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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 19

Editors:Kay M. Stanney; Gavriel Salvendy
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2005 Volume 19 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2005 Volume 19 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2005 Volume 19 Issue 3

IJHCI 2005 Volume 19 Issue 1

Editorial BIB 1
  Kay M. Stanney; Gavriel Salvendy
Introduction: Human-Computer Interaction Studies in Management Information Systems BIB 3-6
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Ping Zhang; Scott McCoy
Visualizing E-Brand Personality: Exploratory Studies on Visual Attributes and E-Brand Personalities in Korea BIBA 7-34
  Su-e Park; Dongsung Choi; Jinwoo Kim
The brand personality of an online product and service, usually represented by a Web site, is known as its e-brand personality. In the competitive conditions of online markets, e-brand personality is agreed to be an important factor in securing distinctive identity; however, few studies have suggested how to establish e-brand personality through the visual design of Web sites. This study explores the feasibility of constructing target e-brand personalities for online services by using visual attributes. It consists of 3 consecutive studies. The 1st study identified four major dimensions of e-brand personality on diverse Web sites. The 2nd study used 52 experimental home pages to identify key visual attributes associated with those 4 personality dimensions. The 3rd study explored whether those findings from the 2nd study can be applied in constructing Web sites for online services. The results showed that 2 visual attributes-simplicity and cohesion-are closely related to a bold personality. Three attributes-contrast, density, and regularity-can be used to create a Web site that has an analytical personality. Contrast, cohesion, density, and regularity are closely related to a Web site that is perceived to have a friendly personality. Regularity and balance were expected to be related to the sophisticated personality dimension, but no such relation was identified in the 3rd study. The article concludes with a discussion of implications, limitations, and future research directions.
The Enhanced Restricted Focus Viewer BIBA 35-54
  Peter Tarasewich; Marc Pomplun; Stephanie Fillion; Daniel Broberg
The Enhanced Restricted Focus Viewer (ERFV) is a unique software tool for tracking the visual attention of users in hyperlinked environments, such as Web sites. The software collects data, such as mouse clicks along with the path of users' visual attention, as they browse a site. Unlike traditional eye-tracking procedures, the ERFV requires no hardware to operate other than a personal computer. In addition to time and cost savings, the ERFV allows the administration of usability testing to groups of participants simultaneously. A laboratory test comparing the ERFV to a hardware-based eye-tracking system showed that the two methods compared favorably in terms of how well they track a user's visual attention. The value of the ERFV as a usability testing tool was demonstrated through an experiment that evaluated two Web sites that were equivalent in content but that differed in terms of design. Although several open issues concerning the ERFV still remain, some of these issues are being addressed through ongoing research efforts.
Issues in Building Multiuser Interfaces BIBA 55-74
  V. Srinivasan Rao; Wai-Lan Luk; John Warren
The proliferation of interest in collaborative computer applications in the past decade has resulted in a corresponding increase in the interest in multiuser interfaces. This research seeks to contribute to an understanding of the process of developing user models for group interaction and to the design and implementation of multiuser interfaces based on the model. Group ranking was used as an exemplar task. User requirements were identified by observing groups perform the ranking task in a noncomputer environment. A design was proposed based on the identified requirements and a prototype implemented. Feedback from informal user evaluation of the implemented interface is reported. Insights on the methodology are discussed.
Online Consumer Trust and Live Help Interfaces: The Effects of Text-to-Speech Voice and Three-Dimensional Avatars BIBA 75-94
  Lingyun Qiu; Izak Benbasat
With the increasing prevalence of online shopping, many companies have begun to provide "live help" functions, through instant messaging or text chatting, on their Web sites to facilitate interactions between online consumers and customer service representatives (CSRs). The continuing reliance of these functions on text-based communication limits nonverbal communication with consumers and the social contexts for the information conveyed. However, with the help of emerging multimedia technologies, companies can now use computer-generated voice and humanoid avatars to embody CSRs, thus enriching the interactive experiences of their customers.
