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IJHCS Tables of Contents: 495051525354555657585960616263646566676869

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59

Editors:B. R. Gaines
Publisher:Elsevier Science Publishers
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 1/2
  2. IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 3
  3. IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 4
  4. IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 5
  5. IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 6

IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 1/2

To feel or not to feel: The role of affect in human-computer interaction BIBA 1-32
  Eva Hudlicka
The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented growth in user interface and human-computer interaction (HCI) technologies and methods. The synergy of technological and methodological progress on the one hand, and changing user expectations on the other, are contributing to a redefinition of the requirements for effective and desirable human-computer interaction. A key component of these emerging requirements, and of effective HCI in general, is the ability of these emerging systems to address user affect. The objective of this special issue is to provide an introduction to the emerging research area of affective HCI, some of the available methods and techniques, and representative systems and applications.
New visions of human-computer interaction: making affect compute BIBA 33-53
  Michael D. McNeese
Looking at the intersection of cognition, emotion, computing, and context reveals various historical gaps that are important to understand in order to progress in applying affective computing technologies to real-world problems involving human-computer interaction (HCI). The paper reviews several streams of research along these lines while striving for a philosophical and conceptual understanding of what affecting computing means for new visions of HCI. In turn this provides a foundational structure for positioning the special issue and sets up the papers to provide readers with a broad exposure to the potential (and hazards) involved with affective computing as it impacts cognate areas of emphasis. Finally, the hope is put forth that affective computing must be developed as a user-centered technology to be of value for unexplored frontiers of the digital global economy.
Affective computing: challenges BIBA 55-64
  Rosalind W. Picard
A number of researchers around the world have built machines that recognize, express, model, communicate, and respond to emotional information, instances of "affective computing." This article raises and responds to several criticisms of affective computing, articulating state-of-the art research challenges, especially with respect to affect in human-computer interaction.
Is affective computing an oxymoron? BIB 65-70
  Erik Hollnagel
Response: Is affective computing an oxymoron? BIB 71-75
  Eva Hudlicka
Response: is affective computing an oxymoron? BIB 77-80
  Michael D. McNeese
From Greta's mind to her face: modelling the dynamics of affective states in a conversational embodied agent BIBA 81-118
  Fiorella de Rosis; Catherine Pelachaud; Isabella Poggi; Valeria Carofiglio; Berardina De Carolis
This paper describes the results of a research project aimed at implementing a `realistic' 3D Embodied Agent that can be animated in real-time and is `believable and expressive': that is, able to coherently communicate complex information through the combination and the tight synchronisation of verbal and nonverbal signals. We describe, in particular, how we `animate' this Agent (that we called Greta) so as to enable her to manifest the affective states that are dynamically activated and de-activated in her mind during the dialog with the user. The system is made up of three tightly interrelated components:
  • A representation of the Agent Mind: this includes long and short-term
       affective components (personality and emotions) and simulates how emotions
       are triggered and decay over time according to the Agent's personality and
       to the context, and how several emotions may overlap. Dynamic belief
       networks with weighting of goals is the formalism we employ to this purpose.
  • A mark-up language to denote the communicative meanings that may be
       associated with dialog moves performed by the Agent.
  • A translation of the Agent's tagged move into a face expression, that
       combines appropriately the available channels (gaze direction, eyebrow
       shape, head direction and movement etc). The final output is a 3-D facial
       model that respects the MPEG-4 standard and uses MPEG-4 Facial Animation
       Parameters to produce facial expressions. Throughout the paper, we illustrate the results obtained, with an example of dialog in the domain of `Advice about eating disorders'. The paper concludes with an analysis of advantages of our cognitive model of emotion triggering and of the problems found in testing it. Although we did not yet complete a formal evaluation of our system, we briefly describe how we plan to assess the agent's believability in terms of consistency of its communicative behaviour.
  • Emotion and sociable humanoid robots BIBA 119-155
      Cynthia Breazeal
    This paper focuses on the role of emotion and expressive behavior in regulating social interaction between humans and expressive anthropomorphic robots, either in communicative or teaching scenarios. We present the scientific basis underlying our humanoid robot's emotion models and expressive behavior, and then show how these scientific viewpoints have been adapted to the current implementation. Our robot is also able to recognize affective intent through tone of voice, the implementation of which is inspired by the scientific findings of the developmental psycholinguistics community. We first evaluate the robot's expressive displays in isolation. Next, we evaluate the robot's overall emotive behavior (i.e. the coordination of the affective recognition system, the emotion and motivation systems, and the expression system) as it socially engages nave human subjects face-to-face.
    The production and recognition of emotions in speech: features and algorithms BIBA 157-183
      Oudeyer Pierre-Yves
    This paper presents algorithms that allow a robot to express its emotions by modulating the intonation of its voice. They are very simple and efficiently provide life-like speech thanks to the use of concatenative speech synthesis. We describe a technique which allows to continuously control both the age of a synthetic voice and the quantity of emotions that are expressed. Also, we present the first large-scale data mining experiment about the automatic recognition of basic emotions in informal everyday short utterances. We focus on the speaker-dependent problem. We compare a large set of machine learning algorithms, ranging from neural networks, Support Vector Machines or decision trees, together with 200 features, using a large database of several thousands examples. We show that the difference of performance among learning schemes can be substantial, and that some features which were previously unexplored are of crucial importance. An optimal feature set is derived through the use of a genetic algorithm. Finally, we explain how this study can be applied to real world situations in which very few examples are available. Furthermore, we describe a game to play with a personal robot which facilitates teaching of examples of emotional utterances in a natural and rather unconstrained manner.
