture.
Keywords: software components, adaptable user interfaces, component-based user interfaces, component aspects
EMCE: A Multimodal Environment Augmenting Conferencing Experiences BIBAKHTML 26-32
  Arna Ionescu; Luc Julia
To illustrate research regarding how to augment people's experiences in office meetings of different types, we have developed EMCE (Enhanced Multimodal Conferencing Environment), a prototypic conference room. EMCE assists meeting participants in performing a host of functions including but not limited to passing private messages, taking electronic notes, accessing personal files, writing both public and private annotations on projected objects, automatically creating meeting minutes and remote conferencing. Our multimodal approach allows people to interact with the conference room through spoken or handwritten commands and drawn information. The room reacts in a multimedia fashion, outputting sound, video, text, etc. To make EMCE's use as intuitive as possible, our interface consists of a virtual view of the conference room that users can access either with screens embedded in a conference table or on their personal laptops. Our goal is to create an augmented environment that is as natural and easy to use as existing, non-augmented meeting environments.
Keywords: Multimodal Natural Interfaces, Augmented Mediated Spaces
Stepping into Cooperative Buildings BIBAHTML 33-40
  Simon M. Kaplan; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Michael Docherty
If we are stepping out of windows, what are we stepping into? We suggest it is into cooperative buildings. For the foreseeable future, at least, we can identify two major characteristics of the cooperative building. The spaces of the building will be augmented in various ways, providing an ambient environment that bridges spatial discontinuities in work-groups and provides a continuous window into the state of the virtual world. Secondly, the ways in which the spaces themselves are used will evolve to be more congruent with the fluid, dynamic and distributed nature of the work taking place in the building. These two characteristics are deeply interconnected. This evolution need not happen entirely in the physical world; the essence of a cooperative building will be-come the way in which it mixes both physical and virtual affordances to support the workaday activities of its inhabitants.
Applying Ecological Interface Design to Experimental Apparatus Used to Monitor a Refrigeration Plant BIBAKHTML 41-48
  Pat Lehane; Mark Toleman; John Benecke
A small refrigeration plant, for teaching refrigeration theory, used a control console built to traditional design guidelines: one output in the display for each sensor in the plant. This style of console is notorious for inducing high cognitive loads on operators and for displaying redundant data. Often the high cognitive load is the result of inconsistency between the intent for displaying the data and the format of the displayed data. An interface, based on Ecological Interface Design Theory (EID) was designed and implemented. The completed interface provided the operator with information commensurate with the operator's mental model derived from the system image. During testing of the new interface the expert operator's mental model of the refrigeration system was modified due to improved observation of the refrigeration plant's operational parameters. The application achieved the desired result and reduced the operator's workload by removing a cognitive task -- determining system stability -- from the operator's task list.
Keywords: Ecological Interface Design, Mental Model, System Image, Design Model, Cognitive Load
WAP Enabling Existing HTML Applications BIBAKHTML 49-57
  Marcin Metter; Robert M. Colomb
Already existing HTML applications can be converted into WML applications for use on WAP-enabled devices, yet this process is not as simple as the alteration of the markup tags. This paper investigates the problems associated with the conversion process by examining the conversion of a functional information system that would be of benefit to its users when access from remote locations is required. This paper details a number of problems discovered with the conversion of complex HTML documents into simplified WML documents. The major problems of displaying tabulated data, hyperlinks, navigational aids, and user input are discussed, with possible solutions presented. The paper concludes by raising the issue of 'intelligent' automated HTML to WML conversion, a topic for future research.
Keywords: WAP, HTML, WML, Internet, Human-Computer Interaction
Exploring Visualizations through Subspace Composition BIBAKHTML 58-66
  Rajehndra Nagappan
This paper presents a method for exploring visualizations of complex data by considering them as compositions of smaller, simpler, structural elements. Subspaces of data are mapped into simple visualization constructs that each represent a number of well-defined tasks on the data. The visualization elements and their associations form a map that is used to assist navigation through the data space. The approach is illustrated by a number of examples that visualize complex data sets.
Keywords: Information Visualization, Data Visualization, Data Spaces, Visualization Algorithms
Activity Breakdowns in QuickTime Virtual Reality Environments BIBAHTML 67-72
  Brian E. Norris; William B. L. Wong
Recent research into virtual environments has identified difficulties that users have in navigating and searching for objects within a QuickTime Virtual Reality (QTVR) environment. Through the use of Activity Theory, the location and size of QTVR hotspots were identified as causing a breakdown between what the user expected to happen and what actually happened. This subsequently caused a focus shift from within the environment, out to the interface tool in order to try and overcome this breakdown. These breakdowns were the result of the environment design process. Careful planning of the environment is needed to greatly reduce these breakdowns.
