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AUIC Tables of Contents: 00010203040506070809101112131415

Proceedings of AUIC'01, Australasian User Interface Conference-01-29

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2nd Australasian conference on User interface
Editors:Paul Calder; Michael Rees
Location:Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
Dates:2001-Jan-29 to 2001-Feb-01
Standard No:ISBN: 0-7695-0969-X; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: AUIC01
The computer science of everyday things BIBAFull-Text 3
  Harold Thimbleby
Technology is fashionable, wonderful and getting better; Moore's Law predicts substantial, sustained improvement. Yet the usability of 'everyday things' low (video recorders being a notorious example). It seems to follow that improvements must be sought in areas outside technology, such as human factors. But a premise is wrong: in fact, the technology -- the embedded computer science -- is appalling!Obsolescence, a symptom of Moore's Law, hides flawed design: poor products are replaced rather than fixed. The poor quality of the computer science of everyday things is eclipsed by the hope for fixing today's problems with tomorrow's consumption. This paper reviews Moore's Law and the usability everyday things; it shows that professional computer science can improve usability with ease. Improvement will be essential when ethical and environmental issues become, as they will, unavoidable design criteria.
Goldleaf hierarchical document browser BIBAFull-Text 13
  Jolon Faichney; Ruben Gonzalez
A two-dimensional, zoomable, space filling user interface is presented for browsing conventional, hierarchical file systems. Through user studies the Goldleaf browser was compared with the widely used Microsoft Windows Explorer user interface. The times and number of mouse clicks to locate directories and files were recorded. The user studies found that the Goldleaf browser required less than half the mouse clicks to locate a directory compared with Windows Explorer. Through the use of document thumbnails subjects were able to locate documents in less than two-thirds the time that it took using Windows Explorer. A majority of subjects felt that the ability of the Goldleaf browser to display multiple levels of the file system simultaneously was its most beneficial feature in completing the tasks. Subjects found that the Goldleaf browser required less mental and physical effort and was more enjoyable to use than Explorer.
Adapting the web interface: an adaptive web browser BIBAFull-Text 21
  K. Henricksen; J. Indulska
The growing number of mobile computing devices with diverse characteristics creates a requirement for seamless (device independent) access to computing resources of distributed systems. One of the most common applications in distributed systems is the Web browser, which is not only used to access resources on the Internet but also as an interface to many Information Systems applications. In this paper, we address types of adaptation that can be applied to a Web browser in response to diverse context changes, including changes in available computing resources, input and output device capabilities, network characteristics, location and user context. We also present a design and implementation of a Web browser that adapts to changes in its network and computing environment by exploiting context metadata.
Linking between real and virtual spaces: building the mixed reality stage environment BIBAFull-Text 29
  Monika Fleischmann; Wolfgang Strauss
This paper is concerned with the concept of a Mixed Reality (MR) stage environment as networked layering of physical space and virtual environments. The MR stage enables multiple performers to interact through intuitive free body interfaces. The goal is the creation of interface environments which allow participants to communicate in shared and remote physical spaces through their natural senses: hearing, seeing, speaking, gesturing, touching and moving around. Connecting the concept of the stage with the idea of digital information space comprises investigation in digital storytelling and the design of non-linear structures. What we get is an instrument for the human body. What we see is actual movement of performers integrating virtual sound and images in real time onto the MR stage.
Visualizing content based relations in texts BIBAFull-Text 34
  Edgar Weippl
Our goal is to efficiently visualize a medium sized hypertext database containing 500 -- 20000 articles. The visualization technique we propose is an Information Landscape. Basically, the information landscape maps texts into a 2D plane so that related texts are placed next to each other. The hypertexts' location is calculated according to their content and not according to their links. Combining already published algorithms the clustering works very well. An important issue, however, is a well-designed user interface (UI). In this paper we present two 2D interfaces and an improved 3D version. This paper covers all aspects from preprocessing and clustering to the final UI and its functionality.
Towards model based prediction of human error rates in interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 42
  David Leadbetter; Andrew Hussey; Peter Lindsay; Andrew Neal; Mike Humphreys
Growing use of computers in safety-critical systems increases the need for Human Computer Interfaces (HCIs) to be both smarter -- to detect human errors -- and better designed -- to reduce likelihood of errors. We are developing methods for determining the likelihood of operator errors which combine current theory on the psychological causes of human errors with formal methods for modelling human-computer interaction. We present the models of the HCI and operator in an air-traffic control (ATC) system simulation, and discuss the role of these in the prediction of human error rates.
