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IJHCS Tables of Contents: 57585960616263646566676869707172

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 67

Editors:Enrico Motta; Susan Wiedenbeck
Publisher:Elsevier Science Publishers
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 1
  2. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 2
  3. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 3
  4. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 4
  5. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 5
  6. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 6
  7. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 7
  8. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 8
  9. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 9
  10. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 10
  11. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 11
  12. IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 12

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 1

A heuristic personality-based bilateral multi-issue bargaining model in electronic commerce BIBAKFull-Text 1-35
  Faria Nassiri-Mofakham; Mohammad Ali Nematbakhsh; Nasser Ghasem-Aghaee; Ahmad Baraani-Dastjerdi
Our everyday lives and specially our commercial transactions involve complex negotiations that incorporate decision-making in a multi-issue setting under utility constraints. Negotiation as a key stage in all commercial transactions has been proliferated by applying decision support facilities that AI techniques provide. Recently, Distributed Artificial Intelligence techniques have been evolved towards multi-agent systems (MASs) where each agent is an intelligent system that solves a specific problem. Incorporating MAS into e-commerce negotiation and bargaining has brought even more potential improvement in efficiency and effectiveness of business systems by automating several of the most time consuming and repetitive stages of the buying process. In bargaining, participants with opposing interests communicate and try to find mutually beneficial agreements by exchanging compromising proposals. However, recent studies on commercial bargaining and negotiation in MASs lack a personality model. Indeed, adding personality to intelligent agents makes them more human-like and increases their flexibility.
   We investigate the role of personality behaviors of participants in multi-criteria bilateral bargaining in a single-good e-marketplace, where both parties are OCEAN agents based on the five-factor (Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Negative emotions) model of personality. We do not aim to determine strategies that humans should use in negotiation, but to present a more human-like model to enhance the realism of rational bargaining behavior in MASs. First, this study presents a computational approach based on a heuristic bargaining protocol and a personality model, and second, considers the issue of what personality traits and behaviors should be investigated in relation to automated negotiations. We show the results obtained via the simulation on artificial stereotypes. The results suggest and model compound personality style behaviors appropriate to gain the best overall utility in the role of buyer and seller agents and with regard to social welfare and market activeness. This personality-based approach can be used as a predictive or descriptive model of human behavior to adopt in appropriate situations in many areas involving negotiation and bargaining (e.g., commerce, business, politics, military, etc.) for conflict prevention and resolution. This model can be applied as a testbed for comparing personality models against each other based on human data in different negotiation domains.
Keywords: Conflict prevention; Decision-making; E-commerce; Five-factor model of personality; Fuzzy inference; Intelligent agents; Multi-criteria two-person bargaining
Acceptance of speech recognition by physicians: A survey of expectations, experiences, and social influence BIBAKFull-Text 36-49
  Alexandre Alapetite; Henning Boje Andersen; Morten Hertzum
The present study has surveyed physician views and attitudes before and after the introduction of speech technology as a front end to an electronic medical record. At the hospital where the survey was made, speech technology recently (2006-2007) replaced traditional dictation and subsequent secretarial transcription for all physicians in clinical departments. The aim of the survey was (i) to identify how attitudes and perceptions among physicians affected the acceptance and success of the speech-recognition system and the new work procedures associated with it; and (ii) to assess the degree to which physicians' attitudes and expectations to the use of speech technology changed after actually using it. The survey was based on two questionnaires -- one administered when the physicians were about to begin training with the speech-recognition system and another, asking similar questions, when they had had some experience with the system. The survey data were supplemented with performance data from the speech-recognition system. The results show that the surveyed physicians tended to report a more negative view of the system after having used it for some months than before. When judging the system retrospectively, physicians are approximately evenly divided between those who think it was a good idea to introduce speech recognition (33%), those who think it was not (31%) and those who are neutral (36%). In particular, the physicians felt that they spent much more time producing medical records than before, including time correcting the speech recognition, and that the overall quality of records had declined. Nevertheless, workflow improvements and the possibility to access the records immediately after dictation were almost unanimously appreciated. Physicians' affinity with the system seems to be quite dependent on their perception of the associated new work procedures.
Keywords: Speech recognition; Technology acceptance; Electronic medical records
Learning new uses of technology: Situational goal orientation matters BIBAKFull-Text 50-61
  Tina Loraas; Michelle Chandler Diaz
We study the decision to learn a new use of technology within a post-adoption context. This particular nuance of technology adoption is interesting because while the technology has been adopted at some level by both users and organizations, expanding technology use relies on users adopting additional tools and features within a given system on their own accord. This study addresses how situational goal orientation moderates the effects of ease of learning perceptions within the post-adoption context. We find that when a potential user has a situational learning goal orientation, they indicate intent to learn a new use of technology regardless of whether the technology is perceived to be easy or difficult to learn. However, potential users with a situational performance goal orientation indicate intent to learn the new system feature depending on ease of learning. These results have implications for future research using traditional technology acceptance parameters in the post-adoption context, and provide evidence that situational goal orientation is an effective managerial intervention for use in organizational training.
Keywords: Goal orientation; Ease of use; Human/computer interaction; Technology management
Predicting presence: Constructing the Tendency toward Presence Inventory BIBAKFull-Text 62-78
  Carol A. Thornson; Brian F. Goldiez; Huy Le
We used a rational-empirical approach to construct the Tendency toward Presence Inventory (TPI), constructing scales to measure the individual difference human factors hypothesized to predict a person's tendency to experience the cognitive state of presence. The initial pool of 105 items was administered to 499 undergraduate psychology students at a university in the southeastern United States in order to empirically validate the underlying factor structure associated with this tendency. Six factors were derived, resembling the original conceptual model. Construct validity and reliability evidence are presented. Future empirical work is needed to explore the criterion and predictive validities of the factors constituting this inventory.
Keywords: Presence; Telepresence; Virtual reality; Augmented reality; HCI; Test validation
The role of context in perceptions of the aesthetics of web pages over time BIBAKFull-Text 79-89
  Paul van Schaik; Jonathan Ling
An important aspect of the empirical study of user experience is the process by which users form aesthetic and other judgements of interactive products. The current study extends previous research by presenting test users with a context (mode of use) in which to make their judgements, using sets of web pages from specific domains rather than unrelated pages, studying the congruence of perceptions of aesthetic value over time, including judgements after use of a web site, manipulating the aesthetic design of web pages and studying the relationship between usability and aesthetic value. The results from two experiments demonstrate that context increases the stability of judgements from perceptions after brief exposure to those after self-paced exposure and from perceptions after self-paced exposure to those of after site use. Experiment 1 shows that relatively attractive pages are preferred over relatively unattractive pages after brief exposure, but only if no context is provided. Experiment 2 shows that after brief exposure, classically aesthetic pages that are information oriented are rated as more attractive than expressively aesthetic pages. Perceptions are not correlated with measures of task performance or mental effort. We conclude that context is a pivotal factor influencing the stability of users' perceptions, which must be explicitly addressed in the study of users' product experience. Furthermore, the type of aesthetics that is relevant to users' perceptions appears to depend on the application domain. The principle 'what is beautiful is usable' is not confirmed.
Keywords: User experience; Aesthetics; Web site; Product experience; Context
Designs for explaining intelligent agents BIBAKFull-Text 90-110
  Steven R. Haynes; Mark A. Cohen; Frank E. Ritter
Explanation is an important capability for usable intelligent systems, including intelligent agents and cognitive models embedded within simulations and other decision support systems. Explanation facilities help users understand how and why an intelligent system possesses a given structure and set of behaviors. Prior research has resulted in a number of approaches to provide explanation capabilities and identified some significant challenges. We describe designs that can be reused to create intelligent agents capable of explaining themselves. The designs include ways to provide ontological, mechanistic, and operational explanations. These designs inscribe lessons learned from prior research and provide guidance for incorporating explanation facilities into intelligent systems. The designs are derived from both prior research on explanation tool design and from the empirical study reported here on the questions users ask when working with an intelligent system. We demonstrate the use of these designs through examples implemented using the Herbal high-level cognitive modeling language. These designs can help build better agents -- they support creating more usable and more affordable intelligent agents by encapsulating prior knowledge about how to generate explanations in concise representations that can be instantiated or adapted by agent developers.
Keywords: Explanation; Intelligent agents; Design rationale; Design guidelines
Electronic voting eliminates hanging chads but introduces new usability challenges BIBAKFull-Text 111-124
  Frederick G. Conrad; Benjamin B. Bederson; Brian Lewis; Emilia Peytcheva; Michael W. Traugott; Michael J. Hanmer; Paul S. Herrnson; Richard G. Niemi
The arrival of electronic voting has generated considerable controversy, mostly about its vulnerability to fraud. By comparison, virtually no attention has been given to its usability, i.e., voters' ability to vote as they intend, which was central to the controversy surrounding the 2000 US presidential election. Yet it is hard to imagine a domain of human-computer interaction where usability has more impact on how democracy works. This article reports a laboratory investigation of the usability of six electronic voting systems chosen to represent the features of systems in current use and potentially in future use. The primary question was whether e-voting systems are sufficiently hard to use that voting accuracy and satisfaction are compromised. We observed that voters often seemed quite lost taking far more than the required number of actions to cast individual votes, especially when they ultimately voted inaccurately. Their satisfaction went down as their effort went up. And accuracy with some systems was disturbingly low. While many of these problems are easy to fix, manufacturers will need to adopt usability engineering practices that have vastly improved user interfaces throughout the software industry.
Keywords: Usability of electronic voting; Usability of e-voting; Voting interfaces

