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psychnology Tables of Contents: 010203040506070809101112

Psychnology 7

Editors:Luciano Gamberini; Giuseppe Riva; Anna Spagnolli
Standard No:ISSN 1720-7525
Links:www.psychnology.org | Table of Contents
  1. psychnology 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1
  2. psychnology 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2
  3. psychnology 2009 Volume 7 Issue 3

psychnology 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1

Ethics in Presence and Social Presence Technology

Building Character for Artificial Conversational Agents: Ethos, Ethics, Believability, and Credibility BIBAK1 9-47
  Sheryl Brahnam
Because ethos is an unavoidable component of dialogue and forms the basis for believing and being persuaded by another's speech, it is an important topic for AI researchers. This paper examines the concept of ethos, especially Aristotle's notions of situated and invented ethos, as it functions in oral and written discourse and then explores what happens to ethos in computer-mediated human-to-human and human-to-machine discourse. The paper draws a number of conclusions that may be of value to researchers in these fields. In particular, it argues that the rhetorical concept of ethos furnishes a broader theoretical framework for understanding design and ethical issues involved in agent credibility than does the artistic notion of believability. The paper concludes by suggesting some nonartistic methods for making agents more credible within the framework of situated ethos.
Keywords: ethos, conversational agents, believability, trust, anthropomorphism, Eliza effect, verbal abuse, computer-mediated communication, transference, oscillation effect
Ethical implications of verbal disinhibition with conversational agents BIBAK2 49-57
  Antonella De Angeli
This paper presents a reflection on the ethical implications of conversational agents. The reflection is motivated by recent empirical findings showing that, when interacting in natural language with artificial partners, users tend to indulge in disinhibited behaviour, such as flaming, bullying and sexual harassment. The paper then addresses the question whether conversational agents open any ethical issues and whether this new communication context requires the definition of new moral values and principles or could be addressed by ordinary moral norms.
Keywords: embodied conversational agents, Internet disinhibition, verbal abuse
Witnessed Presence and the YUTPA Framework BIBAK3 59-76
  Caroline Nevejan
This paper introduces the notion of witnessed presence arguing that the performative act of witnessing presence is fundamental to dynamics of negotiating trust and truth. As the agency of witnessed presence in mediated presence differs from natural presence orchestration between natural and mediated presences is needed. The YUTPA framework, introduced in this paper, depicts 4 dimensions to define witnessed presence: time, place, action and relation. This framework also provides a context for design of trust in products and services, as illustrated for a number of illustrative scenarios.
Keywords: witnessed presence, time, place, action, relation, YUTPA, responsibility, social structures, performitivity, ethics, emotions, design
Cybertherapy: Advantages, Limitations, and Ethical Issues BIBAK4 77-100
  Cristina Botella; Azucena Garcia-Palacios; Rosa M. Baños; Soledad Quero
Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are becoming more and more common in Clinical Psychology. Two of the technologies that are more consolidated in this field are virtual reality (VR) and telepsychology. There are other technological innovations that are beginning to be used in clinical and health psychology such as ambient intelligence, ubiquitous computing or persuasive computing. In the last fifteen years there has been a proliferation of studies testing the efficacy of immersive virtual reality in the delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for several mental disorders and health conditions. The essence of VR is that it can simulate reality and add a new possibility: the user has the illusion of "being" in the computer-generated environment while interacting with the VR objects. This unique feature of VR is very relevant for its use in Clinical Psychology. At the same time, it can raise several ethical issues. It is important to investigate the possible effects of blurring the distinction between real and virtual worlds in vulnerable populations. Some other concerns regarding the use of VR in therapy have already been investigated, such as cybersickness. After ten years of experience treating patients with VR, this has not been a problem in the published efficacy studies.
   Telepsychology has also been used to improve the delivery of CBT. A number of Internet-delivered programs have already become important tools in the health system. The main advantage is that online therapy can reach people who might not otherwise seek therapy, such as disabled people or those who live in remote areas. However, several concerns have been raised about self-help procedures, like the issue of self-diagnosis. and the fact that patients usually have all of the necessary self-help information at their disposal. It is important to establish criteria to protect people from the possible negative effects of this.
   Other innovations such as ambient intelligence and pervasive computing bring up other ethical issues. For example, is privacy being compromised too much when people are located using GPS or physiologically monitored 24 hours a day? Criteria for considering these issues must be established.
   Our research group has been working with new technologies and therapies for the last fifteen years. This paper addresses the ethical issues we have encountered in our research and clinical practice; it also explores ethical issues that will become increasingly important.
Keywords: cybertherapy, virtual reality, telepsychology, e-therapy, pervasive computing, ethics

