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psychnology Tables of Contents: 010203040506070809101112

PsychNology Journal 10

Editors:Anna Spagnolli
Standard No:ISSN 1720-7525
Links:www.psychnology.org | Table of Contents
  1. psychnology 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1
  2. psychnology 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2
  3. psychnology 2012 Volume 10 Issue 3

psychnology 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1

A Constructive Approach to Organizational Learning in a Tactical Operations Centre BIBAKPDF 7-22
  Stuart G. Grant
Defence organizations conduct experiments to generate new concepts for fielding and employing military capabilities. These events typically involve people with different sets of expertise working collectively on complex real-world problems with the intent of generating new working methods. It is argued that constructivist learning theories are well-suited to conceptualizing defence experiments and that a constructivist approach provides useful insights to the conduct of defence experimentation. A defence experiment on the introduction of new airspace control software into a tactical operations centre is described and used to illustrate the application and benefits of a constructivist perspective. During the course of the six day long experiment, 19 military personnel operated a tactical control centre providing fire support to a simulated battle group. During the experiment the participants adapted their handling of unscheduled missions, their use of software features, and their briefing methods. Argote's (2002) Intra-Organizational Learning Framework was used to identify the newly generated knowledge pertaining to the skill requirements of the personnel, the functionality of the command and control software, and the tactics, techniques, and procedures employed in the operations centre. The practicality, responsiveness, and efficiency of the constructivist approach to defence experimentation are discussed along with its limitations.
Keywords: command and control teams; learning; training; experimentation
The Design of Web Sites Adaptable to Emotion-related Aspects BIBAKPDF 23-38
  Giuditta Gugliotta; Fabio Paternò
In this paper, we discuss an approach to designing Web sites, which can be adapted to emotion-related aspects. We present a set of design criteria that have been identified for this purpose and show how they have been applied to a specific case study: an adaptable Web site for e-readings. The Web site has been designed for supporting four versions of users interfaces, which correspond to different emotions in order to better support user experience. We also report on the user tests that have been carried out for this work.
Keywords: User Experience Guidelines, Web Sites, User Interface Adaptation
Virtual Meeting Analyzer: A Web application to visualize and analyze social networks emerging in group meetings BIBAKPDF 39-51
  Alessandro Giuseppe Privitera; Francesco Martino; Luciano Gamberini
The possibility to analyze the social network emerging from the relations between people participating in a meeting could improve the effectiveness and satisfaction of the communication that occurs during the meeting. However, it requires accurate recording of direction, source and addressee(s) of all verbal exchanges in a format that allows the application of algorithms to extract and visualize social network indices. Virtual Meeting Analyzer is a Web application developed to overcome any complexity in this process. By using a simple interface and an intuitive input modality, VMA allows users without any specific skill in Social Network Analysis or informatics to track social network relations in small meetings and extract indices either during or after the meeting. The application is divided into four modules: meeting creation, configuration, recording and temporal analysis. This paper describes VMA and the results of a test carried out to evaluate its ease of use.
Keywords: Virtual Meeting Analyzer, Graph Theory, Social Network Analysis, Visualization

