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IJHCS Tables of Contents: 6263646566676869707172

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 72

Editors:Enrico Motta; Susan Wiedenbeck
Publisher:Elsevier Science Publishers
Standard No:ISSN 0020-7373; TA 167 A1 I5
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCS 2014-01 Volume 72 Issue 1
  2. IJHCS 2014-02 Volume 72 Issue 2
  3. IJHCS 2014-03 Volume 72 Issue 3
  4. IJHCS 2014-04 Volume 72 Issue 4
  5. IJHCS 2014-05 Volume 72 Issue 5
  6. IJHCS 2014-06 Volume 72 Issue 6
  7. IJHCS 2014-07 Volume 72 Issue 7
  8. IJHCS 2014-08 Volume 72 Issue 8/9
  9. IJHCS 2014-10 Volume 72 Issue 10/11
  10. IJHCS 2014-12 Volume 72 Issue 12

IJHCS 2014-01 Volume 72 Issue 1

Representation of time in digital calendars: An argument for a unified, continuous and multi-granular calendar view BIBAKFull-Text 1-11
  Philipp M. Hund; John Dowell; Karsten Mueller
Digital calendars have been heavily influenced by the design of the physical calendar and have invariably adopted their grid representation of days in the month. We argue that the alternative of a continuous list representation of successive days would offer several advantages such as faster calendar search, a more natural linear view of time, a scrollable and zoomable interface and better scalability for devices of different size. This alternative, linear calendar appears to be well suited to modern touch-centric platforms with their refined support for scrolling and zooming.
   We tested search performance and navigation with digital calendars in a comparison of grid and list representations by employing a remote, web-based method. On their personal computers, participants performed a series of search tasks in a fictitious calendar. The results show that calendar search is faster in list view when searching for dates, between month breaks and in the next month (with and without navigation). Searching for days is faster in grid view, however, highlighting days in list view eliminates this difference. The results indicate substantial promise for the list view digital calendar and we describe a high fidelity rendering of the user interface for a digital calendar with a list view.
Keywords: Digital calendars; Time management; Usability; Interaction techniques; Interface design
POETIC: Interactive solutions to alleviate the reversal error in student/professor type problems BIBAKFull-Text 12-22
  Sung-Hee Kim; Daniel Phang; Tuyin An; Ji Soo Yi; Rachael Kenney; Nelson A. Uhan
The reversal error -- standing issue in mathematics education, despite its apparent simplicity. In this paper, we describe and study POETIC, an interactive web-based environment we developed to teach users to avoid the reversal error. POETIC uses two types of novel interactive visualization, called the Test-Case and Room-Metaphor approaches. To verify the effectiveness of these approaches, we conducted crowdsourcing-based comparison studies with 200 participants and found that both approaches significantly decreased the frequency of reversal errors for certain types of word problems. Our results show that interactive visualization of equations can reduce the occurrence of the reversal error.
Keywords: Mathematics education; Reversal error; Interactive visualization; Test-Case; Room-Metaphor
Subjective evaluation of the audiovisual spatial congruence in the case of stereoscopic-3D video and Wave Field Synthesis BIBAKFull-Text 23-32
  Cédric R. André; Étienne Corteel; Jean-Jacques Embrechts; Jacques G. Verly; Brian F. G. Katz
While 3D cinema is becoming increasingly established, little effort has been focused on the general problem of producing a 3D sound scene spatially coherent with the visual content of a stereoscopic-3D (s-3D) movie. The perceptual relevance of such a spatial audiovisual coherence is of significant interest. In this paper, a subjective experiment is carried out where an angular error between an s-3D video and a spatially accurate sound reproduced through Wave Field Synthesis (WFS) is simulated. The psychometric curve is measured with the method of constant stimuli, and the threshold for bimodal integration is estimated. The impact of the presence of background noise is also investigated. A comparison is made between the case without any background noise and the case with an SNR of 4 dBA. Estimates of the thresholds and the slopes, as well as their confidence intervals, are obtained for each level of background noise. When background noise was present, the point of subjective equality (PSE) was higher (19.4° instead of 18.3°) and the slope was steeper (-0.077 instead of -0.062 per degree). Because of the overlap between the confidence intervals, however, it was not possible to statistically differentiate between the two levels of noise. The implications for the sound reproduction in a cinema theater are discussed.
Keywords: Spatial congruence; Bimodal integration; Stereoscopic video; Wave Field Synthesis; Psychometric curve; Background noise
How affective technologies can influence intimate interactions and improve social connectedness BIBAKFull-Text 33-43
  Joris H. Janssen; Wijnand A. IJsselsteijn; Joyce H. D. M. Westerink
Affective computing holds the promise of creating effortless, integrated, and automatic ways of communicating emotions within our intimate social network. This could augment awareness systems and connectedness devices, reducing loneliness and improving health and well-being. Through two experiments, we investigate the effects of quantity and automaticity of emotion communication on perceived intimacy in mediated settings. In the first experiment (N=48), we manipulated the number of communicated emoticons. Results show that increases in communicated emoticon quantity lead to strong increases in perceived intimacy. In the second experiment (N=34), we compare automatic and user-initiated communication of emoticons. Results show that user-initiated communication of emoticons is experienced as more intimate than automatic communication. These results are discussed in light of the interpersonal process model of intimacy and can help the design of applications aimed at improving social interactions through affective communication technology.
Keywords: Intimacy; Emotion; Affective computing; Computer-mediated communication
Distributed user interfaces: Usability and collaboration BIBFull-Text 44
  Jose A. Gallud; María D. Lozano; Jean Vanderdonckt
Electronic sketching on a multi-platform context: A pilot study with developers BIBAKFull-Text 45-52
  Ugo Braga Sangiorgi
During the past 45 years there has been a recurrence of interest on supporting sketching at electronic devices and interactive surfaces, and despite being sketching recognition fairly well addressed on the literature, the adoption of electronic sketching as a design tool is still a challenge.
   The current popularization of touch screen devices allows designers to sketch using their device of preference, while the current multi-platform capabilities made possible by HTML5 allows sketching systems to run on many devices at the same time. Those two factors combined might pose new opportunities for researchers to explore how designers use sketching on flexible setups by combining heterogeneous sketching devices for design sessions.
   This may arise new possibilities in the field of prototyping user interfaces since, by using such multi-platform systems, designers would now be able of designing interfaces for multiple devices by producing and testing them on the device itself.
   This paper reports a pilot experiment conducted with 6 developers, grouped into pairs on design sessions using Gambit / a multi-platform sketching system that provides a lightweight approach for prototyping user interfaces for many devices at once. We performed a discourse analysis of the professionals based on recorded videos of interviews conducted during and after design sessions with the system and aggregated the data in order to investigate the main requirements for multi-platform sketching systems.
Keywords: Sketching; Multi-platform; User interface design; Discourse evaluation
An approach for supporting distributed user interface orchestration over the Web BIBAKFull-Text 53-76
  Sergio Firmenich; Gustavo Rossi; Marco Winckler; Philippe Palanque
Currently, a lot of the tasks engaged by users over the Web involve dealing with multiple Web sites. Moreover, whilst Web navigation was considered as a lonely activity in the past, a large proportion of users are nowadays engaged in collaborative activities over the Web. In this paper we argue that these two aspects of collaboration and tasks spanning over multiple Web sites call for a level of coordination that require Distributed User Interfaces (DUI). In this context, DUIs would play a major role by helping multiple users to coordinate their activities whilst working collaboratively to complete tasks at different Web sites. For that, we propose in this paper an approach to create distributed user interfaces featuring procedures that are aimed to orchestrate user tasks over multiple Web sites. Our approach supports flexible process modeling by allowing users to combine manual tasks and automated tasks from a repertoire of patterns of tasks performed over the Web. In our approach, whilst manual tasks can be regarded as simple instructions that tell users how to perform a task over a Web site, automated tasks correspond to tools built under the concept of Web augmentation (as it augments the repertoire of tasks users can perform over the Web) called Web augmenters. Both manual and automated tasks are usually supported by specific DOM elements available in different Web sites. Thus, by combining tasks and DOM elements distributed in diverse Web sites our approach supports the creation of procedures that allows seamless users interaction with diverse Web site. Moreover, such an approach is aimed at supporting the collaboration between users sharing procedures. The approach is duly illustrated by a case study describing a collaborative trip planning over the Web.
Keywords: Distributed user interfaces; Task and process modeling; Web application; Web augmentation; Collaborative Web tasks
A multi-formalism approach for model-based dynamic distribution of user interfaces of critical interactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 77-99
  Célia Martinie; David Navarre; Philippe Palanque
Evolution in the context of use requires evolutions in the user interfaces even when they are currently used by operators. User Centered Development promotes reactive answers to this kind of evolutions either by software evolutions through iterative development approaches or at runtime by providing additional information to the operators such as contextual help for instance. This paper proposes a model-based approach to support proactive management of context of use evolutions. By proactive management we mean mechanisms in place to plan and implement evolutions and adaptations of the entire user interface (including behaviour) in a generic way. The approach proposed handles both concentration and distribution of user interfaces requiring both fusion of information into a single UI or fission of information into several ones. This generic model-based approach is exemplified on a safety critical system from space domain. It presents how the new user interfaces can be generated at runtime to provide a new user interface gathering in a single place all the information required to perform the task. These user interfaces have to be generated at runtime as new procedures (i.e. sequences of operations to be executed in a semi-autonomous way) can be defined by operators at any time in order to react to adverse events and to keep the space system in operation. Such contextual, activity-related user interfaces complement the original user interfaces designed for operating the command and control system. The resulting user interface thus corresponds to a distribution of user interfaces in a focus+context way improving usability by increasing both efficiency and effectiveness.
Keywords: Model-based approaches; Formal description techniques; Interactive software engineering; Automation; Distributed user interfaces; Dynamic reconfiguration of user interfaces
Designing peer-to-peer distributed user interfaces: Case studies on building distributed applications BIBAKFull-Text 100-110
  Eli Raymond Fisher; Sriram Karthik Badam; Niklas Elmqvist
Building a distributed user interface (DUI) application should ideally not require any additional effort beyond that necessary to build a non-distributed interface. In practice, however, DUI development is fraught with several technical challenges such as synchronization, resource management, and data transfer. In this paper, we present three case studies on building distributed user interface applications: a distributed media player for multiple displays and controls, a collaborative search system integrating a tabletop and mobile devices, and a multiplayer Tetris game for multi-surface use. While there exist several possible network architectures for such applications, our particular approach focuses on peer-to-peer (P2P) architectures. This focus leads to a number of challenges and opportunities. Drawing from these studies, we derive general challenges for P2P DUI development in terms of design, architecture, and implementation. We conclude with some general guidelines for practical DUI application development using peer-to-peer architectures.
Keywords: Distributed user interfaces; Case studies; Design principles; Lessons learned; Implementation; DUI toolkits
Distributed user interfaces in public spaces using RFID-based panels BIBAKFull-Text 111-125
  Ricardo Tesoriero; Pedro G. Villanueva; Habib M. Fardoun; Gabriel Sebastián Rivera
The combination and integration of services between mobile computing and context-aware applications responds to the use of mobile devices defining a wide range of distributed user interfaces to support social activities. In this paper, we propose a novel solution that combines social software with context awareness to improve users' interaction in public spaces. This approach is based on the concept of collaborative interactive panels where users share their opinions and ideas about environmental issues by performing natural gestures. And so, taking advantage of physical resources already available in public spaces combined with the use of well-known technologies, such as mobile devices and RFID, we extend the concept of social software from the Web to physical public scenarios, such as bus stations, squares, etc. As an example, we present a case of study that encourage citizens' participation in decisions related to the community environmental issues reducing the gap between the social software and users.
Keywords: Distributed user interfaces; RFID technology; Mobile devices
Sharing your view: A distributed user interface approach for reviewing emergency plans BIBAKFull-Text 126-139
  David Díez; Sara Tena; Rosa Romero-Gomez; Paloma Díaz; Ignacio Aedo
Emergency planning is an ongoing activity in which a multidisciplinary group of experts intermittently collaborate to define the most appropriate response to risks. One of the most important tasks of emergency planning is the review of plans as a way of maintaining, refining, and improving them. This review of plans is based on exchanging knowledge and experiences in order to take into account different perspectives and generate alternative solutions. An exploratory case study carried out within municipal organizations has disclosed how the application of rigid plan reviewing practices hinders team creativity and, consequently, effective decision-making. This paper presents a computer-based collaborative environment aimed at supporting unstructured team discussion during the post-hoc review of emergency plan. This collaborative environment allows emergency planning team members to share their view in a free manner by interacting with user interface components distributed across several input and output dimensions. The usage of the environment has proved how the application of new interactive technologies can create more dynamic work settings, fostering team creativity.
Keywords: Emergency planning; Distributed user interfaces; Team collaboration; Creativity