Visual Gesture Interfaces for Virtual Environments BIBAKHTML 73-80
  Rochelle O'Hagan; Alexander Zelinsky
Virtual environments provide a whole new way of viewing and manipulating 3D data. Current technology moves the images out of desktop monitors and into the space immediately surrounding the user. Users can literally put their hands on the virtual objects. Unfortunately techniques for interacting with such environments have yet to mature. Gloves and sensor based trackers are unwieldy, constraining and uncomfortable to use. A natural, more intuitive method of interaction would be to allow the user to grasp objects with their hands and manipulate them as if they were real objects. We are investigating the use of computer vision in implementing a natural interface based on hand gestures. A framework for a gesture recognition system is introduced along with results of experiments in color segmentation, feature extraction and template matching for finger and hand tracking and hand pose recognition. Progress in the implementation of a gesture interface for navigation and object manipulation in virtual environments is discussed.
Keywords: gesture, virtual environments, gesture interfaces, user interface
Task and Dialogue Modeling: Bridging the Divide with Lean Cuisine+ BIBAKHTML 81-87
  Chris Phillips; Chris Scogings
Interactive system design requires good descriptive systems, and the development of tools to support it. In particular, models and notations are required for describing user tasks, and for describing the structure of the human-computer dialogue to support these tasks. These descriptions should ideally be linked. This paper reviews task and dialogue models, and describes how the divide between the two can be bridged via the Lean Cuisine+ notation. The notation is placed in a wider context by reference to the system development life cycle and the unified modeling language (UML).
Keywords: task models, dialogue models, Lean Cuisine+, UML
User Interfaces for Lightweight In-Line Editing of Web Pages BIBAKHTML 88-94
  Michael J. Rees
In 1990, the earliest web browser allowed the person reading a web page to edit and save that page-the early Web provided fully collaborative pages. Mosaic, the browser that popularized the Web in 1993, allowed pages to be viewed and not changed. It took several more years before fully collaborative web pages were available once more using specialized page sharing pages and servers. However, the user interfaces for these shared editing web page systems are complex. When several users share the creation and editing of a web page it is rare that each user requires full editing control over the whole page. Rather, the page originator usually sets the basic structure for the page, and collaborating authors fill in the detail to the structure. Synchronization and user interface design to support such a 'fill-in' process are much simpler to implement. This paper refers to such collaborative page construction as lightweight in-line editing. Examples of some existing user interface designs for lightweight in-line editing are shown and discussed. The paper concludes with the author's own lightweight in-line editing system. Pardalote, which is under development. The Pardalote user interface design that employs new web page components is presented.
Keywords: lightweight editing, in-line editing, user interface design, computer supported cooperative work, web page components
The Metaphor of the Face as an Interface for Communicating Non-Quantitative Information BIBAKHTML 95-102
  Simeon J. Simoff; Fay Sudweeks
In this paper we propose that a metaphor can be used to represent domains that are not easily quantifiable. Formal representation of the metaphor then can be used as an interface to communicate information about those domains between the human and the computer at a cognitive and visual level. We propose a model, which uses the metaphor of a human face as an interface data formatting system for the perception and evaluation of universal aesthetics.
Keywords: aesthetics, cognition, communication, design, human-computer interaction, information systems, metaphor analysis, multimedia
BUS: A Browser Based User Interface Service for Web Based Applications BIBAKHTML 103-109
  Michael O. Sweeney
The growing complexity of web-based applications have uncovered software engineering problems in developing and maintaining these systems. The current web application development and maintenance environment lacks the architectural models that are used in the development of other systems. This paper introduces a Browser User-interface Service (BUS) that offers an object oriented presentation language to build custom web user interfaces that dynamically connect to application components. The components are able to re-use HTML, JavaScript, and stylesheet content using prototype inheritance and dynamically bind presentation objects with data supplied in XML format. The BUS is designed to be platform, web-server, and browser independent, and use XML messages on TCP sockets to communicate with distributed application component processes. The BUS is a flexible component that is intended to improve consistency and flexibility in web interface design and application maintenance. The BUS is also an integration component that can connect a custom user interface to multiple distributed application components.
