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psychnology Tables of Contents: 010203040506070809101112

Psychnology 5

Editors:Luciano Gamberini; Giuseppe Riva; Anna Spagnolli
Standard No:ISSN 1720-7525
Links:www.psychnology.org | Table of Contents
  1. psychnology 2007 Volume 5 Issue 1
  2. psychnology 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2
  3. psychnology 2007 Volume 5 Issue 3

psychnology 2007 Volume 5 Issue 1

Mobile Media and Communication

Editorial Preface BIBPDF 5-6
  Ilkka Arminen
Is It Fun to Go to Sydney? Common-Sense Knowledge of Social Structures and WAP BIBAKPHP 7-31
  Ilpo Koskinen
This paper investigated how people navigate through early Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) sites using their common-sense knowledge of social structures. The study is based on a close analysis of 9 videotaped test sessions of WAP use situations taped in Helsinki, Finland between 2000-2004. The data was transcribed using standard conventions of conversation analysis, and analyzed in an inductive fashion to identify and describe the ways in which subjects used their common-sense knowledge in navigating through WAP. The analysis reveals how the structure of WAP makes it necessary for people to rely on their common-sense knowledge in trying to decide what to do next when on a particular WAP page, but also how common-sense knowledge leads them astray. The analysis is qualitative. The conclusions point out the ambiguous role of common-sense knowledge and relates WAP to previous technologies like the pre-visual Internet of the early 1990s.
Keywords: Wireless Application Protocol (WAP), conversation analysis, ethnomethodology, common-sense knowledge of social structures, user experience.
Texters not Talkers: Phone Call Aversion among Mobile Phone Users BIBAKPHP 33-57
  Ruth Rettie
This paper argues that there are two types of mobile phone user. The study focused on the interactional experience of mobile phone calls and text messages. The research involved 32 UK mobile phone users and included extended interviews, 24-hour communication diaries, mobile phone bills and an analysis of text messages. The sample was evenly divided between men and women, and between two age bands, 21-34 years and over 35 years. In line with earlier work by Reid and Reid (2005a), two different groups emerged from the research: Talkers, who prefer talking on the phone, but use text messages as a convenient complementary medium, and Texters, who are uncomfortable on the phone and prefer to send text messages. The paper explains the distinction between the two groups in terms of phone aversion, and relates this to difficulties in the presentation of self. For those who are phone averse, SMS is a ground-breaking technology, providing the remote social connection that they cannot enjoy in phone calls.
Keywords: mobile phone, cell phone, text messages, SMS, phone aversion.
Discourses on Mobility and Technological Mediation: The Texture of Ubiquitous Interaction BIBAKPHP 59-81
  Giuseppina Pellegrino
Mobility is more and more mediated, supported and transformed by technological artefacts and infrastructures. Especially technologies labelled as mobile, pervasive, ubiquitous or nomadic, show an interesting shift in the shaping of sociotechnical environments and mediated interaction. Starting from some recent contributions on mobile and ubiquitous computing, the paper attempts to draw connections between discourses and practices related to the technological mediation of mobility. The assumption is that discourses circulating in different public arenas shape core meanings attributed to technologies, beliefs about them and also directions of development for technological artefacts. The discursive practices examined concern mobility-centred theories of globalization (academic discourse), the relationship between the media and mobility (mass-media discourse), and the designers' discourse, drawn from three settings of design and development in mobile/ubiquitous computing. As a result, the concept of ubiquitous interaction is presented as emergent pattern of mobile communication and theoretical framework to propose questions for future research, considering how mobility and its opposite (immobility) can bring the emergence of mobile techno-elites entitled to travel both physically and virtually.
Keywords: Ubiquity, mobility, discursive frames, mobile communication, mediated interaction.
Mobile Fantasies on Film: Gathering Metaphoric Evidence of Mobile Symbiosis and the Mobile Imaginary BIBAKPHP 83-99
  Kathleen M. Cumiskey
Mobile communication studies are often limited in their ability to capture the entire domain of a mobile phone call. These limitations often require that researchers separately study what is going on between the caller, the recipient of the call and those with whom they are face-to-face. Two scenes from two different American films were used as a means to document the ways in which users imagine mobile phone use. The scenes were coded for evidence of contextual seams, interpersonal seams, mobile symbiosis and the mobile imaginary. Mobile communication provides new opportunities for sharing experiences and tasks that could not exist without the mobile aspects of the phone. Understanding how mobile phones serve as a medium onto which we project our deeper psychological needs provides a glimpse into the fantasies and fears around mobile phone use.
Keywords: mobile phones, mobile communication, social consequences of mobile communication, co-presence.