psychnology 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2

Creating Cool Technologies BIBAPDF 60-61
  Janet C. Read; Matthew Horton; Daniel Fitton; Gavin Sim; Linda Little
In collating together the papers for this special edition on cool, the underlying question is one of motivation. How does, and in what ways does an understanding cool contribute to the research agendas of psychologists and technologists? Why should interaction designers worry about, or even think about, cool? To what extent does cool matter to designers of interactive products. Is it just a cool thing to be doing or is there something deeper and more meaningful hidden below its glossy surface?
Who actually wants to use 'the killer app'? Perceptions of Location Based Services in the Young and Old BIBAKPDF 63-71
  Lisa Thomas
This paper describes the results of two qualitative case studies that assessed the perceptions of Location Based Services (LBS) with two UK user groups: a family with a behaviour-disordered teenager, and a group of older adults. The family (n=2) and older adults (n=13) were interviewed individually after experiencing LBS. The data from the interviews were thematically analysed with the aid of Nvivo software, and organised into themes to better understand attitudes towards LBS technology. Whilst both groups had the opportunity to use, adapt to and experience LBS, perceptions of 'cool' and 'trendiness' affected judgments of it, and their subsequent usage intentions. The family adopted the LBS system fully, with the device aiding navigation, and ultimately developing trust. Their teenage son also embraced the technology, aided in part by the unobtrusive and 'trendy' nature of the mobile phone the LBS was deployed on. In contrast, the older adults felt that LBS could not assist them in any way, and were concerned about the potential for invasions of privacy. This work highlights clear generational differences in the acceptance of LBS, and suggests consideration is needed for the future design of LBS to ensure suitability for the user.
Keywords: Location Based Services; Technology use; Design; Cool
Too Cool at School -- Understanding Cool Teenagers BIBAKPDF 73-91
  Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read; Daniel Fitton; Nicola Toth; Linda Little
Cool can be thought about on three levels; the having of cool things, the doing of cool stuff and the being of cool. Whilst there is some understanding of cool products, the concept, of being cool is much more elusive to designers and developers of systems. This study examines this space by using a set of pre-prepared teenage personas as probes with a set of teenagers with the aim of better understanding what is, and isn't cool about teenage behaviours. The study confirmed that teenagers are able to rank personas in order of cool and that the process of using personas can provide valuable insights around the phenomenon of cool. The findings confirm that cool is indeed about having cool things but in terms of behaviours cool can be a little bit, but not too, naughty.
Keywords: Design, Cool, Personas, Teenagers
Understanding Cool: An Analytic Exploration of Contributing Factors for Teens BIBAKPDF 93-102
  D. Scott McCrickard; Jeremy Barksdale; Felicia Doswell
This paper explores the way that young people view the notion of cool, and how designers can leverage that notion in their design activities. To complement the many user studies about cool, this paper presents an analytic evaluation of categories of cool, leveraging information from multiple expert review sessions with a total of 38 participants. All of the participants, who were in their late teens or twenties, were asked to reflect on aspects of cool for young teens and tweens. The participants took part in our analysis because of their knowledge of technology and their understanding of people in our target teen demographic. Results of a Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) of data from the sessions suggest that innovation is a driving factor attributed to coolness for our target population, older males view monetary wealth and authenticity as important for coolness among our target population, and younger males view rebellious and anti-social technology as not cool for our target population. These findings suggest the need for different user models focused on demographics to capture the aspects of cool that are important in technology design.
Keywords: critical parameters, analytic evaluation, expert review, qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), cool
Measuring the existence of cool using an extended Social Relations Model BIBAKPDF 103-115
  J. P. Gerber; Carly Geiman
This paper presents a simple method to measure people's perceptions of the coolness of other people in localized social networks. Folk concepts of cool suggest that cool is real and yet elusive. Approaches to measuring cool that are indebted to traditional personality theory are shown to be insufficient because cool is a constantly changing construct. Instead, the tension between the real and elusive sides of cool may be best characterized as a distributed property of a network. This is measured with an extension of the social relations model in order to give an estimate of the actual stability of cool, instead of just vague folk concepts. 47 undergraduates completed a round-robin rating of the personal and group level coolness of others. Preliminary results suggest that about a third of ratings in cool are due to the actual coolness of the targets, showing both the reality and elusiveness of cool itself.
Keywords: Cool, interpersonal perception, social relations model, distributed networks
Situated Techno-Cools: factors that contribute to making technology cool in a given context of use BIBAKPDF 117-139
  Alma Leora Culén; Andrea Alessandro Gasparini
The concept "cool", as it applies to technological products, is discussed in this paper. We offer a model showing how different factors in situated use of techno-cools affect the perception of coolness. The model is discussed using a case of the iPad in educational use. The case is grounded in our experience from four case studies related to introduction of the iPad as a cool educational tool in two elementary schools, a high school, and a university. The space between iPad's coolness as a device and factors influencing that coolness in education, such as mastery, usefulness, added value, self-presentation and identity, novelty and fun, was studied. The age of participants was a determining factor for what subset of these was making the iPads cool at school. Tween students considered self-presentation, fun and novelty as the most important factors. For older students the important ones were usefulness, added value and mastery.
Keywords: Cool, situated cool, techno-cool model, iPad
Constructing the Cool Wall: A Tool to Explore Teen Meanings of Cool BIBAKPDF 141-162
  Dan Fitton; Janet C. Read; Matthew Horton; Linda Little; Nicola Toth; Yukang Guo
This paper describes the development and exploration of a tool designed to assist in investigating 'cool' as it applies to the design of interactive products for teenagers. The method involved the derivation of theoretical understandings of cool from literature that resulted in identification of seven core categories for cool, which were mapped to a hierarchy. The hierarchy includes having of cool things, the doing of cool activities and the being of cool. This paper focuses on a tool, the Cool Wall, developed to explore one specific facet of the hierarchy; exploring shared understanding of having cool things. The paper describes the development and construction of the tool, using a heavily participatory approach, and the results and analysis of three studies. The first study was carried out over 2 days in a school in the UK. The results of the study both provide clear insights into cool things and enable a refined understanding of cool in this context. Two additional studies are then used to identify potential shortcomings in the Cool Wall methodology. In the second study participants were able to populate a paper cool wall with anything they chose, this revealed two potential new categories of images and that the current set of images covered the majority of key themes. In the third study teenagers interpretations of the meaning of the images included in the Cool Wall were explored, this showed that the majority of meanings were as expected and a small number of unexpected interpretations provided some valuable insights.
Keywords: Teenagers, cool, interaction design