Navigating information as a cityscape BIBAFull-Text 50
  Chris P. Rainsford; Michael I. Y. Williams
Recent years have seen a continued growth in the amount of information populating information systems. Meanwhile, the proliferation of computer-based communications and advanced telecommunications has seen an increase in the speed of business. As a result, analysts of data are being called upon to comprehend larger volumes of data in shorter spans of time. One technique to assist users in navigating, understanding and exploiting available information is the use of visualisation tools. In this paper we describe a generic information visualisation tool that adopts the paradigm of a virtual city. This tool was developed as part of an informal investigation into the use of three-dimensional visualisations to aid data understanding. In this paper we describe the Cityscape tool, our experiences with using it, and our plans for further investigation.
Smarter cut-and-paste for programming text editors BIBAFull-Text 56
  Glen Wallace; Robert Biddle; Ewan Tempero
The process of creating software involves many different tools, but the text editor is still one of the most important. Moreover, one of its basic facilities, cut-and-paste, still plays a critical role in enabling simple reuse. In this paper we explore how to improve cut-and-paste within text editors used for programming. We describe how programmers use cut-and-paste for reuse, and suggest the basic underlying principles. We then report on a prototype tool we developed to explore a set of techniques to provide better support for cut-and-paste.
Using force feedback for multi-sensory display BIBAFull-Text 64
  Keith V. Nesbitt; Randall J. Gallimore; Bernard J. Orenstein
This paper describes an investigation into the application of Virtual Environments to enable multi-sensory interpretation of data. The data being interpreted is a multivariate mathematical model of fluid flow and temperature within a blast furnace. Temperature and blast furnace structure is displayed in a visual 3D model while force feedback is used to display the fluid flow field. The application was developed for a specific Virtual Environment called the 'Haptic Workbench'. This technology is described along with the specifics of the application. Observations and feedback were collection from a small group of users. The user appraisal of haptic displays for abstract data interpretation was not conclusive. Indications from this study are that haptic concepts like surfaces, vibration and object inertia are easily comprehended by the user, however, more abstract data attributes like 'flow field' are poorly understood.
A method for the early stages of interactive system design using UML and Lean Cuisine+ BIBAFull-Text 69
  Chris Scogings; Chris Phillips
In interactive system design, models and notations are required for describing user tasks, and for describing the structure of the human-computer dialogue to support these tasks. These descriptions should ideally be linked. This paper examines task modelling in UML and dialogue description in Lean Cuisine+, and describes a method for the early stages of interactive systems design which incorporates both notations. This provides a means of representing tasks in the context of the structure of the user interface, i.e. of explicitly showing the transformation of tasks to dialogue.
Steerable interactive television: virtual reality technology changes user interfaces of viewers and of program producers BIBAFull-Text 77
  Ronald Pose
Television has traditionally been a passive medium from the viewer's perspective. The viewer sits in front of the television receiver and passively absorbs what is presented. On the other hand immersive virtual reality systems engage the user and bring the user into the virtual world, often as a participant rather than just as an observer. This paper looks at applying virtual reality display technology, the Address Recalculation Pipeline, to the familiar technology of television. In so doing it transforms the relationship between the viewers and the television program producers. It can be made compatible with conventional television for those without the means or inclination to buy the new technology, and provides a base for future developments in virtual reality to be brought to the mass market. Linking virtual reality technology to mass entertainment has the potential to stimulate consumer interest and hence research and development funding in this demanding area, as well as providing an exciting, interactive system in its own right. The user interfaces of both the television production team and of the viewer are changed dramatically with this technology. This paper outlines how the user interfaces differ from conventional ones. An overview of the virtual reality display technology is given to set the scene.
A pilot study of teaching the strategic use of common computer applications BIBAFull-Text 85
  Richard C. Thomas; Marian R. K. Foster
Many users do not progress from a basic use of computer applications to more efficient usage. A strategic approach to training that focuses on teaching efficient strategies in addition to commands was successfully developed by Bhavnani and John at Carnegie Mellon University. A controlled experiment comparing this method of teaching to traditional command-based instruction was performed at The University of Western Australia. We found the teaching method is transferable to the Australian context and it appears to be remarkably robust in terms of delivery, student prior experience levels and motivation. The results clearly indicate that students can be taught to use common computer applications more efficiently than they would otherwise achieve.