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 2

The family and communication technologies BIBFull-Text 125-127
  Linda Little; Elizabeth Sillence; Abigail Sellen; Alex Taylor
Exploring communication and sharing between extended families BIBAKFull-Text 128-138
  Kimberly Tee; A. J. Bernheim Brush; Kori M. Inkpen
In recent years, computer and Internet technologies have broadened the ways that people can stay in touch. Through interviews with parents and grandparents, we examined how people use existing technologies to communicate and share with their extended family. While most of our participants expressed a desire for more communication and sharing with their extended family, many felt that an increase would realistically be difficult to achieve due to challenges such as busy schedules or extended family members' lack of technology use. Our results also highlight the complexity of factors that researchers and designers must understand when attempting to design technology to support and enhance relationships, including trade-offs between facilitating interaction while minimizing new obligations, reducing effort without trivializing communication, and balancing awareness with privacy.
Keywords: Family; Information and communication technologies; Connectedness; Sharing; Digital photos; Calendar; Awareness
Busy families' awareness needs BIBAKFull-Text 139-153
  Vassilis-Javed Khan; Panos Markopoulos
This work examines how awareness systems, a class of technologies that support sustained and effortless communication between individuals and groups, can support family communication. Going beyond the evaluation of specific design concepts, this paper reports on three studies that aimed to answer the following research questions: (a) Do families want to be aware of each other through the day? Or, would they perhaps rather not know more about each other's activities and whereabouts than they already do? (b) If they do wish to have some awareness, what should they be aware of? The research involved in-depth interviews with 20 participants, a field trial of an awareness system connecting five "busy" parents with their children and a survey of 69 participants conducted over the web. Triangulation of the results of the three studies leads to the following conclusions: (a) Some busy parents want to automatically exchange awareness information during the day while others do not. (b) Availability of partner for coordinating family activities, daily activities in new family situations, activity, and location information of dependent children are salient awareness information needs for this group. (c) Awareness information needs to vary with contexts, suggesting the need for flexible mechanisms to manage the sharing of such information.
Keywords: Awareness systems; Pervasive computing; Family communication; Communication needs
Resilience in the face of innovation: Household trials with BubbleBoard BIBAKFull-Text 154-164
  Siân E. Lindley; Richard Banks; Richard Harper; Anab Jain; Tim Regan; Abigail Sellen; Alex S. Taylor
We present the results of a field trial in which a visual answer machine, the BubbleBoard, was deployed in five households. The aims of the trial were to create an improved answer machine, but also, and more interestingly, to encourage family members to appropriate it through the inclusion of open and playful design elements. Through making aspects of audio messages visible, BubbleBoard offered a number of improvements over existing answer machines. However, the new affordances associated with this were not appropriated by family members in the ways we had expected. We discuss possible reasons for this, and conclude that attempting to encourage appropriation through 'openness' in design may not be sufficient in the face of well-established social practices.
Keywords: Social practices; Home technology; Appropriation
The Magic Box and Collage: Responding to the challenge of distributed intergenerational play BIBAKFull-Text 165-178
  Frank Vetere; Hilary Davis; Martin Gibbs; Steve Howard
This paper explores playfulness between grandparents and grandchildren, especially when they are separated by distance, and investigates ideas to bridge this separation. We present the result of a three stage investigation; the first an observational study of collocated intergenerational play groups, the second a cultural probes study of distributed intergenerational playfulness, and finally a technology probe study of a system for mediating intergenerational play across distance. In each case we discuss the nature of intergenerational play, the methodological issues, and explore opportunities for technological innovation through the 'Collage'. We argue that existing knowledge concerning the nature of support for the young-or-older users engaged in instrumental activities are inadequate when we wish to build understanding of and design for young-and-older users, engaged in collective playfulness.
Keywords: Play; Intergenerational interactions; Play across distance; Design for young and old
Extending family to school life: College students' use of the mobile phone BIBAKFull-Text 179-191
  Yi-Fan Chen; James E. Katz
The current study seeks to understand if there is a pattern between college students' mobile phone usage and their family members at home, and to what degree it affects their college life. Three focus group interviews were conducted on February 1, February 2, and February 15, 2006. A total of 40 undergraduate students who were majoring in communication studies participated in the study. One of the main findings is that the mobile phone is "a must" for college students to keep in contact with their family. Other findings suggest that college students use mobile phones to have more frequent contact with their family and to fulfill family roles. College students also utilize mobile phones to share experiences and emotional and physical support with their parents.
Keywords: Mobile phone; Family communication; College students
Supporting parent-child communication in divorced families BIBAKFull-Text 192-203
  Svetlana Yarosh; Yee Chieh "Denise" Chew; Gregory D. Abowd
Divorce affects a significant number of children and parents worldwide. We interviewed 10 parents and five children to get a qualitative understanding of the challenges faced by these families and the role of technology in maintaining contact. We found that both parents had a strong need to maintain autonomy in raising the child, though the residential parent had more opportunities to be instrumentally involved. Both parents and children sought to manage tensions between the two households -- parents by reducing interruption of the other household, children by trying to keep contact with the other parent as private as possible. Our participants used the telephone as the primary means to stay in touch while apart but expressed dissatisfaction with the limits of audio-only communication. It was difficult to keep a phone conversation engaging -- both parents and children instead sought ways to maintain contact through shared activities and routines but found little technological support to do so while separated. Situated in these results, we present implications for design that may aid in creating technologies for communication between parents and young children in divorced families.
Keywords: Divorce; Parents; Children
Digital technologies and the emotional family BIBAKFull-Text 204-214
  Patrick Olivier; Jayne Wallace
We present an alternative view of family communication that foregrounds both the emotional lives of family members and that which is of personal significance to them. Through the reflections of our participants, and our design response to these, we have used the design of digital jewellery as a window on the family as an emotional entity. In doing so we escape conventional assumptions as to how technology might support family life, and instead propose alternative forms of technology that serve as acceptable sites for highly personalised and personally significant emotional statements. Two designs are presented, Traces and Blossom, which are both responses to the lives and personal accounts of our participants, and a challenge to the conventions of interaction design. By reflecting on our designs we identify and unpick assumptions as to the nature of the digital technology with a view to opening up a design space that places an emphasis on both the individual and the authentic character of our emotional lives.
Keywords: Digital jewellery; Family technologies; Art practice
Adding critical sensibilities to domestic communication technologies BIBAKFull-Text 215-221
  John V. H. Bonner
This paper presents suggestions for a more pragmatic approach to the design of emerging and future domestic communication technologies, particularly technologies destined for the home that may be deemed 'ubiquitous'. This is achieved through two critical reviews of a small number of social studies related to the design and use of existing and emerging communication technologies. The first review explores how existing, recent and emerging technologies are adopted within the domestic home and explores how social patterns dictate adoption. The second review draws more broadly on research activity related to the design and development of ubiquitous technologies for everyday life and what lessons can be learnt from them. Together, these two reviews suggest novel communication technology adoption will evolve through small imperceptible steps from the edges of existing products and services; therefore design research needs to be more aligned to this approach. To make any real impact and influence, research activity needs to move away from attempts to deliver ubiquity in the home and place more emphasis at the pragmatic, incremental level of emerging communication services and products.
Keywords: Domestic communication technologies; Ubiquitous computing

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 3

Current trends in 3D user interface research BIBFull-Text 223-224
  Doug Bowman; Bernd Fröhlich; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Navidget for 3D interaction: Camera positioning and further uses BIBAKFull-Text 225-236
  Martin Hachet; Fabrice Decle; Sebastian Knödel; Pascal Guitton
This paper presents an extended version of Navidget. Navidget is a new interaction technique for camera positioning in 3D environments. This technique derives from the point-of-interest (POI) approaches where the endpoint of a trajectory is selected for smooth camera motions. Unlike the existing POI techniques, Navidget does not attempt to automatically estimate where and how the user wants to move. Instead, it provides good feedback and control for fast and easy interactive camera positioning. Navidget can also be useful for distant inspection when used with a preview window. This new 3D user interface is totally based on 2D inputs. As a result, it is appropriate for a wide variety of visualization systems, from small handheld devices to large interactive displays. A user study on TabletPC shows that the usability of Navidget is very good for both expert and novice users. This new technique is more appropriate than the conventional 3D viewer interfaces in numerous 3D camera positioning tasks. Apart from these tasks, the Navidget approach can be useful for further purposes such as collaborative work and animation.
Keywords: 3D camera control; Pen-input; 3D widget; Collaboration; Animation; 3D pointer
Multimodal selection techniques for dense and occluded 3D virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 237-255
  Lode Vanacken; Tovi Grossman; Karin Coninx
Object selection is a primary interaction technique which must be supported by any interactive three-dimensional virtual reality application. Although numerous techniques exist, few have been designed to support the selection of objects in dense target environments, or the selection of objects which are occluded from the user's viewpoint. There is, thus, a limited understanding on how these important factors will affect selection performance. In this paper, we present a set of design guidelines and strategies to aid the development of selection techniques which can compensate for environment density and target visibility. Based on these guidelines, we present new forms of the ray casting and bubble cursor selection techniques, which are augmented with visual, audio, and haptic feedback, to support selection within dense and occluded 3D target environments. We perform a series of experiments to evaluate these new techniques, varying both the environment density and target visibility. The results provide an initial understanding of how these factors affect selection performance. Furthermore, the results showed that our new techniques adequately allowed users to select targets which were not visible from their initial viewpoint. The audio and haptic feedback did not provide significant improvements, and our analysis indicated that our introduced visual feedback played the most critical role in aiding the selection task.
Keywords: Virtual reality; 3D interaction; Selection; Multimodal feedback
Hemp -- Hand-Displacement-Based Pseudo-Haptics: A. Study Of A. Force Field Application And A. Behavioural Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 256-268
  Andreas Pusch; Olivier Martin; Sabine Coquillart
This paper introduces a novel pseudo-haptic approach called HEMP -- Hand-displacEMent-based Pseudo-haptics. The main idea behind HEMP is to provide haptic-like sensations by dynamically displacing the visual representation of the user's hand. This paper studies the possible application of HEMP to the simulation of force fields (FFs). The proposed hardware solution for simulating the hand displacement is based on an augmented reality configuration, the video see-through head-mounted display. A response model is proposed for controlling the hand displacement. This model adapts to the user's hand movements. It also accounts for a number of perceptual and system constraints. An experiment has been carried out to investigate the potential of the proposed technique. Subjects had to perform an FF strength comparison task and to fill in an illusion evaluation questionnaire. Comparison response results show that different FF strength levels are discriminable and the questionnaire indicates that subjects perceive flow pressure-like sensations. The analysis of arm muscular activity seems to confirm these results.
Keywords: Pseudo-haptics; Force illusion; Visuo-proprioceptive conflict
A tangible user interface for assessing cognitive mapping ability BIBAKFull-Text 269-278
  Ehud Sharlin; Benjamin Watson; Steve Sutphen; Lili Liu; Robert Lederer; John Frazer
Wayfinding, the ability to recall the environment and navigate through it, is an essential cognitive skill relied upon almost every day in a person's life. A crucial component of wayfinding is the construction of cognitive maps, mental representations of the environments through which a person travels. Age, disease or injury can severely affect cognitive mapping, making assessment of this basic survival skill particularly important to clinicians and therapists. Cognitive mapping has also been the focus of decades of basic research by cognitive psychologists. Both communities have evolved a number of techniques for assessing cognitive mapping ability. We present the Cognitive Map Probe (CMP), a new computerized tool for assessment of cognitive mapping ability that increases consistency and promises improvements in flexibility, accessibility, sensitivity and control. The CMP uses a tangible user interface that affords spatial manipulation. We describe the design of the CMP, and find that it is sensitive to factors known to affect cognitive mapping performance in extensive experimental testing.
Keywords: Cognitive maps; Wayfinding; Cognitive assessment; Neuropsychological assessment; Tangible user interfaces; Constructional ability; Spatial ability