    Pupil size variation as an indication of affective processing BIBA 185-198
      Timo Partala; Veikko Surakka
    The present objective was to investigate pupil size variation during and after auditory emotional stimulation. Thirty subjects' (15 females and 15 males) pupil responses were measured while listening to 10 negative and 10 positive highly arousing sounds (e.g. a baby crying and laughing), and 10 emotionally neutral sounds (e.g. regular office noise). The subjects also rated their subjective experiences related to the stimuli. The results showed that the pupil size was significantly larger during both emotionally negative and positive stimuli than during neutral stimuli. The results for the time period of 2 s following the stimulus offset showed that pupil size was significantly larger after both negative and positive than neutral stimulation. These results suggest that the autonomic nervous system is sensitive to highly arousing emotional stimulation. The subjective ratings confirmed that the stimuli influenced the subjects' emotional experiences as expected. Further analyses showed that female subjects had significantly larger pupil responses than males only to neutral stimuli and only during the auditory stimulation. In sum, our results showed that systematically chosen stimuli significantly affected the subjects' physiological reactions and subjective experiences. It could be possible to use pupil size variation as a computer input signal, for example, in affective computing. Auditory emotion-related cues could also be utilized to modulate the user's emotional reactions.
    Physiological responses to different WEB page designs BIBA 199-212
      R. D. Ward; P. H. Marsden
    Physiological indicators of arousal have long been known to be sensitive to mental events such as positive and negative emotion, changes in attention and changes in workload. It has therefore been suggested that human physiology might be of use in the evaluation of software usability. To this, there are two main approaches or paradigms: (i) comparisons of physiological readings across periods of time to indicate different arousal levels under different circumstances, and (ii) the detection of short-term (occurring in seconds) physiological changes in response to specific events. Both approaches involve methodological, analytical and interpretational difficulties. Also, the tight experimental controls usually adopted in psychophysiological experimentation can be at odds with the needs of applied usability testing. This paper reports initial investigations of these approaches and difficulties in the evaluation of software interfaces. From exploratory data, a preliminary model is proposed which combines the two paradigms for identifying significant HCI events. Explorations of the model within the context of a web-related task are then discussed. These explorations suggest techniques and procedures for applied usability testing, and the results point to ways in which physiological data may be informative about software usability. However, further investigations involving variations in task and procedure are required.
    Recognizing emotion from dance movement: comparison of spectator recognition and automated techniques BIBA 213-225
      Antonio Camurri; Ingrid Lagerlof; Gualtiero Volpe
    This paper illustrates our recent work on analysis and classification of expressive gesture in human full-body movement and in particular in dance performances. An experiment is presented which is the result of a joint work carried out at the DIST-InfoMus Lab, University of Genova, Italy, and at the Department of Psychology of the University of Uppsala, Sweden, in the framework of the EU-IST project MEGA (Multisensory Expressive Gesture Applications, www.megaproject.org). The experiment aims at (i) individuating which motion cues are mostly involved in conveying the dancer's expressive intentions to the audience during a dance performance, (ii) measuring and analyzing them in order to classify dance gestures in term of basic emotions, (iii) testing a collection of developed models and algorithms for analysis of such expressive content by comparing their performances with spectators' ratings of the same dance fragments. The paper discusses the experiment in detail with reference to related conceptual issues, developed techniques, and obtained results.
    SenToy: an affective sympathetic interface BIBA 227-235
      Ana Paiva; Marco Costa; Ricardo Chaves; Moises Piedade; Dario Mourao; Daniel Sobral; Kristina Höök; Gerd Andersson; Adrian Bullock
    We describe the design and implementation of SenToy: a tangible doll with sensors that allows a user to influence the emotions of a synthetic character in a game. SenToy is an input device that allows the user to perform gestures or movements that the sensors inside the doll pick up. The gestures are interpreted according to a scheme found through two different user studies: one Wizard of Oz study and one study with a fully functioning SenToy. Different gestures express one of the following emotions: anger, fear, surprise, sadness, gloating and happiness. Depending upon the expressed emotion, the synthetic character in the game will, in turn, perform different actions (trading, duelling, etc.). The evaluation of SenToy acting as the interface to the computer game FantasyA has shown that the users were able to express the desired emotions to influence the synthetic characters, and that overall players liked the doll as an interface.
    Nonverbal indicators of malicious intent: affective components for interrogative virtual reality training BIBA 237-244
      Frederic (Rick) McKenzie; Mark Scerbo; Jean Catanzaro; Mark Phillips
    Models of affective behavior are critical for the development of training systems that are designed to exercise social interactions. Potential applications include various security-oriented operations such as police interrogation, airport security, border crossings, and military peacekeeping. Aside from speech, humans also communicate through vocalizations and inflections, as well as with body language. Such nonverbal communication can convey affect such as anger or nervousness that is important in identifying deception. In this research, a trainee is asked to perform checkpoint duty and question drivers of vehicles about their identity and reasons for entering a secured area. Most of the encounters are routine and innocuous, but occasionally a scenario unfolds that requires additional interrogation and rapid decision-making the part of the trainee. These special scenarios require the individual to draw upon his/her knowledge of social interactions in order to make the proper decisions and act appropriately. Virtual environments that address this form of training are few. Accordingly, the present paper describes an ongoing program of research designed to generate affective states for intelligent agents, create affective component behaviors to convey cues for anger, nervousness, and deception, and provide a complex interrogative training environment to exercise judgment-based decision-making.