IJHCS 2014-02 Volume 72 Issue 2

Study on interaction-induced symptoms with respect to virtual grasping and manipulation BIBAKFull-Text 141-153
  Yongwan Kim; Jinah Park
Owing to the popularity of various hand tracking interfaces, there have been numerous applications developed to provide intuitive hand interaction with the virtual world. As users start with great anticipation, they end up with dissatisfaction due to difficulties of manipulation or physical tiredness coming very short. Although the task itself is rather trivial in a real life situation, it requires much effort in the virtual environment. We address this awkwardness as 'VR interaction-induced fatigue symptom' and hypothesize its causes based on our observations. We argue that the source of the fatigue comes from the restricted sensory information of the VR interfaces, and that users try to accommodate the missing sensory feedback by excessive motion leading to wrong posture or bad timing. We demonstrate our hypothesis by conducting experiments of two types of virtual interaction scenarios: object transport and 3D selection. Furthermore, by analyzing the behaviors of users' action collected from our experiment, we derive essential factors to be considered in designing VR applications, and propose a conceptual interaction model for orchestrating virtual grasping.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Hand interaction; Fatigue symptoms; Difficulty; Grasping; Design guidelines
Using the health belief model to explore users' perceptions of 'being safe and secure' in the world of technology mediated financial transactions BIBAKFull-Text 154-168
  Nicola Davinson; Elizabeth Sillence
Fraudulent transactions occurring via the Internet or Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) present a considerable problem for financial institutions and consumers alike. Whilst a number of technological improvements have helped reduce the likelihood of security breaches, users themselves have an integral role to play in reducing technology mediated fraud. This paper focuses on the role of the user, specifically capturing information about their perceptions and behaviour when using technology to complete financial transactions. Semi-structured interviews with twenty-nine participants were conducted to increase knowledge and understanding in this domain. The findings are guided by the components of the health belief model (HBM) which is used as a framework for exploring critical issues associated with behavioural change. Results indicate that users typically felt safe and secure whilst conducting financial transactions online and at the ATM. The users' perceived level of threat was low mainly because they thought it unlikely that they would be a victim of fraud and because of a reduced sense of responsibility for any negative outcomes. Whilst users were aware at a superficial level of what fraudulent activities take place they were less sure about behaviours designed to counteract fraud and their potential efficacy. Furthermore, security concerns among ATM users were not as high as concerns among Internet users with Internet users appearing to take more individual responsibility for their more personal technologies in more private spaces. The paper concludes with some practical implications based around the HBM suggesting user focused ways forward for encouraging secure behaviour.
Keywords: Security perceptions; Behaviour change; Internet; ATM; Technology mediated communication; Health belief model
Capturing "cool": Measures for assessing coolness of technological products BIBAKFull-Text 169-180
  S. Shyam Sundar; Daniel J. Tamul; Mu Wu
These days, when we float an idea for an interface or demo a prototype, the compliment that we crave for is "This is Cool!" Coolness has become a major design goal for HCI professionals. If we are serious about building Cool into our products, we should also be serious about measuring it. With this in mind, we performed a scientific explication of the concept in order to capture the psychological essence of "coolness," covering a number of characteristics such as trendiness, uniqueness, rebelliousness, genuineness and utility. Based on the discourse in the literature, we arrived at a series of questionnaire measures, which we subjected to an exploratory factor analysis in Study 1 (N=315). The factor structure that emerged was tested through a confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2 (N=835), in which American and Korean respondents rated their perceptions of a variety of old and new technologies. Converging evidence suggests that in order for an interface to be rated as cool, it should not only be attractive and original, but also help the user assert his/her uniqueness or subcultural identity. Study 3 (N=317) tested the content validity of our factors by comparing them with a holistic evaluation of coolness and arrived at a parsimonious three-factor solution for conceptualizing it in terms of originality, attractiveness and subcultural appeal. Together, these constitute tangible user criteria that designers can strategically address and researchers can systematically measure.
Keywords: Coolness; User experience; Concept explication; Survey; Factor analysis; Development of measures; Scale validation
Designing for human/food interaction: An introduction to the special issue on 'food and interaction design' BIBFull-Text 181-184
  Rob Comber; Jaz Hee-jeong Choi; Jettie Hoonhout; Kenton O'Hara
Collectivistic health promotion tools: Accounting for the relationship between culture, food and nutrition BIBAKFull-Text 185-206
  Andrea G. Parker; Rebecca E. Grinter
Human/Computer Interaction (HCI) researchers are increasingly examining how Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) can help people eat more healthfully. However, within HCI, there has been little examination of the way that cultural values influence how people think about food and wellness, and how sociocultural context supports or impedes attempts to eat healthfully. Our work focuses on the diet-related health challenges of African Americans within low-income neighborhoods. This population disproportionately experiences diet-related disease, and as such, researchers have consistently advocated research that examines the way in which food practices are culturally situated.
   Through formative focus groups with 46 participants we identified several design implications for tools that promote healthy eating while accounting for collectivism, a cultural value often ascribed to the African American population. Based on our design implications we developed, deployed and evaluated two systems that supported the sharing of community-held knowledge about making healthy eating decisions. In our discussion, we present implications for the design of collectivistic systems that address food practices. We conclude with recommendations for HCI research that investigates the relationship between culture and food more broadly.
Keywords: Community computing; Collectivism; Culture; Health; Nutrition
Developing culturally relevant design guidelines for encouraging healthy eating behavior BIBAKFull-Text 207-223
  Rita Orji; Regan L. Mandryk
Unhealthy eating behavior is a major contributing factor to the onset of several diseases and health conditions (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes). It is therefore not surprising that health interventions aimed at modifying dietary behavior have been identified as the cornerstone treatment for many health conditions. Interventions that use persuasive technology can be effective for motivating healthy eating behavior, and recent years have witnessed an increasing number of persuasive technologies with the purpose of promoting healthy eating behavior or attitude by manipulating various determinants of healthy behavior. However, these applications generally take a one-size-fits-all approach that is biased toward individualistic cultures. To resolve this problem, we propose culturally relevant design approaches for tailoring persuasive technology interventions to collectivists and individualistic cultures. Our guidelines are based on a large-scale survey of 554 participants' (collectivist=306 and individualist=247) eating behavior and associated determinants / identified by Health Belief Model / to understand how healthy eating behavior relates to various cultural groups and sub-groups. We developed two models of healthy eating behavior for the collectivist and individualistic cultural groups identified by Hofstede, and an additional eight models to investigate the moderating effect of gender and age on healthy eating behavior. We then explored the similarities and differences between the models and developed persuasive profiles of motivators of healthy eating behavior for each group. Additionally, we proposed two approaches for designing culturally relevant persuasive applications based on our results. The first is a one-size-fits-all approach that will motivate the majority of the population, while not demotivating any user. The second is a personalized approach that will best motivate a particular cultural group. Finally, to make our approaches actionable in persuasive intervention design, we map the theoretical determinants of healthy eating behavior as identified by Health Belief Model to common persuasive system design strategies.
Keywords: Healthy eating; Cultural orientation; Persuasive technology; HBM; Behavior theories; Intervention mapping; Persuasive strategies; Health; SEM; Individualism; Collectivism; Health determinants
Hybridizing food cultures in computer-mediated environments: Creativity and improvisation in Greek food blogs BIBAKFull-Text 224-238
  Soo Hee Lee; Marios Samdanis; Sofia Gkiousou
This paper focuses on the ways in which food blogs influence the evolution of food cultures in computer-mediated environments. Food blogs provide a unique setting in which to study individual creativity and improvisation, as they make everyday food practices visible, pubic and transmittable. This paper proposes a cultural framework of human/computer interaction (HCI) and applies it to the context of food blogging. It stresses the effects of remediation on hybridisation of disciplines, roles and practices, which in turn lead to individual creative practices in the form of bricolage. Three case studies of Greek food blogs abroad are analysed to illustrate the proposed framework and to develop research implications for human/food interaction (HFI).
Keywords: Human/food interaction (HFI); Remediation; Hybridisation; Bricolage; Food blogging; Social media
Tweeting during food crises: A psychosocial analysis of threat coping expressions in Spain, during the 2011 European EHEC outbreak BIBAKFull-Text 239-254
  Rui Gaspar; Sara Gorjão; Beate Seibt; Luisa Lima; Julie Barnett; Adrian Moss; Josephine Wills
Food crises imply responses that are not what people and organisations would normally do, if one or more threats (health, economic, etc.) were not present. At an individual level, this motivates individuals to implement coping strategies aimed at adaptation to the threat that has been presented, as well as the reduction of stressful experiences. In this regard, microblogging channels such as Twitter emerge as a valuable resource to access individuals' expressions of coping. Accordingly, Twitter expressions are generally more natural, spontaneous and heterogeneous -- in cognitive, affective and behavioural dimensions -- than expressions found on other types of social media (e.g. blogs). Moreover, as a social media channel, it provides access not only to an individual but also to a social level of analysis, i.e. a psychosocial media analysis. To show the potential in this regard, our study analysed Twitter messages produced by individuals during the 2011 EHEC/Escherichia coli bacteria outbreak in Europe, due to contaminated food products. This involved more than 3100 cases of bloody diarrhoea and 850 of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), and 53 confirmed deaths across the EU. Based on data collected in Spain, the country initially thought to be the source of the outbreak, an initial quantitative analysis considered 11,411 tweets, of which 2099 were further analysed through a qualitative content analysis. This aimed at identifying (1) the ways of coping expressed during the crisis; and (2) how uncertainty about the contaminated product, expressed through hazard notifications, influenced the former. Results revealed coping expressions as being dynamic, flexible and social, with a predominance of accommodation, information seeking and opposition (e.g. anger) strategies. The latter were more likely during a period of uncertainty, with the opposite being true for strategies relying on the identification of the contaminated product (e.g. avoid consumption/purchase). Implications for food crisis communication and monitoring systems are discussed.
Keywords: Food crisis; Coping; Qualitative social media analysis; Crisis communication
Cooking personas: Goal-directed design requirements in the kitchen BIBAKFull-Text 255-274
  Steven J. Kerr; Odelia Tan; Jit Chee Chua
Technology to assist people in the kitchen has become a major research topic as technology becomes more ubiquitous in the home. Research is being carried out in numerous areas to assist with cooking, from solving difficulties in the kitchen to more recently enhancing already good experiences related to cooking. To design solutions that are not only usable, but useful in all related aspects of cooking, we must get a good understanding of the needs of the user. It is important that real needs are identified, so that products or systems designed are adopted and are sustainable. There are various methods that researchers and designers use to gain user insights and there is much debate on different approaches and their effectiveness. Whilst there have been a number of ethnographic style studies in people's homes, there has been little in the way of understanding user goals in the kitchen which could lead to more effective design solutions. In this paper, we present goal-directed research of cooking needs in Singapore. We produce three primary design personas and three secondary personas, describing their goals and needs and where they can be helped through technology. An online survey was carried out to validate our personas, comparing our qualitative and quantitative findings. We provide a general holistic overview of kitchen requirements for these personas, whether in helping correct problems or enhancing positive experiences and how these needs can be connected. The user requirements provided can help guide researchers and help designers produce more meaningful, complete and acceptable technology solutions in the kitchen.
Keywords: Personas; Goal-directed design; Cooking needs; User requirements

