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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 10

Editors:Michael J. Smith; Gavriel Salvendy; Masamitsu Oshima
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 4

IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 1

Relation Between Quantitative and Qualitative Measures of Information Use BIBA 1-21
  Bridget C. Booske; Francois Sainfort
Understanding how people use information and measuring information use are essential in the successful design and testing of information technologies. This study reports on the relation between selected quantitative and qualitative approaches of measuring the use of information in the context of making decisions. Four quantitative measures were developed: information access, information time, search redundancy, and time per access. Three qualitative constructs were developed addressing participant reports of the amount of information, the usability of the information, and the adequacy of the information. The context for the study is the choice of a health plan. A Windows-based system was developed with process-tracing capabilities to track participants' information search patterns. Analysis of variance and correlation analysis showed relations between the quantitative measure of information access and the qualitative measures of amount of information and between information time and one component of the adequacy of information. There was no relation between any of the quantitative measures of information use and people's reactions to the usability of the information. Analysis of background variables provided some additional insights into both the quantitative and qualitative measures of information use.
Improvement of Pointing Time by Predicting Targets in Pointing with a PC Mouse BIBA 23-32
  Atsuo Murata
A method was proposed for the prediction of a target to which a user is to point with a mouse on the basis of the trajectory of the mouse cursor. An empirical study was carried out in order to evaluate the validity of the proposed prediction algorithm to reduce the pointing time with the prediction accuracy remaining high. The effects of the distance between the edges of two adjacent targets and the position of the indicated target on the prediction accuracy were investigated. Pointing with no prediction mode was also conducted. In the prediction method, the angle between the cursor movement vector and the vector that connected the current cursor position and the center of each target was calculated respectively at various sampling frequencies and intervals, and the minimum cumulative value was determined as the prediction target. The pointing time of the prediction method was shown to be less than that of the control condition for various combinations of the sampling interval and frequency. The trade-off between the pointing time and the prediction accuracy was also clarified. The prediction accuracy was found to be affected by the position of the target. The prediction accuracy at Positions 2 and 4, which have neighbors on both sides, was especially low. The distance between the edges of two adjacent targets affected the prediction accuracy, especially at Positions 2 and 4. Implications for application of the algorithm are given.
Reliability Assessment of a User Proficiency Measurement Technique BIBA 33-49
  Catherine L. Kelley; Elizabeth A. Bosman; Neil H. Charness; Melvin A. Mottram
An important goal of human-computer interaction research is the reliable measurement of user performance. Although a fair amount of attention has been devoted to assessing the reliability and validity of paper-and-pencil measures of user satisfaction and other components of usability, reliability statistics for performance measures are rarely presented. Issues in reliability assessment of performance measures are discussed, and the reliability analysis of a scoring scheme used in our work is presented.
Information Flow and Development of Coordination in Distributed Supervisory Control Teams BIBA 51-70
  Barrett S. Caldwell; Nicholas C. Everhart
This article presents results of a study to examine the flow of information between members of a new task team conducting a distributed supervisory control task. The emphasis of this project was on the effects of information presentation and message transmission delays on the development of effective information flow among human operators. The project focused on the earliest stages of team performance to explore how teams begin to refine distributed task coordination. The task simulation used in this project was a distributed navigation task based on a commercially available computer game (Spectre VR). Teams of three ("out the window" [OTW] observer, "long-range radar" observer, and a driver without direct visual information) were required to navigate a vehicle in a dynamic and potentially hostile environment containing obstacles and moving hazards. The goal of the task was to accumulate points through capturing flags. Information presentation was manipulated through standard game selections of wireframe versus filled polygon graphics rendering and the optional presentation of hints about visible objects to the OTW observer. Message transmission between the observers and the driver was also manipulated through changing communication baud rates between computers. A total of 51 undergraduate student teams participated in the study. Results indicated that the number of words exchanged between observers and the driver was a significant covariate affecting team performance (measured by number of flags captured and total score). Presentation of hints negatively affected team total score and flags captured. The interaction of graphics shapes and hints combined to have a significant effect on total score. These results are discussed in terms of shared mental models and information exchange needs to support coordinated task performance implications for future team-based human-system interface designs.
External Statistical Data: Understanding Users and Improving Access BIBA 71-83
  Peter Hyland; Ted Gould
This article describes a study of the ways in which local governments make use of statistical data from external sources, such as national statistical organizations, government departments, and so forth. The study confirmed the importance of such data and revealed a number of serious problems with the current access methods.

IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 2

Keynote and Special Sessions from HCI International '97

Codex, Memex, Genex: The Pursuit of Transformational Technologies BIBA 87-106
  Ben Shneiderman
Handwritten codexes or printed books transformed society by allowing users to preserve and transmit information. Today, leather-bound volumes and illuminated manuscripts are giving way to animated image maps and hot links. Vannevar Bush's memex has inspired the World Wide Web, which provides users with vast information resources and convenient communications. In looking to the future, we might again transform society by building genexes -- generators of excellence. Such inspirational environments would empower personal and collaborative creativity by enabling users to:
  • Collect information from an existing domain of knowledge.
  • Create innovations using advanced tools.
  • Consult with peers or mentors in the field.
  • Disseminate the results widely. This article describes how a framework for an integrated set of software tools might support this 4-phase model of creativity in science, medicine, the arts, and beyond. Current initiatives are positive and encouraging, but they do not work in an integrated fashion, often miss vital components, and are frequently poorly designed. A well-conceived and clearly stated framework could guide design efforts, coordinate planning, and speed development.
  • Toward an Information Society for All: An International Research and Development Agenda BIBA 107-134
      Constantine Stephanidis; Gavriel Salvendy
    This article introduces the visionary goal of an information society for all, in which the principles of universal access and quality in use prevail and characterize computer-mediated human activities. The article is based on the outcome of the 1st meeting of the International Scientific Forum "Toward an Information Society for All," which took place during the Seventh International Conference on Human Computer Interaction (HCI International '97). The objective of this meeting was to define a short-, medium-, and long-term international research and development agenda in the context of the emerging information society, based on the principle of designing for all users. The proposed agenda addressed technological and user-oriented issues, application domains, and support measures, which are necessary for the establishment of a favorable environment for the creation of an information society acceptable to all citizens.
    Aftereffects and Sense of Presence in Virtual Environments: Formulation of a Research and Development Agenda BIBA 135-187
      Kay Stanney; Gavriel Salvendy
    This report represents a committee summary of the current state of knowledge regarding aftereffects and sense of presence in virtual environments (VEs). The work presented in this article, and the proposed research agenda, are the result of a special session that was set up in the framework of the Seventh International Conference on Human Computer Interaction. Recommendations were made by the committee regarding research needs in aftereffects and sense of presence, and, where possible, priorities were suggested. The research needs were structured in terms of the short, medium, and long term and, if followed, should lead toward the effective use of VE technology. The 2 most critical research issues identified were (a) standardization and use of measurement approaches for aftereffects and (b) identification and prioritization of sensorimotor discordances that drive aftereffects. Identification of aftereffects countermeasures (i.e., techniques to assist users in readily transitioning between the real and virtual worlds), reduction of system response latencies, and improvements in tracking technology were also thought to be of critical importance.

    IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 3

    A Review of Intelligent Human-Machine Interfaces in the Light of the ARCH Model BIBA 193-231
      Christophe Kolski; Emmanuelle Le Strugeon
    An important field of current research is that of the design and implementation of intelligent human-machine interfaces (HMIs). This article reviews a number of concepts concerning intelligent interfaces, taking as its starting point the well-known ARCH model of HMI, with particular concern for the ability of such interfaces to be flexible, adaptive, tolerant of human error, and supportive both of human operators and intelligent agents.
    Measuring the Sense of Presence and its Relations to Fear of Heights in Virtual Environments BIBA 233-249
      Holger T. Regenbrecht; Thomas W. Schubert; Frank Friedmann
    This article describes a study in which a genuine effect of presence-the development of fear of virtual stimuli-was provoked. Using a self-report questionnaire, the sense of presence within this situation was measured. It was shown that fear increased with higher presence. The method, which involved 37 test participants, was tested and validated with user tests at the Bauhaus University. A growing body of research in human-computer interface design for virtual environments (VE) concentrates on the problem of how to involve the user in the VE. This effect, usually called immersion or the sense of presence, has been the subject of much research activity. This research focuses on the influence of technical and technological parameters on the sense of presence. However, little work has been done on the effects of experienced sense of presence. One field in which a sense of presence is necessary for the successful application of VEs is the treatment of acrophobic patients. Our goals are to (a) create a theory-based self-report measurement for presence and (b) measure presence independently from specific effects to validate the measurement. The anxiety resulting from the confrontation with a virtual cliff is used to validate the measurement of presence.
    Virtual Chess: Meaning Enhances Users' Sense of Presence in Virtual Environments BIBA 251-263
      Hunter G. Hoffman; Jerrold Prothero; Maxwell J. Wells; Joris Groen
    Presence refers to the sensation of going into a computer-simulated environment. We investigated whether presence and memory accuracy are affected by the meaningfulness of the information encountered in the virtual environment (VE). Non-chess players and three levels of chess players studied meaningful and meaningless chess positions in VEs. They rated the level of presence experienced in each and took an old-new recognition memory test. Non-chess players reported no difference in presence for meaningful compared with meaningless positions, yet even weak chess players reported feeling more present with meaningful compared with meaningless positions. Thus, only modest levels of expertise were needed to enhance presence. In contrast, tournament-level chess-playing ability was required before meaningful chess positions were remembered significantly more accurately than meaningless chess positions. Tournament players' memory accuracy was very high for meaningful positions but was the same as non-chess players for meaningless positions. Meaning did not significantly influence memory accuracy for weak chess players. Our memory results replicate and extend the findings of Chase and Simon (1973). Our presence results show how cognitive factors inherent in the user can influence the quality of the human-computer interface. Practical implications are discussed.
    Testing the Boundaries of Two User-Centered Design Principles: Metaphors and Memory Load BIBA 265-282
      Misha Walker Vaughan
    This experiment examined how varying implementations of two user-centered design principles affected the usability of a computer program. Drawing from human-computer interaction, as well as cognitive psychology, the following principles were implemented and tested: maximizing use of the user's expectations and stereotypes and minimizing the user's memory load. Nine interfaces were created using Hypercard's datebook program. On each interface, the graphics and text were manipulated according to the design principle and the related cognitive psychology research. A total of 108 people participated. Of the five hypotheses, only one was supported by the data. The data suggest that for less complicated programs and tasks, strict adherence to design principles may not be required.
    Effectiveness of Speech Response Under Dual-Task Situations BIBA 283-292
      Atsuo Murata
    The effectiveness of speech response under a dual-task situation in which participants entered 10 alphabetic strings while concurrently manipulating a robot was examined by an experimental design using response mode as a between-subject factor. The effect of the number of inputs in robot manipulation on dual-task efficiency was also investigated in order to discuss whether the performance benefits for the speech response are enhanced by increasing workload (number of inputs).
       A total of 12 male participants manipulated a robot using a speech input device. A second group of 12 male participants performed the task using a keyboard. The dual-task efficiency entry time of the speech response was better than that of the manual response. The dual-task percentage correct of the speech response was higher than that of the manual response. Increasing the workload (number of inputs required for robot manipulation) made these tendencies more noticeable. It was clarified that the manual input in the secondary robot manipulation task resulted in output competition between the two discrete tasks that disrupted the dual-task efficiency of the primary entry task. In conclusion, some dual-task benefits were found for the speech input method especially when the number of inputs increased.