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 4

Special Section: Usability and e-science, edited by mc schraefel, Jeremy Frey and Russell Beale

Usability and e-science BIBFull-Text 279-280
  Russell Beale
Stakeholder involvement, motivation, responsibility, communication: How to design usable security in e-Science BIBAKFull-Text 281-296
  Ivan Flechais; M. Angela Sasse
e-Science projects face a difficult challenge in providing access to valuable computational resources, data and software to large communities of distributed users. On the one hand, the raison d'être of the projects is to encourage members of their research communities to use the resources provided. On the other hand, the threats to these resources from online attacks require robust and effective security to mitigate the risks faced. This raises two issues: ensuring that (1) the security mechanisms put in place are usable by the different users of the system, and (2) the security of the overall system satisfies the security needs of all its different stakeholders. A failure to address either of these issues can seriously jeopardise the success of e-Science projects.
   The aim of this paper is to firstly provide a detailed understanding of how these challenges can present themselves in practice in the development of e-Science applications. Secondly, this paper examines the steps that projects can undertake to ensure that security requirements are correctly identified, and security measures are usable by the intended research community. The research presented in this paper is based on four case studies of e-Science projects. Security design traditionally uses expert analysis of risks to the technology and deploys appropriate countermeasures to deal with them. However, these case studies highlight the importance of involving all stakeholders in the process of identifying security needs and designing secure and usable systems.
   For each case study, transcripts of the security analysis and design sessions were analysed to gain insight into the issues and factors that surround the design of usable security. The analysis concludes with a model explaining the relationships between the most important factors identified. This includes a detailed examination of the roles of responsibility, motivation and communication of stakeholders in the ongoing process of designing usable secure socio-technical systems such as e-Science.
Keywords: Security; Security design; e-Science; Socio-technical design; Usable security
Designing for e-science: Requirements gathering for collaboration in CiteSeer BIBAKFull-Text 297-312
  Umer Farooq; Craig H. Ganoe; John M. Carroll; C. Lee Giles
It is unclear if and how collaboratories have enhanced distributed scientific collaboration. Furthermore, little is known in the way of design strategies to support such collaboration. This paper presents findings from an investigation into requirements for collaboration in e-science in the context of CiteSeer, a search engine and digital library of research literature in the computer and information science disciplines. Based on a survey and follow-up interviews with CiteSeer users, we present four novel implications for designing the CiteSeer collaboratory. First, visualize query-based social networks to identify scholarly communities of interest. Second, provide online collaborative tool support for upstream stages of scientific collaboration. Third, support activity awareness for staying cognizant of online scientific activities. Fourth, use notification systems to convey scientific activity awareness. We discuss how these implications can broadly enhance e-science usability for collaboratory infrastructures based on digital libraries.
Keywords: E-social science; Digital libraries; Scientific communities of practice; Collaboratories
Within bounds and between domains: Reflecting on Making Tea within the context of design elicitation methods BIBAKFull-Text 313-323
  m.c. schraefel; Alan Dix
Making Tea (MT) is a design elicitation method developed in eScience specifically to deal with situations in which (1) the designers do not share domain or artifact knowledge with design-domain experts, (2) the processes in the space are semi-structured and (3) the processes to be modeled can last for periods exceeding the availability of most ethnographers. We have used the method in two distinct eScience contexts, and may offer an effective, low cost way to deal with bridging between software design teams and scientists to develop useful and usable eScience artifacts. To that end, we propose a set of criteria in order to understand why MT works. Through these criteria we also reflect upon the relation of MT to other design elicitation methods in order to propose a kind of method framework from which other designers may be assisted in choosing elicitation methods and in developing new methods both for eScience contexts and beyond.
Keywords: Design methods; eScience; Usability; Analogy

Regular papers

How do we program the home? Gender, attention investment, and the psychology of programming at home BIBAKFull-Text 324-341
  Alan F. Blackwell; Jennifer A. Rode; Eleanor F. Toye
We report a series of studies investigating the choices that users make between direct manipulation and abstract programming strategies when operating domestic appliances. We characterise these strategic choices in terms of the Attention Investment model of abstraction use. We then describe an experiment that investigates the estimation biases influencing the individual parameters of that model. These biases are linked to gender in a way that explains some gender differences in discretionary appliance use. Finally, we suggest design strategies that might compensate for those gender-linked estimation biases, and therefore make programmable features of future homes more accessible to a wider range of users.
Keywords: End-user programming; Gender HCI; Home automation; Domestic technology; Appliance design; VCR; Attention investment
The impact of the field time on response, retention, and response completeness in list-based Web surveys BIBAKFull-Text 342-348
  Anja S. Göritz; Stefan Stieger
A short field time is an often-cited benefit of Web-based surveys that rely on pre-recruited people. However, it has never been examined how different field times as implemented through different deadlines for participation influence response behavior. Four experiments were conducted in which the deadline for taking part in the study was varied across several days, and there was a control group who was not told any deadline. We examined the impact of both stating a deadline versus not stating a deadline and the length of the deadline on the response rate, the retention rate, and response completeness.
   It was found that response rises with the number of days a study is in the field. There is tentative evidence that the more generous the deadline, the smaller the retention rate and clear evidence that response completeness is lower. Moreover, in a quasi-experimental fashion it was explored whether responding late to a study request is associated with being retained until the end of the study and with the completeness of filling out the questionnaire. There is no straightforward association between responding late to a study request on the one hand and retention and response completeness on the other hand.
Keywords: Field time; Deadline; Response; Retention; Completeness
Piles across space: Breaking the real-estate barrier on small-display devices BIBAKFull-Text 349-365
  QianYing Wang; Tony Hsieh; Andreas Paepcke
We describe an implementation that has users 'flick' notes, images, audio, and video files onto virtual, imaginary piles beyond the display of small-screen devices. Multiple sets of piles can be maintained in persistent workspaces. Two user studies yielded the following: Participants developed mental schemes to remember virtual pile locations, and they successfully reinstated pile locations after several days, while situated in varying environments. Alignment of visual cues on screen with surrounding physical cues in situ accelerated a sorting task when compared to other, non-aligned visual cues. The latter, however, yielded better long-term retention.
Keywords: Mobile computing; PDA; Piles; Information management; Information sharing; Screen real-estate
A semi-automatic usage-based method for improving hyperlink descriptions in menus BIBAKFull-Text 366-381
  Vera Hollink; Maarten van Someren; Bob J. Wielinga
Users who visit a web page for the first time select links on the basis of the link anchors and the descriptions of the links that are provided on the page. If these descriptions give an inaccurate impression of the underlying pages, users make incorrect choices. In this paper we present a novel algorithm to automatically detect links with problematic descriptions in hierarchical menus on the basis of usage information stored in the sites' log files. The algorithm searches the log files for navigation patterns that show that many users make navigation mistakes at certain points in the site. Repeated mistakes indicate that users do not understand the intentions of a link description. The algorithm distinguishes several types of problematic descriptions and provides recommendations for how problematic descriptions of each type can be improved. The findings of the algorithm can help a webmaster of a site to gain insights in the behavior of the sites' users and to improve the site's menu accordingly. Evaluation in three domains shows that webmasters perceive the analyses made by the algorithm as very helpful for improving sites. Moreover, a user experiment demonstrates that the adaptations made by the webmasters on the basis of the analyses, significantly reduce the number of navigation mistakes.
Keywords: Web usage mining; Menu optimization; Web site authoring support; Web site navigation
Effect of evaluators' cognitive style on heuristic evaluation: Field dependent and field independent evaluators BIBAKFull-Text 382-393
  Chen Ling; Gavriel Salvendy
Heuristic evaluation is a widely used usability evaluation method [Rosenbaum et al., 2000. A toolkit for strategic usability: results from workshops, panels, and surveys. In: Little, R., Nigay, L. (Eds.), In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2000 Conference, New York, pp. 337-344]. But it suffers from large variability in the evaluation results due to differences among evaluators [Nielsen, 1993. Usability Engineering. Academic Press, Boston, MA]. The evaluation performance of evaluators with two types of cognitive styles -- ten field independent (FI) subjects and ten field dependent (FD) subjects were compared. The results indicated that the FI subjects produced evaluation results with significantly higher thoroughness (t18=3.49, p=0.0026), validity (t18=4.26, p=0.0005), effectiveness (t18=5.14, p=0.0001), and sensitivity (t18=3.16, p=0.005) than the FD subjects. When assessing their own evaluation experiences, the FI subjects felt it was easier to find usability problems than the FD subjects (t18=2.10, p=0.049), but the FD subjects felt more guided during the evaluation than the FI subjects (t18=2.28, p=0.035).
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation; Cognitive style; Field dependency
Design representations of moving bodies for interactive, motion-sensing spaces BIBAKFull-Text 394-410
  Lian Loke; Toni Robertson
This paper describes the development and use of a set of design representations of moving bodies in the design of Bystander, a multi-user, interactive, immersive artwork built on video-based, motion-sensing technology. We extended the traditional user-centred design tools of personas and scenarios to explicitly address human movement characteristics embedded in social interaction. A set of corresponding movement schemas in Labanotation was constructed to visually represent the spatial and social interaction of multiple users over time. Together these three design representations of moving bodies were used to enable the design team to work with the aspects of human movement relevant to Bystander and to ensure that the system could respond in a coherent and robust manner to the shifting configurations of visitors in the space. They also supported two experiential methods of design reflection-in-action -- enactment and immersion -- that were vital for grounding designers' understandings of the specific interactive nature of the work in their own sensing, feeling and moving bodies.
Keywords: Design representation; Enactment; Human movement; Labanotation; Movement notation; Movement-oriented persona; Movement-oriented scenario; Reflection-in-action; Social interaction