IJHCS 2014-03 Volume 72 Issue 3

Quantifying target spotting performances with complex geoscientific imagery using ERP P300 responses BIBAKFull-Text 275-283
  Yathunanthan Sivarajah; Eun-Jung Holden; Roberto Togneri; Greg Price; Tele Tan
Geoscientific data interpretation is a challenging task, which requires the detection and synthesis of complex patterns within data. As a first step towards better understanding this interpretation process, our research focuses on quantitative monitoring of interpreters' brain responses associated with geoscientific target spotting. This paper presents a method that profiles brain responses using electroencephalography (EEG) to detect P300-like responses that are associated with target spotting for complex geoscientific data. In our experiment, eight interpreters with varying levels of expertise and experience were asked to detect features, which are likely to be copper/gold rich porphyry systems within magnetic geophysical data. The target features appear in noisy background and often have incomplete shape. Magnetic images with targets and without targets were shown to participants using the "oddball" paradigm. Event related potentials were obtained by averaging the EEG epochs across multiple trials and the results show delayed P3 response to the targets, likely due to the complexity of the task. EEG epochs were classified and the results show reliable single trial classification of EEG responses with an average accuracy of 83%. The result demonstrated the usability of the P300-like responses to quantify the geoscientific target spotting performances.
Keywords: Complex image; Event related potential; P300; Target detection
Analysing interactive devices based on information resource constraints BIBAKFull-Text 284-297
  José Creissac Campos; Gavin Doherty; Michael D. Harrison
Analysis of the usability of an interactive system requires both an understanding of how the system is to be used and a means of assessing the system against that understanding. Such analytic assessments are particularly important in safety-critical systems as latent vulnerabilities may exist which have negative consequences only in certain circumstances. Many existing approaches to assessment use tasks or scenarios to provide explicit representation of their understanding of use. These normative user behaviours have the advantage that they clarify assumptions about how the system will be used but have the disadvantage that they may exclude many plausible deviations from these norms. Assessments of how a design fails to support these user behaviours can be a matter of judgement based on individual experience rather than evidence. We present a systematic formal method for analysing interactive systems that is based on constraints rather than prescribed behaviour. These constraints capture precise assumptions about what information resources are used to perform action. These resources may either reside in the system itself or be external to the system. The approach is applied to two different medical device designs, comparing two infusion pumps currently in common use in hospitals. Comparison of the two devices is based on these resource assumptions to assess consistency of interaction within the design of each device.
Keywords: Formal analysis; Task analysis; Distributed cognition; IV infusion pumps
Socially augmented argumentation tools: Rationale, design and evaluation of a debate dashboard BIBAKFull-Text 298-319
  Luca Iandoli; Ivana Quinto; Anna De Liddo; Simon Buckingham Shum
Collaborative Computer-Supported Argument Visualization (CCSAV) is a technical methodology that offers support for online collective deliberation over complex dilemmas. As compared with more traditional conversational technologies, like wikis and forums, CCSAV is designed to promote more critical thinking and evidence-based reasoning, by using representations that highlight conceptual relationships between contributions, and through computational analytics that assess the structural integrity of the network. However, to date, CCSAV tools have achieved adoption primarily in small-scale educational contexts, and only to a limited degree in real world applications. We hypothesise that by reifying conversations as logical maps to address the shortcomings of chronological streams, CCSAV tools underestimate the importance of participation and interaction in enhancing collaborative knowledge-building. We argue, therefore, that CCSAV platforms should be socially augmented in order to improve their mediation capability. Drawing on Clark and Brennan influential Common Ground theory, we designed a Debate Dashboard, which augmented a CCSAV tool with a set of widgets that deliver meta-information about participants and the interaction process. An empirical study simulating a moderately sized collective deliberation scenario provides evidence that this experimental version outperformed the control version on a range of indicators, including usability, mutual understanding, quality of perceived collaboration, and accuracy of individual decisions. No evidence was found that the addition of the Debate Dashboard impeded the quality of the argumentation or the richness of content.
Keywords: Computer-supported argument visualization; Grounding process; Common ground; Debate dashboard; Collective deliberation; Visual feedback
Photo mementos: Designing digital media to represent ourselves at home BIBAKFull-Text 320-336
  Daniela Petrelli; Simon Bowen; Steve Whittaker
We examine photos in the family home as examples of mementos, cherished objects kept in memory of a person or event. In a 'memory tour', we asked participants to walk us through their family home selecting and discussing significant mnemonic objects. With each personal narrative we recorded memento location, i.e. the room, place within the room and any nearby objects. Although photos were not the most popular mementos, when chosen they were highly significant, and often unique. These photo mementos were usually not representational but symbolic, where only the owner knows their many layers of meaning. Photos from different times in the person's life were strategically placed in different rooms. Their location afforded different functions, e.g. photo mementos in family spaces reinforced family bonds, photo mementos in personal spaces were for immersive reminiscing, whereas those in public rooms had an aesthetic value and to spark conversations with visitors. Finally photo mementos were rarely isolated: they were clustered in displayed albums or stored with other memorabilia in boxes or drawers to represent a stage in life. We explore the implications of these findings by designing potential new home photo technologies, looking at how new designs might support the types of behaviours observed. Through four conceptual designs we examine how photo technology might integrate into the practices and aesthetic of the family home. The concepts led to a set of concluding considerations that need to be taken into account when designing new forms of display technology that are part of a larger domestic photo system.
Keywords: Personal memories; Digital photos; Material culture; Home; Interaction design; Qualitative research; Ethnography
Computer-supported mindfulness: Evaluation of a mobile thought distancing application on naive meditators BIBAKFull-Text 337-348
  Luca Chittaro; Andrea Vianello
The last 2 decades have seen a constantly increasing interest in mindfulness, due to its positive effects on health and well-being. Recently, a number of mobile applications aimed at supporting people in practicing mindfulness techniques have appeared, but their efficacy has not been formally evaluated yet. In this paper, we first introduce the reader to mindfulness techniques, traditional as well as computer-based. Then, we propose and evaluate a mobile application (called AEON) aimed at helping users in practicing thought distancing, i.e. a mindfulness technique that requires one not to react in response to his/her thoughts but to be aware of them and observe them while they go away. AEON allows the user to enter his/her thoughts and visualize them as written in ink on a parchment placed under water. By touching the screen, the user can interact with the water and produce waves that progressively dissolve each written thought. We evaluate AEON on a sample of naive meditators (i.e. people with no or minimal experience with meditation), contrasting it with two traditional thought distancing techniques that are not computer-based. The first traditional technique requires users to mentally visualize their thoughts as printed on clouds and observe them as they pass by, while the second requires users to write their thoughts on cards, then pick up the cards one at a time, look at them and toss them into a wastepaper basket. AEON obtained better results in terms of achieved mindfulness, perceived level of difficulty and degree of pleasantness. Since practicing mindfulness tends to be difficult for naive meditators, these results suggest that AEON can be a novel and effective way to help them approach mindfulness.
Keywords: Mindfulness; Mobile applications; Thought distancing; User study; Naive meditators
Using cursor measures to investigate the effects of impairment severity on cursor control for youths with cerebral palsy BIBAKFull-Text 349-357
  Amur Almanji; T. Claire Davies; N. Susan Stott
Individuals with upper limb impairments due to cerebral palsy encounter difficulties when using pointing devices and can be limited in communicating and accessing education tools through computers. Analysis of cursor trajectories can identify some of the factors limiting cursor movement, and provide a better understanding of human movement to assist in designing accessible computer interfaces. This study evaluated cursor trajectories from 29 individuals with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP) and different levels of function. The functional level was classified based on the MACS (Manual Ability Classification System). Results show that the contributors to a model that assesses different MACS levels are the movement time, acceleration/deceleration cycles and average speed. The model appears unaffected by accuracy measures. For both typically-developed youth and participants with CP, a good model of index of difficulty must include the following predictors: rapidity / movement time, average speed, zero acceleration crossings and accuracy, trajectory distance, linearity index, and indices of vertical and horizontal components. Models for those who are typically-developed should also include an index of diagonal component and curvature index.
Keywords: Feature extraction; Path evaluation measures; Human/computer interaction (HCI); Cursor trajectory; Cerebral palsy; Fitts's law
Predictivity of system delays shortens human response time BIBAKFull-Text 358-365
  Roland Thomaschke; Carola Haering
System delays considerably affect users' experience and performance. Research on the psychological effects of system delays has focused on delay length and variability. We introduce delay predictivity as a new factor profoundly affecting user performance. A system delay is predictive when its duration is informative about the nature of consecutive interaction events. We report an experiment (N=122) where short delays were differently distributed across two alternative target stimuli in a choice response task. We manipulated variability and predictivity of delays. For one group of participants the delays were of constant duration. For three other groups the delays were variable, but differed in predictivity. They were either non-predictive, probabilistically predictive (they predicted the targets with a probability of 0.8), or deterministically predictive. Performance with constant delays was superior to performance with variable non-predictive or with probabilistically predictive delays. Surprisingly, participants with deterministically predictive delays outperformed participants in all other groups. This has important implications for interface design, whenever there is some degree of freedom in scheduling system delays. Best performance is achieved with predictive delays, but only when deterministic predictivity can be achieved. Otherwise, constant delays are to be preferred over variable ones.
Keywords: System delay; Human computer interaction; Predictivity; Predictability