    IJHCI 1998 Volume 10 Issue 4

    Employing Queuing Modeling in Intelligent Multimedia User Interfaces BIBA 297-326
      Charalampos Karagiannidis; Adamantios Koumpis; Constantine Stephanidis; Andreas C. Georgiou
    This article investigates the application of queuing modeling in intelligent multimedia user interfaces (IMUIs). We propose that queuing modeling constitutes an effective means for providing, at runtime, assessment information concerning user-computer interaction (UCI) and can thus contribute to runtime adaptation. We present specific queuing systems that model the load posed to the user's sensory channels in IMUIs under different assumptions, and indicative (media-and-modalities allocation) adaptation policies that build on this modeling are exemplified. This article also outlines the implementation of an assessment software module that uses the proposed queuing modeling framework and its subsequent integration into an existing IMUI (in which it is used for the assignment of information to output modalities); both activities were undertaken to practically demonstrate that queuing modeling can be effectively used in IMUIs.
    The Integration of Speech and Camera Control in Message Transfer TV Conferencing BIBA 327-341
      Rui Zhang; Hiroshi Tamura; Yu Shibuya
    In this study, we examined participants' integration of speech and camera control during message-transfer television conferencing. We observed participants' free use of speech and camera-control modality when they transmitted 3 types of objects-formed text (FT), mathematical expression (ME), and electronic circuit (EC)-each ranging in size from 1 to 7 elements. Modality use was classified into main-modality use and auxiliary-modality use. Five integration models were proposed based on main-auxiliary combinations. Results indicated that (a) speech was used more frequently for transmitting ME objects, and camera control was used more often for FT and EC objects; (b) speech was gradually replaced by camera control as size increased; (c) when camera control was chosen as main modality, speech was usually also used, as auxiliary modality; and (d) compared to beginners, experienced participants used more speech. A postsession questionnaire was conducted to collect participants' assessment of the correctness, speed, and ease of use of speech and camera control. Camera control had a higher score in total, but speech was thought faster for transmitting FT and ME objects.
    Evaluating the Layout of Graphical User Interface Screens: Validation of a Numerical Computerized Model BIBA 343-360
      Avraham Parush; Ronen Nadir; Avraham Shtub
    We developed a numerical model for evaluation of graphical user interface (GUI) screens. The model consists of design guidelines concerning screen factors-element size, local density, alignment, and grouping-and produces a complexity score for a given screen. The complexity predictions of the model were examined in a fully factorial experimental design in which GUI screens with all combinations of factors were shown to human users. We measured participants' search times for given elements on all screens, and participants rated their pair-wise preferences of those screens. Overall, very well designed screens resulted in shorter search times and high subjective preference. The combination of poor alignment and poor local density had the strongest adverse effect on search time. Alignment and grouping were found to have more influence on subjective preference. Weights derived from the subjective judgments were introduced into the model, and a significant correlation was found between model predictions and search times. We discuss the findings in terms of screen-design implications and in terms of the development and use of numerical models in GUI design and evaluation.
    Heavy Users of Electronic Mail BIBA 361-379
      Ann Lantz
    A field study was conducted using a questionnaire and interviews concerning how electronic mail (E-mail) is used as a work tool for communication. The questionnaire, distributed electronically within a large organization, showed that employees sending and receiving large numbers of E-mail messages are not the same employees having problems handling E-mail. Managers seem to have problems to a larger extent than members of other workgroups. Interviews were then conducted with 10 employees selected by strata from the questionnaire study. Strata were based on the variables of job category, number of E-mail messages sent and received per day, and E-mail handling problems. The interviews showed that, although employees continually entered the E-mail program, they did not see this action as disruptive of other work activities; instead, they saw it as having a positive effect. E-mail handling problems correlated with the number of messages stored in the inbox (.72). Employees felt a shortage of time for handling E-mail and gave examples of communication problems. Regardless of the number of messages in the inbox and whether employees felt a time shortage, employees had difficulty organizing stored messages within folders and catalogues.
    A Taxonomy of Error Types for Failure Analysis and Risk Assessment BIBA 381-405
      Alistair Sutcliffe; Gordon Rugg
    We describe a taxonomy of error types that builds on work by Reason (1990) and Hollnagel (1993). The taxonomy uses a faceted schema subdivided into layers. Each layer targets a particular analysis task, and a method is proposed leading the assessor through sets of error types at different levels (e.g., cognitive, social, organizational). This allows the causes of failure to be attributed to one or more error types. The method is illustrated with two case studies of diverse failures. The utility of taxonomy analysis in understanding the reasons for failure and risk assessment is discussed.