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IJHCS Tables of Contents: 484950515253545556575859606162636465666768

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 58

Editors:B. R. Gaines
Publisher:Elsevier Science Publishers
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 1
  2. IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 2
  3. IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 3
  4. IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 4
  5. IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 5
  6. IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 6

IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 1

Publisher's Note BIB 1-3
Exploring importance of location and prior knowledge of environment on mobile robot control BIBA 5-20
  Ali Safak Sekmen; Mitch Wilkes; Susan R. Goldman; Saleh Zein-Sabatto
Advances in technologies to create ever more sophisticated robots is outpacing our understanding of how such robots and humans successfully interact to accomplish specific tasks. In particular, it is now possible for humans to control the navigation of certain classes of robots via the Internet. Yet, we know little about how individual differences variables such as spatial ability and prior knowledge of the navigational space contribute to the success of human-robot interactions. Nor has there been much research on the kinds of interfaces that facilitate effective and efficient interaction, and whether these are differentially effective across the spectrum of spatial ability. In this study, an Internet control mechanism for an RWI B-14 mobile robot called "TourMate" was used to investigate the differences and similarities in how humans teleoperated the robot from two locations (intermediate and remote). Thirty-two participants who were assessed on spatial ability and prior knowledge of the space in which the robot was being controlled directed the robot in simple spatial navigation tasks. Time to complete the task, number of steps, and errors were collected. Results indicated that spatial ability and location, but not prior knowledge, were reliable predictor of efficiency of robot teleoperation. Information was also obtained about the utility of various features of the interface and suggested that individual difference characteristics of robot operators are related to the utility of different interface features. Implications for design of human-robot interaction systems are discussed.
Using large tables on small display devices BIBA 21-37
  Carolyn Watters; Jack Duffy; Kathryn Duffy
The next evolutionary step in wireless Internet information management is to provide support for tasks, which may be collaborative and may include multiple target devices, from desktop to handheld. This means that the information architecture supports the processes of the task, recognizes group interaction, and lets users migrate seamlessly among internet-compatible devices without losing the thread of the session. If users are free to migrate amongst devices during the course of a session then intelligent transformation of data is required to exploit the screen size and input characteristics of the target appliance with minimal loss of task effectiveness.
   In this paper we first review general characteristics related to the performance of users on small screens and then examine the navigation of full tables on small screens for users in multi-device scenarios. We examine the methodologies available for access to full tables in environments where the full table cannot be viewed in its entirety. In particular, we examine the situation where users are collaborating across platform and referring to the same table of data. We ask three basic questions: Does screen size affect the performance of table lookup tasks? Does a search function improve performance of table lookup based tasks on reduced screen sizes? Does including context information improve the performance of table lookup based tasks on reduced screen sizes? The answers to these questions are important as individual and intuitive responses are used by the designers of small screen interfaces for use with large tables of data. We report on the results of a user study that examines factors that may affect the use of large tables on small display devices. The use of large tables on small devices in their native state becomes important in at least two circumstances. First, when collaboration involves two or more users sharing a view of data when the individual screen sizes are different. Second, when the exact table structure replication may be critical as a user moves quickly from a larger to a smaller screen or back again mid-task. Performance is measured by both effectiveness, correctness of result, and efficiency, effort to reach a result.
The effects of structural cues from multiple metaphors on computer users' information search performance BIBA 39-55
  Yu-chen Hsu; Thomas M. Schwen
Since the 1980s metaphors have been used to design computer interfaces in order to facilitate user learning. As computer systems become more complex, the issue of using a large number of metaphors of narrow scope to design interfaces has arisen. Several researchers have proposed the use of multiple metaphors in the design of computer systems. This study set out to compare the effects of structural cues derived from single versus multiple metaphors used in designing hypertext systems. A total of 54 undergraduate students were asked to perform selected information search tasks. The results show that the provision of metaphorical cues helped subjects to find a greater number of accurate answers in a shorter period of time. The more complete mapping between the base and target domains in the design of the interface, along with cues from multiple metaphors, may have helped subjects to develop more sophisticated representations of the hypertext structure.
Web site designs: Influences of designer's expertise and design constraints BIBA 57-87
  Aline Chevalier; Melody Y. Ivory
Nowadays, much research examines both the cognitive difficulties encountered by web site users and the development of ergonomic guidelines for designers. However, few studies examine designers' cognitive functioning while designing web sites. We defend the idea that determining the difficulties web site designers encounter is necessary to better support their design activities, especially in making web sites easier to use. We present an experimental study that demonstrates that the designers' levels of expertise (novice and professional) as well as the design constraints that clients prescribe influences both the number and the nature of constraints designers articulate and respect in their web site designs. Based on our study findings, we suggest ways to better support web site designers.