psychnology 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2

Extended Television: A Study of How Investigations of Use Can Inform Design Processes in Nursing Homes BIBAKPHP 105-132
  Peter Abdelmassih Waller
This paper describes the shortcomings in the support that replaces the lost distributed cognition in older people who move to nursing homes and how artifacts can improve this by functioning as distributed cognition. The 30 older persons in the study were men and women of different backgrounds and ages (between 60 and 100 years), all of whom had some kind of functional limitation. The observations and analysis were carried out as a part of the iterative design phase of TV functions for the older people, and the analysis was based on distributed cognition theory and the FACE conceptual design tool. Poorly designed artifacts resulted in the older person's loss of control, and hindered the creation of distributed cognition. However, these aspects improved in the older persons' TV watching when individually adapted assistive technology was used.
Keywords: Distributed cognition, older people, assistive devices, design, television.
Development and Evaluation of a Method Employed to Identify Internal State Utilizing Eye Movement Data BIBAKPHP 133-164
  Noriyuki Aoyama; Tadahiko Fukuda
In the attempt to recognize and estimate human internal states, such as varying emotions, psychological and conceptual conflicts pose interesting and challenging issues. In this paper, we explore a pattern recognition technique that can detect a state of confusion and can estimate human interest, each an internal state of mind. In order to automatically detect a state of confusion from the objective data made available to us, the technique we present relies upon eye movement data. We have conducted three experiments in which subjects are confronted with a task that includes a trap intentionally designed to confuse them. We have recorded their eye movement data. We demonstrate that approximately 89% of a state of confusion can be detected from eye movement data by using a backpropagation algorithm. Moreover, for estimating human interest, we present a technique that builds upon the foundation of our confusion detection technique. As a result, we can demonstrate that approximately 60% of human interest can also be estimated through eye movement data.
Keywords: Confusion, Interest, Eye Movement, Human-Computer Interaction, Neural Networks.
A First-time Wireless Internet Connection: More Than Just Clicking on a Link BIBAKPHP 165-195
  Dimitri Voilmy; Karine Lan Hing Ting
In the context of understanding the particular use made of nomad Internet and mobile computing in its interactional dimension, this article examines the detail of a first-time connection to the university's Wi-Fi network. Through video ethnography, we analyse the collaborative talk as work between two participants in a public place and finely examine their use of artefacts and distributed information in the accomplishment of connection activities. Both their speech and their actions have been transcribed using the conventions of Conversation Analysis. We therefore follow the connection procedure step by step and demonstrate how handling computerized artefacts is not transparent and requires a certain degree of learning concerning this particular communicative and working tool.
Keywords: Video ethnography, situated action, human computer interactions, cooperative activities, nomad Internet, ubiquitous computing.
Identifying the (Tele)Presence Literature BIBAKPHP 197-206
  Matthew Lombard; Matthew T. Jones
This paper discusses the value of identifying the expanding interdisciplinary scholarly literature on the topic of (tele)presence, proposes a detailed procedure for doing so, and presents a list of 1,831 journal articles, books and other publications that constitute the (tele)presence literature as of May 2007.
Keywords: Telepresence, Telepresence Literature, Telepresence Bibliography, Spatial Presence, Social Presence.
Searching for Information on PDA in a Naturalistic Environment with or without Music BIBAKPHP 207-222
  Andrea Zucchi; Luciano Gamberini
The present paper investigates the effects of different kinds of music on information searching in a crowded cafeteria. Our experiment employs four texts that differ in length only, not in content or syntactic complexity. Each text is loaded on a web page and displayed on a PDA. We ask to participants 20 questions about each text and then compare their accuracy and performance time. Participants carry out their task in three different background conditions: normal environmental noise, earphones with classical symphonic music or earphones with modern Italian songs. We assume that classical symphonic music improves information searching by isolating the participant from the noise and background chitchatting of the cafeteria, while modern Italian music compromises performance, because processing the lyrics interferes with the task. In line with our expectations, classical music significantly improves information searching, but contrary to our hypotheses, Italian music improves performance, although not in a significant way. We conclude that in a situation with background noise, listening to classical music increases the speed of information searching with respect to a condition without music.
Keywords: PDA, Searching for information, Background music, Noise, Irrelevant speech, Information processing, Arousal.