IJHCS 2014-04 Volume 72 Issue 4

How should I explain? A comparison of different explanation types for recommender systems BIBAKFull-Text 367-382
  Fatih Gedikli; Dietmar Jannach; Mouzhi Ge
Recommender systems help users locate possible items of interest more quickly by filtering and ranking them in a personalized way. Some of these systems provide the end user not only with such a personalized item list but also with an explanation which describes why a specific item is recommended and why the system supposes that the user will like it. Besides helping the user understand the output and rationale of the system, the provision of such explanations can also improve the general acceptance, perceived quality, or effectiveness of the system.
   In recent years, the question of how to automatically generate and present system-side explanations has attracted increased interest in research. Today some basic explanation facilities are already incorporated in e-commerce Web sites such as Amazon.com. In this work, we continue this line of recent research and address the question of how explanations can be communicated to the user in a more effective way.
   In particular, we present the results of a user study in which users of a recommender system were provided with different types of explanation. We experimented with 10 different explanation types and measured their effects in different dimensions. The explanation types used in the study include both known visualizations from the literature as well as two novel interfaces based on tag clouds. Our study reveals that the content-based tag cloud explanations are particularly helpful to increase the user-perceived level of transparency and to increase user satisfaction even though they demand higher cognitive effort from the user. Based on these insights and observations, we derive a set of possible guidelines for designing or selecting suitable explanations for recommender systems.
Keywords: Recommender systems; Decision support; Explanations; Interface design; Collaborative filtering; Tag clouds; User evaluation
Age differences in the control of a precision reach to grasp task within a desktop virtual environment BIBAKFull-Text 383-392
  Patrick J. Grabowski; Andrea H. Mason
The purpose of this experiment is to investigate the fine motor performance of young and older adults on a reach to grasp task in a desktop virtual environment with increasing precision requirements. Aging brings about potential loss of an individual's function due to disease, injury, or the degenerative nature of aging itself. Three-dimensional virtual environments have been identified as systems with good potential to ameliorate such problems in older individuals, and precise fine motor skills represent an important class of functional skills. Two groups of participants (Young, n=10, mean age 21.3 years, range 20/24, senior, n=10, mean age 70.7 years, range 60/85) performed a reach to grasp in a desktop virtual environment with simple, low contrast graphics. Results indicate that visual feedback of the hand for sensory guidance of movement did not improve motor performance for either group, and that as precision requirements of the task increased, age group differences in movement time and peak grasp aperture also increased. These findings extend the literature on age group differences in human motor control across the lifespan and differ from previous studies which showed presence of visual feedback of the hand improved motor performance in young adults. Differences in luminance contrast levels in past studies and the current one suggest that control over this feature of the visual scene is an important design consideration for all end-users and warrants additional investigation. Additional recommendations for age-specific design of three dimensional user interfaces include usage of tangibles that are sufficient in size to limit detrimental effects for older adults.
Keywords: Aging; Motor control; Reach to grasp; Virtual environment; Luminance contrast
Exploration of architectural spaces by blind people using auditory virtual reality for the construction of spatial knowledge BIBAKFull-TextCorrigendum 393-407
  Lorenzo Picinali; Amandine Afonso; Michel Denis; Brian F. G. Katz
Navigation within a closed environment requires analysis of a variety of acoustic cues, a task that is well developed in many visually impaired individuals, and for which sighted individuals rely almost entirely on visual information. For blind people, the act of creating cognitive maps for spaces, such as home or office buildings, can be a long process, for which the individual may repeat various paths numerous times. While this action is typically performed by the individual on-site, it is of some interest to investigate at which point this task can be performed off-site, at the individual's discretion. In short, is it possible for an individual to learn an architectural environment without being physically present? If so, such a system could prove beneficial for navigation preparation in new and unknown environments. The main goal of the present research can therefore be summarized as investigating the possibilities of assisting blind individuals in learning a spatial environment configuration through the listening of audio events and their interactions with these events within a virtual reality experience. A comparison of two types of learning through auditory exploration has been performed: in situ real displacement and active navigation in a virtual architecture. The virtual navigation rendered only acoustic information. Results for two groups of five participants showed that interactive exploration of virtual acoustic room simulations can provide sufficient information for the construction of coherent spatial mental maps, although some variations were found between the two environments tested in the experiments. Furthermore, the mental representation of the virtually navigated environments preserved topological and metric properties, as was found through actual navigation.
Keywords: Blind people; Visually impaired; Spatial hearing; Binaural; Virtual reality; Spatial cognition; Room acoustic simulation
Comparative study of the bimanual and collaborative modes for closely coupled manipulations BIBAKFull-Text 408-421
  Jean Simard; Mehdi Ammi; Anaïs Mayeur
The interactive manipulation of complicated environments poses a real challenge since it involves the simultaneous management of several heterogeneous constraints. For instance, molecular design requires the simultaneous control of several connected kinematic structures, with strong physical and chemical interactions, to provide the relevant conformation and docking solutions. This paper investigates two working strategies for carrying out closely coupled manipulations in such environments. We present an experimental study which compares bimanual and collaborative configurations. For both strategies, we provide users with the same number of resources, such as the same visualization system and the same number of manipulation tools. The performances are better in the collaborative configuration for the simultaneous management of several constraints and the manipulation of distant regions. However, this working strategy involves a strong communication flow to coordinate the actions. The performances are better in the bimanual configuration when the tasks involve a limited working space and a low level of constraints.
Keywords: Collaborative work; Molecular deformation; Haptic interaction
Audio-augmented paper for therapy and educational intervention for children with autistic spectrum disorder BIBAKFull-Text 422-430
  Andrea Alessandrini; Alessandro Cappelletti; Massimo Zancanaro
Autism affects children's learning and social development. Commonly used rehabilitative treatments are aimed at stimulating the social skills of children with autism. In this article, we present a prototype and a pilot study on an audio-augmented paper to support the therapy of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The prototype supports audio recording with standard sheets of paper by using tangible tools that can be shared between the therapist and the child. The prototype is a tool for the therapist to engage the child in a storytelling activity. We use a progressive design method based on a dynamic process that merges concept generation, technology benchmarking and activity design into continuously enriching actions. The paper highlights the qualities and benefits of using tangible audio-augmented artefacts for therapy and educational intervention for children with ASD. The work describes three main qualities of our prototype: from building cooperation to attention control, flow control, and using the children's own voices to foster attention.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; Social competence; Social story; Audio-augmented paper; Interaction design; Tangible user interface
Playing vibrotactile music: A comparison between the Vibrochord and a piano keyboard BIBAKFull-Text 431-439
  Carmen Branje; Deborah I. Fels
A novel vibrotactile musical input device called the Vibrochord, which is designed to deliver patterns of vibration to the skin, not to the ear, through the use of a vibrotactile display called the Emoti-Chair, is evaluated using proposed evaluation frameworks. Findings show that the mixture of frameworks used in this study provided valuable insight into the design of this novel musical device. Results obtained through the implementation of a mixture of these frameworks show that the Vibrochord facilitated an increased accuracy rate over the traditional piano keyboard, when inexperienced vibrotactile musicians tried to repeat vibrotactile patterns or "melodies".
Keywords: Vibrotactile music; Human factors; HCI; Multimodal; Vibraction vibrochord; Emoti-chair
Stroke++: A new Chinese input method for touch screen mobile phones BIBAKFull-Text 440-450
  Jianwei Niu; Yang Liu; Jialiu Lin; Like Zhu; Kongqiao Wang
Over the past few decades, users have been feeling clumsy inputting Chinese on mobile devices, partly because the layout of the keyboard/keypad is originally designed for inputting Latin alphabets. To improve this user experience, we propose Stroke++, a novel Chinese input method for touch screen mobile devices. More specifically, Stroke++ provides efficient keypad layout, a friendly user interface and a intelligent character/phrase candidate set generation algorithms. Stroke++ splits a Chinese character into multiple radicals. By leveraging hieroglyphic properties of Chinese characters, our method requires users to only input a subset of the radicals to identify the target character, making it much faster and easier to input Chinese on mobile phones. Our user study results show that Stroke++ outperforms most major Chinese input methods on mobile devices, including Stroke, Pinyin and Hand Writing Recognition (HWR), in terms of the input efficiency and usability. Moreover, we also demonstrate that Stroke++ offers a low entry barrier for Chinese-input novices.
Keywords: Chinese input method; Radical; Mobile phones; Touch screen; Virtual keyboard