    Developing multimodal intelligent affective interfaces for tele-home health care BIBA 245-255
      C. Lisetti; F. Nasoz; C. LeRouge; O. Ozyer; K. Alvarez
    Accounting for a patient's emotional state is integral in medical care. Tele-health research attests to the challenge clinicians must overcome in assessing patient emotional state when modalities are limited (J. Adv. Nurs. 36(5) 668). The extra effort involved in addressing this challenge requires attention, skill, and time. Large caseloads may not afford tele-home health-care (tele-HHC) clinicians the time and focus necessary to accurately assess emotional states and trends. Unstructured interviews with experienced tele-HHC providers support the introduction of objective indicators of patients' emotional status in a useful form to enhance patient care. We discuss our contribution to addressing this challenge, which involves building user models not only of the physical characteristics of users -- in our case patients -- but also models of their emotions. We explain our research in progress on Affective Computing for tele-HHC applications, which includes: developing a system architecture for monitoring and responding to human multimodal affect and emotions via multimedia and empathetic avatars; mapping of physiological signals to emotions and synthesizing the patient's affective information for the health-care provider. Our results using a wireless non-invasive wearable computer to collect physiological signals and mapping these to emotional states show the feasibility of our approach, for which we lastly discuss the future research issues that we have identified.

    IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 3

    Context-based free-form annotation in XML documents BIBA 257-285
      Won-Sung Sohn; Jae-Kyung Kim; Seung-Kyu Ko; Soon-Bum Lim; Yoon-Chul Choy
    When creating annotation information in a free-form environment, ambiguity arises during the analysis stage between geometric information and the annotations. This needs to be resolved so that the accurate creation of annotation information in a free-form annotation environment is possible. This paper identifies and analyses the ambiguities, specifying methods that are tailored to each of the various contexts that can cause conflicts with free-form marking in a XML-based annotation environment. The proposed general method is based on context which includes various textual and structure information between free-form marking and the annotations themselves. The context information used is expressed in context-based annotation markup language (CAML), a language defined within the paper. The results are printed and shared through a system specifically implemented for this study. The results from the implementation of the proposed method show that the annotated areas included in the free-form marking information are more accurate, achieving more accurate exchange results amongst multiple users in a heterogeneous document environment.
    Off to new shores: conceptual knowledge discovery and processing BIBA 287-325
      Gerd Stumme
    In the last years, the main orientation of formal concept analysis (FCA) has turned from mathematics towards computer science. This article provides a review of this new orientation and analyses why and how FCA and computer science attracted each other. It discusses FCA as a knowledge representation formalism using five knowledge representation principles provided by Davis et al. (1993). It then studies how and why mathematics-based researchers got attracted by computer science. We will argue for continuing this trend by integrating the two research areas FCA and ontology engineering.
       The second part of the article discusses three lines of research which witness the new orientation of FCA: FCA as a conceptual clustering technique and its application for supporting the merging of ontologies; the efficient computation of association rules and the structuring of the results; and the visualization and management of conceptual hierarchies and ontologies including its application in an email management system.
    The effect of spatial layout of and link colour in web pages on performance in a visual search task and an interactive search task BIBA 327-353
      Robert Pearson; Paul van Schaik
    This study aimed to investigate the validity of psychological experimental methods within human-computer interaction research (Carroll, 1989) and to examine design guidelines pertaining to hypertext link colour and positioning of navigation menu frames as part of web documents. The results of past research on both link colour and positioning of menus are mixed and guidelines are usually not based on empirical evidence (Tullis, 1997; Shneiderman, 1997). The study used a repeated measures experimental design. Participants carried out both a visual search task and an interactive search task. Task performance on the two tasks did not to correlate (p>0.05), indicating that the visual search task may lack external validity. Results of the interactive search task suggest that the design convention of blue links (Nielsen, 1999a) should be retained as responses for blue were found to be significantly quicker than red, F(1,117)=14.526, p<0.001, MScolour=89.866. Furthermore, an effect of presentation position, F(3,117)=8.410, p<0.001, MSposition=61.015, was found, with support for menus on the left (Nielsen, 1999a; Campbell & Maglio, 1999) or right (Nielsen, 1999a). Evidence was also found to support the conjecture that experienced Internet users might have formed automatic attention responses to specific web page designs. The need for validation of behavioural and psychometric methods with task performance and the use of cognitive-perceptual-motor modelling are discussed.
