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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 16

Editors:Kay M. Stanney; Gavriel Salvendy
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2003 Volume 16 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2003 Volume 16 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2003 Volume 16 Issue 3

IJHCI 2003 Volume 16 Issue 1

Introduction BIBFull-Text 1-3
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah
ERP Implementation: Chief Information Officers' Perceptions of Critical Success Factors BIBAFull-Text 5-22
  Fiona Fui-Hoon Nah; Kathryn M. Zuckweiler; Janet Lee-Shang Lau
This article reports the results of a survey of Chief Information Officers (CIOs) from Fortune 1000 companies on their perceptions of the critical success factors in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) implementation. Through a review of the literature, 11 critical success factors were identified, with underlying subfactors, for successful ERP implementation. The degree of criticality of each of these factors were assessed in a survey administered to the CIOs. The 5 most critical factors identified by the CIOs were top management support, project champion, ERP teamwork and composition, project management, and change management program and culture. The importance of each of these factors is discussed.
Implementation Partner Involvement and Knowledge Transfer in the Context of ERP Implementations BIBAFull-Text 23-38
  Marc N. Haines; Dale L. Goodhue
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems are difficult and costly to implement. Studies show that a large portion of the overall implementation cost can be attributed to consulting fees. Indeed, hardly any organization has the internal knowledge and skills to implement an ERP system successfully without external help. Therefore, it becomes crucial to use consultants effectively to improve the likelihood of success and simultaneously keep the overall costs low. In this article the authors draw from agency theory to generate a framework that explains how consultant involvement and knowledge of the implementing organization can impact the outcome of the project. Portions of the framework are illustrated by examples from a series of interviews involving 12 companies that had implemented an ERP. It is suggested that choosing the right consultants and using their skills and knowledge appropriately, as well as transferring and retaining essential knowledge within the organization, is essential to the overall success of an ERP system implementation.
A Process Change-Oriented Model for ERP Application BIBAFull-Text 39-55
  Majed Al-Mashari
Though the application of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems has become widespread, many organizational experiences have shown that resulting outcomes fall short of expectations. Best-practice experiences, however, have proven that effective application is centered on an integrative approach that seeks to achieve a balance between certain key organizational elements. This article presents a novel process change management-oriented model that considers the key areas in ERP implementation, including strategy, business processes, structure, culture, information technology, and managerial systems. The model is grounded by empirical-based evidence drawn from a survey of various organizational practices with ERP implementation.
Analyzing ERP Implementation at a Public University Using the Innovation Strategy Model BIBAFull-Text 57-80
  Keng Siau; Jake Messersmith
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have revolutionized the way companies are using information technology in their businesses. ERP was created in an effort to streamline business processes and has proven to be successful in many operations. Unfortunately, not all ERP implementations have met expectations. One way that businesses may be able to increase success rates is to embrace creativity and innovation in their ERP implementations. For businesses to do this, they must first understand how creativity originates and how that creativity can be integrated into business solutions. This article presents a case study that examines the ERP implementation at a public university and analyzes the applicability of the Innovation Strategy Model on public sector organizations.
Misalignments in ERP Implementation: A Dialectic Perspective BIBAFull-Text 81-100
  Christina Soh; Siew Kien Sia; Wai Fong Boh; May Tang
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems are often not fully aligned with the implementing organization. It is important to understand their sources of misalignments because they can have significant implications for the organization. From a dialectic perspective, such misalignments are the result of opposing forces that arise from structures embedded in the ERP package and the organization.
The Decision-Support Characteristics of ERP Systems BIBAFull-Text 101-123
  Clyde W. Holsapple; Mark P. Sena
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems have been widely adopted in large organizations. These systems store critical knowledge used to make the decisions that drive an organization's performance. However, ERP systems are known primarily for their transactional rather than their decision-support characteristics. This study examines the extent to which adopters of ERP systems perceive characteristics typically associated with decision-support systems. It also examines the importance that adopters place on such characteristics. The major findings are that ERP adopters perceive substantial levels of decision-support characteristics in their ERP systems and that they consider such characteristics to be important. The study also examines differences in decision-support perceptions among demographic groups. By delineating the current state of ERP systems as they pertain to decision support, the results establish areas that vendors and adopters can focus on to improve the level of decision support provided by their ERP systems.