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 5

Regular papers

Effects of time pressure and communication environment on team processes and outcomes in dyadic planning BIBAKFull-Text 411-423
  Rick van der Kleij; Jameela T. E. Lijkwan; Peter C. Rasker; Carsten K. W. De Dreu
An experiment compared dyadic performance in a radio communication and a more sophisticated communication environment to face-to-face (FtF) meetings. Thirty-six dyads, working under low or high time-pressure conditions, needed to combine information and to produce a written plan. Teams working in the sophisticated communication environment collaborated from separate locations over a networked computer system allowing them to share a note-taking program, work in parallel, and exchange in real-time audio as well as video. Results revealed detrimental effects of time pressure on both team processes and outcomes, and supported our hypothesis that distributed teams can perform as well as FtF teams. No differences were found between FtF teams and teams working in the sophisticated communication environment on process and outcome measures, except for the quantity of performance: The sophisticated communication environment enabled distributed teams to work on the task more rapidly than their FtF counterparts. Radio teams produced plans of lower quality and were less satisfied with the quality of their planning process than FtF teams.
Keywords: Dyadic planning; Time pressure; Distributed teamwork; Virtual teams; Electronic communication; Computer-supported cooperative work
Use of an automatic content analysis tool: A technique for seeing both local and global scope BIBAKFull-Text 424-436
  Paul Stockwell; Robert M. Colomb; Andrew E. Smith; Janet Wiles
This paper examines what can be learned about bodies of literature using a concept mapping tool, Leximancer. Statistical content analysis and concept mapping were used to analyse bodies of literature from different domains in three case studies. In the first case study, concept maps were generated and analysed for two closely related document sets -- a thesis on language games and the background literature for the thesis. The aim for the case study was to show how concept maps might be used to analyse related document collections for coverage. The two maps overlapped on the concept of "language"; however, there was a stronger focus in the thesis on "simulations" and "agents." Other concepts were not as strong in the thesis map as expected. The study showed how concept maps can help to establish the coverage of the background literature in a thesis. In the second case study, three sets of documents from the domain of conceptual and spatial navigation were collected, each discussing a separate topic: navigational strategies, the brain's role in navigation, and concept mapping. The aim was to explore emergent patterns in a set of related concept maps that may not be apparent from reading the literature alone. Separate concept maps were generated for each topic and also for the combined set of literature. It was expected that each of the topics would be situated in different parts of the combined map, with the concept of "navigation" central to the map. Instead, the concept of "spatial" was centrally situated and the areas of the map for the brain and for navigational strategies overlaid the same region. The unexpected structure provided a new perspective on the coverage of the documents. In the third and final case study, a set of documents on sponges -- a domain unfamiliar to the reader -- was collected from the Internet and then analysed with a concept map. The aim of this case study was to present how a concept map could aid in quickly understanding a new, technically intensive domain. Using the concept map to identify significant concepts and the Internet to look for their definitions, a basic understanding of key terms in the domain was obtained relatively quickly. It was concluded that using concept maps is effective for identifying trends within documents and document collections, for performing differential analysis on documents, and as an aid for rapidly gaining an understanding in a new domain by exploring the local detail within the global scope of the textual corpus.
Keywords: Leximancer; Concept; Mapping; Local; Global; Scope; Content; Analysis
Engineering the social: The role of shared artifacts BIBAKFull-Text 437-454
  Jeni Paay; Leon Sterling; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard; Anne Boettcher
This paper presents a multidisciplinary approach to engineering socio-technical design. The paper addresses technological design for social interactions that are non-instrumental, and thereby sometimes contradictory or surprising and difficult to model. Through cooperative analysis of cultural probe data and development of agent-oriented software engineering (AOSE) models, ethnographers and software engineers participate in conversations around shared artifacts, which facilitate the transition from data collected in a social environment to a socially oriented requirements analysis for informing socio-technical design.
   To demonstrate how this transition was made, we present a case study of the process of designing technology to support familial relationships, such as playing, gifting, showing, telling and creating memories. The case study is based on data collected in a cultural probes study that explores the diverse, complex and unpredictable design environment of the home. A multidisciplinary team worked together through a process of conversations around shared artifacts to cooperatively analyze collected data and develop models. These conversations provided the opportunity to view the data from the perspective of alternative disciplines that resulted in the emergence of novel understandings and innovative practice.
   The artifacts in the process included returned probe items, scrapbooks, videos of interviews, photographs, family biographies and the AOSE requirements models. When shared between the two communities of practice, some of these artifacts played important roles in mediating discussions of mutual influence between ethnographers and software engineers. The shared artifacts acted as both triggers for conversations and information vessels -- providing a variety of interpretable objects enabling both sides to articulate their understandings in different ways and to collaboratively negotiate understandings of the collected data. Analyzing the interdisciplinary exchange provided insight into the identification of bridging elements that allowed 'the social' to permeate the processes of analysis, requirements elicitation and design.
Keywords: Cultural probes; Agent-oriented software engineering; Shared artifacts; Ethnography; Requirements engineering; Social technical environment
A fuzzy logics clustering approach to computing human attention allocation using eyegaze movement cue BIBAKFull-Text 455-463
  W. J. Zhang; C. Wu; G. Yang; J. Dy Y. Lin
Human's attention is an important element in human-machine interface design due to a close relationship between operator's attention and operator's work performance. However, understanding of operator's attention allocation while he or she is performing a task remains a challenging task because attention is generally unobservable, immeasurable, and uncertain. In our previous study, we demonstrated the effectiveness of using operator's eye movement information to understand attention allocation, which has made attention observable. The present paper describes our study which addressed immeasurability and uncertainty of attention. Specifically, we used eye fixation's duration to indicate operator's attention and developed a new computational model for the attention and its allocation using fuzzy logics clustering techniques. Along with the development of this model, we also developed an experiment to verify the effectiveness of the model. The result of the experiment shows that the model is promising.
Keywords: Human-machine interaction (HMI); Eyegaze tracking; Visual attention allocation; Fuzzy clustering
Mobile technology for crime scene examination BIBAKFull-Text 464-474
  Chris Baber; Paul Smith; Mark Butler; James Cross; John Hunter
In this paper, the concept of distributed cognition is used to inform the design, development and trialling of technologies to support Crime Scene Examination is reported. A user trial, with trainee Crime Scene Examiners, was conducted to compare the ways in which evidence search and recovery could be combined with the production of a crime scene report (that must be written at the scene). Participants completed the crime scene report using either the conventional paper form, an electronic form on a tablet computer (to represent the current trend in digitisation of crime scene reports), or a wearable computer (with speech input). While both computer conditions (tablet and wearable) led to faster performance, when compared with the paper condition, there was no difference in content or quality of the reports produced in any of the three conditions; thus, the computer conditions produced acceptable reports in much faster time when compared to conventional practice. Furthermore, activity sampling analysis showed that participants found it much easier to integrate the wearable computer (than either paper forms or tablet computer) into their search and recovery activity.
Keywords: Wearable computers; Tablet computers; Evidence management; Crime scene examination; Distributed cognition; Annotated images
The interaction of map resolution and spatial abilities on map learning BIBAKFull-Text 475-481
  Christopher A. Sanchez; Russell J. Branaghan
This study investigated how the addition of enhanced perceptual detail in a navigation interface interacts with learner characteristics and ultimately impacts learning; specifically memory for a route on a map. Previous research has shown both facilitative and prohibitive effect of adding perceptual detail to user interfaces. However, it is not clear how adding this kind of resolution might also interact with learner abilities. This study evaluated how well routes were remembered from maps that were either enhanced with actual satellite photography or presented in more traditional (low resolution) form by learners who differed in spatial ability. Results indicated that learners recalled a mapped route significantly better in the low perceptual detail condition than in the high detail condition and spatial visualization ability significantly predicted success on these tasks whereas mental rotation ability did not. Thus, it appears that the addition of perceptual detail not only affects learning, but also interacts with learner ability.
Keywords: Map learning; Perceptual detail; Spatial abilities