psychnology 2012 Volume 10 Issue 3

Online violence: Not beautiful enough... not thin enough. Anorectic testimonials in the web BIBAKPDF 169-186
  Teresa Sofia Castro; Antonio Osorio
Pro-anorexia is a social and harmful movement on the Web. These Websites are popular among youth who wish to be thinner, because they represent neutral and free judgemental spaces, where one can find support, express their feelings and thoughts around the disturbing anorexic lifestyle. Considering this, during the literature review concerning risky and easily available contents on the Internet, the need arose for an in depth study of proanorexia websites, once they appeal to extremely dangerous behaviours and beauty standards that can endanger children's well-being. This qualitative exploratory content analysis examined Portuguese speaking blogs written by adolescents (boys and girls) between 13 and 19 years old, who use the Web in order to meet like-minded peers, with whom they share diets, tips, tricks, thinspiration material, and dangerous and harmful information about fasting, drugs, self-harm or suicide. The proanorexia Weblogs work as a stimulus for starvation and weight loss among youth who share pro-anorexic goals. Although data cannot be generalized, evidence suggests that these blogs can have undesired and negative effects in young children because they contribute to: i) the increasing of risky contents on the Web; ii) the encouragement of disruptive eating behaviours; iii) the maintenance of a already existing eating disordered behaviour; iv) children's alienation from offline social ties; v) the growth of these communities among young children. With this article we aim to raise awareness about this problem and its impact among children. Nevertheless, further research is needed and should extend to more Portuguese children and male bloggers.
Keywords: pro-anorexia, anorexia, eating disorders, thinspiration, children, teenagers, Internet, blog, family
The case of Digital Writing in Instant Messaging: When cyber written productions are closer to the oral code than the written code BIBAKPDF 187-214
  Tonia Lanchantin; Aurélie Simoës-Perlant; Pierre Largy
The use of New Information and Communication Technologies, or NICTs, has deeply changed the traditional reading and writing practices. It thus seems necessary to provide a definition of Digital Writing in Instant Messaging (DWIM) to better understand its grammatical, lexical and syntactic characteristics (these two last components define the traditional characteristics of both oral and written codes). Thirty-two French-speaking students around the age of 13 who were enrolled in 8th grade produced one hour of DWIM productions on an instant messaging website in groups of two. They were able to use as many cyber languages as they wanted (we preferred the expression digital writing). This corpus helped to understand that this written structure is closer to the oral code than the written code (the studied population developed their language skills in constant contact with the written in its dual form). Indeed, we showed for instance that users of DWIM sometimes produced repetitions (whereas it is forbidden in traditional writing), never use subject-verb inversions in interrogative sentences, can replace punctuation with emoticons, or used undefined deixises in their sentences. We have also been able to show that having traditional reading and writing habits is not sufficient to create a predisposition towards the use of the DWIM code.
Keywords: Language, Written Production, Digital Writing, Instant Messaging, Adolescents, New Information and Communication Technologies, Oral and Written Codes
Note: Paper selected in collaboration with InPact conference
Killing Non-Human Animals in Video Games: A Study on User Experience and Desensitization to Violence Aspects BIBAKPDF 215-243
  Luca Chittaro; Riccardo Sioni
Violent video games are often associated to negative effects such as desensitization to violence. However, while aggression can concern any living being, experiments in the literature have especially focused on games that require the player to aggress human (or anthropomorphic) beings. To extend the investigation of violent video games, this paper considers a video game genre (Whac-a-Mole) in which the victims of aggression belong to non-human animal species. The study investigates User Experience aspects (in terms of players' affect) as well as desensitization to violence aspects of a Whac-a-Mole game and a non-violent version of the same game, using Affect Grids and physiological measures (Facial EMG, SCL, HR, and BVPA). To obtain a high level of control on confounding factors, the modified game for the non-violent condition of the study replaces only the violent content of the original game with non-violent content, leaving all other game features constant. Well-known findings about desensitization to violence in violent video games were not found in this study, and player's affect results also suggest that the violent element of the Whac-a-Mole game cannot be straightforwardly replaced by a non-violent one without possibly weakening the User Experience. The paper discusses possible reasons for the obtained results and suggests additional research steps to better clarify the role that the virtual victims' species might play as a factor in violent video games studies.
Keywords: Violent video games, User Experience, Physiological measures, Desensitization to violence, Whac-a-Mole games