    Internet attitudes and Internet use: some surprising findings from the HomeNetToo project*1 BIBA 355-382
      Linda A. Jackson; Alexander von Eye; Gretchen Barbatsis; Frank Biocca; Yong Zhao; Hiram E. Fitzgerald
    HomeNetToo is a longitudinal field study to examine the antecedents and consequences of home Internet use in low-income families. Among the antecedents considered are attitudes about the Internet and their ability to predict Internet use. Participants in the project were 117 adults who completed attitude measures at pre-trial, 3 months, 9 months and post-trial (16 months) and had their Internet use automatically recorded. Ethnographic accounts of their experiences with the Internet were also obtained. Findings indicate that attitudes about privacy and reliability of information on the Internet predict Internet use, but not as expected. Participants who believed less in privacy and reliability of information used the Internet more, even after the contributions of demographic characteristics (race and age), pre-trial experience using the Internet, and actual Internet use during the preceding time period were considered. Attitudes about the potential harm to children and health from Internet use predicted less use. Implications for efforts to reduce the digital divide, the importance of gathering both quantitative and qualitative data, and directions for future research are discussed.
    Perceived usefulness, ease of use and electronic supermarket use BIBA 383-395
      Ron Henderson; Megan J. Divett
    Information Technology has permeated many facets of work life in industrialized nations. With the expansion of Internet access we are now witnessing an expansion of the use of information technology in the form of electronic commerce. This current study tests the applicability of one prominent information technology uptake model, the Technology Acceptance Model (Int. J. Man Mach. Stud. 38 (1993) 475), within an electronic commerce setting. Specifically, the relationship between the perceived ease of use, usefulness and three electronically recorded indicators of use were assessed within the context of an electronic supermarket. A total of 247 participants completed the attitudinal measures. Electronically recorded indicators of use in the form of deliveries, purchase value and number of log-ons to the system were also recorded for the month the participants completed the questionnaire and 6 further months. Results indicated that the Technology Acceptance Model could be successfully applied to an electronic supermarket setting, providing empirical support for the ability of the Technology Acceptance Model to predict actual behaviour. The Technology Acceptance Model explained up to 15% of the variance in the behavioural indicators through perceived ease of use and usefulness of the system. However, the perceived ease of use of the system did not uniquely contribute to the prediction of behaviour when usefulness was considered, indicating a mediation effect. Future research should now focus on product and service attributes to more fully explain the use of electronic commerce services.

    IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 4

    HCI and MIS: shared concerns BIBA 397-402
      Ping Zhang; Andrew Dillon
    The fields of HCI and MIS share many concerns but have traditionally not shared literatures, theories and results. This special issue is a first attempt at bridging the disciplinary divide. In this paper, the history of both fields is briefly outlined and reasons for the independence of each are examined. The criteria for paper inclusion are outlined and each paper is briefly introduced.
    The evolution of US state government home pages from 1997 to 2002 BIBA 403-430
      Terry Ryan; Richard H. G. Field; Lorne Olfman
    We examined the home pages of the 50 US states over the years 1997-2002 to discover the dimensions underlying people's perceptions of state government home pages, to observe how those dimensions have changed over the years, to identify different types of state home pages, and to see how these types have changed. We found that three primary dimensions explain the variation in perceptions of home pages. These are the layout of the page, its navigation support, and its information density. Over the years, variation in navigation support declined and variation in information density increased. We discovered that four types of state government home page have existed continuously from 1997 to 2001. These are the `Long List of Text Links', the `Simple Rectangle', the `Short L', and the `High Density/Long L'. To this taxonomy, two other page types can be added: the `Portal' page and the `Boxes' page. The taxonomy we have identified allows for a better understanding of the design of US state home pages, and may generalize to other categories of home pages.
    Predicting the use of web-based information systems: self-efficacy, enjoyment, learning goal orientation, and the technology acceptance model BIBA 431-449
      Mun Y. Yi; Yujong Hwang
    With the growing reliance on computerized systems and increasing rapidity of the introduction of new technologies, user acceptance of technology continues to be an important issue. Drawing upon recent findings in information systems, human computer interaction, and social psychology, the present research extends the technology acceptance model by incorporating the motivation variables of self-efficacy, enjoyment, and learning goal orientation in order to predict the use of Web-based information systems. One hundred nine subjects participated in the study, which was conducted in a field setting with the Blackboard system, a Web-based class management system. A survey was administered after a 2-week trial period and the actual use of the system was recorded by the Blackboard system over 8 weeks. The results largely support the proposed model, highlighting the important roles of self-efficacy, enjoyment, and learning goal orientation in determining the actual use of the system. Practical implications of the results are provided.
    Predicting e-services adoption: a perceived risk facets perspective BIBA 451-474
      Mauricio S. Featherman; Paul A. Pavlou
    Internet-delivered e-services are increasingly being made available to consumers; however, little is known about how consumers evaluate them for potential adoption. Past Technology Adoption Research has focused primarily on the positive utility gains attributable to system adoption. This research extends that approach to include measures of negative utility (potential losses) attributable to e-service adoption. Drawing from Perceived Risk Theory, specific risk facets were operationalized, integrated, and empirically tested within the Technology Acceptance Model resulting in a proposed e-services adoption model. Results indicated that e-services adoption is adversely affected primarily by performance-based risk perceptions, and perceived ease of use of the e-service reduced these risk concerns. Implications of integrating perceived risk into the proposed e-services adoption model are discussed.