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 6

The influence of individual differences on continuance intentions of enterprise resource planning (ERP) BIBAKFull-Text 484-496
  Shih-Wei Chou; Pi-Yu Chen
This study aims to investigate whether individual differences affect enterprise resource planning (ERP) users' continuance intention. In the initial stage ERP users usually lack the complete will to determine whether or not they use ERP, but their continuance intentions are not always mandatory. Thus, understanding the relationship between individual differences and continuance intention helps design an effective training program, which in turn improves the effectiveness of ERP usage. Grounded on expectation-confirmation theory (ECT), this study examined the influences of dynamic and stable individual differences on satisfaction and continuance, respectively. Dynamic individual differences include both general computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety, and personal innovativeness in information technology (IT) refers to a stable, situation-specific traits. In addition to individual differences, we also assessed the moderating effect of ERP experience. A cross-sectional survey method was used to collect data. A total of 305 useful responses were analyzed by using partial least squares (PLS). We found that all the individual differences affect continuance intention either directly or indirectly (through satisfaction). Individuals' prior experience of ERP moderates five of the relationships between individual differences and continuance intention. We also provide implications for both managers and researchers.
Keywords: Individual differences; Satisfaction; Continuance intention; ERP
A data structure for representing multi-version texts online BIBAKFull-Text 497-514
  Desmond Schmidt; Robert Colomb
The digitisation of cultural heritage and linguistics texts has long been troubled by the problem of how to represent overlapping structures arising from different markup perspectives ('overlapping hierarchies') or from different versions of the same work ('textual variation'). These two problems can be reduced to one by observing that every case of overlapping hierarchies is also a case of textual variation. Overlapping textual structures can be accurately modelled either as a minimally redundant directed graph, or, more practically, as an ordered list of pairs, each containing a set of versions and a fragment of text or data. This 'pairs-list' representation is provably equivalent to the graph representation. It can record texts consisting of thousands of versions or perspectives without becoming overloaded with data, and the most common operations on variant text, e.g. comparison between two versions, can be performed in linear time. This representation also separates variation or other overlapping structures from the document content, leading to a simplification of markup suitable for wiki-like web applications.
Keywords: Textual variation; Overlapping hierarchies; Markup; Electronic editions; Cultural heritage
Motion marking menus: An eyes-free approach to motion input for handheld devices BIBAKFull-Text 515-532
  Ian Oakley; Junseok Park
The increasing complexity of applications on handheld devices requires the development of rich new interaction methods specifically designed for resource-limited mobile use contexts. One appealingly convenient approach to this problem is to use device motions as input, a paradigm in which the currently dominant interaction metaphors are gesture recognition and visually mediated scrolling. However, neither is ideal. The former suffers from fundamental problems in the learning and communication of gestural patterns, while the latter requires continual visual monitoring of the mobile device, a task that is undesirable in many mobile contexts and also inherently in conflict with the act of moving a device to control it. This paper proposes an alternate approach: a gestural menu technique inspired by marking menus and designed specifically for the characteristics of motion input. It uses rotations between targets occupying large portions of angular space and emphasizes kinesthetic, eyes-free interaction. Three evaluations are presented, two featuring an abstract user interface (UI) and focusing on how user performance changes when the basic system parameters of number, size and depth of targets are manipulated. These studies show that a version of the menu system containing 19 commands yields optimal performance, compares well against data from the previous literature and can be used effectively eyes free (without graphical feedback). The final study uses a full graphical UI and untrained users to demonstrate that the system can be rapidly learnt. Together, these three studies rigorously validate the system design and suggest promising new directions for handheld motion-based UIs.
Keywords: Motion input; Gesture; Eyes free; Mobile interface; Evaluation
Supporting novice usability practitioners with usability engineering tools BIBAKFull-Text 533-549
  Jonathan Howarth; Tonya Smith-Jackson; Rex Hartson
Although usability practitioners have successfully applied usability engineering processes to increase the usability of interaction designs, the literature suggests that usability practitioners experience a number of difficulties that negatively impact the effectiveness of their work, which in turn affects the effectiveness of the usability engineering processes within which they work. These difficulties include identifying and recording critical usability data and understanding and establishing relationships among usability data. These difficulties are particularly pronounced for novice usability practitioners. One approach to addressing these difficulties is through appropriate usability engineering tool support. We argue that existing usability engineering tools offer excellent support for helping experienced usability practitioners more efficiently do their jobs, but they provide little support for helping novice usability practitioners more effectively do their jobs. We introduce a tool feature, usability problem instance records, to better support novice usability practitioners. We describe the results of a study of this feature, which suggest that the feature helps to improve two aspects of the effectiveness of novice usability practitioners: reliability and quality.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Usability problem instances; Usability engineering tool support

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 7

Dynamic picking system for 3D seismic data: Design and evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 551-560
  Pierre Salom; Remi Megret; Marc Donias; Yannick Berthoumieu
In the framework of data interpretation for petroleum exploration, this paper contributes two contributions for visual exploration aiming to manually segment surfaces embedded in volumetric data. Resulting from a user-centered design approach, the first contribution, dynamic picking, is a new method of viewing slices dedicated to surface tracking, i.e. fault-picking, from 3D large seismic data sets. The proposed method establishes a new paradigm of interaction breaking with the conventional 2D slices method usually used by geoscientists. Based on the 2D+time visualization method, dynamic picking facilitates localizing of faults by taking advantage of the intrinsic ability of the human visual system to detect dynamic changes in textured data. The second, projective slice, is a focus+context visualization technique that offers the advantage of facilitating the anticipation of upcoming slices over the sloping 3D surface. From the reported experimental results, dynamic picking leads to a good compromise between fitting precision and completeness of picking while the projective slice significantly reduces the amount of workload for an equivalent level of precision.
Keywords: 3D interaction; Volumetric data; Structural interpretation; Manual segmentation; Dynamic picking; Focus+context; Projective slice
Behavioral and emotional consequences of brief delays in human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 561-570
  André J. Szameitat; Jan Rummel; Diana P. Szameitat; Annette Sterr
It was thought that computer-performance-related problems in human-computer interaction (HCI) would become negligible with the constant increase in computing power. However, despite major advances in computer technology, contemporary HCI is still characterized by brief delays in computer responsiveness caused, for example, by background processes or network delays. Research on long system-response times (SRTs) indicates that delays may have negative behavioral and emotional consequences. However, there are fundamental differences between previously researched long SRTs and delays as they occur in contemporary HCI, such as different timings and occurrence probabilities. Therefore the previous research is not necessarily applicable to modern HCIs. We developed a paradigm aimed at mimicking important aspects of contemporary HCI to empirically test the effects of sporadic brief delays with an average duration of 1.6s. Results showed performance decrements in the response directly following a delay in terms of increased reaction times and error rates. Furthermore, blocks in which delays occurred were less liked than blocks without delays, suggesting that delays may affect the emotional state. The data provide evidence that delays cause a significant deterioration of performance, and indicates that delays in contemporary HCI may negatively affect work productivity, work satisfaction, and health-and-safety. Suggestions for HCI design and the relationship to user interruption are discussed.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; System-response times; User-interface design; Delays; Interruptions
When too heavy is just fine: Creating trustworthy e-health advisors BIBAKFull-Text 571-583
  H. C. van Vugt; E. A. Konijn; J. F. Hoorn; J. Veldhuis
In using weight and diet advisors, people compare embodied agents with their actual selves and with the person they want to be: someone with an ideal weight; their ideal selves. In a laboratory and an online experiment, we scrutinized the effects of similarity with and idealness of an embodied agent feature on user involvement with, distance towards, and intentions to use the e-health advisor. The advisor's body size was either similar or dissimilar to the user's actual body size, and had an, according to the user, ideal (slender) or non-ideal (heavier) shape. Results indicated that the factor perceived idealness was more important than similarity for explaining involvement with, distance towards, and intentions to use the embodied agent, but in an unexpected way. Users regarded the heavier, non-ideal, e-health advisors as more trustworthy, which explained the larger part of the variance in the level of involvement, distance, and intentions to use a health advisor. Sometimes, it seems better to forget the stereotypical preference and design embodied agents that are not ideal.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Embodied agents; Body size; Similarity; Ideal similarity; Perception of ethics; Empirical study
Security practitioners in context: Their activities and interactions with other stakeholders within organizations BIBAKFull-Text 584-606
  Rodrigo Werlinger; Kirstie Hawkey; David Botta; Konstantin Beznosov
This study investigates the context of interactions of information technology (IT) security practitioners, based on a qualitative analysis of 30 interviews and participatory observation. We identify nine different activities that require interactions between security practitioners and other stakeholders, and describe in detail two of these activities that may serve as useful references for security-tool usability scenarios. We propose a model of the factors contributing to the complexity of interactions between security practitioners and other stakeholders, and discuss how this complexity is a potential source of security issues that increase the risk level within organizations. Our analysis also reveals that the tools used by our participants to perform their security tasks provide insufficient support for the complex, collaborative interactions that their duties involve. We offer several recommendations for addressing this complexity and improving IT security tools.
Keywords: Security tools; Usable security; Security practitioners; Collaboration; Qualitative analysis

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 8

Short-term emotion assessment in a recall paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 607-627
  Guillaume Chanel; Joep J. M. Kierkels; Mohammad Soleymani; Thierry Pun
The work presented in this paper aims at assessing human emotions using peripheral as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) physiological signals on short-time periods. Three specific areas of the valence-arousal emotional space are defined, corresponding to negatively excited, positively excited, and calm-neutral states. An acquisition protocol based on the recall of past emotional life episodes has been designed to acquire data from both peripheral and EEG signals. Pattern classification is used to distinguish between the three areas of the valence-arousal space. The performance of several classifiers has been evaluated on 10 participants and different feature sets: peripheral features, EEG time-frequency features, EEG pairwise mutual information (MI) features. Comparison of results obtained using either peripheral or EEG signals confirms the interest of using EEGs to assess valence and arousal in emotion recall conditions. The obtained accuracy for the three emotional classes is 63% using EEG time-frequency features, which is better than the results obtained from previous studies using EEG and similar classes. Fusion of the different feature sets at the decision level using a summation rule also showed to improve accuracy to 70%. Furthermore, the rejection of non-confident samples finally led to a classification accuracy of 80% for the three classes.
Keywords: Emotion assessment and classification; Affective computing; Signal processing
I like you, but I won't listen to you: Effects of rationality on affective and behavioral responses to computers that flatter BIBAKFull-Text 628-638
  Eun-Ju Lee
This experiment extended the computers are social actors (CASA) paradigm by investigating how rational thinking style moderates flattery effects in human-computer interaction. Participants played a trivia game with a computer, which they knew generated random answers that were accompanied by either strictly factual or flattering feedback on their performance. Although both high and low rationals attributed greater social attractiveness to the flattering computer than the one providing generic feedback, only low rationals exhibited different levels of conformity to flattering than generic-comment computers, favoring the latter. Results on recall memory and perceived validity of the computer feedback suggest that flattery elicited greater attention and heightened suspicion among those less prone to engage in analytical thinking, temporarily fostering mindfulness.
Keywords: Computers are social actors; Flattery; Human-computer interaction; Mindlessness; Rationality
Interacting meaningfully with machine learning systems: Three experiments BIBAKFull-Text 639-662
  Simone Stumpf; Vidya Rajaram; Lida Li; Weng-Keen Wong; Margaret Burnett; Thomas Dietterich; Erin Sullivan; Jonathan Herlocker
Although machine learning is becoming commonly used in today's software, there has been little research into how end users might interact with machine learning systems, beyond communicating simple "right/wrong" judgments. If the users themselves could work hand-in-hand with machine learning systems, the users' understanding and trust of the system could improve and the accuracy of learning systems could be improved as well. We conducted three experiments to understand the potential for rich interactions between users and machine learning systems. The first experiment was a think-aloud study that investigated users' willingness to interact with machine learning reasoning, and what kinds of feedback users might give to machine learning systems. We then investigated the viability of introducing such feedback into machine learning systems, specifically, how to incorporate some of these types of user feedback into machine learning systems, and what their impact was on the accuracy of the system. Taken together, the results of our experiments show that supporting rich interactions between users and machine learning systems is feasible for both user and machine. This shows the potential of rich human-computer collaboration via on-the-spot interactions as a promising direction for machine learning systems and users to collaboratively share intelligence.
Keywords: Intelligent user interfaces; Rich feedback; Explanations; Machine learning
Visual search-based design and evaluation of screen magnifiers for older and visually impaired users BIBAKFull-Text 663-675
  Zhengxuan Zhao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Ting Zhang; Gavriel Salvendy
The purpose of this study was to achieve the following goals: apply some principles in visual search theory to design and develop a screen magnifier; evaluate if applying such features could increase user performance; and make some recommendations for designing a screen magnifier according to the findings of the study. In order to achieve these goals, a screen magnifier and an experimental tool to present stimulus words were developed. Seventy-two elderly Chinese adults took part in the experiment. The findings indicate that, for a screen magnifier, the overlapping mode is superior to the parallel mode; the yellow-highlighted background is superior to the non-highlighted background; for lower-density text, the dual output mode (visual+auditory) is superior to the mono output mode (visual only), while for the higher-density text, no difference was found between the mono and dual output modes. Based on the findings, several recommendations are made. The overlapping mode should be set as the default working mode. Yellow could be a reasonable choice of background color for a magnifier when the text is black. Auditory output support should be used, and users should be advised to use dual output when the text density is lower and mono output when the text density is higher.
Keywords: Screen magnifier; Magnification mode; Background color; Output mode