The evolution of Protege: an environment for knowledge-based systems development BIBA 89-123
  John H. Gennari; Mark A. Musen; Ray W. Fergerson; William E. Grosso; Monica Crubezy; Henrik Eriksson; Natalya F. Noy; Samson W. Tu
The Protege project has come a long way since Mark Musen first built the Protege meta-tool for knowledge-based systems in 1987. The original tool was a small application, aimed at building knowledge-acquisition tools for a few specialized programs in medical planning. From this initial tool, the Protege system has evolved into a durable, extensible platform for knowledge-based systems development and research. The current version, Protege-2000, can be run on a variety of platforms, supports customized user-interface extensions, incorporates the Open Knowledge-Base Connectivity (OKBC) knowledge model, interacts with standard storage formats such as relational databases, XML, and RDF, and has been used by hundreds of individuals and research groups. In this paper, we follow the evolution of the Protege project through three distinct re-implementations. We describe our overall methodology, our design decisions, and the lessons we have learned over the duration of the project. We believe that our success is one of infrastructure: Protege is a flexible, well-supported, and robust development environment. Using Protege, developers and domain experts can easily build effective knowledge-based systems, and researchers can explore ideas in a variety of knowledge-based domains.
Balancing search and retrieval in hypertext: context-specific trade-offs in navigational tool use BIBAK 125-149
  Stephania Padovani; Mark Lansdale
We compare user navigation performance using two hypertext information sites of identical node structure but embedded in different metaphors. The first is based upon the layout of a house and is consistent with Euclidean space. The second represents social links between people for which a spatial metaphor is not apparent. Search for targets within the structures, and the speed of their subsequent retrieval on a second search, is compared in a 2x4x2 factorial design manipulating: metaphor (spatial or non-spatial); navigation tools (participants have both a site map and bookmark tool, one of these, or no tools at all) and the time pressure under which navigation is carried out (paced or unpaced). A strong main effect is found in which the spatial metaphor produces higher performance under all conditions. Similarly, time pressure has the general effect of trading-off a faster initial search with less efficient retrieval later. However, navigation tool use is highly context dependent and sometimes counterintuitive: certain conditions show poorer performance with two navigation aids than one. We argue that navigation tools are mediating structures for activities, such as bookmarking and learning the structure of the site, which represent cognitive investment for future retrieval. In this view, user performance is optimized by the balance of two potentially antagonistic conditions. First, the usability of tools and metaphor must free cognitive resources for planning; but also, the difficulty of the task and the need for planning must remain visible to the user. The implications for design are discussed.
Keywords: Navigation; Spatial metaphor; Memorability; www

IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 2

Modelling and designing a low-cost high-fidelity mobile crane simulator BIBA 151-176
  Jiung-Yao Huang; Chung-Yun Gau
The interactive visual simulation is the integration of real-time computer graphics with multimodalities, such as acoustic display and force feedback, to create a realistic simulation scenario to the user. This paper presents a method to design an interactive visual simulation on a cluster of desktop computers for the mobile crane training. This mobile crane training simulation is a project sponsored by Employment and Vocational Training Administration, Council of Labor Affair, Executive Yuan, Taiwan, to build a low-cost yet effective vehicle for training and licensing. To achieve this goal, a set of locally networked PCs is employed to form a parallel computing environment for the mobile crane simulation.
   The most important issue of developing a high-fidelity interactive visual simulator is its integration system for communication and monitoring among functional modules. This paper presents a peer-to-peer architecture on a cluster of PCs to develop the required integration system for the mobile crane simulator. In addition, the developed integration system uses the push-and-pull model to seamlessly communicate the messages among distributed functional modules. This push-and-pull model effectively achieves the parallelism among the distributed functional modules of a mobile crane simulator. With the push-and-pull model on the peer-to-peer architecture, we can easily achieve the modularity and reusability of the functional modules of the simulating system. The presented push-and-pull model satisfies four essential attributes for the parallel computing, which are concurrency, scalability, locality and modularity. Our experience also successfully verifies the effectiveness of the presented simulator with the system response rate of 16 times per second which is larger than human acceptable perception rate as suggested by the human factors studies.