Context in 3D planar navigation BIBAFull-Text 93
  Scott Vallance; Paul Calder
One of the most frustrating barriers to the widespread use of 3D visualisation is the additional complexity in navigating 3D data. This paper details a new approach to improving navigation in 3D environments where the navigation is mainly planar. Data at a distance from the viewpoint is distorted as if projected onto a partial cylinder to approximate a plan view, thereby exposing information that may have been obscured. Previous approaches are compared with this new technique and screenshots presented. Implementation details of the technique are discussed as well as possible performance and useability issues.
Cost/benefit based adaptive dialog: case study using empirical medical practice norms and intelligent split menus BIBAFull-Text 100
  Jim Warren
The notion of an adaptive user interface, one that accommodates user needs based on knowledge of the task at hand, is compelling but difficult to make practical. This paper examines models of the utility (as balancing of cost and benefit) in the initiation of task-specific dialog based on conditional probability of user goals in context. Illustrations in this paper are based on an empirical model of General Practice (GP) medicine as derived from a large database of GP/patient encounters. Application is explored with respect to generation of dynamic pick-lists (intelligent split menus) of diagnoses in the context of patient reason for encounter (RFE); medication warning dialogs are also briefly addressed. Simulated data entry demonstrates the effectiveness of various adaptation options. Findings include significantly superior accuracy per item of varying-length cost/benefit based pick-lists as compared to fixed length pick-lists. We conclude with discussion of the power of empirical cost/benefit based adaptation to build user engagement and with future directions toward application in clinical practice information systems.
Solving the occlusion problem for three-dimensional distortion-oriented displays BIBAFull-Text 108
  Donovan Winch; Paul Calder; Raymond Smith
Recent research into distortion-oriented displays (DODs) and non-linear magnification techniques has considered extending their application to large three-dimensional datasets. Inherent properties of three-dimensional datasets introduce some difficulties that do not occur in 2D environments. This paper considers the Occlusion Problem -- that of context data hiding, or occluding, some or all of the data within an area of focus. A novel solution to this problem is proposed, namely the use of non-geometric distortions combined with geometric distortions, producing a three-dimensional distortion-oriented display that reduces obfuscation of data within the area of focus. An implementation of these techniques is developed, and its application to a small number of 3D datasets is examined as proof of concept.
An animated 3D manipulator for distributed collaborative window-based applications BIBAFull-Text 116
  Matthew L. Davies; Bruce H. Thomas
This paper presents a new animated 3D graphical object manipulator to improve the visualisation of distributed window-based collaborative 3D applications. By applying animation techniques to the user interface, the experience of multi-user interaction may be enhanced. A major problem associated with distributed collaborative 3D applications is that interactions among users may cause conflicts, and it may be difficult to convey what these conflicts are. In addition, there is a need for additional feedback when interacting with 3D objects in current workstation 3D virtual reality applications. A prototype application is presented in the paper to demonstrate this new animated manipulator.
Drawing lessons in the design of tangible media from a study of interactions with mechanical products BIBAFull-Text 124
  Margot Brereton
There has been an increasing interest in objects within the HCI field particularly with a view to designing tangible interfaces. However, little is known about two key issues in tangible interface design: how people make sense of objects and; how objects support thinking. This paper draws upon a study of how engineers learn from mechanical products as a starting point for considering how to design interactions with physical objects that have embedded computational capabilities, that is, hardware in the tangible digital domain. The key lessons are to design devices that support interaction and user inquiry. Mechanical devices are intelligible when they: give feedback; can be reconfigured; and perform differently in different contexts. These qualities allow their users to develop inquiry processes and to gradually build a repertoire of familiar devices and operating principles.
Comparing and reconciling usability-centered and use case-driven requirements engineering processes BIBAFull-Text 132
  A. Seffah; R. Djouab; H. Antunes
During the two last decades, the human-computer interaction community has developed a large variety of techniques and tools for gathering, specifying and validating usability requirements including user characteristics, tasks, work environment as well as usability goals such as effectiveness, efficiency and user satisfaction. Unfortunately, even if their importance are accepted by software developers, they are not yet cost-effectively integrated into software engineering methodologies. This paper presents the rationale for our ACUDUC approach by identifying the different issues for enhancing the use case-driven software requirements approach with RESPECT, one of the most advanced frameworks for user-centered requirements. Beyond this specific example (use cases and RESPECT), our investigations aim to reconcile user-centered and use case-driven requirements engineering and to cross-pollinate software engineering and usability engineering.