   In this study, a laboratory experiment was conducted to empirically test the effects of text-to-speech (TTS) voice and 3-dimensional (3D) avatars on consumer trust toward CSRs. TTS voice was implemented to deliver answers aloud. A 3D avatar served as the humanoid representation of a CSR. The results demonstrated that the presence of TTS voice significantly increases consumers' cognitive and emotional trust toward the CSR. These findings offer practitioners guidelines to improve the interface design of real-time human-to-human communications for e-commerce Web sites.
An Empirical Examination of the Effects of Web Personalization at Different Stages of Decision Making BIBA 95-112
  Shuk Ying Ho; Kar Yan Tam
Personalization agents are incorporated in many Web sites to tailor content and interfaces for individual users. In contrast to the proliferation of personalized Web services worldwide, empirical research on the effects of Web personalization is scant. How does exposure to personalized offers affect subsequent product consideration and choice outcome? Drawing on literature in human-computer interaction (HCI) and user behavior, this research examines the effect of three major elements of Web personalization strategies on users' information processing through different decision-making stages: personalized content quality, feature overlapping among alternatives, and personalized message framing. These elements can be manipulated by a firm during implemention of its personalization strategy. A study using a personalized ringtone download Web site was conducted. The findings provide empirical evidence of the effects of Web personalization. In particular, when users are forming their consideration sets, the agents can play a role in helping users discover new products or generate demand for unfamiliar products. Once a decision has been made, however, the personalization agent's persuasive effects diminish. These results establish that the role of personalization agents changes at different stages of users' decision-making process.
Beyond Perceptions and Usage: Impact of Nature of Information Systems Use on Information System-Enabled Productivity BIBA 113-136
  Vikas Jain; Shivraj Kanungo
Assessing individual performance impacts from information system (IS) use has been a key area of concern for IS researchers for many years. However, past researchers have reported mixed results about the relationship between IS use and performance effects at the individual level. The research reported in this article has 2 primary objectives: (a) to propose a model of individual IS-enabled productivity that focuses not only on the usage of information systems but also the nature of this usage, and (b) to empirically test the model across 2 IS applications. The key premise in this research is that IS use is necessary, but not sufficient to observe productivity gains, and that the nature of information systems use (NU) potentially mediates the relationship between IS use and IS-enabled productivity. The authors validated the research model through a survey of 486 people across 6 organizations. Results from this study confirm the proposition that the NU is as important as the duration of use of an information system as a determinant of IS-enabled productivity. Based on the findings, this research provides theoretical and managerial implications of the relationship between IS-enabled productivity and IS use.
Role of Human-Computer Interaction Factors as Moderators of Occupational Stress and Work Exhaustion BIBA 137-154
  K. S. Rajeswari; R. N. Anantharaman
Software professionals perform boundary-spanning activities, and thus need strong interpersonal, technical, and organizational knowledge to be professionally competent. They have to perform in a demanding work environment characterized by strict deadlines, differing time zones, interdependency in teams, increased interaction with clients, and extended work hours. These characteristics lead to occupational stress and work exhaustion. Yet, the impact of stress is felt in different ways by different people, even if they perform the same functions. These differences in the perception of stress can be caused by varying confidence in their technical capabilities. People possess varying technical capabilities, based on their acquisition of technical skills, comfort level in using the technology, and intrinsic motivation. These attributes represent the human-computer interaction (HCI) personality of software professionals. This article examines whether these HCI factors moderate the relationship between occupational stress and work exhaustion. Data were collected from software professionals located in Chennai and Bangalore in India. The data revealed that HCI factors had a main effect but no significant moderating effects on work exhaustion. The control over the technology variable emerged as the key variable among the HCI factors that affected software professionals' ability to cope with stress and work exhaustion.