IJHCS 2014-05 Volume 72 Issue 5

Direct comparison of psychological evaluation between virtual and real humanoids: Personal space and subjective impressions BIBAKFull-Text 451-459
  Hiroko Kamide; Yasushi Mae; Tomohito Takubo; Kenichi Ohara; Tatsuo Arai
The aim of this study was to compare psychological evaluations of a robot constructed using a virtual reality (VR) system (VR robot) with a real robot. The same design was used for both the VR and real robot in order to make a direct comparison. For the psychological evaluation, we measured behavioral reactions (the amount of personal space the participants desired between themselves and the robot) and subjective impressions (from a psychological scale). The psychological scale included six dimensions that are typically used to evaluate a humanoid: utility, clumsiness of motion, possibility of communication, controllability, vulnerability, and objective hardness. Sixty-one participants observed both the VR and real robots walking toward them and reported their level of desired personal space. Next, the participants evaluated their psychological impressions of the robots. The results indicated no significant difference in the level of desired personal space between the situations with the real and VR robots. However, regarding the psychological dimensions, participants reported higher scores for utility and the possibility of communication, and lower scores for controllability for the real robot as compared with the VR robot. The usability of a VR robot is discussed.
Keywords: Psychological evaluation; Personal space; Subjective impressions; Virtual reality; Humanoid robot
ForgetMeNot: What and how users expect intelligent virtual agents to recall and forget personal conversational content BIBAKFull-Text 460-476
  Deborah Richards; Karla Bransky
An important aspect of human interaction is our ability to store, retain, recall and organise information. Memory assists in building rapport and gaining trust. The growing field of artificial companions involving long term and casual/social relationships will require appropriate handling of memories of the user by an Intelligent Virtual Agent (IVA). This is a first study to determine what types of personal information (i.e., domain/task and casual/social) users expected an IVA to discuss and remember and how users responded to various levels of IVA recall and forgetting of that information: complete recall; total loss of recall; partial recall and incorrect recall. Our experiment collected conversations and survey responses from participants who interacted with a virtual real estate agent according to one of two treatments over three experimental sessions. No significant differences were found in participants' responses between task-focused or casual/social content, however a larger sample size may produce different results and some participants were not comfortable with answering the social questions. Recall was found to increase the user's enjoyment of interacting with the agent and also to increase the believability of the character over multiple interactions. We found that characters who recall information incorrectly are highly frustrating, are seen as having unnatural memory and this decreases the believability of the character. However, characters that exhibit forgetting, either explicitly stating their forgetfulness or not mentioning it at all, are seen to have a more natural memory and can help to increase the believability of the character. The study also suggests that forgetting affects the level of trust the user feels for the character.
Keywords: Intelligent virtual agents; Memory; Forgetting
Why are you so slow? / Misattribution of transmission delay to attributes of the conversation partner at the far-end BIBAKFull-Text 477-487
  Katrin Schoenenberg; Alexander Raake; Judith Koeppe
This study addresses the question of how transmission delay affects user perception during speech communication over telephone systems. It aims to show that the occurrence of pure delay should not be neglected when planning a telephone or conferencing system even if no impact on the perceived quality of the call can be found. It is, for instance, known that, the communication surface structure changes dramatically when transmission delay is inserted by the communication system. Furthermore, studies suggest a change in the perception of the interlocutor at the far-end. This paper describes two experiments that assess the misattribution of the technical impairment delay to personality and behavior-related attributes of the conversation partners. The first experiment shows that interlocutors are perceived as being less attentive when conversing in a three-party setting with symmetrical and asymmetrical delay conditions. In the second experiment, the misattribution is considered in more detail looking at ascribed personality attributes in two-party interaction under transmission delay. For both experiments, comparing the conversation surface structure of delayed to non-delayed calls helped to understand the found outcomes.
Keywords: Transmission delay; Conferencing; Conversation analysis; Attentiveness; Personality; Quality
Prototyping and analysing ubiquitous computing environments using multiple layers BIBAKFull-Text 488-506
  José Luís Silva; José Creissac Campos; Michael D. Harrison
If ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is to enhance physical environments then early and accurate assessment of alternative solutions will be necessary to avoid costly deployment of systems that fail to meet requirements. This paper presents APEX, a prototyping framework that combines a 3D Application Server with a behaviour modeling tool. The contribution of this framework is that it allows exhaustive analysis of the behaviour models that drive the prototype while at the same time enabling immersive exploration of a virtual environment simulating the proposed system. The development of prototypes is supported through three layers: a simulation layer (using OpenSimulator); a modelling layer (using CPN Tools) and a physical layer (using external devices and real users). APEX allows movement between these layers to analyse different features, from user experience to user behaviour. The multi layer approach makes it possible to express user behaviour in the modelling layer, provides a way to reduce the number of real users needed by adding simulated avatars, and supports user testing of hybrids of virtual and real components as well as exhaustive analysis. This paper demonstrates the approach by means of an example, placing particular emphasis on the simulation of virtual environments, low cost prototyping and the formal analysis capabilities.
Keywords: Ubiquitous and context-aware computing; Modelling; Prototyping; Interactive systems analysis; 3D virtual environments
Video diary as a means for data gathering with children / Encountering identities in the making BIBAKFull-Text 507-521
  Netta Iivari; Marianne Kinnula; Leena Kuure; Tonja Molin-Juustila
This paper examines video diaries gathered from 10/11-year-old pupils with the aim of inquiring children's technology use in their everyday life. A discourse lens is utilized to provide novel insights into the nature and use of videos and diaries in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research and design. The paper shows how the children, given the same assignment, produced their video diaries from a range of different positions such as 'a diarist', 'a news anchor' and 'a stage performer', and through a variety of widely known genres such as 'an intimate, confessional diary entry', 'a news broadcast', and 'a homework assignment'. The children also smoothly moved between the positions and genres sometimes changing them several times even during one video clip. Our findings bear implications on two types of HCI research: firstly, studies using diaries for research and design purposes and, secondly, studies interested in videos produced by the research subjects. The paper emphasizes videos and diaries as a multifaceted resource not only revealing facts from the producers' lives but also playful experimenting with different positions and genres highlighting constant identity exploration and construction going on during the creation of the data. During the data analysis it is useful to consider within what kind of positionings and genres the pieces of data or 'facts' have been created as these genres and positions always frame and limit what is said and how. The paper also suggests that researchers could try to guide the research subjects to adopt certain positions and to rely on certain genres in producing their diaries or video clips to obtain better-focused data for particular research or design purposes. On the other hand, challenges involved with this kind of an attempt are also highlighted.
Keywords: Video diary; Children; Multimodality; Discourse; Nexus analysis

IJHCS 2014-06 Volume 72 Issue 6

Interplay between User Experience (UX) evaluation and system development BIBAKFull-Text 523-525
  Effie Lai-Chong Law; Silvia Abrahão
User Experience (UX) is a maturing research area pertaining to as well as extending beyond the traditional usability. Issues in the realm of usability may be amplified in UX because of its larger scope. Four key non-orthogonal issues are definition, modeling, method selection, and interplay between evaluation and development. Leveraging the legacy of a series of related research activities, this Special Issue (SI) aims to develop a deeper understanding of how evaluation feedback shapes software development, especially when experiential qualities such as fun, trust, esthetic values are concerned. Three articles addressing this specific topic from different perspectives and with different approaches are included in this SI.
Keywords: User experience; Usability; Software engineering; Interplay; Design; Evaluation
Attitudes towards user experience (UX) measurement BIBAKFull-Text 526-541
  Effie Lai-Chong Law; Paul van Schaik; Virpi Roto
User experience (UX), as a recently established research area, is still haunted by the challenges of defining the scope of UX in general and operationalising experiential qualities in particular. To explore the basic question whether UX constructs are measurable, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 UX researchers from academia and one UX practitioner from the industry where a set of questions in relation to UX measurement were explored (Study 1). The interviewees expressed scepticism as well as ambivalence towards UX measures and shared anecdotes related to such measures in different contexts. Interestingly, the results suggested that design-oriented UX professionals tended to be sceptical about UX measurement. To examine whether such an attitude prevailed in the HCI community, we conducted a survey / UX Measurement Attitudes Survey (UXMAS) / with essentially the same set of 13 questions used in the interviews (Study 2). Specifically, participants were asked to rate a set of five statements to assess their attitude towards UX measurement, to identify (non)measurable experiential qualities with justifications, and to discuss the topic from the theoretical, methodological and practical perspectives. The survey was implemented in a paper-based and an online format. Altogether, 367 responses were received; 170 of them were valid and analysed. The survey provided empirical evidence on this issue as a baseline for progress in UX measurement. Overall, the survey results indicated that the attitude towards UX measurement was more positive than that identified in the interviews, and there were nuanced views on details of UX measurement. Implications for enhancing the acceptance of UX measures and the interplay between UX evaluation and system development are drawn: UX modelling grounded in theories to link experiential qualities with outcomes; the development of UX measurement tools with good measurement properties, and education within the HCI community to disseminate validated models, and measurement tools as well as their successful applications. Mutual recognition of the value of objective measures and subjective accounts of user experience can enhance the maturity of this area.
Keywords: User experience; UX measurement; Survey; Experiential quality
Investigating and promoting UX practice in industry: An experimental study BIBAKFull-Text 542-551
  Carmelo Ardito; Paolo Buono; Danilo Caivano; Maria Francesca Costabile; Rosa Lanzilotti
The efforts of addressing user experience (UX) in product development keep growing, as demonstrated by the proliferation of workshops and conferences bringing together academics and practitioners, who aim at creating interactive software able to satisfy their users. This special issue focuses on "Interplay between User Experience Evaluation and Software Development", stating that the gap between human-computer interaction and software engineering with regard to usability has somewhat been narrowed. Unfortunately, our experience shows that software development organizations perform few usability engineering activities or none at all. Several authors acknowledge that, in order to understand the reasons of the limited impact of usability engineering and UX methods, and to try to modify this situation, it is fundamental to thoroughly analyze current software development practices, involving practitioners and possibly working from inside the companies. This article contributes to this research line by reporting an experimental study conducted with software companies. The study has confirmed that still too many companies either neglect usability and UX, or do not properly consider them. Interesting problems emerged. This article gives suggestions on how they may be properly addressed, since their solution is the starting point for reducing the gap between research and practice of usability and UX. It also provides further evidence on the value of the research method, called Cooperative Method Development, based on the collaboration of researchers and practitioners in carrying out empirical research; it has been used in a step of the performed study and has revealed to be instrumental for showing practitioners why to improve their development processes and how to do so.
Keywords: Software life cycle; Human-centered design; Survey; Interview; Focus group; Cooperative Method Development
Using sketches and storyboards to assess impact of age difference in user experience BIBAKFull-Text 552-566
  Giorgio Brajnik; Cristina Giachin
We compared two versions of a touch-screen digital thermostat using a framework encompassing several user experience (UX) characteristics, and here describe how the implementation of certain design factors (specialists, praises, tooltips and increased interactivity) was done on mixed-fidelity prototypes of the user interface. We illustrate how the experimental comparison, involving 20 university students and 20 older adults, revealed important differences in UX, including perceived ease of use, behavioral intentions, enjoyment, quality, satisfaction, trust and usability, measured mainly through established questionnaires.
   Analysis revealed that using that kind of artifacts is a very cost effective way to elicit interesting and useful results; many UX variables are significantly affected by design factors and by age differences, as expected; effects of design factors go well beyond usability and therefore could not be caught by running an investigation focused only on usability.
   Age difference matters: older adults do not respond to addition of specialists, praises and tooltips as younger users do. We argue that potential benefits of these design choices are outweigh by the increase in complexity of the user interface.
   From a methodological viewpoint we suggest using a particular array of UX characteristics and metrics when testing mixed-fidelity prototypes. Not all the metrics that we adopted were equally useful, and in particular perceived usability, subjective mental effort, and emotions did not help us highlighting differences.
Keywords: User experience; Usability; Ambient assisted living; Older adults; Experimental evaluation; Prototypes and storyboards