Other contents

Telepresence and Video Games: The Impact of Image Quality BIBAK5 101-112
  Cheryl Campanella Bracken; Paul Skalski
This study investigates the impact of video game image quality on telepresence. Past research has demonstrated positive associations between television image quality and presence and video game technology and presence. No study to date, however, has examined the presence effects of video games played in high definition, which is becoming increasingly common due to the diffusion of new TV technologies into homes. This paper reports the results of an experiment in which image quality was manipulated. The results of the study provide some support for image quality affecting telepresence. Specifically, higher quality images in video games led to higher levels of immersion. These findings are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
Keywords: Video Games, Telepresence, Presence, HD games
What could abductive reasoning contribute to human computer interaction? A technology domestication view BIBAK6 113-131
  Erkki Patokorpi
In recent decades, non-monotonous, informal patterns of reasoning have awakened a renewed interest among psychologists, economists and educationalists. Computer scientists and information systems professionals could also benefit from getting better acquainted with new research on how people think and act in the real world. The purpose of the paper is not to make an empirical contribution but to present a general argument in favour of a psychological approach to logic and its application to Human Computer Interaction (HCI), focusing especially on abduction. Abduction is a form of everyday reasoning that people typically use under uncertainty in a context. Abduction may help us better understand the epistemic conditions of advanced HCI -- which increasingly takes place in authentic surroundings instead of in a laboratory-like setting -- thus contributing to better research and design. HCI design should enhance our natural capacities and behaviour, which at the same time could mean creating new freedoms in the structures of everyday life.
Keywords: abduction, practical reasoning, informal reasoning, logic of discovery, information systems methodology, human-computer interaction, technology design

psychnology 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2

Gaze control for work and play

Predicting preference from fixations BIBAK7 141-158
  Mackenzie G. Glaholt; Mei-Chun Wu; Eyal M. Reingold
We measured the strength of the association between looking behaviour and preference. Participants selected the most preferred face out of a grid of 8 faces. Fixation times were correlated with selection on a trial-by-trial basis, as well as with explicit preference ratings. Furthermore, by ranking features based on fixation times, we were able to successfully predict participants' preferences for novel feature combinations in a two-alternative forced choice task. In addition, we obtained a similar pattern of findings in a very different stimulus domain: mock company logos. Our results indicated that fixation times can be used to predict selection in large arrays and they might also be employed to estimate preferences for whole stimuli as well as their constituent features.
Keywords: Eye movements, preference, gaze bias, decision making
Scrollable Keyboards for Casual Eye Typing BIBAK8 159-173
  Oleg Spakov; Päivi Majaranta
In eye typing, a full on-screen keyboard often takes a lot of space because the inaccuracy in eye tracking requires big keys. We propose "scrollable keyboards" where one or more rows are hidden to save space. Results from an experiment with 8 expert participants show that the typing speed reduced by 51.4% for a 1-row keyboard and 25.3% for a 2-row keyboard compared to a full (3-row) QWERTY. By optimizing the keyboard layout according to letter-to-letter probabilities we were able to reduce the scroll button usage, which further increased the typing speed from 7.26 wpm (QWERTY) to 8.86 wpm (optimized layout) on the 1-row keyboard, and from 11.17 wpm to 12.18 wpm on the 2-row keyboard, respectively.
Keywords: Eye typing, text entry, eye tracking, gaze input
Hands Free Interaction with Virtual Information in a Real Environment: Eye Gaze as an Interaction Tool in an Augmented Reality System BIBAK9 175-196
  Susanna Nilsson; Torbjörn Gustafsson; Per Carleberg
Eye contact in human conversations is a natural source of information about the visual attention of people talking, and also indicates who is speaking to whom. Eye gaze can be used as an interaction method, but gaze tracking can also be used to monitor a user's eye movements and visual interest. This paper describes how gaze-based interaction can be used and implemented in an Augmented Reality (AR) system. The results of the preliminary tests of the gaze-controlled AR system show that the system does work, but that it needs considerable development and further user studies before it can be a realistic option in real end user settings.
Keywords: Augmented Reality, gaze-controlled augmented reality, mixed reality, gaze-based interaction
Gaze beats mouse: A case study on a gaze-controlled breakout BIBAK10 197-211
  Michael Dorr; Laura Pomarjanschi; Erhardt Barth
We present an open-source, gaze-controlled adaptation of the well-known Breakout computer game. In a tournament where 20 subjects took turns playing this game against each other, one using gaze and one using a mouse, we demonstrate that gaze can be a superior input modality. In another experiment, we collected eye movement data from 9 subjects playing this game and find that expert and novice players differ in their employed eye movement strategies.
Keywords: Gaming with gaze, human-computer interaction, alternative input devices
Evaluation of the Potential of Gaze Input for Game Interaction BIBAK11 213-236
  Javier San Agustin; Julio C. Mateo; John Paulin Hansen; Arantxa Villanueva
To evaluate the potential of gaze input for game interaction, we used two tasks commonly found in video game control, target acquisition and target tracking, in a set of two experiments. In the first experiment, we compared the target acquisition and target tracking performance of two eye trackers with four other input devices. Gaze input had a similar performance to the mouse for big targets, and better performance than a joystick, a device often used in gaming. In the second experiment, we compared target acquisition performance using either gaze or mouse for pointing, and either a mouse button or an EMG switch for clicking. The hands-free gaze-EMG input combination was faster than the mouse while maintaining a similar error rate. Our results suggest that there is a potential for gaze input in game interaction, given a sufficiently accurate and responsive eye tracker and a well-designed interface.
Keywords: Gaze input, video games, electromyography, pointing devices, performance evaluation, Fitts' Law, human-computer interaction