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 9

Artifact awareness through screen sharing for distributed groups BIBAKFull-Text 677-702
  Kimberly Tee; Saul Greenberg; Carl Gutwin
Co-located collaborators can see the artifacts that others are working on, which in turn enables casual interactions. To help distributed collaborators maintain mutual awareness of people's electronic work artifacts, we designed and implemented an awareness tool that leverages screen-sharing methods. People see portions of others' screens in miniature, can selectively raise larger views of a screen to get more detail, and can engage in remote pointing. People balance awareness with privacy by using several privacy-protection strategies built into the system. A preliminary evaluation with two groups using this system shows that people use it to maintain awareness of what others are doing, project a certain image of themselves, monitor progress, coordinate joint tasks, determine others' availability, and engage in serendipitous conversation and collaboration. While privacy was not a large concern for these groups, a theoretical analysis suggests that privacy risks may differ for other user communities.
Keywords: Artifact awareness; Screen sharing; Informal awareness; Casual interaction; Distributed groupware
Visual complexity of websites: Effects on users' experience, physiology, performance, and memory BIBAKFull-Text 703-715
  Alexandre N. Tuch; Javier A. Bargas-Avila; Klaus Opwis; Frank H. Wilhelm
Visual complexity is an apparent feature in website design yet its effects on cognitive and emotional processing are not well understood. The current study examined website complexity within the framework of aesthetic theory and psychophysiological research on cognition and emotion. We hypothesized that increasing the complexity of websites would have a detrimental cognitive and emotional impact on users. In a passive viewing task (PVT) 36 website screenshots differing in their degree of complexity (operationalized by JPEG file size; correlation with complexity ratings in a preliminary study r=.80) were presented to 48 participants in randomized order. Additionally, a standardized visual search task (VST) assessing reaction times, and a one-week-delayed recognition task on these websites were conducted and participants rated all websites for arousal and valence. Psychophysiological responses were assessed during the PVT and VST. Visual complexity was related to increased experienced arousal, more negative valence appraisal, decreased heart rate, and increased facial muscle tension (musculus corrugator). Visual complexity resulted in increased reaction times in the VST and decreased recognition rates. Reaction times in the VST were related to increases in heart rate and electrodermal activity. These findings demonstrate that visual complexity of websites has multiple effects on human cognition and emotion, including experienced pleasure and arousal, facial expression, autonomic nervous system activation, task performance, and memory. It should thus be considered an important factor in website design.
Keywords: Affective computing; Psychophysiology; Website aesthetics; First impression; Affect; Attention; Internet
Mining meaning from Wikipedia BIBAKFull-Text 716-754
  Olena Medelyan; David Milne; Catherine Legg; Ian H. Witten
Wikipedia is a goldmine of information; not just for its many readers, but also for the growing community of researchers who recognize it as a resource of exceptional scale and utility. It represents a vast investment of manual effort and judgment: a huge, constantly evolving tapestry of concepts and relations that is being applied to a host of tasks.
   This article provides a comprehensive description of this work. It focuses on research that extracts and makes use of the concepts, relations, facts and descriptions found in Wikipedia, and organizes the work into four broad categories: applying Wikipedia to natural language processing; using it to facilitate information retrieval and information extraction; and as a resource for ontology building. The article addresses how Wikipedia is being used as is, how it is being improved and adapted, and how it is being combined with other structures to create entirely new resources. We identify the research groups and individuals involved, and how their work has developed in the last few years. We provide a comprehensive list of the open-source software they have produced.
Keywords: Wikipedia; Text mining; Wikipedia mining; NLP; Information retrieval; Information extraction; Ontologies; Semantic web
Affective interaction: How emotional agents affect users BIBAKFull-Text 755-776
  Russell Beale; Chris Creed
Embodied agents have received large amounts of interest in recent years. They are often equipped with the ability to express emotion, but without understanding the impact this can have on the user. Given the amount of research studies that are utilising agent technology with affective capabilities, now is an important time to review the influence of synthetic agent emotion on user attitudes, perceptions and behaviour. We therefore present a structured overview of the research into emotional simulation in agents, providing a summary of the main studies, re-formulating appropriate results in terms of the emotional effects demonstrated, and an in-depth analysis illustrating the similarities and inconsistencies between different experiments across a variety of different domains. We highlight important lessons, future areas for research, and provide a set of guidelines for conducting further research.
Keywords: Affect; Emotion; Engagement; Review
Interruption management: A comparison of auditory and tactile cues for both alerting and orienting BIBAKFull-Text 777-786
  C. A. P. Smith; Benjamin A. Clegg; Eric D. Heggestad; Pamela J. Hopp-Levine
Tactile and auditory cues have been suggested as methods of interruption management for busy visual environments. The current experiment examined attentional mechanisms by which cues might improve performance. The findings indicate that when interruptive tasks are presented in a spatially diverse task environment, the orienting function of tactile cues is a critical component, which directs attention to the location of the interruption, resulting in superior interruptive task performance. Non-directional tactile cues did not degrade primary task performance, but also did not improve performance on the secondary task. Similar results were found for auditory cues. The results support Posner and Peterson's [1990. The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience 13, 25-42] theory of independent functional networks of attention, and have practical applications for systems design in work environments that consist of multiple, visual tasks and time-sensitive information.
Keywords: Interruption management; Tactile cues; Task-switching; Attention-orienting
The movement patterns and the experiential components of virtual environments BIBAKFull-Text 787-799
  Heikki Särkelä; Jari Takatalo; Patrick May; Mikko Laakso; Göte Nyman
Human movement in virtual environments (VEs) is a largely unstudied area, and there are no well-established methods of measuring it in VEs. Consequently, it is unclear how movement affects the experiential side of VEs. We introduce a novel method of measuring and modelling human movement. A specific information entropy-based modelling method enabled us to identify different movement patterns and analyse the experiential components related to them. The data was collected by registering the movement patterns of 68 participants who were in a virtual house doing a search task. The experiential side of the VE was measured with the Experimental Virtual Environment Questionnaire (EVEQ). Four movement patterns were identified. In addition, fluent movement in VEs was related to a high sense of presence. Moreover, the participants who moved fluently in the environment assessed their skills high. The results show how movement is related the way in which people experience the VE. The movement analysis method introduced here is applicable to other related research areas as well.
Keywords: Virtual environments; Movement modelling; Entropy; Experiences; Presence; Flow
Cognition and the temporal arts: Investigating audience response to dance using PDAs that record continuous data during live performance BIBAKFull-Text 800-813
  Catherine J. Stevens; Emery Schubert; Rua Haszard Morris; Matt Frear; Johnson Chen; Sue Healey; Colin Schoknecht; Stephen Hansen
If artists and art explore organization of the brain [Zeki, S., Lamb, M., 1994. The neurology of kinetic art. Brain 117, 607-636], then investigation of response to artistic performance holds promise as a window to perceptual and cognitive processes. A new instrument for recording real-time audience response -- the portable Audience Response Facility (pARF) -- is described. Twenty, hand-held, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) collect responses on customizable skin interfaces. The pARF server transmits the customizable options, synchronizes devices and collects data for export. We report two studies using the pARF that demonstrate respondent agreement of perceived emotion during particular sections of two dance works. Greater agreement was evident in continuous ratings of arousal than valence; arousal appears to be related to surface features of the dance work. Future applications of the pARF to studies of multi-modal perception and cognition are discussed.
Keywords: Continuous response measurement; Portable response instrument; Live performance; Emotional response; WiFi; IEEE Wireless LAN 802.11; Pocket PC; HP iPAQ
Considerate home notification systems: A user study of acceptability of notifications in a living-room laboratory BIBAKFull-Text 814-826
  Martijn H. Vastenburg; David V. Keyson; Huib de Ridder
Recent field experiments on acceptability of notifications in the home showed that people generally want to be informed of urgent messages as soon as possible, whereas non-urgent messages should not be presented at all. A possible way to improve the acceptability of a notification might be to adjust the presentation mode and the timing of notifications to the message content and to the state of the user. For example, acceptability might be improved by considering user activities when selecting the best time to present the message. The relation between acceptability, presentation mode and timing has not been formally studied in a controlled home setting before. This paper presents the results of a user study, in which 10 participant couples were asked to engage in everyday home activities, and to subjectively rate factors that were expected to influence acceptability. The study was situated in a living-room laboratory in which the user activities and the timing of notifications were controlled. Questionnaire data was evaluated using cluster analysis in order to construct a semantic model that describes the relationship between user, system and environment. The key findings in the present study are: (1) acceptability could be improved by adjusting the level of intrusiveness of the presentation to message urgency: urgent messages should be presented intrusively, medium-urgent messages unobtrusively, and (2) non-urgent messages should be postponed until the message urgency has increased, or skipped if the message urgency never exceeds the predefined presentation threshold. Surprisingly, the user activities at the time of notification were not found to influence acceptability. These findings have resulted in a model of acceptability of notifications for the design of future home notification systems.
Keywords: Notification systems; Considerate home environments; Ubiquitous computing; User attention; Ambient displays; User engagement