IJHCS 2014-07 Volume 72 Issue 7

A framework for the assessment of synthetic personalities according to user perception BIBAKFull-Text 567-583
  Zoraida Callejas; David Griol; Ramón López-Cózar
Endowing artificial conversational agents with personality is a very promising way to obtain more believable user interactions with robots and computers. However, although many authors have studied how to create an agent's personality and how it affects performance and user satisfaction, less attention has been paid to assess whether the designed agent's personality corresponds to the users' perception, whether it is easily recognizable, and what is the effect that the user's own personality has in the discrimination of the agents' personality. In this paper we present an assessment framework to address these issues in an integrated way, which in our opinion offers enough flexibility to consider the diversity of application domains and evaluation approaches that can be found in the literature. The framework is based on numerical measures, which facilitate the interpretation of results and makes it possible to compare and rank different agents with respect to the user's perception of the rendered personality. In addition, we have developed a tool that implements the framework, which may be very useful for researchers in order to easily evaluate different agent personalities.
Keywords: Personality; Evaluation; Conversational agents; Human/computer interaction; Human/robot interaction
HAUSS: Incrementally building a summarizer combining multiple techniques BIBAKFull-Text 584-605
  Filippo Galgani; Paul Compton; Achim Hoffmann
The idea of automatic summarization dates back to 1958, when Luhn invented the "auto abstract" (Luhn, 1958). Since then, many diverse automatic summarization approaches have been proposed, but no single technique has solved the increasingly urgent need for automatic summarization. Rather than proposing one more such technique, we suggest that the best solution is likely a system able to combine multiple summarization techniques, as required by the type of documents being summarized. Thus, this paper presents HAUSS: a framework to quickly build specialized summarizers, integrating several base techniques into a single approach. To recognize relevant text fragments, rules are created that combine frequency, centrality, citation and linguistic information in a context-dependent way. An incremental knowledge acquisition framework strongly supports the creation of these rules, using a training corpus to guide rule acquisition, and produce a powerful knowledge base specific to the domain. Using HAUSS, we created a knowledge base for catchphrase extraction in legal text. The system outperforms existing state-of-the-art general-purpose summarizers and machine learning approaches. Legal experts rated the extracted summaries similar to the original catchphrases given by the court. Our investigation of knowledge acquisition methods for summarization therefore demonstrates that it is possible to quickly create effective special-purpose summarizers, which combine multiple techniques, into a single context-aware approach.
Keywords: Knowledge acquisition; Natural language processing; Automatic summarization; Legal documents
AttachedShock: Design of a crossing-based target selection technique on augmented reality devices and its implications BIBAKFull-Text 606-626
  Chuang-Wen You; Yung-Huan Hsieh; Wen-Huang Cheng; Yi-Hsuan Hsieh
The prevalence of touch devices in daily lives offers increasing opportunities for users to navigate the real world. However, as users move, on-screen targets move unpredictably, and eventually disappear from the screen in mobile navigation scenarios. The changing target movement pattern creates difficulties in selecting targets in time before targets escape from the screen. This study proposes a novel selecting technique, AttachedShock, for easing target selection tasks on augmented reality devices by crossing a naturally expanding wave pattern attached to targets. We evaluated the effectiveness of our technique by conducting three sets of comparative studies on measuring the performance of four techniques under various mobile navigation scenarios, i.e., various combinations of the identified factors. The results indicate that the proposed technique assists users in selecting moving targets to improve the error rate substantially, by a minimum of 76.51%, 61.75%, and 72.77% in Experiment-I, -II, and -III relative to state-of-the-art techniques, and incurs acceptable distractions to users, compared to other techniques.
Keywords: Target acquisition; Moving target selection

IJHCS 2014-08 Volume 72 Issue 8/9

Emotional Wellbeing BIBFull-Text 627-628
  David Coyle; Anja Thieme; Conor Linehan; Madeline Balaam; Jayne Wallace; Siân Lindley
Designing audio-enhanced paper photos for older adult emotional wellbeing in communication therapy BIBAKFull-Text 629-639
  Anne Marie Piper; Nadir Weibel; James D. Hollan
This article introduces audio-enhanced paper photos enabled by digital pen technology as an interaction paradigm for supporting and understanding emotional wellbeing in late adulthood, particularly in the context of communication therapy activities and related social interactions. We describe the development of a multimodal pen-based system that enables creation of audio-enhanced paper photos and the application of this technology to two domains: older adults with aphasia working to regain expressive and receptive language after a stroke, and older adults wanting to interact with a family member of advanced age with memory loss. Our pen-based authoring software enables caregivers, both therapists and family members, to create audio-enhanced paper photos to encourage meaningful and emotionally appropriate interaction with the older adults they support. We examine the ways in which emotional information is embedded in audio-enhanced photos and how this approach addresses various aspects of emotional wellbeing in late adulthood.
Keywords: Emotional wellbeing; Digital pen; Communication; Older adults; Therapy; Audio
Exploring ambient technology for connecting hospitalised children with school and home BIBAKFull-Text 640-653
  Greg Wadley; Frank Vetere; Liza Hopkins; Julie Green; Lars Kulik
Children undergoing long-term hospital care face problems of isolation from their familiar home and school environments. This isolation has an impact on the emotional wellbeing of the child. In this paper we report on research that explores the design of technologies that mitigate some of the negative aspects of separation, while respecting the sensitivities of the hospital, school and home contexts. We conducted design workshops with parents, teachers and hospital staff and found that there was a strong desire for mediated connection, but also a significant need to protect privacy and avoid disruption. In response we designed a novel technology that combined an ambient presence with photo-sharing to connect hospitalised children with schools and families. This paper reports on the field trial of the technology. The research provides new insights into how technology can support connectedness and provides a foundation for contributing to the wellbeing of children and young people in sensitive settings.
Keywords: Hospitalised children; Social connectedness; Wellbeing; Ambient technology; Awareness; Photo sharing
Switch on to games: Can digital games aid post-work recovery? BIBAKFull-Text 654-662
  Emily Collins; Anna L. Cox
Recovery is a necessary factor in avoiding work-related strain and in feeling prepared for the next day of work. In order for recovery to be successful, an individual must experience psychological detachment from work, relaxation, mastery experiences and a sense of control, all of which have been argued to be assisted by digital game use. However, it is unclear whether these associations will be greater for certain digital game genres, or whether this would extend to other recovery-related outcomes, for instance work home interference (WHI), where the stress from work interferes with home-life. These factors may be vital in determining whether interventions aimed at improving recovery using digital games would be effective, and what form these should take. The present research surveyed 491 participants and found that the total number of hours spent playing digital games per week was positively correlated with overall recovery. Correlations varied with genre, highlighting the importance of game characteristics in this relationship: first person shooters and action games were most highly correlated with recovery. Moreover, digital game use was not related to a reduction in work/home interference. When restricting the analysis to gamers who report to have developed online relationships, online social support mediated the relationship between digital game use and recovery. Results are discussed in terms of how digital games may be utilised to improve recovery and reduce work-related stress.
Keywords: Recovery from work; Digital games; Wellbeing; Work-related stress
Affective computing vs. affective placebo: Study of a biofeedback-controlled game for relaxation training BIBAKFull-Text 663-673
  Luca Chittaro; Riccardo Sioni
Relaxation training is an application of affective computing with important implications for health and wellness. After detecting user's affective state through physiological sensors, a relaxation training application can provide the user with explicit feedback about his/her detected affective state. This process (biofeedback) can enable an individual to learn over time how to change his/her physiological activity for the purposes of improving health and performance. In this paper, we provide three contributions to the field of affective computing for health and wellness. First, we propose a novel application for relaxation training that combines ideas from affective computing and games. The game detects user's level of stress and uses it to influence the affective state and the behavior of a 3D virtual character as a form of embodied feedback. Second, we compare two algorithms for stress detection which follow two different approaches in the affective computing literature: a more practical and less costly approach that uses a single physiological sensor (skin conductance), and a potentially more accurate approach that uses four sensors (skin conductance, heart rate, muscle activity of corrugator supercilii and zygomaticus major). Third, as the central motivation of our research, we aim to improve the traditional methodology employed for comparisons in affective computing studies. To do so, we add to the study a placebo condition in which user's stress level, unbeknown to him/her, is determined pseudo-randomly instead of taking into account his/her physiological sensor readings. The obtained results show that only the feedback presented by the single-sensor algorithm was perceived as significantly more accurate than the placebo. If the placebo condition was not included in the study, the effectiveness of the two algorithms would have instead appeared similar. This outcome highlights the importance of using more thorough methodologies in future affective computing studies.
Keywords: Affective computing; Placebo effect; Evaluation methods; Biofeedback; Embodiment; Relaxation; Training; Virtual characters
Interactively mediating experiences of mindfulness meditation BIBAKFull-Text 674-688
  Jay Vidyarthi; Bernhard E. Riecke
Sonic Cradle is a human/computer interaction paradigm designed to foster meditative attentional patterns. A user's body is suspended comfortably in a completely dark sound chamber while the interaction paradigm subtly encourages them to focus on their breathing to summon and progressively shape an abstract immersive sound experience. Basic interpretive qualitative methods with a purposive sample of 39 participants were used to systematically analyze interview data after a 15-min experience of the system. Results suggest that this persuasive medium can pleasantly encourage an experience comparable to mindfulness by consistently inducing a calm mental clarity and loss of intention. Surprisingly, participants also reported perceptual illusions, feelings of floating, and emotional responses. Mounting evidence implies mindfulness meditation as an effective practice for self-regulation; this study represents a first step toward realizing technology's potential to increase wellbeing by introducing people to this psychologically beneficial contemplative practice.
Keywords: Respiration; Mindfulness; Stress; Biofeedback; Qualitative; Music; Persuasive technology; Immersive systems; Engagement; Emotion