psychnology 2009 Volume 7 Issue 3

Gaze control for work and play

Fast, low resource, head detection and tracking for interactive applications BIBAK12 243-264
  Matthieu Perreira Da Silva; Vincent Courboulay; Armelle Prigent; Pascal Estraillier
This paper presents a real time, low resource, head tracking system. This system is used for a broad range of applications, the simplest being the control of a car in an arcade racing game. Another use of this system is the improvement of the gameplay of an adventure game. A more advanced application is the detection of the player's attentional state using a simple attention model in an attention aware game framework. This state is then used to adapt the game unfolding in order to enhance user's experience and improve the game attentional attractiveness. The experiments conducted on these different games showed that even if using head as a simple input device for explicit game control can improve the player's immersion, its full potential can only be exploited when adapting or building new gameplay.
Keywords: Head-based interaction, gameplay, low resource, low cost, head tracking
Designing Effective Feedback of Electricity Consumption for Mobile User Interfaces BIBAK13 265-289
  Giulio Jacucci; Anna Spagnolli; Luciano Gamberini; Alessandro Chalambalakis; Christoffer Björksog; Massimo Bertoncini; Carin Torstensson; Pasquale Monti
This paper illustrates the approach of Energy Life, a pervasive household sensoring and feedbacking system aimed at improving the energy conservation practices of the inhabitants. The concept of EnergyLife takes into account state-of-the-art knowledge of what makes a feedback intervention effective, which -- at this stage of its development -- can be synthesized into two main features. First, knowledge and action are to be synergically addressed by visualizing electricity consumption on the one side, and providing conservation tips on the other. Second, the design should be centered on the users and undergo iterative usability tests. A more detailed description of the literature-based requirements informing the design of EnergyLife is offered at the beginning of the paper. The way in which they are embodied in the features of the mobile interface, epitomized by its intuitive 3D carousel, is then described. Finally, the rationale and results of the first usability evaluation are reported, describing the responses to a satisfaction questionnaire and the types of breakdowns that occurred during the users' interaction with the device. These results will guide the next development phase and the release of a new prototype.
Keywords: energy awareness, feedback, mobile interface, breakdown analysis
The increase of the experiences of the self through the practice of multiple virtual identities BIBAK14 291-302
  José Carlos Ribeiro
This paper proposes some reflections concerning the process of creation of multiple virtual identities usually verified in several online social platforms of informal interaction based on textual/synchronous modality. With this intention, it discusses characterization, exploratory possibilities (personal and social-communicative) and reasons which lead users to execute such practice. In addition, it intends to identify possible relations between this procedure and the promotion of a dynamics of relationships distinguished in these computer-mediated communication environments. From this point of view, it defends the idea that there is a favourable context to the exercise of simultaneous social roles, decentred and not hierarchical, associated to more flexible identity constructions and more adjusted to contemporary society settings.
Keywords: Cyberspace, social interaction, virtual identity
Usability studies: to meet or not to meet intrinsic motivation BIBAK15 303-324
  Olga V. Smyslova; Alexander E. Voiskounsky
Controlling the users' motivation can significantly improve the efficiency and prognostic value of usability studies. The distinction between the extrinsic and intrinsic motivation plays a decisive role in computer-related activities. A well-developed theory of flow experience, introduced by M. Csikszentmihalyi within the school of positive psychology, is intimately related to intrinsic motivation. Researchers intensively explore flow experience in various types of human-computer interaction. The authors' earlier results referring to computer hackers' motivation are discussed, and the model of hackers' motivational development is presented. These findings suggest productive hints on software users' motivational development, and can be applied in usability studies. Longitudinal usability research projects prove to be reliable in acquiring information about long-term use of newly-developed or updated software products. Specifically, longitudinal research projects would benefit, if the Experience Sampling Method is used. Methodology is discussed, aimed at development of software products which facilitate users' flow experience, and possibly long-term use of these products.
Keywords: usability, software development, motivation, intrinsic motivation, emotion, longitudinal study, flow experience, hackers' motivation, experience sampling method