IJHCI 2003 Volume 16 Issue 2

The Performance of Automated Speech Recognition Systems Under Adverse Conditions of Human Exertion BIBAFull-Text 127-140
  Marcia Seivert Entwistle
Research was conducted to determine if a relation exists between human exertion and the ability of speech recognition software to correctly recognize human speech. Participants were asked to use voice recognition technology to input a short newspaper article in 3 portions. 1 portion of the selected article was read while the participants were rested, another portion while they were lightly exerted, and the final portion while they were experiencing hard exertion. Recognition percentages were computed and compared for rested, lightly exerted, and moderately hard exerted states. The results identified a negative linear relation between physical exertion and recognition accuracy; the higher the level of exertion, the lower the accuracy rate.
The Development and Evaluation of a Speech-to-Sign Translation System to Assist Transactions BIBAFull-Text 141-161
  Stephen Cox; Michael Lincoln; Judy Tryggvason; Melanie Nakisa; Mark Wells; Marcus Tutt; Sanja Abbott
The design, development, and evaluation of an experimental translation system that aims to aid transactions between a deaf person and a clerk in a post office (PO) is described. The system uses a speech recognizer to recognize speech from a PO clerk and then synthesizes recognized phrases in British Sign language (BSL) using a specially developed avatar. The main objective in developing this prototype system was to determine how useful it would be to a customer whose first language was BSL, and to discover what areas of the system required more research and development to make it more effective. The system was evaluated by 6 prelingually profoundly deaf people and 3 PO clerks. Deaf users and PO clerks were supportive of the system, but the former group required a higher quality of signing from the avatar and the latter a system that was less constrained in the phrases it could recognize; both these areas are being addressed in the next phase of development.
Data Entry for Mobile Devices Using Soft Keyboards: Understanding the Effects of Keyboard Size and User Tasks BIBAFull-Text 163-184
  Andrew Sears; Ying Zha
As mobile, handheld computing devices become more common and are used for an ever-increasing variety of tasks, new mechanisms for data entry must be investigated. Personal digital assistants often provide a small stylus-activated soft keyboard, as do some mobile phones that include touch screens. However, there is little data regarding the importance of keyboard size or the users' tasks, the effectiveness of these keyboards, or user reactions to these keyboards. In this article, an experiment designed to investigate these issues in the context of a palm-style QWERTY keyboard is described. In this study, 30 novices completed 6 realistic tasks using either a small, medium, or large soft keyboard. The results not only confirm that keyboard size does not affect data entry rates but that making the keyboard smaller does not increase error rates or negatively impact preference ratings. However, tasks that required users to switch between the alphabetic keyboard and the numeric keyboard do result in significantly slower data entry rates. A model that accurately predicts the time required to enter predefined text is presented, and directions for future research are discussed.
Electronic Survey Methodology: A Case Study in Reaching Hard-to-Involve Internet Users BIBAFull-Text 185-210
  Dorine Andrews; Blair Nonnecke; Jennifer Preece
Using the Internet to conduct quantitative research presents challenges not found in conventional research. Paper-based survey quality criteria cannot be completely adapted to electronic formats. Electronic surveys have distinctive technological, demographic, and response characteristics that affect their design, use, and implementation. Survey design, participant privacy and confidentiality, sampling and subject solicitation, distribution methods and response rates, and survey piloting are critical methodological components that must be addressed.
   In this article, quality criteria for electronic survey design and use based on an investigation of recent electronic survey literature are presented. The application of these criteria to reach a hard-to-involve online population-nonpublic participants of online communities (also known as "lurkers")-and survey them on their community participation, a topic not salient to the purpose of their online communities is demonstrated in a case study. The results show that a hard-to-reach audience can be reached using the quality criteria that are most important for reaching these types of audiences. The results suggest how the use of some criteria may conflict and what researchers may experience when conducting electronic surveys in an online culture in which people are not tolerant of intrusions into online lives.