IJHCS 2014-10 Volume 72 Issue 10/11

Augmenting graphical user interfaces with haptic assistance for motion-impaired operators BIBAKFull-Text 689-703
  C. T. Asque; A. M. Day; S. D. Laycock
Haptic assistance is an emerging field of research that is designed to improve human/computer interaction (HCI) by reducing error rates and targeting times through the use of force feedback. Haptic feedback has previously been investigated to assist motion-impaired computer users, however, limitations such as target distracters have hampered its integration with graphical user interfaces (GUIs). In this paper two new haptic assistive techniques are presented that utilise the 3DOF capabilities of the Phantom Omni. These are referred to as deformable haptic cones and deformable virtual switches. The assistance is designed specifically to enable motion-impaired operators to use existing GUIs more effectively. Experiment 1 investigates the performance benefits of the new haptic techniques when used in conjunction with the densely populated Windows on-screen keyboard (OSK). Experiment 2 utilises the ISO 9241-9 point-and-click task to investigate the effects of target size and shape. The results of the study prove that the newly proposed techniques improve interaction rates and can be integrated with existing software without many of the drawbacks of traditional haptic assistance. Deformable haptic cones and deformable virtual switches were shown to reduce the mean number of missed-clicks by at least 75% and reduce targeting times by at least 25%.
Keywords: Haptic assistance; Haptics; Computer accessibility; Human/computer interaction
Lessons learned: Evaluating visualizations for occluded objects in handheld augmented reality BIBAKFull-Text 704-716
  Arindam Dey; Christian Sandor
Handheld devices like smartphones and tablets have emerged as one of the most promising platforms for Augmented Reality (AR). The increased usage of these portable handheld devices has enabled handheld AR applications to reach the end-users; hence, it is timely and important to seriously consider the user experience of such applications. AR visualizations for occluded objects enable an observer to look through objects. AR visualizations have been predominantly evaluated using Head-Worn Displays (HWDs), handheld devices have rarely been used. However, unless we gain a better understanding of the perceptual and cognitive effects of handheld AR systems, effective interfaces for handheld devices cannot be designed. Similarly, human perception of AR systems in outdoor environments, which provide a higher degree of variation than indoor environments, has only been insufficiently explored.
   In this paper, we present insights acquired from five experiments we performed using handheld devices in outdoor locations. We provide design recommendations for handheld AR systems equipped with visualizations for occluded objects. Our key conclusions are the following: (1) Use of visualizations for occluded objects improves the depth perception of occluded objects akin to non-occluded objects. (2) To support different scenarios, handheld AR systems should provide multiple visualizations for occluded objects to complement each other. (3) Visual clutter in AR visualizations reduces the visibility of occluded objects and deteriorates depth judgment; depth judgment can be improved by providing clear visibility of the occluded objects. (4) Similar to virtual reality interfaces, both egocentric and exocentric distances are underestimated in handheld AR. (5) Depth perception will improve if handheld AR systems can dynamically adapt their geometric field of view (GFOV) to match the display field of view (DFOV). (6) Large handheld displays are hard to carry and use; however, they enable users to better grasp the depth of multiple graphical objects that are presented simultaneously.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Handheld devices; Experiments; Visualizations for occluded objects; Outdoor environments
Comparative analysis of emotion estimation methods based on physiological measurements for real-time applications BIBAKFull-Text 717-727
  Davor Kukolja; Siniša Popovic; Marko Horvat; Bernard KovaÃ; Krešimir Cosic
In order to improve intelligent Human-Computer Interaction it is important to create a personalized adaptive emotion estimator that is able to learn over time emotional response idiosyncrasies of individual person and thus enhance estimation accuracy. This paper, with the aim of identifying preferable methods for such a concept, presents an experiment-based comparative study of seven feature reduction and seven machine learning methods commonly used for emotion estimation based on physiological signals. The analysis was performed on data obtained in an emotion elicitation experiment involving 14 participants. Specific discrete emotions were targeted with stimuli from the International Affective Picture System database. The experiment was necessary to achieve the uniformity in the various aspects of emotion elicitation, data processing, feature calculation, self-reporting procedures and estimation evaluation, in order to avoid inconsistency problems that arise when results from studies that use different emotion-related databases are mutually compared. The results of the performed experiment indicate that the combination of a multilayer perceptron (MLP) with sequential floating forward selection (SFFS) exhibited the highest accuracy in discrete emotion classification based on physiological features calculated from ECG, respiration, skin conductance and skin temperature. Using leave-one-session-out crossvalidation method, 60.3% accuracy in classification of 5 discrete emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, happiness and neutral) was obtained. In order to identify which methods may be the most suitable for real-time estimator adaptation, execution and learning times of emotion estimators were also comparatively analyzed. Based on this analysis, preferred feature reduction method for real-time estimator adaptation was minimum redundancy / maximum relevance (mRMR), which was the fastest approach in terms of combined execution and learning time, as well as the second best in accuracy, after SFFS. In combination with mRMR, highest accuracies were achieved by k-nearest neighbor (kNN) and MLP with negligible difference (50.33% versus 50.54%); however, mRMR+kNN is preferable option for real-time estimator adaptation due to considerably lower combined execution and learning time of kNN versus MLP.
Keywords: Affective computing; Physiology; Emotion estimation; Feature reduction; Machine learning
The design of hand gestures for human/computer interaction: Lessons from sign language interpreters BIBAKFull-Text 728-735
  David Rempel; Matt J. Camilleri; David L. Lee
The design and selection of 3D modeled hand gestures for human/computer interaction should follow principles of natural language combined with the need to optimize gesture contrast and recognition. The selection should also consider the discomfort and fatigue associated with distinct hand postures and motions, especially for common commands. Sign language interpreters have extensive and unique experience forming hand gestures and many suffer from hand pain while gesturing. Professional sign language interpreters (N=24) rated discomfort for hand gestures associated with 47 characters and words and 33 hand postures. Clear associations of discomfort with hand postures were identified. In a nominal logistic regression model, high discomfort was associated with gestures requiring a flexed wrist, discordant adjacent fingers, or extended fingers. These and other findings should be considered in the design of hand gestures to optimize the relationship between human cognitive and physical processes and computer gesture recognition systems for human/computer input.
Keywords: Gesture-based interaction; Computer interface; Hand postures; Multi-touch; Computer input
Mediating intimacy in long-distance relationships using kiss messaging BIBAKFull-Text 736-746
  Elham Saadatian; Hooman Samani; Rahul Parsani; Anshul Vikram Pandey; Jinhui Li; Lenis Tejada; Adrian David Cheok; Ryohei Nakatsu
Intimate interactions between remotely located individuals are not well supported by conventional communication tools, mainly due to the lack of physical contact. Also, haptic research has not focused on the use of a kiss as a mode of interaction that maintains intimacy in long distance relationships. In this study, we designed and developed a haptic device called Kissenger (Kiss-Messenger) for this issue. Kissenger is an interactive device that provides a physical interface for transmitting a kiss between two remotely connected people. Each device is paired with another and the amount of force and shape of the kiss by the user is sensed and transmitted to another device that is replicated using actuators. Kissenger is designed to augment already existing remote communication technologies. Challenges in the design and development of the system are addressed through an iterative design process involving constant evaluation by users after each stage. The devices are evaluated through a short- and a long-term user study with remotely located couples. The results point to an initial acceptance of the device with feedback from the users on directions to improve the overall experience. This study discusses potential issues that designers should be aware of when prototyping for remote intimate interactions.
Keywords: Kiss transmission; Tangible user interface; Haptic interpersonal communication; Remote tactile communication; Kissenger
Impressions of computer and human agents after interaction: Computer identity weakens power but not goodness impressions BIBAKFull-Text 747-756
  Daniel B. Shank
Although computer agents routinely replace people as companies' representatives, few researchers consider the impressions customers develop about these computers and humans in the same organizational positions. I ask: how do customers develop impressions of the goodness and power for computers agents compared to human agents? I propose a theoretical model by which the agent's computer identity weakens social processes that lead to goodness and power impressions. This model explains conflicting prior research and proposes specific hypotheses for the current study. I test the hypotheses with a laboratory experiment where participants believe they are buying products online from a representative of a real organization. I manipulate product quality to alter goodness impressions, the organization's constraint of the representative to alter power impressions, and human versus computer identity to test the hypothesized weakening interaction effects. The weakening hypothesis for goodness is not supported, while the weakening hypothesis for power is fully supported. Future work should test the goodness and power weakening hypotheses under different conditions and with different manipulations to determine under what conditions the former operates and to provide additional support for the latter.
Keywords: Impressions; Computer-mediated communication; Organizations; Valence; Potency
Empirical analysis of GUI programming concerns BIBAKFull-Text 757-771
  Zarko Mijailovic; Dragan Milicev
The focus of this paper is on identification of typical graphical user interface (GUI) programming concerns. As opposed to some other proposals available in the literature that indicate GUI programming concerns by simple intuition, we have conducted a systematic empirical analysis to derive our proposal. It included an analysis of an existing application programming interface (API), its use in industrial projects, and an analysis of the requirements and issues reported during software maintenance. In addition, we have evaluated more than 50 GUI frameworks and APIs and proved usefulness and generality of our classification of concerns. As an additional proof of applicability of the proposed classification, we have refactored the inheritance hierarchy of the selected GUI API using concern-oriented interfaces. We have implemented a supporting tool that complements the developed API and supports its concern-oriented use. The evaluation of the refactored API showed positive effects on API usability.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces (GUI); GUI programming; GUI application programming interface (API); GUI concerns; Separation of concerns
Operators' adaptation to imperfect automation / Impact of miss-prone alarm systems on attention allocation and performance BIBAKFull-Text 772-782
  Linda Onnasch; Stefan Ruff; Dietrich Manzey
Operators in complex environments are often supported by alarm systems that indicate when to shift attention to certain tasks. As alarms are not perfectly reliable, operators have to select appropriate strategies of attention allocation to compensate for unreliability and to maintain overall performance. This study explores how humans adapt to differing alarm reliabilities. Within a multi-task simulation consisting of a monitoring task and two other concurrent tasks, participants were assigned to one of five groups. In the manual control group none of the tasks was supported by an alarm system, whereas the four experimental groups were supported in the monitoring task by a miss-prone alarm system differing in reliability, i.e. 68.75%, 75%, 87.5%, 93.75%. Compared to the manual control group, all experimental groups benefited from the support by alarms, with best performance for the highest reliability condition. However, for the lowest reliability group the benefit was associated with an increased attentional effort, a more demanding attention allocation strategy, and a declined relative performance in a concurrent task. Results are discussed in the context of recent automation research.
Keywords: Alarm systems; Reliability; Miss-prone automation; Attention allocation; Adaptive behaviour