Book Review

"Understanding Your Users: A Practical Guide to User Requirements" by Catherine Courage and Kathy Baxter BIB 155-156
  Gavriel Salvendy
"Conceptual Foundations of Human Factors Measurement" by David Meister BIB 157-158
  Xiangshi Ren

IJHCI 2005 Volume 19 Issue 2

Monitoring and Evaluation of Time Delay BIBA 163-180
  Arnout R. H. Fischer; Frans J. J. Blommaert; Cees J. H. Midden
In general, users act as if their behavior is controlled by a self-regulatory system (Carver & Scheier, 1998) during user-system interaction. The self-regulatory system is specified as a feedback control mechanism consisting of monitoring, evaluation, and action adjustment mechanisms. This article investigates whether perception processes take care of monitoring, and if a user's evaluation is based on the interpretation of the results of such monitoring. To do this, a typical system property, time delay, was manipulated. In an experiment, the relation between estimated task duration and actual time-to-task completion was studied. The findings support the premise that perception processes, interpreted as a monitoring mechanism, can keep track of physical task time. A monotonic, positive relation was found between the time-to-task completion and user satisfaction, which supports the assumption that objective efficiency influences the evaluation of interaction. A linear relation between the estimated duration and user satisfaction indicates that the monitoring mechanism transforms physical signals into a format that can be used in the evaluation process, thereby changing the internal reference frame of the evaluation mechanism.
Navigation Fidelity in 3D Perspective Displays for Web-Based Shopping: From Nodes to Views BIBA 181-200
  Jerritte H. Couture; Herbert A. Colle; Gary B. Reid
To assess its usefulness as a Web navigation-aiding metaphor, a virtual Euclidean space was created that participants (N = 96) navigated to find information in a Web shopping environment. Acquisition of configural-survey 3-dimensional (3D) spatial knowledge of the environment, measured with pointing and sketch map tasks, was compared using perspective displays of virtual environments created using Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) versus a 3D graphics engine. HTML navigation fidelity was manipulated by varying the turn angles and the number of viewpoints per store. Lower navigation fidelity reduced configural knowledge acquisition, but HTML store environments using 45?-turn angles and 9 viewpoints per store were not reliably different from the 3D virtual environment generated by a graphics engine with optical flow. Target object location (within-store, between-store) also had a significant effect. The results indicate that HTML could be used to develop virtual Web shopping environments using discrete perspective displays. Implications for Web shopping interface design are discussed.
Why Does the Negative Impact of Inconsistent Knowledge on Web Navigation Persist? BIBA 201-221
  Keith S. Jones; J. Shawn Farris; Brian R. Johnson
Farris (2003) discovered that users had greater difficulty finding information on a Web site when their prior knowledge was inconsistent with the Web site's content, relative to when their knowledge was consistent with it. In addition, he found that this difficulty was persistent over trials. To explain this persistence, Farris offered a schema-based account, which instantiated inconsistency in a single manner. These studies tested 2 predictions that were derived from Farris's account. Specifically, Experiment 1 assessed whether schema elaboration would be gradual, whereas Experiment 2 assessed whether task repetition would eliminate the negative impact of inconsistent knowledge. The results associated with navigation efficiency supported the predictions derived from Farris's account. The results associated with the choices made by participants as they navigated the site, however, contradicted the predictions. A new account, based on production-rules rather than schemata, is offered that considers both sets of results, because it instantiates inconsistency in more than 1 manner. This new account has implications for the design and redesign of Web sites.
Kinematic Analysis of Cursor Trajectories Controlled With a Touchpad BIBA 223-239
  Hetty Dillen; J. Shawn Farris; James W. Meehan
To investigate the characteristics of a computer touchpad as a pointing device, 14 participants used their right hand to manipulate the touchpad on a laptop computer. They were required to move a cursor over different distances (7.5 cm, 15 cm) from a home location to targets of different diameters (8 mm, 16 mm), situated to the upper left, middle, or right of a computer screen. A kinematic analysis of movement onsets and cursor trajectories indicated the nature of inefficiencies of the touchpad compared with other devices, primarily excessive submovements. Upper leftward movements were poorer, which can be explained by asymmetries in the finger-wrist system. This result implies that screen accessibility can vary as a function of users' interaction with cursor controllers and that the default placements of key icons might need to vary as a consequence.
A Process for Anticipating and Executing Icon Selection in Graphical User Interfaces BIBA 241-252
  David M. Lane; S. Camille Peres; Aniko Sandor; H. Albert Napier
This article presents a system for predicting the icon a user will select from an icon toolbar, based on command use frequency and mouse trajectory. The system differs from previous systems in 2 important ways: First, the prediction system does not initiate any action. Instead, it predicts where the mouse is moving and subtly "suggests" a command for the user to verify. Second, the system takes into account the relative likelihood of commands being used when making its predictions. Initial testing suggested that a system that only predicted the most frequently used icon choices was better than one that predicted all choices. A study with 12 test users using a mouse and 10 using a trackpad found substantial benefits of this "limited prediction system." The system resulted in a mean reduction in time to issue a command of 41% for trackpad users and 25% for mouse users. Trackpad users, but not mouse users, preferred the prediction system to the traditional way of pointing. These results suggest that a prediction system such as the one described here has the potential to reduce the time and effort required to issue commands. The utility of the system appears to be especially great in laptops and other devices that use trackpads as their primary pointing devices.
"Tsunagari-kan" Communication: Design of a New Telecommunication Environment and a Field Test with Family Members Living Apart BIBA 253-276
  Asami Miyajima; Yoshihiro Itoh; Masako Itoh; Takumi Watanabe
In this article, a new telecommunication environment for tsunagari-kan communication that enables users to exchange situational cues continuously and interactively via a network is described. In face-to-face communication or when communicators share one space physically, people exchange many situational cues. These cues allow one to sense or "feel" the other person, and they evoke emotional responses such as smiles and feelings of happiness. This tsunagari-kan communication aims at evoking thoughts about others in users' minds from cues or signs and at engendering tsunagari-kan (a sense of closeness to others), even when the individuals are in separate locations. This new style of telecommunication offers people comfort as if they are together, and it eventually helps them keep and foster their personal relationships. As the first step in verifying this concept, a communication terminal for family members living apart was developed, and a field test was run. This terminal facilitates the exchange of data about people's unconscious presence/motion cues and conscious touch signs. With an analysis of the field test results, the validity of this concept was confirmed.