    A person-artefact-task (PAT) model of flow antecedents in computer-mediated environments BIBA 475-496
      Christina M. Finneran; Ping Zhang
    Flow theory has been applied to computer-mediated environments to study positive user experiences such as increased exploratory behavior, communication, learning, positive affect, and computer use. However, a review of the existing flow studies in computer-mediated environments in Psychology, Consumer Behavior, Communications, Human-Computer Interaction, and Management Information Systems shows ambiguities in the conceptualization of flow constructs and inconsistency in the flow models. It thus raises the question of whether the direct adoption of traditional flow theory is appropriate without a careful re-conceptualization to consider the uniqueness of the computer-mediated environments. This paper focuses on flow antecedents and identifies the importance of separating the task from the artefact within a computer-mediated environment. It proposes a component-based model that consists of person (P), artefact (A), and task (T), as well as the interactions of these components. The model, named the PAT model, is developed by understanding the original flow theory, reviewing existing empirical flow studies within computer-mediated environments, and analysing the characteristics of computer-mediated environments. A set of propositions is constructed to demonstrate the predictive power of the model.
    Issues and strategies for integrating HCI in masters level MIS and e-commerce programs BIBA 497-520
      Susy S. Chan; Rosalee J. Wolfe; Xiaowen Fang
    Human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important knowledge component for graduate management information systems (MIS) and E-commerce (EC) programs. HCI topics, such as user-centered design and usability testing, have begun to receive increasing attention in MIS/EC curricula because of their importance in the development of Web-based solutions. This paper discusses issues and approaches for integrating HCI topics into masters level MIS/EC programs. Research on HCI topics related to MIS provides a theoretical foundation for student learning. By bridging research with these curricula, researchers are challenged to examine how HCI approaches can improve user acceptance of new systems. A case study illustrates how HCI topics can be taught as a stand-alone course or incorporated in existing MIS/EC courses. Drawing from the case study, the paper also addresses pedagogical challenges regarding student skill sets, learning outcomes, innovative pedagogies, tools and technology, and HCI issues for advanced IS/EC topics.

    IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 5

    The effectiveness of groups recognizing patterns*1 BIBA 523-543
      Stephen C. Hayne; C. A. P. Smith; Dan Turk
    Human-computer interaction (HCI) is an important knowledge component for graduate management information systems (MIS) and E-commerce (EC) programs. HCI topics, such as user-centered design and usability testing, have begun to receive increasing attention in MIS/EC curricula because of their importance in the development of Web-based solutions. This paper discusses issues and approaches for integrating HCI topics into masters level MIS/EC programs. Research on HCI topics related to MIS provides a theoretical foundation for student learning. By bridging research with these curricula, researchers are challenged to examine how HCI approaches can improve user acceptance of new systems. A case study illustrates how HCI topics can be taught as a stand-alone course or incorporated in existing MIS/EC courses. Drawing from the case study, the paper also addresses pedagogical challenges regarding student skill sets, learning outcomes, innovative pedagogies, tools and technology, and HCI issues for advanced IS/EC topics.
    Using on-line surveys to measure three key constructs of the quality of human-computer interaction in web sites: psychometric properties and implications BIBA 545-567
      Paul van Schaik; Jonathan Ling
    On-line surveys are now an important tool for data collection on the World Wide Web (the Web). Determining the psychometric properties of key constructs such as disorientation, ease of use and flow is of paramount importance in establishing the quality of users' interactions with web sites. The current study used techniques of experimental research and on-line surveys to investigate the psychometric properties of existing instruments for measuring these constructs using two response formats: visual analogue scale and Likert scale. A 2x2 design with response format and orientation support as independent variables was used. Ninety participants carried out an information retrieval task using an experimental on-line shopping site before completing the scales. Factor analysis confirmed the existence of three distinct scales that possessed high reliability. Evidence for validity, and to a lesser extent, sensitivity, was found. Although psychometric results generally converged, some differences between the two response formats were found. A framework for the comprehensive investigation of response formats of on-line questionnaires is proposed as a basis for future research. Practical implications for the on-line measurement of the quality of users' interactions with web-based systems are discussed.
    Visualizations of binary data: A comparative evaluation BIBA 569-602
      Michael D. Lee; Marcus A. Butavicius; Rachel E. Reilly
    Data visualization has the potential to assist humans in analysing and comprehending large volumes of data, and to detect patterns, clusters and outliers that are not obvious using non-graphical forms of presentation. For this reason, data visualizations have an important role to play in a diverse range of applied problems, including data exploration and mining, information retrieval, and intelligence analysis. Unfortunately, while various different approaches are available for data visualization, there have been few rigorous evaluations of their effectiveness. This paper presents the results of three controlled experiments comparing the ability of four different visualization approaches to help people answer meaningful questions for binary data sets. Two of these visualizations, Chernoff faces and star glyphs, represent objects using simple icon-like displays. The other two visualizations use a spatial arrangement of the objects, based on a model of human mental representation, where more similar objects are placed nearer each other. One of these spatial displays uses a common features model of similarity, while the other uses a distinctive features model. The first experiment finds that both glyph visualizations lead to slow, inaccurate answers being given with low confidence, while the faster and more confident answers for spatial visualizations are only accurate when the common features similarity model is used. The second experiment, which considers only the spatial visualizations, supports this finding, with the common features approach again producing more accurate answers. The third experiment measures human performance using the raw data in tabular form, and so allows the usefulness of visualizations in facilitating human performance to be assessed. This experiment confirms that people are faster, more confident and more accurate when an appropriate visualization of the data is made available.