IJHCS 2014-12 Volume 72 Issue 12

How social distance shapes human/robot interaction BIBAKFull-Text 783-795
  Yunkyung Kim; Bilge Mutlu
This paper investigates how social distance can serve as a lens through which we can understand human/robot relationships and develop guidelines for robot design. In two studies, we examine the effects of distance based on physical proximity (proxemic distance), organizational status (power distance), and task structure (task distance) on people's experiences with and perceptions of a humanlike robot. In Study 1, participants (n=32) played a card-matching game with a humanlike robot. We manipulated the power distance (supervisor vs. subordinate) and proxemic distance (close vs. distant) between participants and the robot. Participants who interacted with the supervisor robot reported a more positive user experience when the robot was close than when the robot was distant, while interactions with the subordinate robot resulted in a more positive experience when the robot was distant than when the robot was close. In Study 2, participants (n=32) played the game in two different task distances (cooperation vs. competition) and proxemic distances (close vs. distant). Participants who cooperated with the robot reported a more positive experience when the robot was distant than when it was close. In contrast, competing with the robot resulted in a more positive experience when it was close than when the robot was distant. The findings from the two studies highlight the importance of consistency between the status and proxemic behaviors of the robot and of task interdependency in fostering cooperation between the robot and its users. This work also demonstrates how social distance may guide efforts toward a better understanding of human/robot interaction and the development of effective design guidelines.
Keywords: Social distance; Human/robot interaction; Power distance; Task distance; Proxemic distance; User experience
A study of detecting and combating cybersickness with fuzzy control for the elderly within 3D virtual stores BIBAKFull-Text 796-804
  Cheng-Li Liu
Elderly individuals can access online 3D virtual stores from their homes to make purchases. However, most virtual environments (VEs) often elicit physical responses to certain types of movements in the VEs. Some users exhibit symptoms that parallel those of classical motion sickness, called cybersickness, both during and after the VE experience. This study investigated the factors that contribute to cybersickness among the elderly when immersed in a 3D virtual store. The results of the first experiment show that the simulator sickness questionnaire (SSQ) scores increased significantly by the reasons of navigational rotating speed and duration of exposure. Based on these results, a warning system with fuzzy control for combating cybersickness was developed. The results of the second and third experiments show that the proposed system can efficiently determine the level of cybersickness based on the fuzzy sets analysis of operating signals from scene rotating speed and exposure duration, and subsequently combat cybersickness.
Keywords: Navigational rotating speed; Cybersickness; Elderly; Virtual store; Fuzzy control
A model of scrolling on touch-sensitive displays BIBAKFull-Text 805-821
  Jian Zhao; R. William Soukoreff; Xiangshi Ren; Ravin Balakrishnan
Scrolling interaction is a common and frequent activity allowing users to browse content that is initially off-screen. With the increasing popularity of touch-sensitive devices, gesture-based scrolling interactions (e.g., finger panning and flicking) have become an important element in our daily interaction vocabulary. However, there are currently no comprehensive user performance models for scrolling tasks on touch displays. This paper presents an empirical study of user performance in scrolling tasks on touch displays. In addition to three geometrical movement parameters -- world scrolling tasks, which are drawn from the analysis and observations of user scrolling actions. The results of a control experiment reveal that our model generalizes well for direct-touch scrolling tasks, accommodating different movement parameters, scrolling modes and feedback techniques. Also, the supporting blocks of the model, the four basic assumptions and three important mathematical components, are validated by the experimental data. In-depth comparisons with existing models of similar tasks indicate that our model performs the best under different measurement criteria. Our work provides a theoretical foundation for modeling sophisticated scrolling actions, as well as offers insights into designing scrolling techniques for next-generation touch input devices.
Keywords: Modeling; Touch displays; Scrolling; Fitts' law
A function-to-task process model for adaptive automation system design BIBAKFull-Text 822-834
  Jason M. Bindewald; Michael E. Miller; Gilbert L. Peterson
Adaptive automation systems allow the user to complete a task seamlessly with a computer performing tasks at which the human operator struggles. Unlike traditional systems that allocate functions to either the human or the machine, adaptive automation varies the allocation of functions during system operation. Creating these systems requires designers to consider issues not present during static system development. To assist in adaptive automation system design, this paper presents the concept of inherent tasks and takes advantage of this concept to create the function-to-task design process model. This process model helps the designer determine how to allocate functions to the human, machine, or dynamically between the two. An illustration of the process demonstrates the potential complexity within adaptive automation systems and how the process model aids in understanding this complexity during early stage design.
Keywords: Adaptive automation; Function allocation; Man/machine allocation; Inherent tasks; Interaction design
Overcoming the pitfalls of ontology authoring: Strategies and implications for tool design BIBAKFull-Text 835-845
  Markel Vigo; Samantha Bail; Caroline Jay; Robert Stevens
The process of authoring ontologies appears to be fragmented across several tools and workarounds, and there exists no well accepted framework for common authoring tasks such as exploring ontologies, comparing versions, debugging, and testing. This lack of an adequate and seamless tool chain potentially hinders the broad uptake of ontologies, especially OWL, as a knowledge representation formalism. We start to address this situation by presenting insights from an interview-based study with 15 ontology experts. We uncover the tensions that may emerge between ontology authors including antagonistic ontology building styles (definition-driven vs. manually crafted hierarchies). We identify the problems reported by the ontology authors and the strategies they employ to solve them. These data are mapped to a set of key design recommendations, which should inform and guide future efforts for improving ontology authoring tool support, thus opening up ontology authoring to a new generation of users. We discuss future research avenues in light of these results.
Keywords: Ontologies; Semantic web; Authoring tools
Effects of device obtrusion and tool-hand misalignment on user performance and stiffness perception in visuo-haptic mixed reality BIBAKFull-Text 846-859
  L. Barbieri; F. Bruno; F. Cosco; M. Muzzupappa
The Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality (VHMR) is a branch of the Mixed Reality (MR) that is acquiring more and more interest in the recent years. Its success is due to the ability of merging visual and tactile perceptions of both virtual and real objects with a collocated approach. Like any emerging technology, the development of the VHMR systems is accompanied by challenges that, in this case, deals with the efforts to enhance the multi-modal human perception with the user-computer interface and interaction devices at the moment available.
   This paper deals with two of the typical problems related to VHMR systems, that are device obtrusion and tool/hand misalignment, and suggests solutions whose effectiveness has been tested by means of user studies.
   First, the paper analyzes the obtrusion problem and the benefits that users may gain performing task in a mixed environment with unobstructed haptic feedback, performed by means of a novel technique. Secondly, it investigates the effects of tool/hand misalignment on user perception and verifies the efficacy of a proposed misalignment correction technique by means of a comparative user test.
   Experimental results show that users would benefit from using the proposed unobstructed visuo-haptic approach and the misalignment compensation technique. These enhancements demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed solutions and at the same time get stronger the awareness that obtrusion and misalignment problems are fundamental issues to take into account for producing a realistic perception of a visuo-haptic mixed environment.
Keywords: Visuo-Haptic Mixed Reality; Occlusion handling; Haptic interaction; User evaluation
Hierarchy of users' web passwords: Perceptions, practices and susceptibilities BIBAKFull-Text 860-874
  S. M. Taiabul Haque; Matthew Wright; Shannon Scielzo
In this study, we propose a hierarchy of password importance, and we use an experiment to examine the degree of similarity between passwords for lower-level (e.g. news portal) and higher-level (e.g. banking) websites in this hierarchy. We asked subjects to construct passwords for websites at both levels. Leveraging the lower-level passwords along with a dictionary attack, we successfully cracked almost one-third of the subjects' higher-level passwords. In a survey, subjects reported frequently reusing higher-level passwords, with or without modifications, as well as using a similar process to construct both levels of passwords. We thus conclude that unsafely shared or leaked lower-level passwords can be used by attackers to crack higher-level passwords.
Keywords: Security; Usability; Password; Survey
Corrigendum to "Exploration of architectural spaces by blind people using auditory virtual reality for the construction of spatial knowledge" [Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 72 (4) (2014) 393-407] BIBFull-Text 875
  Lorenzo Picinali; Amandine Afonso; Michel Denis; Brian F. G. Katz