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 10

Designing for uncertain, asymmetric control: Interaction design for brain-computer interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 827-841
  J. Williamson; R. Murray-Smith; B. Blankertz; M. Krauledat; K.-R. Müller
Designing user interfaces which can cope with unconventional control properties is challenging, and conventional interface design techniques are of little help. This paper examines how interactions can be designed to explicitly take into account the uncertainty and dynamics of control inputs. In particular, the asymmetry of feedback and control channels is highlighted as a key design constraint, which is especially obvious in current non-invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Brain-computer interfaces are systems capable of decoding neural activity in real time, thereby allowing a computer application to be directly controlled by thought. BCIs, however, have totally different signal properties than most conventional interaction devices. Bandwidth is very limited and there are comparatively long and unpredictable delays. Such interfaces cannot simply be treated as unwieldy mice. In this respect they are an example of a growing field of sensor-based interfaces which have unorthodox control properties. As a concrete example, we present the text entry application "Hex-O-Spell", controlled via motor-imagery based electroencephalography (EEG). The system utilizes the high visual display bandwidth to help compensate for the limited control signals, where the timing of the state changes encodes most of the information. We present results showing the comparatively high performance of this interface, with entry rates exceeding seven characters per minute.
Keywords: Brain-computer interaction; EEG; Text entry
Evaluating the effects of behavioral realism in embodied agents BIBAKFull-Text 842-849
  Victoria Groom; Clifford Nass; Tina Chen; Alexia Nielsen; James K. Scarborough; Erica Robles
Designers of embodied agents constantly strive to create agents that appear more human-like, with the belief that increasing the human-likeness of agents will improve users' interactions with agents. While designers have focused on visual realism, less attention has been paid to the effects of agents' behavioral realism on users' responses. This paper presents an empirical study that compared three theories of agent realism: Realism Maximization Theory, Uncanny Valley Theory, and Consistency Theory. Results of this study showed that people responded best to an embodied agent when it demonstrated moderately realistic, inconsistent behavior. These results support Uncanny Valley Theory and demonstrate the powerful influence of agent behavior on users' responses.
Keywords: Embodied agents; Consistency; Realism maximization; Uncanny valley
Perceived interactivity leading to e-loyalty: Development of a model for cognitive-affective user responses BIBAKFull-Text 850-869
  Dianne Cyr; Milena Head; Alex Ivanov
Novel applications of website interactivity are important to attract and retain online users. In this empirical study five designs for interactivity are examined using different web-poll interfaces. The goal of the investigation is to examine perceived interactivity in a model which includes most commonly tested cognitive elements such as efficiency and effectiveness, but augments this model with the inclusion of a cognitive-affective element for trust, and an affective element of enjoyment. More specifically, a model is created to validate the relationship of perceived interactivity (comprised of user control, user connectedness, and responsiveness of the web-poll application) to efficiency, effectiveness, trust and enjoyment, of the website. In turn, efficiency, effectiveness, trust, and enjoyment are tested for their influence on user behavioral intentions for e-loyalty. All relationships in the model are supported. In addition, exploratory evaluation of qualitative comments is conducted to investigate additional insights between the five web-poll treatments in this investigation. The research confirms the complexity of a model in which cognitive, cognitive-affective and affective elements are present, and advances knowledge on the consequences of perceived interactivity. In additional to theoretical advancements, the research has merit for web designers and online marketers regarding how to enhance interactive online web applications.
Keywords: Perceived interactivity; e-loyalty; Web-poll design
Automated stress detection using keystroke and linguistic features: An exploratory study BIBAKFull-Text 870-886
  Lisa M. Vizer; Lina Zhou; Andrew Sears
Monitoring of cognitive and physical function is central to the care of people with or at risk for various health conditions, but existing solutions rely on intrusive methods that are inadequate for continuous tracking. Less intrusive techniques that facilitate more accurate and frequent monitoring of the status of cognitive or physical function become increasingly desirable as the population ages and lifespan increases. Since the number of seniors using computers continues to grow dramatically, a method that exploits normal daily computer interactions is attractive. This research explores the possibility of detecting cognitive and physical stress by monitoring keyboard interactions with the eventual goal of detecting acute or gradual changes in cognitive and physical function. Researchers have already attributed a certain amount of variability and "drift" in an individual's typing pattern to situational factors as well as stress, but this phenomenon has not been explored adequately. In an attempt to detect changes in typing associated with stress, this research analyzes keystroke and linguistic features of spontaneously generated text. Results show that it is possible to classify cognitive and physical stress conditions relative to non-stress conditions based on keystroke and linguistic features with accuracy rates comparable to those currently obtained using affective computing methods. The proposed approach is attractive because it requires no additional hardware, is unobtrusive, is adaptable to individual users, and is of very low cost. This research demonstrates the potential of exploiting continuous monitoring of keyboard interactions to support the early detection of changes in cognitive and physical function.
Keywords: Stress detection; Text feature analysis; Unobtrusive monitoring
Supporting subject matter annotation using heterogeneous thesauri: A user study in Web data reuse BIBAKFull-Text 887-902
  Michiel Hildebrand; Jacco van Ossenbruggen; Lynda Hardman; Geertje Jacobs
We performed a user experiment in which museum professionals used vocabularies from the Web for annotating the subject matter of museum objects. In this paper, we study the requirements on the underlying RDF dataset, search algorithms and user interface design in a real world setting. We identify the advantages of reusing vocabularies from the Web and discuss how and to what extent the disadvantages can be overcome. The study is performed at the Print Room of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, where currently a large collection of prints, photographs and drawings is being catalogued. We report on the analysis of the current practice of professional cataloguers, the iterative design of an annotation tool and a qualitative evaluation of this tool with a user experiment in a realistic annotation environment. We discuss our findings in terms of their impact on the RDF data, the semantic search functionality and the user interface.
Keywords: Heterogeneous data; Data integration and reuse; Semantic annotation; Cultural heritage

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 11

Sonic Interaction Design BIBFull-Text 905-906
  Davide Rocchesso; Stefania Serafin

Sonic Interaction Design

Auditory display design -- An investigation of a design pattern approach BIBAKFull-Text 907-922
  Christopher Frauenberger; Tony Stockman
We present the evaluation of a methodological design framework that supports expert and novice designers in creating auditory artefacts in human-technology interaction. We first motivate the development of our framework by analysing available guidance and the current practice in the field. Subsequently, we recapitulate on the design of the framework -- paco, pattern design in the context space -- and present its key concepts and methods. The evaluation of paco aimed to investigate how useful this framework is in a real-world environment. It was conducted in two phases: experts in auditory display design first captured successful designs through paco and created a body of design patterns. These patterns were subsequently used in a controlled experiment with novice designers who were given a design task that forced them to use audio. The results demonstrate that paco has facilitated the transfer of design knowledge and good practice from experts to novices through design patterns. The context space, a key concept in paco, improves the contextual awareness of designers and provides an organising principle for problems, patterns and artefacts. We close by reflecting on the results and discussing future lines of research.
Keywords: Auditory display; Design patterns; Design methodology
Interactive sonification of complex data BIBAKFull-Text 923-933
  Sandra Pauletto; Andy Hunt
In this paper we present two experiments on implementing interaction in sonification displays: the first focuses on recorded data (interactive navigation) and the second on data gathered in real time (auditory feedback).
   Complex synthesised data are explored in the first experiment to evaluate how well the known characteristics present in the data are distinguished using different interaction methods, while real medical data (from physiotherapy) are used for the second.
   The addition of interaction to the exploration of sonified recorded data improves the system usability (efficiency, effectiveness and user satisfaction), and the real-time sonification of complex physiotherapy data can produce sounds with timbral characteristics that audibly change when important characteristics present in the data vary.
Keywords: Sonification; Audio feedback; Interactive navigation
The Allobrain: An interactive, stereographic, 3D audio, immersive virtual world BIBAKFull-Text 934-946
  John Thompson; JoAnn Kuchera-Morin; Marcos Novak; Dan Overholt; Lance Putnam; Graham Wakefield; Wesley Smith
This paper describes the creation of the Allobrain project, an interactive, stereographic, 3D audio, immersive virtual world constructed from fMRI brain data and installed in the Allosphere, one of the largest virtual reality spaces in existence. This paper portrays the role the Allobrain project played as an artwork driving the technological infrastructure of the Allosphere. The construction of the Cosm toolkit software for prototyping the Allobrain and other interactive, stereographic, 3D audio, immersive virtual worlds in the Allosphere is described in detail. Aesthetic considerations of the Allobrain project are discussed in relation to world-making as a means to understand and explore large data sets.
Keywords: Immersive environments; Sonification; Human-computer interaction; Wireless controller; Ambisonic spatialization
Sound design and perception in walking interactions BIBAKFull-Text 947-959
  Y. Visell; F. Fontana; B. L. Giordano; R. Nordahl; S. Serafin; R. Bresin
This paper reviews the state of the art in the display and perception of walking generated sounds and tactile vibrations, and their current and potential future uses in interactive systems. As non-visual information sources that are closely linked to human activities in diverse environments, such signals are capable of communicating about the spaces we traverse and activities we encounter in familiar and intuitive ways. However, in order for them to be effectively employed in human-computer interfaces, significant knowledge is required in areas including the perception of acoustic signatures of walking, and the design, engineering, and evaluation of interfaces that utilize them. Much of this expertise has accumulated in recent years, although many questions remain to be explored. We highlight past work and current research directions in this multidisciplinary area of investigation, and point to potential future trends.
Keywords: Auditory display; Vibrotactile display; Interaction design; Walking interfaces
Evaluation of live human-computer music-making: Quantitative and qualitative approaches BIBAKFull-Text 960-975
  D. Stowell; A. Robertson; N. Bryan-Kinns; M. D. Plumbley
Live music-making using interactive systems is not completely amenable to traditional HCI evaluation metrics such as task-completion rates. In this paper we discuss quantitative and qualitative approaches which provide opportunities to evaluate the music-making interaction, accounting for aspects which cannot be directly measured or expressed numerically, yet which may be important for participants. We present case studies in the application of a qualitative method based on Discourse Analysis, and a quantitative method based on the Turing Test. We compare and contrast these methods with each other, and with other evaluation approaches used in the literature, and discuss factors affecting which evaluation methods are appropriate in a given context.
Keywords: Music; Qualitative; Quantitative
Toward the design and evaluation of continuous sound in tangible interfaces: The Spinotron BIBAKFull-Text 976-993
  Guillaume Lemaitre; Olivier Houix; Yon Visell; Karmen Franinoviæ; Nicolas Misdariis; Patrick Susini
This paper reports on an approach to the design of continuous sonic feedback in tangible interfaces, and on quantitative evaluation methods intended to guide such design tasks. The issues it addresses may be of central relevance to areas of the emerging discipline of sonic interaction design that have begun to address the unique problems of designing sound for highly interactive contexts. Three experiments were conducted to assess two key aspects of the sound design developed for an abstract object designed for these experiments, which we refer to as the Spinotron. First, a comparison of sound source identification was made between three cases: passive listening to temporally static sounds; passive listening to dynamically evolving sounds; and listening to sounds generated through active manipulation of the artifact. The results show that control over the sound production process influences the material of the objects in interaction identified as the source of the sounds. Second, in a learning experiment, users' performance with the Spinotron device was compared between a group of participants that were provided only with passive proprioceptive information, and for another group who were also presented with synthetic sound produced by the artifact. The results indicated that the sound, when present, aided users in learning to control the device, whereas without the sound no learning was observed. Together, these results hold promise toward creating a foundation for the design of continuous sound that is intended to accompany control actions on the part of users, and toward establishing a basis for experimental/quantitative evaluation methods and gathering basic knowledge about sensory-motor activity engaged in tangible sonic interactions.
Keywords: Sonic interaction design; Auditory perception; Sound identification