Integrating cognitive analyses in a large-scale system design process BIBA 177-206
  Ann M. Bisantz; Emilie Roth; Bart Brickman; Laura Lin Gosbee; Larry Hettinger; James McKinney
This paper describes the integration of cognitive analysis into the early stages of design of a new, large-scale system -- a next generation US Navy Surface combatant. Influencing complex system designs in ways cognizant of human-system integration principles requires work products that are timely and tightly coupled to other elements of the design process. Because analyses were conducted simultaneously with the design processes regarding ship functionality and staffing, it was necessary to select and adapt cognitive work analysis methods to fit the demands of a time pressured and information-limited design situation. Interviews were conducted and analyzed based on aspects of an abstraction hierarchy and control task models. An abstraction hierarchy, a series of cross-linked matrices, and a set of decision ladder models were developed to provide a principled mapping between system function decompositions produced by system engineering teams and cognitive tasks, information needs, automation requirements, and concepts for displays. Cross-referencing the matrices supported design traceability and facilitated the integration of cognitive analyses with functional analyses being performed by other design teams. Results fed into design recommendations with respect to level of automation, human roles and initial display prototypes for the ship combat command center. The case study illustrates the utility of cognitive work analysis models (specifically, abstraction hierarchies and decision-ladder models) in the design of large-scale, first-of-a-kind systems, and presents new design artifacts that link concepts used in cognitive analyses to those used in systems engineering for more effective integration within the systems engineering process.
Personality types in software engineering BIBA 207-214
  Luiz Fernando Capretz
Software engineering is forecast to be among the fastest growing employment field in the next decades. The purpose of this investigation is two-fold: Firstly, empirical studies on the personality types of software professionals are reviewed. Secondly, this work provides an up-to-date personality profile of software engineers according to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
Making use of scenarios: a field study of conceptual design BIBA 215-239
  Morten Hertzum
Scenarios have gained acceptance in both research and practice as a way of grounding software-engineering projects in the users' work. However, the research on scenario-based design (SBD) includes very few studies of how scenarios are actually used by practising software engineers in real-world projects. Such studies are needed to evaluate current SBD approaches and advance our general understanding of what scenarios contribute to design. This longitudinal field study analyses the use of scenarios during the conceptual design of a large information system. The role of the scenarios is compared and contrasted with that of three other design artefacts: the requirements specification, the business model, and the user interface prototype. The distinguishing features of the scenarios were that they were task based and descriptive. By being task based the scenarios strung individual events and activities together in purposeful sequences and, thereby, provided an intermediate level of description that was both an instantiation of overall work objectives and a fairly persistent context for the gradual elaboration of subtasks. By being descriptive the scenarios preserved a real-world feel of the contents, flow, and dynamics of the users' work. The scenarios made the users' work recognizable to the software engineers as a complex but organized human activity. This way the scenarios attained a unifying role as mediator among both the design artefacts and the software engineers, whilst they were not used for communication with users. The scenarios were, however, discontinued before the completion of the conceptual design because their creation and management was dependent on a few software engineers who were also the driving forces of several other project activities. Finally, the software engineers valued the concreteness and coherence of the scenarios although that entailed a risk of missing some effective reconceptions of the users' work.
Taking stock of Turing test: a review, analysis, and appraisal of issues surrounding thinking machines BIBA 240-257
  Appa Rao Korukonda
The Turing test (TT) has provided the inspiration for the inception and rapid development of artificial intelligence (AI) as a discipline. Additionally, it provided a platform for what might be termed a spirited, enduring, and enlightening -- albeit occasionally frustrating -- rounds of debate on a broad range of questions. Turing, who proved to be much ahead of his time in more ways than one, predicted that it would be possible to develop machines capable of passing the TT in about 50 years time, that is just about now. Perhaps, Turing overestimated the rate of progress of technology, or of transformation of deeply entrenched paradigms of thought; but whatever the reason, his prediction about the feasibility of "thinking machines" is yet to come true in an engineering or in a symbolic-semantic sense. This paper presents a set of reflections on this and other predictions made by Turing and relates them to what has actually transpired in the 50 years since his original paper was published. Contributions of TT to the field of AI are assessed and directions for the future are presented.

IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 3

Factors affecting the adoption and diffusion of XML and Web services standards for E-business systems BIBA 259-279
  Minder Chen
Integration is a very important issue in e-business systems integration. There are three basic mechanisms to integrate diverse applications: data interchange, application program interfaces (API), and shared repositories. Standards and standardization efforts play important roles in all three areas. XML is a standard for defining data interchange standards. Web services are a set of standards for calling remote procedures over the Internet. UDDI and other e-business registries are examples of shared repositories. This paper discusses the XML and Web Services (including UDDI) standard-related technologies in the context of e-business systems. A technology adoption life cycle model is adapted to analyse various stages of standards adoption. Organizations that tend to adopt e-business standards in each stage are identified. Based on our study of e-business standards and research of relevant literatures, several factors that affect the adoption decision of e-business standards are identified. The implications of these factors are discussed. Two case studies of the implementation of e-business standards are presented. Further studies of how standards may affect the success of e-business strategies and how companies should evaluate and implement e-business standards are proposed.
An empirical study of the effects of interactivity on web user attitude BIBA 281-305
  Hock-Hai Teo; Lih-Bin Oh; Chunhui Liu; Kwok-Kee Wei
Despite the growing attention given to Web usability, little is understood as to what Web design features contribute to Web users' attitude, a major component of the usability of a Web site. This research investigates the effects of interactivity level on Web user's attitude towards commercial Web sites. It extends existing Web interface design and usability literature by empirically examining the critical roles of interactivity. Three Web sites with different levels of interactivity were compared in a controlled laboratory experiment. Three eighteen-person groups completed each treatment. The independent variable is the incremental levels of interactivity. The dependent variables are satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, value, and attitude towards the Web site. Results suggest that increased level of interactivity on a Web site have positive effects on user's perceived satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, value, and overall attitude towards a Web site. Implications for Web site designers and researchers are discussed.
Comparing smart card adoption in Singapore and Australian universities BIBA 307-325
  Catherine Hui Min Lee; Yuk Wing Cheng; Arnold Depickere
College and university environments offer one of the best opportunities for the adoption of smart card technology. This study explores the possibility of developing smart card as a university application and investigates whether it will help to reduce the university business administration procedures as well as increase their service efficiency. This involved investigating the response of two groups (experienced and non-experienced) towards the adoption or the intention to embrace the technology of a university smart card. Studying the experiences gained by Nanyang Technological University (NTU, Singapore) students using smart card application in their university may provide an insightful picture for a university that is considering adopting such a technological innovation.
   Results show that compatibility pre-adoption construct is the key element that plays the most influential factor in motivating local students for adoption. This suggests that to ensure adoption, it is important to guarantee that the university smart cards are socially acceptable among the university students (fit well with the students' norm and environment). Another implication of this study is that Murdoch University (MU, Australia) students would most probably be willing to accept the adoption of a university smart card given that the results show MU students' response of (probability=168/200) and NTU students' response of 100% (probability=50/50) acceptance toward using their university smart card. The results also show a significant culture difference between MU students and NTU students, indicating that smart card manufacturer should take note of the ranking of user preference when designing a university smart card in order to optimize the adoption process.
Effects of content representation and readers' prior knowledge on the comprehension of hypertext BIBA 327-345
  Herve Potelle; Jean-Francois Rouet
This study investigated the role of various types of content representation devices on the comprehension of an expository hypertext. We hypothesized that hierarchical representations, but not network representations, may help low prior knowledge students organize their representation of the text contents. Forty-seven students with low or high prior knowledge in Social Psychology were asked to read a hypertext using one of three content representations: a hierarchical map, a network map and an alphabetic list. Then, the participants performed a multiple choice comprehension task, a summary task and a concept map drawing task. The hierarchical map improved comprehension for the low knowledge participants at the global, but not at the local level. There was no effect of content representation on the comprehension of high prior knowledge students. We discuss the implications of these results for a theory of the comprehension processes involved in reading hypertext.

IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 4

Effects of "gender" of the computer on informational social influence: the moderating role of task type BIBA 347-362
  Eun-Ju Lee
The present experiment examined if and how "gender" of the computer, manifested in character representation, would affect its informational influence on individuals' decisions on masculine (sports) or feminine (fashion) topics. In a 2 (participant's gender) x 2 (character gender) x 2 (nature of topic: masculine vs. feminine) between-subjects experiment, participants played a trivia quiz game with the computer. During the game, they were given a chance to change their initial answer after seeing the computer's answer, which they knew was not necessarily correct. Results supported the match-up hypothesis such that while the male computer elicited greater conformity on the masculine topic than on the feminine topic, the opposite was true for the female counterpart. In addition, men were less likely to yield to the computer's suggestion than women on the masculine topic whereas women were less likely to succumb to the computer's influence on the feminine topic. These findings are discussed in terms of the robustness of gender-stereotyping in human-computer interaction and the implications for Computers Are Social Actors paradigm.