psychnology 2007 Volume 5 Issue 3

Selected Papers from CHItaly07

Psychological Implications of Domestic Assistive Technology for the Elderly BIBAKPHP 229-252
  Amedeo Cesta; Gabriella Cortellessa; M. Vittoria Giuliani; Federico Pecora; Massimiliano Scopelliti; Lorenza Tiberio
The ROBOCARE Domestic Environment (RDE) is the result of a three-year project aimed at developing cognitive support technology for elderly people. Specifically, the domestic environment is equipped with sensors, intelligent software components and devices which cooperate to provide cognitive support to the assisted person. The ROBOCARE interaction capabilities have been concentrated in a robotic mediator who acts as the main communication channel between the users and the intelligent domestic environment. This paper presents an evaluation of elderly people's perception of assistive robots and smart domotic environments. Results show how the acceptability of robotic devices in home setting does not depend only on the practical benefits they can provide, but also on complex relationships between the cognitive, affective and emotional components of people's images of robot. Specially, we analyzes a number of evaluation criteria related to the robot's aspect, the way in which it communicates with the user, and the perceived usefulness of its support services. Among these criteria, the paper proposes and reports an evaluation of how perceived frailty, with reference to both health in general and fear of cognitive weakening, more specifically, can influence the evaluation of a potential aid in everyday life, namely the robotic assistant. The paper also provides a discussion which can be useful for the design of future assistive agents and socially interactive robotic.
Keywords: socially assistive robots, intelligent sensorised environments, evaluation of human-robot interactions, acceptability, perceived health.
Simple, Fast, Cheap: Success Factors for Interactive Multimedia Tools BIBAKPHP 253-269
  Davide Bolchini; Nicoletta Di Blas; Franca Garzotto; Paolo Paolini; Aldo Torrebruno
This paper discusses key factors contributing to the "success" of interactive multimedia development tools in non ICT professional contexts. We define "success" in terms of acceptability and large scale usage by entities and institutions who may need to build interactive multimedia artifacts but do not have technical competences "in-house" and must cope with very limited financial resources. Schools or museums, for example, may want to exploit interactive multimedia for communication or educational purposes, but are bound to many resource-related constraints. In this perspective, we argue that simplicity, low-cost, and ultra short "time-to-market" are key requirements for interactive multimedia development tools to be accepted and widely adopted by non ICT professionals. To support his claim, we illustrate an exemplary tool that meets these requirements and was developed at our lab within the Policultura Project. The tool was successfully used by cultural heritage experts in Italian small museums and by over 1300 students of 55 schools in Italy, and brought important educational and social benefits to all stakeholders involved.
Keywords: Interactive multimedia, Storytelling, Hyperstory, Design Pattern, Simplicity, Learning.
On Line Collaboration for Building a Teacher Professional Identity BIBAKPHP 271-284
  Valentina Grion; Bianca Maria Varisco
In this paper it is our intention to discuss a Teacher Education proposal that uses an on line asynchronous learning environment to develop collaborative practices and to enhance a professional identity. Using an integrated multi-method approach for analysing the on line discussions of 47 student-teachers, a research group of the University of Padua has explored: a) how different groups of student-teachers build and modify their professional profile pre-post a case-work on line activity; b) the nature of the interactive processes activated during case-work on line activity; c) the styles of case solutions. The findings show that the collaborative learning context supported pre-service and in-service groups of students differently in their professional development and in professional identity changes. Some implications for future research on teacher education are discussed.
Keywords: e-learning, teacher education, professional identity, collaboration, case-based pedagogy.
Risk Management Persuasive Technologies: The case of a Technologically Advanced High-Risk Chemical Plant BIBAKPHP 285-297
  Fabiana Vernero; Roberto Montanari
Our study focuses on applications of persuasive technologies (Fogg, 2002) as a means to manage risks in technologically advanced industrial sites. An analysis of the production processes of a chemical plant allowed us to identify two risk scenarios where human factors are particularly relevant: in chemicals identification and in the use of personal protective equipment. Possible solutions based on persuasive technologies and aimed at minimizing the occurrence of human errors were prototyped. Qualitative evaluation of the proposed solutions, which involved 7 potential users, both operators and safety engineers (the population consisting of 29 people), allowed us to have a first confirmation of their acceptability and persuasion effectiveness.
Keywords: Persuasive technologies, risk management, automation, chemical plant, tunneling, reduction, simulation, cause-and-effect relationship, chemicals, personal protective equipment (PPE).

Other Contents

Market Relations, Non-Market Relations and Free Software BIBAKPHP 299-309
  Andres Baravalle; Sarah Chambers
Free Software is sometimes considered solely a technical option, but that is a quite limited point of view: we suggest, indeed, that Free Software is not merely a technical option, but it is, in fact a different working paradigm for the software development community and a different model for acquiring (and sharing) resources in the Information Society. This paper will discuss this working paradigm and analyse the market and non-market relations that are implied by it.
Keywords: free software, open source, business models, hacker ethics, software engineering.