    A study in responsiveness in spoken dialog BIBA 603-630
      Nigel Ward; Wataru Tsukahara
    The future of human-computer interfaces may include systems which are human-like in abilities and behavior. One particularly interesting aspect of human-to-human communication is the ability of some conversation partners to sensitively pick up on the nuances of the other's utterances, as they shift from moment to moment, and to use this information to subtly adjust responses to express interest, supportiveness, sympathy and the like. This paper reports a model of this ability in the context of a spoken dialog system for a tutoring-like interaction. The system used information about the user's internal state -- such as feelings of confidence, confusion, pleasure and dependency -- as inferred from the prosody of his utterances and the context, and used this information to select the most appropriate acknowledgement form at each moment. Although straight-forward rating reveals no significant preference for a system with this ability, a clear preference was found when users rated the system after listening to a recording of their interaction with it. This suggests that human-like, real-time sensitivity can be of value in interfaces. The paper further discusses ways to discover and quantify such rules of social interaction, using corpus-based analysis, developer intuitions and feedback from naive judges; and further suggests that the technique of "evaluation after re-listening" is useful for evaluating spoken dialog systems which operate at near-human levels of performance.
    A `computer tutor' to assist children develop their narrative writing skills: conferencing with HARRY BIBA 631-669
      C. E. Holdich; P. W. H. Chung
    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a computer tool can change the way children approach the task of writing and improve their writing performance. HARRY, a web-based computer tutor, provides a Vygotskian-like scaffolding of the knowledge transforming mature writing process and presents it to children individually in a conference situation. The effects of the computer tutor are analysed by comparing stories produced by three children of varied writing ability, who wrote a control and a HARRY-assisted story, and by observing the children as they wrote. A control group also wrote two stories without receiving assistance for either story. The study's hypothesis was confirmed. With HARRY's assistance, the children wrote better stories and employed the revision process characteristic of mature writers. Vygotsky's work suggests that children will learn to adopt the mature approach from repeated use of the system and that the scaffolding should be reduced gradually. However, as the system relied upon the children's willingness to first request, then act upon the available guidance, the system would benefit from further development to ensure children interact sufficiently with HARRY.
    Evaluating information accessibility and community adaptivity features for sustaining virtual learning communities BIBA 671-697
      Hock-Hai Teo; Hock-Chuan Chan; Kwok-Kee Wei; Zhongju Zhang
    Virtual communities have been identified as the "killer applications" on the Internet Information Superhighway. Their impact is increasingly pervasive, with activities ranging from the economic and marketing to the social and educational. Despite their popularity, little is understood as to what factors contribute to the sustainability of virtual communities. This study focuses on a specific type of virtual communities -- the virtual learning communities. It employs an experiment to examine the impact of two critical issues in system design -- information accessibility and community adaptivity -- on the sustainability of virtual learning communities. Adopting an extended Technology Acceptance Model, the experiment exposed 69 subjects to six different virtual learning communities differentiated by two levels of information accessibility and three levels of community adaptivity, solicited their feelings and perceptions, and measured their intentions to use the virtual learning communities. Results indicate that both information accessibility and community adaptivity have significant effects on user perceptions and behavioural intention. Implications for theory and practice are drawn and discussed.
    Supporting online shopping through a combination of ontologies and interface metaphors BIBA 699-723
      John Domingue; Arthur Stutt; Maria Martins; Jiacheng Tan; Helgi Petursson; Enrico Motta
    In this paper we describe some results of the Alice project. Alice is an ontology-based e-commerce project which aims to support online users in the task of shopping. Ontologies describing customers, products, typical shopping tasks and the external context form the basis for the Alice architecture. We also build upon two novel interface metaphors originally developed for navigating databases: the Guides metaphor and Dynamic Queries. The Guides metaphor was developed at Apple to reduce the cognitive load on learners navigating a large hypermedia database. Within Alice we use the Guides metaphor to allow online shoppers to interact with the system in a variety of ways. In effect, by choosing these options they are classifying themselves for the purpose of customizing system responses. We discuss the link between Alice Guides and Kozinets' notion of e-tribes or Virtual Communities of Consumption. Our second interface metaphor Dynamic Queries (coupled with Starfield displays) allows users to very quickly find relevant items by displaying the results of queries, posed via specialized slider widgets, within 100 ms. We have constructed a tool, Quiver, which constructs Dynamic Query interfaces on-the-fly as the result of queries to knowledge models stored on the Alice server.
    A study of current logic design practices in the automotive manufacturing industry*1 BIBA 725-753
      M. R. Lucas; D. M. Tilbury
    This paper presents the results of an observational study of industrial logic designers at Lamb Technion. The purpose of this study was to determine the current methods of logic design used in industry. These observations can be used to evaluate recent academic proposals of methods for generating controllers for machines, as well as suggesting new methods.
       By observing the logic designers it was determined that designing logic for machining systems is substantially different than writing computer code, both in the specification and in the people who will design and use the system. In addition, recent academic developments in Discrete Event Systems are difficult to apply to the problems of industrial logic control. Even methods which researchers design specifically for industrial logic design are difficult to apply, both due to the lack of support for the methods, and the unsuitability of the methods to solve problems in this domain.