Fuzzy query interface for a business database BIBA 363-391
  Rita A. Ribeiro; Ana M. Moreira
Managers, in today's corporations, rely increasingly on the use of databases to obtain insights and updated information to make their decisions. This paper describes a flexible query interface based on fuzzy logic. Hence, queries in natural language with pre-defined syntactical structures are performed, and the system uses a fuzzy natural language process to provide answers. This process uses the fuzzy translation rules of the meaning representation language PRUF, proposed by Zadeh (Intern. J. Man-Machine Studies 10 (1978) 395). The interface was built for a relational database of the 500 biggest non-financial Portuguese companies. The attributes considered are the economic and financial indicators. Examples of pseudo-natural language queries, such as "is company X very profitable?" or "are most private companies productive?", are presented to show the capabilities of this human-oriented interface.
A method for team intention inference BIBA 393-413
  Taro Kanno; Keiichi Nakata; Kazuo Furuta
Recent advances in man-machine interaction include attempts to infer operator intentions from operator actions, to better anticipate and support system performance. This capability has been investigated in contexts such as intelligent interface designs and operation support systems. While some progress has been demonstrated, efforts to date have focused on a single operator. In large and complex artefacts such as power plants or aircrafts, however, a team generally operates the system, and team intention is not reducible to mere summation of individual intentions. It is therefore necessary to develop a team intention inference method for sophisticated team-machine communication. In this paper a method is proposed for team intention inference in process domains. The method uses expectations of the other members as clues to infer a team intention and describes it as a set of individual intentions and beliefs of the other team members. We applied it to the operation of a plant simulator operated by a two-person team, and it was shown that, at least in this context, the method is effective for team intention inference.
A unifying framework for intelligent DNS management BIBA 415-445
  Chang-Sheng Chen; Shian-Shyong Tseng; Chien-Liang Liu
Recent advances in man-machine interaction include attempts to infer operator intentions from operator actions, to better anticipate and support system performance. This capability has been investigated in contexts such as intelligent interface designs and operation support systems. While some progress has been demonstrated, efforts to date have focused on a single operator. In large and complex artefacts such as power plants or aircrafts, however, a team generally operates the system, and team intention is not reducible to mere summation of individual intentions. It is therefore necessary to develop a team intention inference method for sophisticated team-machine communication. In this paper a method is proposed for team intention inference in process domains. The method uses expectations of the other members as clues to infer a team intention and describes it as a set of individual intentions and beliefs of the other team members. We applied it to the operation of a plant simulator operated by a two-person team, and it was shown that, at least in this context, the method is effective for team intention inference.
Usability engineering of virtual environments (VEs): identifying multiple criteria that drive effective VE system design BIBA 447-481
  Kay M. Stanney; Mansooreh Mollaghasemi; Leah Reeves; Robert Breaux; David A. Graeber
Designing usable and effective interactive virtual environment (VE) systems is a new challenge for system developers and human factors specialists. In particular, traditional usability principles do not consider characteristics unique to VE systems, such as the design of wayfinding and navigational techniques, object selection and manipulation, as well as integration of visual, auditory and haptic system outputs. VE designers must enhance presence, immersion, and system comfort, while minimizing sickness and deleterious aftereffects. Through the development of a multi-criteria assessment technique, the current effort categorizes and integrates these VE attributes into a systematic approach to designing and evaluating VE usability. Validation exercises suggest this technique, the Multi-criteria Assessment of Usability for Virtual Environments (MAUVE) system, provides a structured approach for achieving usability in VE system design and evaluation. Applications for this research include military, entertainment, and any other interactive system that seeks to provide an enjoyable and effective user experience.
Human performance modeling in temporary segmentation Chinese character handwriting recognizers BIBA 483-508
  Changxu Wu; Kan Zhang; Yongge Hu
Human performance in Chinese character handwriting recognizers is critical to the satisfaction and acceptance of their users. Based on Teal's [CHI'92 (1992) p. 295] interactive model, a static model describing the independent factors in determining the task completion time was set up with a simple mathematical inference; in addition, a dynamic model describing these factors' direct and indirect causal relationship was established by the path analytic method. Results in Experiment 1 indicated that both the static model and the dynamic model could fit observed task completion time satisfactorily with minor modifications. In addition, with users' average writing time around 1500 ms for each frequently used character, it was found that the user's performance was impaired significantly when segmentation time was longer than 1040 ms. An integrated model was devised after combining the static and dynamic models. Experiment 2 testified the integrated model in another handwriting recognizer and found that it could still fit human performance data with users in three different training conditions. Implications of the integrated model are that: (1) when recognition accuracy and number of inputting characters are constant, the weights of average writing time for each character, segmentation time, recognition time in determining task completion time are equal but bigger than the weight of the repairing time; (2) when the repairing time, average writing time for each character, segmentation time and recognition time are constant, there is an inverse model between task completion time and recognition accuracy; when recognition accuracy is from 50% to 93%, every 1% increase of recognition accuracy will reduce task completion time from 1989 to 1915 ms; when recognition accuracy increases from 94% to 100%, every 1% increase of recognition accuracy will reduce task completion time from 1895 to 1392 ms. Guidelines in designing these recognizers were given based on these implications.

IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 5

Introduction: design and evaluation of notification user interfaces BIBA 509-514
  D. Scott McCrickard; Mary Czerwinski; Lyn Bartram
Notification systems attempt to deliver current, important information to the computer screen in an efficient and effective manner. All notification systems require that the user attends to them to at least some degree if they are to succeed. Examples of notification systems include instant messaging systems, system and user status updates, email alerts and news and stock tickers. The benefits of notification systems are numerous, including rapid availability of important information, access to nearly instantaneous communication and heightened awareness of the availability of personal contacts. While the popularity of these systems has skyrocketed in recent years, the effects of incoming notifications on ongoing computing tasks have been relatively unexplored. The investigation of the costs, benefits and the optimal display of instant messages and all notifications in the context of desktop or mobile computing tasks falls in the general arena of psychological research on alerting and disruptions, but also requires research contributions from design, computer science and information visualization. To date, much of the psychological research on interruption leverages theoretical task constructions. In this special issue, we focus on the nature of interruptions such as messaging while computing and how to optimize the user experience.
Moticons:: detection, distraction and task BIBA 515-545
  Lyn Bartram; Colin Ware; Tom Calvert
In this paper, we describe an empirical investigation of the utility of several perceptual properties of motion in information-dense displays applied to notification. Notification relates to awareness and how dynamic information is communicated from the system to the user. Key to a notification technique is how easily the notification is detected and identified. Our initial studies show that icons with simple motions, termed moticons, are effective coding techniques for notification and in fact are often better detected and identified than colour and shape codes, especially in the periphery. A subsequent experiment compared the detection and distraction effects of different motion types in several task conditions. Our results reveal how different attributes of motion contribute to detection, identification and distraction and provide initial guidelines on how motion codes can be designed to support awareness in information-rich interfaces while minimizing unwanted side effects of distraction and irritation.
Establishing tradeoffs that leverage attention for utility: empirically evaluating information display in notification systems BIBA 547-582
  D. Scott McCrickard; Richard Catrambone; C. M. Chewar; John T. Stasko
Designing and evaluating notification systems represents an emerging challenge in the study of human-computer interaction. Users rely on notification systems to present potentially interruptive information in an efficient and effective manner to enable appropriate reaction and comprehension. Little is known about the effects of these systems on ongoing computer tasks. As the research community strives to understand information design suitable for opposing usage goals, few existing efforts lend themselves to extensibility.
   However, three often conflicting design objectives are interruption to primary tasks, reaction to specific notifications, and comprehension of information over time. Based on these competing parameters, we propose a unifying research theme for the field that defines success in notification systems design as achieving the desirable balance between attention and utility. This paradigm distinguishes notification systems research from traditional HCI by centering on the limitations of the human attention system.
   In a series of experiments that demonstrate this research approach and investigate use of animated text in secondary displays, we describe two empirical investigations focused on the three critical parameters during a browsing task. The first experiment compares tickering, blasting, and fading text, finding that tickering text is best for supporting deeper comprehension, fading best facilitates reaction, and, compared to the control condition, none of the animated displays are interruptive to the browsing task. The second experiment investigates fading and tickering animation in greater detail with similar tasks -- at two different speeds and sizes. Here, we found smaller displays allowed better reaction but were more interruptive, while slower displays provides increased comprehension. Overall, the slow fade appears to be the best secondary display animation type tested. Focusing research and user studies within this field on critical parameters such as interruption, reaction, and comprehension will increase cohesion among design and evaluation efforts for notification systems.