Perceptions of Customer Service, Information Privacy, and Product Quality From Semiotic Design Features in an Online Web Store BIBAFull-Text 211-234
  Marc L. Resnick; Raquel Montania
The rise of the World Wide Web for electronic commerce has led to a proliferation of companies selling products online. The global nature of the Internet allows customers to browse the products of companies with which they are wholly unfamiliar. However, concerns about customer service, information privacy, and product quality discourage purchasing from unknown companies. In this article, the effects of semiotic Web design features on expectations of these performance criteria in a purchase situation are investigated. Specifically, the presence and prominence of links to customer service and a site privacy policy, and the existence of product ratings and customer testimonials, were tested to measure their effects on customer perceptions and expectations. Results indicate that some design features have a strong semiotic effect on customer expectations. Prominent links to customer service and a site privacy policy significantly increased expectations of customer service and privacy protection. The presence of product ratings increased perceptions of product quality. All 3 design features led to increased likelihood of purchase. Furthermore, participants were not aware of these effects and reported not considering product ratings in their decisions. Implications of these results on Web site design and consumer behavior are discussed.
A Systemic-Structural Activity Approach to the Design of Human-Computer Interaction Tasks BIBAFull-Text 235-260
  Gregory Bedny; Waldemar Karwowski
In this article, a new approach to the study of Human-Computer interaction (HCI) from the activity theory perspective is presented. A computer-based task was selected for demonstration purposes. Due to its complexity, variability, and number of mental components, the selected computer-based task presented difficulties in observation and formal description. Other tasks involving computers bared similar difficulties. In this study, it is demonstrated that activity theory, which has precise units of analysis and carefully elaborated concepts and terminology, can be useful in the study of HCIs. The examination and description of the computer-based task in this study are carried out through a systemic-structural analysis approach associated with activity theory.
A Study of Computerized Offices in Greece: Are Ergonomic Design Requirements Met? BIBAFull-Text 261-281
  Nicolas Marmaras; Stelios Papadopoulos
In this study, an investigation was conducted into the extent to which ergonomic requirements for work on computers are met in Greek office workstations. The ergonomic requirements considered were those included in Council Directive 90/270/EEC (1990) of the European Union and the ISO 9241 (1997) standard. 593 office workstations were assessed using an assessment tool consisting of 70 assessment points. The assessment results show that the ergonomic requirements that are independent of the specific characteristics of individual work spaces and environments (e.g., design standards for seats, monitors, and input devices) are adequately met. Ergonomic requirements that should take into consideration the specific characteristics and constraints of individual work content, work spaces, and environments (e.g., requirements dealing with workplace layout, environmental conditions, software, and work organization) are inadequately met. Based on these results, issues are indicated on the effort ergonomists should focus to improve working conditions in computerized offices.
Interfaces That Heal: Coupling Real and Virtual Objects to Treat Spider Phobia BIBAFull-Text 283-300
  Hunter G. Hoffman; Azucena Garcia-Palacios; Albert Carlin; Thomas A., III Furness; Cristina Botella-Arbona
Tactile augmentation is a simple, safe, inexpensive interaction technique for adding physical texture and force feedback cues to virtual objects. This study explored whether virtual reality (VR) exposure therapy reduces fear of spiders and whether giving patients the illusion of physically touching the virtual spider increases treatment effectiveness. Eight clinically phobic students were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups-(a) no treatment, (b) VR with no tactile cues, or (c) VR with a physically "touchable" virtual spider-as were 28 nonclinically phobic students. Participants in the 2 VR treatment groups received three 1-hr exposure therapy sessions resulting in clinically significant drops in behavioral avoidance and subjective fear ratings. The tactile augmentation group showed the greatest progress on behavioral measures. On average, participants in this group, who only approached to 5.5 ft of a live spider on the pretreatment Behavioral Avoidance Test (Garcia-Palacios, 2002), were able to approach to 6 in. of the spider after VR exposure treatment and did so with much less anxiety (see www.vrpain.com for details). Practical implications are discussed.
Simulating Network Delays: Applications, Algorithms, and Tools BIBAFull-Text 301-323
  Andrew Sears
Organizations are rushing to establish a presence on the World Wide Web (WWW). Researchers, designers, and users all recognize the importance of network delays, with longer delays frequently being associated with more negative user experiences. Although some delay is unavoidable, design decisions do contribute to the total delay users experience. In this article, a collection of tools that allow individuals to experience realistic network delays during informal evaluations, usability studies, and controlled experiments are described. These tools allow practitioners to more effectively assess usability in the context of realistic network delays, researchers to more effectively investigate the factors that affect the usability of information and applications delivered via the WWW, and educators to more effectively convey the importance of design decisions in the context of the WWW. This article describes how these tools may be used as well as the tools themselves, including the algorithms that make them effective. 2 approaches for validating simulations with results are presented. The first validation suggests that the simulation process utilized in the wide-area network delay simulator tools (Borella & Sears, 1997) effectively reproduces the network delays observed when retrieving material via the WWW. The second validation provides even stronger support, indicating that the simulation process can be used to reproduce a specific set of network conditions more accurately than the network itself. Directions for additional research are also discussed.