       The primary observations of this study are the following.
  • The observed Logic designers need to at least: determine acceptable machine
       behavior, foresee potential error conditions, predict user behavior, and
       design the logic needed for a machine. This is a greater range of
       responsibilities than expected.
  • Logic for one machine is generally copied directly from a previous project.
       However, copying logic generally involves manually retyping everything due
       to incompatibilities in the development environments.
  • Customers continue to ask for more features, and it is unlikely that this
       trend will stop. Some of these features are extremely difficult to implement
       using existing methods. Such features include: detailed part tracking, more
       sophisticated user interfaces, and greater diagnostic ability.
  • Testing a Cancer Meta Spider BIBA 755-776
      Hsinchun Chen; Haiyan Fan; Michael Chau; Daniel Zeng
    As in many other applications, the rapid proliferation and unrestricted Web-based publishing of health-related content have made finding pertinent and useful healthcare information increasingly difficult. Although the development of healthcare information retrieval systems such as medical search engines and peer-reviewed medical Web directories has helped alleviate this information and cognitive overload problem, the effectiveness of these systems has been limited by low search precision, poor presentation of search results, and the required user search effort. To address these challenges, we have developed a domain-specific meta-search tool called Cancer Spider. By leveraging post-retrieval document clustering techniques, this system aids users in querying multiple medical data sources to gain an overview of the retrieved documents and locating answers of high quality to a wide spectrum of health questions. The system presents the retrieved documents to users in two different views: (1) Web pages organized by a list of key phrases, and (2) Web pages clustered into regions discussing different topics on a two-dimensional map (self-organizing map). In this paper, we present the major components of the Cancer Spider system and a user evaluation study designed to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach. Initial results comparing Cancer Spider with NLM Gateway, a premium medical search site, have shown that they achieved comparable performances measured by precision, recall, and F-measure. Cancer Spider required less user searching time, fewer documents that need to be browsed, and less user effort.

    IJHCS 2003 Volume 59 Issue 6

    Effectiveness of automatic and expert generated narrative and guided instructions for task-oriented web browsing BIBA 777-795
      Guangfeng Songand Gavriel Salvendy
    This study investigated how instructions may be created to facilitate web browsing tasks. Two types of instructions were considered. Narrative instructions are text-based while guided instructions use graphic annotations. One way to create both types of instructions is to utilize the specialty of human experts. A method is also provided for automatic generation of both types of instructions based on the learning of user experience in web browsing. An experiment was conducted to test the effect of types of instruction, sources of instruction, and task complexity setting on performance variables in web browsing. The results of the experiment indicated that (1) by using web annotations, guided instructions resulted in better performance and satisfactions than narrative instructions in web browsing, (2) based on learning of web browsing activities, automatically generated guided instructions are comparable to expert-created guided instructions in terms of their effect on the performance of web browsing.
    An ethnographic, action-based approach to human experience in virtual environments BIBA 797-822
      Anna Spagnolli; Diego Varotto; Giuseppe Mantovani
    This paper addresses a sensitive issue, of presence experienced by people interacting with a virtual environment (VE). Understanding `presence', both theoretically and empirically, is important for designers interested in building effective computer-mediated environments for learning and work activities. The concept of presence has been treated mostly as a state of mind, to be investigated through `objective' and `subjective' measurement devices. The authors propose to add a different approach, which can address presence as an action-based process. This approach considers presence as the ongoing result of the actions performed in an environment and the local and cultural resources deployed by actors. In this sense, `presence' can be captured by monitoring the sequence of participants' actions and the aspects of the environment that are involved in this process; discourse/interaction analysis represents a fitting method for this goal. Sequences of interaction with a virtual library are used to illustrate some core aspects of an ethnographic, action-based approach to presence, such as the action possibilities envisaged by participants, the configuration of the virtual objects, the norms that regulate the interaction, the resources that are imported in the VE. These aspects are a necessary step to understand users' presence in the VE and to plan consequent interventions to ameliorate the design of the interface.
    Comparing the effects of text size and format on the readibility of computer-displayed Times New Roman and Arial text BIBA 823-835
      Michael L. Bernard; Barbara S. Chaparro; Melissa M. Mills; Charles G. Halcomb
    Times New Roman and Arial typefaces in 10- and 12-point, dot-matrix and anti-aliased format conditions were compared for readability (accuracy, reading speed, and accuracy/reading speed), as well as perceptions of typeface legibility, sharpness, ease of reading, and general preference. In assessing readability, the 10-point anti-aliased Arial typeface was read slower than the other type conditions. Examining perceptions of typeface legibility, sharpness, and ease of reading detected significant effects for typeface, size, and format. Overall, the 12-point dot-matrix Arial typeface was preferred to the other typefaces. Recommendations for appropriate typeface combinations for computer-displayed text are discussed.