Preparing to resume an interrupted task: effects of prospective goal encoding and retrospective rehearsal BIBA 583-603
  J. Gregory Trafton; Erik M. Altmann; Derek P. Brock; Farilee E. Mintz
We examine people's strategic cognitive responses to being interrupted while performing a task. Based on memory theory, we propose that resumption of a task after interruption is facilitated by preparation during the interruption lag, or the interval between an alert to a pending interruption (e.g. the phone ringing) and the interruption proper (the ensuing conversation). To test this proposal, we conducted an experiment in which participants in a Warning condition received an 8-s interruption lag, and participants in an Immediate condition received no interruption lag. Participants in the Warning condition prepared more than participants in the Immediate condition, as measured by verbal reports, and resumed the interrupted task more quickly. However, Immediate participants resumed faster with practice, suggesting that people adapt to particularly disruptive forms of interruption. The results support our task analysis of interruption and our model of memory for goals, and suggest further means for studying operator performance in dynamic task environments.
Notification and awareness: synchronizing task-oriented collaborative activity BIBA 605-632
  John M. Carroll; Dennis C. Neale; Philip L. Isenhour; Mary Beth Rosson; D. Scott McCrickard
People working collaboratively must establish and maintain awareness of one another's intentions, actions and results. Notification systems typically support awareness of the presence, tasks and actions of collaborators, but they do not adequately support awareness of persistent and complex activities. We analysed awareness breakdowns in use of our Virtual School system -- stemming from problems related to the collaborative situation, group, task and tool support -- to motivate the concept of activity awareness. Activity awareness builds on prior conceptions of social and action awareness, but emphasizes the importance of activity context factors like planning and coordination. This work suggests design strategies for notification systems to better support collaborative activity.

IJHCS 2003 Volume 58 Issue 6

Editorial BIB 633-635
  Cynthia L. Corritore; Beverly Kracher; Susan Wiedenbeck
Human performance and embedded intelligent technology in safety-critical systems BIBA 637-670
  Martha Grabowski; Stephen D. Sanborn
Information technology continues to evolve rapidly. We see this particularly in the evolution of embedded intelligent systems -- knowledge-based systems deployed in larger hosts with real-time response requirements, which provide real-time advice, guidance, information, recommendations and explanations to their users. These systems have recently been deployed in safety-critical large-scale systems, where humans and technology are jointly responsible for executing tasks, monitoring operations, and providing system safety. Thus, human interaction with intelligent technology in safety-critical systems has important implications. Those interactions can enhance or reduce system efficiency, enhance or compromise safety, and augment or negate the other benefits that technology provides. In this paper, we focus on interactions between human operators and embedded intelligent systems. We first consider the role of technology in safety-critical systems, and discuss studies of the impact of technology on human operators in such systems. We then describe embedded intelligent systems, and studies of their impacts on human operators. To illustrate these points, we consider the case of embedded intelligent technology introduction in one such setting, and the results of an empirical investigation of the impact of the technology on human performance in that system. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of the study and of the importance of understanding the impact of embedded intelligent technology on human operators in safety-critical systems.
The importance of trust and community in developing and maintaining a community electronic network BIBA 671-696
  Alina Oxendine; Eugene Borgida; John L. Sullivan; Melinda S. Jackson
Focusing on two rural cities in Minnesota, this paper analyses ways in which these communities have gone about providing information technology to their citizens. This paper will explain why one city has chosen to take an entrepreneurial approach to networking and the other city has chosen a more collaborative approach, promoting equal access for its citizens. Based on interviews, focus groups, and surveys in the two cities, we find that these divergent approaches are related to fundamental cultural differences in the two communities. One city seems to have a more pronounced reservoir of social capital, meaning that people in this community tend to be more trusting, have more cohesive social ties and are prone toward collaboration. Cooperation and social trust, particularly among community leaders, seem to have played large roles in triggering the development of a community electronic network. Moreover, we discover that political engagement and interpersonal trust among the citizenry in this city seem to be pivotal in sustaining and perpetuating the community endeavor.
The role of trust in automation reliance BIBA 697-718
  Mary T. Dzindolet; Scott A. Peterson; Regina A. Pomranky; Linda G. Pierce; Hall P. Beck
A recent and dramatic increase in the use of automation has not yielded comparable improvements in performance. Researchers have found human operators often underutilize (disuse) and overly rely on (misuse) automated aids (Parasuraman and Riley, 1997). Three studies were performed with Cameron University students to explore the relationship among automation reliability, trust, and reliance. With the assistance of an automated decision aid, participants viewed slides of Fort Sill terrain and indicated the presence or absence of a camouflaged soldier. Results from the three studies indicate that trust is an important factor in understanding automation reliance decisions. Participants initially considered the automated decision aid trustworthy and reliable. After observing the automated aid make errors, participants distrusted even reliable aids, unless an explanation was provided regarding why the aid might err. Knowing why the aid might err increased trust in the decision aid and increased automation reliance, even when the trust was unwarranted. Our studies suggest a need for future research focused on understanding automation use, examining individual differences in automation reliance, and developing valid and reliable self-report measures of trust in automation.