IJHCI 2005 Volume 19 Issue 3

Speech-Based Text Entry for Mobile Handheld Devices: An Analysis of Efficacy and Error Correction Techniques for Server-Based Solutions BIBA 279-304
  Arnout R. H. Fischer; Kathleen J. Price; Andrew Sears
As handheld devices become ubiquitous and the tasks performed become multipurpose in nature, efficient data entry techniques are necessary. This research evaluated several speech-based text entry solutions for handheld devices using server-based speech recognition. Because server-based solutions introduce network delays, an analysis of the relationship among network delays, number of recognition errors, how fast users can correct errors, and overall data entry rates was performed. The analysis and empirical results confirm the importance of minimizing recognition errors. This suggests that a server-based approach that makes more computing resources available may prove effective. Results from two empirical studies are presented. The first compares two error correction mechanisms: a multitap and soft keyboard solution. The second employs a longitudinal investigation of the effects of experience on text entry rates. Users attained an effective mean text entry rate as high as 25.3 words per min, which is higher than or comparable to data entry rates reported for other input techniques for handheld devices. The results of this research have implications for researchers and designers of automatic speech recognition systems and mobile devices.
Learning Theory as Applied to Mechanical CAD Training of Novices BIBA 305-322
  Ramsey F. Hamade; Hassan A. Artail; Mohamad Y. Jaber
Learning associated with mechanical computer-aided design (CAD) poses challenges for both trainers and trainees. This article presents findings that relate to the acquisition of skills in utilizing a modern mechanical CAD tool, Pro/ENGINEER version 2000i2, to design models of low complexity. Empirical learning curves were generated and broken into declarative and procedural components, which were analyzed in an attempt to measure how and how fast trainees developed cognitive and motor skills. Results showed that there is an inverse relationship between the amount of improvement in performance time and the number of build features used in building a solid model. If production time is an overriding criterion, then efforts should be focused on teaching CAD trainees how to build mechanical solid models using small number of complex, more time-efficient features.
Empirically Testing User Characteristics and Fitness Factors in Enterprise Resource Planning Success BIBA 325-342
  Clyde W. Holsapple; Yu-Min Wang; Jen-Her Wu
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems for supporting inter- and intracompany business processes are reaching maturity in many organizations. However, ERP systems are complex and expensive, and the decision to install an ERP system necessitates a choice of mechanisms for determining whether the ERP is needed and, once implemented, whether it is successful. User satisfaction is one evaluation mechanism for gauging system success. In this study, the efficacy of user characteristics and fitness factors as determinants of ERP success was empirically evaluated. The findings indicate that the fitness factors (i.e., compatibility and task relevance) have significant positive influences on ERP satisfaction. As for user characteristics, higher educated users have greater user satisfaction and managers have greater satisfaction than nonmanagement users. However, the study finds that user age, information experience, and package localization have no significant effect on ERP user satisfaction. The study offers insights that adopters and consultants can focus on to improve the level of ERP user satisfaction.
Speech Versus Touch: A Comparative Study of the Use of Speech and DTMF Keypad for Navigation BIBA 343-360
  Kwan Min Lee; Jennifer Lai
This article reports on an experiment that critically tests user preference for an input modality (speech vs. Dual Tone Multiple Frequency[DTMF])in a phone-based message retrieval system. Unlike previous studies that compared these two modalities, the speech system used in this study was a fully functioning natural language system, and participants in this study were working professionals, rather than college students. Results indicate that (a) DTMF was more effective and efficient for linear tasks, whereas speech was better for nonlinear tasks; (b) speech was preferred to DTMF by a majority of users; (c) speech was judged as being more satisfying, more entertaining, and easier to use than DTMF; and (d) user preference for a particular modality was better predicted by user performance in nonlinear tasks rather than linear ones. Possible reasons for users' continuing preference for the speech modality even after experiencing fairly high recognition errors are discussed. Finally, the importance of examining speech user interfaces from other perspectives, in addition to efficiency maximization, is emphasized. The results of this study have theoretical, as well as practical, implications for the design of speech user interfaces and interactive voice response applications.