Cognitive Analysis of Process Knowledge Transfer in Computer Supported Cooperative Work BIBAFull-Text 325-344
  Manfred Muhlfelder; Holger Luczak
In this article, a quantitative method for evaluating the effects of groupware usage on the emergence of shared mental action models (SMAM) is introduced and demonstrated. SMAM are defined as individual cognitive representations of goals, functions, states, and forms of a common work process in which a team member is involved. They serve for description, explanation, and prediction of the current and future states of a cooperative work process. By combining multidimensional scaling with analysis of angular variance, a method for quantitative evaluation of SMAM is described, and reliable and valid measurement of the central SMAM components was tested.
A Detailed Analysis of Task Performance With and Without Computer Monitoring BIBAFull-Text 345-366
  Jeffrey M. Stanton; Shreya T. M. Sarkar-Barney
Participants (N = 115) performed a computerized task under 3 conditions: no supervision, direct human supervision, and computer monitoring. Differences in performance across groups was evaluated using summary performance measures and detailed analyses of group performance over time. There was a statistically significant difference in performance quality but not performance quantity between the groups. The nonmonitored and computer-monitored groups had higher quality of performance compared with the direct human supervision group. Performance varied when examined in detail at different points in time during the experimental task. Together the results suggest that direct human supervision motivated participants but that participants in the other 2 groups were more sensitive to varying task demands.
Interaction With Robots: Physical Constraints on the Interpretation of Demonstrative Pronouns BIBAFull-Text 367-384
  Michita Imai; Kazuo Hiraki; Tsutomu Miyasato; Ryohei Nakatsu; Yuichiro Anzai
This study investigated what effect physical constraints have on the interpretation of demonstrative pronouns when a user navigates a robot. For this investigation, a robot navigation environment called Spondia-II was develope, and an experiment conducted. It is known that the interpretation of demonstrative pronouns requires information about not only the situation (or context) but also the speaker's viewpoint during a dialogue. The results of the experiment suggest that physical constraints do affect the user's viewpoint, especially when a user utters a demonstrative pronoun while navigating the robot. In actual fact, the user alters the use of demonstrative pronouns according to the change in the user's viewpoint. It is also suggested that the user and the robot share the same viewpoint during the physical interaction.

IJHCI 2003 Volume 16 Issue 3

Introduction: Augmented Reality-Usability and Collaborative Aspects BIBFull-Text 387-393
  Morten Fjeld
Communication Behaviors in Colocated Collaborative AR Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 395-423
  Mark Billinghurst; Daniel Belcher; Arnab Gupta; Kiyoshi Kiyokawa
The authors present an analysis of communication behavior in face-to-face collaboration using a multi-user augmented reality (AR) interface. 2 experiments were conducted. In the 1st experiment, collaboration with AR technology was compared with more traditional unmediated and screen-based collaboration. In the 2nd experiment, the authors compared collaboration with 3 different AR displays. Several measures were used to analyze communication behavior, and the authors found that users exhibited many of the same behaviors in a collaborative AR interface as in face-to-face unmediated collaboration. However, user communication behavior changed with the type of AR display used. The authors describe implications of these results for the design of collaborative AR interfaces and directions for future research.
Browsing the Real-World Wide Web: Maintaining Awareness of Virtual Information in an AR Information Space BIBAFull-Text 425-446
  Rob Kooper; Blair MacIntyre
The authors describe a prototype augmented reality (AR) system that allowed them to experiment with interfaces to a 3-dimensional spatialized information space based on the World Wide Web (WWW). The authors call such an information space the Real-World Wide Web (RWWW), because it merges the WWW with the physical world. They present the assumptions they make about the characteristics of such a system, discuss the implications of those assumptions for AR interfaces, and describe their initial experiences creating a prototype RWWW browser.