    Using eye movement parameters for evaluating human-machine interface frameworks under normal control operation and fault detection situations BIBA 837-873
      Y. Lin; W. J. Zhang; L. G. Watson
    A human-machine interface framework provides general guidelines for what information should be put on an interface display screen. The framework is thus a first step towards the design of an effective and efficient interface. This paper reports on an experimental study of two proposed frameworks: the ecological interface design framework and the function-behaviour-state framework. In order to provide an unbiased comparative evaluation for both interfaces, the same application problem is used. The interfaces, based on each of the two frameworks, are implemented with as similar look-and-feel forms as possible in the presentation of information contents. Only the normal control operation and fault detection situations are considered at this stage of the study. In addition, in this study three categories of measures are used, namely: the performance measure; the physiological measure (the eye movement measure: the eye fixation and the pupil diameter change, in particular); and the subjective (or the user-rated) measure. The major results obtained from the study includes the following: (1) the information called the abstract function in the ecological interface design framework may not positively correlate to the performance improvement yet may increase the mental workload, (2) the function-behaviour-state framework seems more agreeable with the operator's mental model, and (3) operators may perform equally well with a function-behaviour-state interface but with a reduced mental workload. It is also found that the eye fixation measure is highly consistent with the performance measure and the subjective measure. The pupil diameter measure is found not to be significantly sensitive to the mental workload information; however, it appears sensitive to the mental workload information among individual participants and shows a consistent result with the other measures used.
    Group judgment processes and outcomes in video-conferencing versus face-to-face groups BIBA 875-897
      Marcus Crede; Janet A. Sniezek
    Two hundred and eighty-two participants formed 94 groups of size three and completed an estimation task by interacting either face-to-face or via a video-conferencing system. Results showed significant differences across conditions with regard to the confidence attached by groups to their decisions, the degree to which groups were able to improve upon the best individually arrived at decision, and the self-reported enjoyment of group members. Compared to face-to-face groups, video-conferencing groups showed lower levels of confidence in their decisions, especially if they were instructed to discuss their beliefs and assumptions underlying their estimates and not the estimates themselves. However, this lower level of confidence was more appropriate than that of the face-to-face groups. Groups interacting face-to-face were more likely to improve upon the best individual solution, and, on average, improved to a greater degree. Further, video-conferencing groups reported modifying more of their beliefs during discussion. However, there were no significant differences between the two interaction media on the following outcome dimensions: accuracy; overconfidence; commitment to the group decision; size of credible intervals; improvement over average initial individual estimates; and the number of beliefs discussed or learned. Implications for the design and application of advanced systems for decision-making support and research are discussed.
    Designing emotionally evocative homepages: an empirical study of the quantitative relations between design factors and emotional dimensions BIBA 899-940
      Jinwoo Kim; Jooeun Lee; Dongseong Choi
    Emotional aspects of homepages are becoming more important as people spend more time in cyberspace. This research aims to identify quantitative relationships between key design factors and generic dimensions of secondary emotions so that we may develop homepages which target emotions more effectively. In order to achieve this goal, we conducted three related studies. In the first study, we identified 13 generic dimensions of secondary emotions that people usually feel when viewing diverse homepages. In the second study, we identified key design factors that professional designers frequently use in their attempts to develop emotionally evocative homepages. Finally, in the third study, we identified quantitative relationships between the key design factors and the 13 emotional dimensions. This paper describes these three studies and concludes with the implications and limitations of the study results.
    Subtitled interaction: complementary support as an alternative to localization BIBA 941-957
      Giorgos Lepouras; George R. S. Weir
    Many computer users face problems in their interaction as a result of the native language employed by the application. The language of the application is often at variance with the native language of its users. This issue is frequently addressed through localization. In turn, localization generates a range of new problems. We propose an alternative to localization that is analogous to cinematic subtitles. This has the potential to reduce the user interaction defects that otherwise arise with localization whilst benefiting users through an additional channel of information in their own language. This paper outlines a prototype implementation and describes our initial evaluation of this approach. We suggest that our complementary `subtitles' promise consistent support for all applications in the user's computing environment and yield a system that is expandable and much easier to maintain than pre-localized software.
    A tool for taking class notes BIBA 959-981
      Nigel Ward; Hajime Tatsukawa
    Students still take class notes using pencil and paper -- although digital documents are more legible, easier to search in and easier to edit -- in part because of the lack of software to support note-taking. Class notes are characterized by free spatial organization, many small chunks of text, and a dense mix of text and graphic elements. These characteristics imply that a note-taking system should use pen, keyboard and mouse-or-equivalent; allow the swift entry of text at any desired position; and minimize the need to switch between input tools. A system with these properties was built and used by 10 subjects in a controlled study and by four users in their classes. Some users preferred our system to pencil and paper, suggesting that taking class notes with the computer is feasible.
    The PROMPT suite: interactive tools for ontology merging and mapping BIBA 983-1024
      Natalya F. Noy; Mark A. Musen
    Researchers in the ontology-design field have developed the content for ontologies in many domain areas. This distributed nature of ontology development has led to a large number of ontologies covering overlapping domains. In order for these ontologies to be reused, they first need to be merged or aligned to one another. We developed a suite of tools for managing multiple ontologies. These suite provides users with a uniform framework for comparing, aligning, and merging ontologies, maintaining versions, translating between different formalisms. Two of the tools in the suite support semi-automatic ontology merging: IPROMPT is an interactive ontology-merging tool that guides the user through the merging process, presenting him with suggestions for next steps and identifying inconsistencies and potential problems. ANCHORPROMPT uses a graph structure of ontologies to find correlation between concepts and to provide additional information for IPROMPT.