IJHCS 2009 Volume 67 Issue 12

Collocated social practices surrounding photos

Collocated social practices surrounding photos BIBFull-Text 995-1004
  Siân E. Lindley; Abigail Durrant; David Kirk; Alex S. Taylor
Home curation versus teenage photography: Photo displays in the family home BIBAKFull-Text 1005-1023
  Abigail Durrant; David Frohlich; Abigail Sellen; Evanthia Lyons
In this paper we report an empirical study of the photographic portrayal of family members at home. Adopting a social psychological approach and focusing on intergenerational power dynamics, our research explores the use of domestic photo displays in family representation. Parents and their teenagers from eight families in the south of England were interviewed at home about their interpretations of both stored and displayed photos within the home. Discussions centred on particular photographs found by the participants to portray self and family in different ways. The findings show that public displays of digital photos are still curated by mothers of the households, but with more difficulty and less control than with analogue photos. In addition, teenagers both contribute and comply with this curation within the home, whilst at the same time developing additional ways of presenting their families and themselves online that are 'unsupervised' by the curator. We highlight the conflict of interest that is at play within teen and parent practices and consider the challenges that this presents for supporting the representation of family through the design of photo display technology.
Keywords: Domestic photo displays; Family photography; Teenage photography; Coordinate displays; Parental control; Intergenerational relationships; Home computing
Teachers' and tutors' social reflection around SenseCam images BIBAKFull-Text 1024-1036
  Rowanne Fleck; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
As photographic technologies continue to develop, so too do the social practices surrounding their use. The focus of this paper is on the social practices surrounding images captured from a new photographic device -- SenseCam -- which, rather than capturing individual images when triggered by the user, automatically captures a series of images. This paper is concerned with the use of SenseCam digital images in social contexts where there is a professional purpose -- supporting the collaborative reflective practices of school teachers and university tutors as part of their professional development. Analysis of video data collected from 16 in-situ case studies of reflective discussions shows evidence that reflection took place as defined in the literature. Further the phototalk around SenseCam images was found to benefit reflection in these social situations through promotion of a rich shared understanding of the lesson context: supporting return to the experience, sharing of background context, grounding conversations, illustrating and providing evidence, and allowing people to see more. The paper concludes with a discussion on how different features of SenseCam images, such as variable quality, lack of audio and incompleteness, helped in this reflection or not. Finally implications from this work and participant's comments are used to suggest ways in which SenseCam may be used in the future in teachers' and tutors' social reflection.
Keywords: SenseCam; Passive image capture; Reflective practice; Teacher training; Reflection
Social interaction around a rural community photo display BIBAKFull-Text 1037-1047
  Nick Taylor; Keith Cheverst
Public displays of photographs are a common sight in community spaces, yet while much attention has been given recently to the use of digital photography in the home, the community domain remains underexplored. We describe the Wray Photo Display, a public situated display for community-generated photography in an English rural village, which aims to understand the community's use of photos for social purposes and the ways in which public display technology may support these social interactions. This article presents the techniques used in designing and evaluating the display as well as understanding the community and its use of photos, and our discussion of the issues and challenges presented by this study.
Keywords: Situated displays; Community; Participatory design
Mobiphos: A study of user engagement with a mobile collocated-synchronous photo sharing application BIBAKFull-Text 1048-1059
  Nirmal Patel; James Clawson; Amy Voida; Kent Lyons
Photographs have always been artifacts for creating memories and engaging in storytelling activities with others. To date there has been much research in the HCI community towards sharing of both analog and digital photographs. With recent advances in network technology further research has been done with photos being shared almost immediately after capture. However, most of the research has focused on synchronous sharing with groups of distributed users and little has been done to focus on how synchronous capture and sharing could benefit a group of collocated mobile users. To help start exploration in this area we have created Mobiphos. In this article we present how synchronous capture and sharing affects how groups of mobile, collocated users engage with their environment and each other while touring a city. We also discuss the design guidelines of Mobiphos and the implications for future photoware for the mobile, collocated context.
Keywords: Mobile; Photo sharing; Collocated; Synchronous
Bridging the gap between the Kodak and the Flickr generations: A novel interaction technique for collocated photo sharing BIBAKFull-Text 1060-1072
  Christian Kray; Michael Rohs; Jonathan Hook; Sven Kratz
Passing around stacks of paper photographs while sitting around a table is one of the key social practices defining what is commonly referred to as the 'Kodak Generation'. Due to the way digital photographs are stored and handled, this practice does not translate well to the 'Flickr Generation', where collocated photo sharing often involves the (wireless) transmission of a photo from one mobile device to another. In order to facilitate 'cross-generation' sharing without enforcing either practice, it is desirable to bridge this gap in a way that incorporates familiar aspects of both.
   In this paper, we discuss a novel interaction technique that addresses some of the constraints introduced by current communication technology, and that enables photo sharing in a way, which resembles the passing of stacks of paper photographs. This technique is based on dynamically generated spatial regions around mobile devices and has been evaluated through two user studies. The results we obtained indicate that our technique is easy to learn and as fast, or faster than, current technology such as transmitting photos between devices using Bluetooth. In addition, we found evidence of different sharing techniques influencing social practice around photo sharing. The use of our technique resulted in a more inclusive and group-oriented behavior in contrast to Bluetooth photo sharing, which resulted in a more fractured setting composed of sub-groups.
Keywords: Photo sharing; Collocated groups; Mobile phone; Visuospatial interaction
Collocated photo sharing, story-telling, and the performance of self BIBAKFull-Text 1073-1086
  Nancy A. Van House
This article reports empirical findings from four inter-related studies, with an emphasis on collocated sharing. Collocated sharing remains important, using both traditional and emerging image-related technologies. Co-present viewing is a dynamic, improvisational construction of a contingent, situated interaction between story-teller and audience. The concept of performance, as articulated differently by Erving Goffman and Judith Butler, is useful understand the enduring importance of co-present sharing of photos and the importance of oral narratives around images in enacting identity and relationships. Finally, we suggest some implications for both HCI research and the design of image-related technologies.
Keywords: Photo sharing; Personal photography; Performance; Digital photography; Online sharing; Social media; Cameraphones
Using physical memorabilia as opportunities to move into collocated digital photo-sharing BIBAKFull-Text 1087-1111
  Michael Nunes; Saul Greenberg; Carman Neustaedter
The uptake of digital photos vs. print photos has altered the practice of photo-sharing. Print photos are easy to share within the home, but much harder to share outside of it. The opposite is true of digital photos. People easily share digital photos outside the home, e.g., to family and friends by e-mail gift-giving, and to social networks and the broader public by web publishing. Yet within the home, collocated digital photo-sharing is harder, primarily because digital photos are typically stored on personal accounts in desktop computers located in home offices. This leads to several consequences. (1) The invisibility of digital photos implies few opportunities for serendipitous photo-sharing. (2) Access control and navigation issues inhibit family members from retrieving photo collections. (3) Photo viewing is compromised as digital photos are displayed on small screens in an uncomfortable viewing setting.
   To mitigate some of these difficulties, we explore how physical memorabilia collected by family members can create opportunities that encourage social and collocated digital photo-sharing. First, we studied (via contextual interviews with 20 households) how families currently practice photo-sharing and how they keep memorabilia. We identified classes of memorabilia that can serve as memory triggers to family events, trips, and times when people took photos. Second, we designed Souvenirs, a photo-viewing system that exploits memorabilia as a social instrument. Using Souvenirs, a family member can meaningfully associate physical memorabilia with particular photo-sets. Later, any family member can begin their story-telling with others through the physical memento, and then enrich the story by displaying its associated photos simply by moving the memento close to the home's large-format television screen. Third, we re-examined our design premises by evoking household reactions to an early version of Souvenirs. Based on these interviews, we redesigned Souvenirs to better reflect the preferences and real practices of photo and memorabilia use in the home.
Keywords: Collocated digital photo-sharing; Physical memorabilia; Tagging