Visual Performance in Augmented Reality Systems for Mobile Use BIBAFull-Text 447-460
  Marino Menozzi; Franziska Hofer; Urs Napflin; Helmut Krueger
Users of augmented reality (AR) must direct their attention toward real world as well as artificial information. The authors investigated some aspects of interference between the 2 sources of information that affect performance in completing a visual search task. The search task was carried out under 3 different conditions, 2 of them as found in AR in mobile systems. Participants were asked to detect a target that was superimposed on a background. Target and background were presented on a screen subtending a rectangular area of 55? ? 43? (horizontal ? vertical). The target appeared at 6 different locations on the screen. A video recording of a car drive served as the background. In 1 condition, the recording was replayed continuously. Static images of the record were sampled at 5-sec intervals and replayed as background in another condition. A uniform gray background served as a baseline.
Field Design Sessions: Augmenting Whose Reality? BIBAFull-Text 461-476
  Jesper Pedersen; Jacob Buur; Tom Djajadiningrat
The authors present a design case in which field design sessions are introduced to bridge the designers' imagination and the users' knowledge of the use context. This approach entailed immersing design teams in the environment of the product-to-be during the conceptual design phase. With a background in the Scandinavian tradition of participatory or cooperative design, the design team observed and talked to users, sketched and produced mock-ups, acted out scenarios, and received user feedback during these field trips.
   Moving the design into the field provided the team with a number of advantages compared with traditional work in the design studio based on user field observations. Designers achieved direct physical experience of the circumstances and a nonrepresented, nonabstracted introduction to the problems at hand. Through on-the-spot mock-up design and user collaboration, valuable insights into the essence of work and use were gained, and design suggestions embodied by these mock-ups were put on the line. Being aware or unaware of it, these suggestions contained personal assumptions, and preconceived opinions or hypotheses about use and use context, but also contained suggestions of applied technology. The result was new valuable insights toward an understanding of what work really is (or is not) and how it could be supported (or not supported) in the future.
   It is argued that, to make the most of augmented reality (AR) in the design of professional tools, knowledge of the state of the art of technology is a prerequisite, but is not in itself sufficient. It needs to be complemented by design approaches that (a) provide insight about the users, their work practice, and use context and (b) support designers in aligning their viewpoints with the viewpoints and experienced reality of the people for whom they are designing. This may form a cornerstone in the successful application of emerging technologies.
   This article discusses existing human-computer interaction approaches aimed at engaging the field in design, contrasts them with field design sessions, reflects on the advantages of applying them, and draws attention to a number of method points.
Through-Walls Communication for Medical Emergency Services BIBAFull-Text 477-496
  Bruce H. Thomas; Gerald Quirchmayr; Wayne Piekarski
The authors present a model for bringing the coordination power of workflow management systems to outdoor wearable augmented reality (AR) systems. They portray how mobile equipment may be integrated with adaptive, context-aware work environments. A scenario of a medical emergency task is described to illustrate the functionality of this form of collaboration system. Appropriate information stickers are introduced to support data collection in medical emergency scenarios in a sophisticated form through a hands-free user interface for medical personnel. They propose the use of new user interface technology, including multimedia, AR information stickers, and the allocation of patient medical records to identified locations of the human body. A key feature is the access to relevant information for users in the mobile environment as well as for those in the advanced control room. An additional advantage is the automatic recording of on-site data, which helps to build the medical record of a patient without interfering with the work of the emergency team.
Augmented Reality (AR) for Assembly Processes Design and Experimental Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 497-514
  Stefan Wiedenmaier; Olaf Oehme; Ludger Schmidt; Holger Luczak
Augmented reality (AR) for assembly processes is a new kind of computer support for a traditional industrial domain. This new application of AR technology is called ARsembly. The intention of this article is to describe a typical scenario for assembly and service personnel and how they might be supported by AR. For this purpose, tasks with different degrees of difficulty were selected from an authentic assembly process. In addition, 2 other kinds of assembly support media (a paper manual and a tutorial by an expert) were examined in order to compare them with ARsembly. The results showed that the assembly times varied according to the different support conditions. AR support proved to be more suitable for difficult tasks than the paper manual, whereas for easier tasks the use of a paper manual did not differ significantly from AR support. Tasks done under the guidance of an expert were completed most rapidly. Some of the information obtained in this investigation also indicated important considerations for improving future ARsembly applications.
Book Review: User Interfaces for All: Concepts, Methods, and Tools by C. Stephanidis (Ed.) BIBFull-Text 515-516
  Helmut Degen