Keywords: web application, web architecture, web engineering, user interface service, XML, user interface language
Evaluation of Animation Effects to Improve Indirect Manipulation BIBAKHTML 110-117
  Bruce H. Thomas; Victor Demczuk
This paper describes an experiment we have conducted to explore the effectiveness of animation in improving indirect manipulation operations. Indirect manipulation operations are those initiated by command menus and buttons, to perform a transformation on a graphical object or set of graphical objects. The particular improvement is an operation's ability to show both what would happen if the operation is committed and what would happen if it were cancelled, while an operation is being considered. The experiment required subjects to watch a simple alignment operation for a set of graphical objects. They were then asked to record the original placement of those graphical objects. Each task used one of four visual cues: modified telltale, wiggle, color, or no visual cue. We found the modified telltale, wiggle, and color visual effects significantly more effective than no visual feedback for cuing the user as to original position of the graphical objects. The modified telltale and color effects were significantly more effective than the wiggle effect.
Keywords: animation, graphical interfaces, direct manipulation, indirect manipulation
Supporting Special-Purpose Health Care Models via Web Interfaces BIBAKHTML 118-125
  James R. Warren; Heath K. Frankel; Joseph T. Noone; Berend-Jan van der Zwaag
The potential of the Web, via both the Internet and intranets, to facilitate development of clinical information systems has been evident for some time. Most Web-based clinical workstations interfaces, however, provide merely a loose collection of access channels. There are numerous examples of systems for access to either patient data or clinical guidelines, but only isolated cases where clinical decision support is presented integrally with the process of patient care, in particular, in the form of active alerts and reminders based on patient data. Moreover, pressures in the health industry are increasing the need for doctors to practice in accordance with "best practice" guidelines and often to operate under novel healthcare arrangements. We present the Care Plan On-Line (CPOL) system, which provides intranet-based support for the SA HealthPlus Coordinated Care model for chronic disease management. We describe the interface design rationale of CPOL and its implementation framework, which is flexible and broadly applicable to support new health care models over intranets or the Internet.
Keywords: Decision support, intranet-based systems, on-line health, practice guidelines
(Focus + Context)3: Distortion-Oriented Displays in Three Dimensions BIBAKHTML 126-133
  Donovan Winch; Paul R. Calder; Raymond Smith
Three-dimensional datasets are becoming increasingly common, especially the use of large 3D datasets in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) applications. Similar problems are likely with 3D datasets as have been found with large two-dimensional datasets; namely the loss of context when examining a particular area of the data in detail. This paper proposes a solution based on three-dimensional distortion-oriented displays, building on previous work on such displays for two-dimensional datasets. Two such 3D distortion-oriented displays are described: the 3D Cartesian Fisheye display and the 3D Polar Fisheye display (after their two-dimensional counterparts, the Cartesian Fisheye and Polar Fisheye displays, respectively). These displays are tested with a very small 3D dataset as proof of concept, and it is proposed that their operation be examined when applied to large datasets.
Keywords: Distortion-oriented displays, non-linear magnification, three-dimensional graphics, computer graphics, human-computer interaction
Question-Driven Classification of Retrieved Documents BIBAKHTML 134-140
  Mingfang Wu; Ross Wilkinson; Michael Fuller
Many existing information access systems deliver ranked lists of documents in response to users' queries. Some systems also endeavor to represent some of the various types of relationships that can exist between documents. However, few systems provide effective mechanisms to help users discover useful information within the set of retrieved documents. In this paper, we present a question-driven approach to delivering retrieved documents in an attempt to organize them in a way closer to the user's mental representation of the expected answer. In our purposed approach, retrieved documents are dynamically classified into categories; an appropriate classification scheme is selected by a user on the basis of their own understanding of the information need. Experimental results show that users are more satisfied with such a directed categorization than with a list of retrieved documents.
Keywords: Information delivery, classification, answer organization, retrieved documents, information need
Programming without a Computer: A New Interface for Children under Eight BIBAKHTML 141-148
  Peta Wyeth; Helen C. Purchase
Electronic Blocks are a new programming interface, designed for children aged between three and eight years. The Electronic Blocks programming environment includes sensor blocks, action blocks and logic blocks. By connecting these blocks children can program structures that interact with the environment. The Electronic Block programming interface design is based on principles of developmentally appropriate practices in early childhood education. As a result the blocks provide young children with a programming environment that allows them to explore quite complex programming principles. The simple syntax of the blocks provides opportunities for young children unavailable through the use of traditional programming languages. The blocks allow children to create and use simple code structures. The Electronic Block environment provides a developmentally appropriate environment for planning overall strategies for solving a problem, breaking a strategy down into manageable units, and systematically determining the weakness of the solution. Electronic Blocks are the physical embodiment of computer programming. They have the unique dynamic and programmable properties of a computer minus its complexity.
Keywords: Physical Programming; Early Childhood Education; Electronic Building Blocks