The effects of errors on system trust, self-confidence, and the allocation of control in route planning BIBA 719-735
  Peter de Vries; Cees Midden; Don Bouwhuis
The concept of trust is believed by some to compensate for feelings of uncertainty. Therefore, trust is considered to be crucial in people's decision to rely on a complex automated system to perform tasks for them. This experiment aimed to study the effects of errors on control allocation, and the mediating role of trust and self-confidence in the domain of route planning. Using a computer-based route planner, participants completed 10 route-planning trials in manual mode, and 10 in automatic mode, allowing participants to become equally experienced in operating both modes. During these so-called fixed trials, the numbers of errors in automatic as well as manual mode were systematically varied. Subsequently, participants completed six free trials, during which they were free to choose between modes. Our results showed that high automation error rates (AERs) decreased levels of system trust compared to low AERs. Conversely, high manual error rates (MERs) resulted in lower levels of self-confidence compared to low MERs, although to a lesser extent. Moreover, the difference between measures of trust and self-confidence proved to be highly predictive of the number of times automatic mode was selected during the six free trials. Additionally, results suggest a fundamental bias to trust one's own abilities over those of the system. Finally, evidence indicating a relationship between trust and self-confidence is discussed.
On-line trust: concepts, evolving themes, a model BIBA 737-758
  Cynthia L. Corritore; Beverly Kracher; Susan Wiedenbeck
Trust is emerging as a key element of success in the on-line environment. Although considerable research on trust in the offline world has been performed, to date empirical study of on-line trust has been limited. This paper examines on-line trust, specifically trust between people and informational or transactional websites. It begins by analysing the definitions of trust in previous offline and on-line research. The relevant dimensions of trust for an on-line context are identified, and a definition of trust between people and informational or transactional websites is presented. We then turn to an examination of the causes of on-line trust. Relevant findings in the human-computer interaction literature are identified. A model of on-line trust between users and websites is presented. The model identifies three perceptual factors that impact on-line trust: perception of credibility, ease of use and risk. The model is discussed in detail and suggestions for future applications of the model are presented.
The researcher's dilemma: evaluating trust in computer-mediated communication BIBA 759-781
  Jens Riegelsberger; M. Angela Sasse; John D. McCarthy
The aim of this paper is to establish a methodological foundation for human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers aiming to assess trust between people interacting via computer-mediated communication (CMC) technology. The most popular experimental paradigm currently employed by HCI researchers are social dilemma games based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), a technique originating from economics. HCI researchers employing this experimental paradigm currently interpret the rate of cooperation -- measured in the form of collective pay-off -- as the level of trust the technology allows its users to develop. We argue that this interpretation is problematic, since the game's synchronous nature models only very specific trust situations. Furthermore, experiments that are based on PD games cannot model the complexity of how trust is formed in the real world, since they neglect factors such as ability and benevolence. In conclusion, we recommend (a) means of improving social dilemma experiments by using asynchronous Trust Games, (b) collecting a broader range of data (in particular qualitative) and (c) increased use of longitudinal studies.
Empirical research in on-line trust: a review and critical assessment BIBA 783-812
  Sonja Grabner-Krauter; Ewald A. Kaluscha
Lack of trust is one of the most frequently cited reasons for consumers not purchasing from Internet vendors. During the last four years a number of empirical studies have investigated the role of trust in the specific context of e-commerce, focusing on different aspects of this multi-dimensional construct. However, empirical research in this area is beset by conflicting conceptualizations of the trust construct, inadequate understanding of the relationships between trust, its antecedents and consequents, and the frequent use of trust scales that are neither theoretically derived nor rigorously validated. The major objective of this paper is to provide an integrative review of the empirical literature on trust in e-commerce in order to allow cumulative analysis of results. The interpretation and comparison of different empirical studies on on-line trust first requires conceptual clarification. A set of trust constructs is proposed that reflects both institutional phenomena (system trust) and personal and interpersonal forms of trust (dispositional trust, trusting beliefs, trusting intentions and trust-related behaviours), thus facilitating a multi-level and multi-dimensional analysis of research problems related to trust in e-commerce.