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International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 17

Editors:Kay M. Stanney; Gavriel Salvendy
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 4

IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 1

Introduction BIBFull-Text 1-2
  Osamu Katai
A Microworld Approach to Identifying Issues of Human-Automation Systems Design for Supporting Operator's Situation Awareness BIBAFull-Text 3-24
  Makoto Itoh; Toshiyuki Inagaki
This article gives a microworld approach to identify design requirements for better situation awareness. Two experiments were designed and conducted. In the first experiment, behaviors of operators who lost situation awareness were analyzed, and the following two findings were obtained: (a) Automation must provide an operator with feedback information on the control mode, even when it is the operator who changed a control mode. (b) Authority for control may have to be passed from an operator to automation for attaining safety in highly urgent situations. The second experiment was done to investigate how human-interface may affect an operator's situation awareness. It is shown that human-interface must be carefully designed to externalize a mental model of the controlled process.
Evaluation of Organizational Structure in Emergency Situations From the Viewpoint of Communication BIBAFull-Text 25-42
  Shogo Nishida; Takashi Koiso; Mie Nakatani
This article focuses on evaluation of organizational structure in emergency situations from the communication viewpoints. The communication process in an emergency is analyzed first, then the problems caused in the process are discussed. A communication model is proposed that considers human related factors such as an organization's "competence," "duty," "responsibility," and "knowledge." On the basis of the model, a system to evaluate organizational structure in emergency situations from the viewpoint of communication is designed. Finally, a prototype system is developed, and its evaluation results are represented. The article closes with a discussion of how the proposed communication model could be used to aid in the development of group communication support systems for emergency situations.
InterActor: Speech-Driven Embodied Interactive Actor BIBAFull-Text 43-60
  Tomio Watanabe; Masashi Okubo; Mutsuhiro Nakashige; Ryusei Danbara
A speech-driven embodied interactive actor called InterActor, with functions of both speaker and listener, was developed for activating human interaction and communication by generating expressive actions and motions coherently related to speech input. InterActor is the electronic media version of a physical interaction robot called InterRobot for robot-mediated communication support, which is free of the hardware restrictions for human interface of advanced graphical user interface based network communication. By using InterActor, the concept of speech-driven embodied interaction system is proposed for human interaction sharing by the entrainment between human speech and InterActor motions in remote communication. The prototype of the system is developed, and the sensory evaluation and behavioral analysis in human communication through InterActor demonstrates the effectiveness of the system. Actual applications of InterActor to human interface are also demonstrated. The system is a practical communication support system, which activates human interaction and communication on the basis of only speech input.
Remote Infrared Audible Signage System BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Takuro Hatakeyama; Fumio Hagiwara; Hajime Koike; Keiji Ito; Hirohiko Ohkubo; C. Ward Bond; Masao Kasuga
When walking along streets or inside buildings, it is important for people with visual disabilities to acquire environmental information in order to update their mental map for accurate orientation as well as to ensure safe mobility. Various devices have been developed to acquire this information, but many problems remain unresolved. To overcome these difficulties, the authors describe two new additions to a Remote Infrared Audible Signage System (Talking Signs(r)) for use by people with visual disabilities that they can use not only in public places but also in the personal environment of their daily life. These efforts are currently taking place through a joint Japanese-U.S. company collaboration.
Design of Interactive Skill-Transfer Agent From a Viewpoint of Ecological Psychology BIBAFull-Text 71-88
  Takayuki Shiose; Tetsuo Sawaragi; Akira Nakajima; Hideshi Ishihara
This article focuses on the design of an interactive skill-transfer agent for parameter tuning of an image sensor used to distinguish inferior goods from regular goods in a production line. The authors analyze the difficulty of transferring skills from a viewpoint of ecological psychology that takes into account the reciprocal relations between the participant and the environment. This article introduces an agent-based interactive skill-transferring system that stretches the meaning of this reciprocity as an interaction between an instructor and a successor. In concrete terms, an interactive agent system is proposed using an interactive learning classifier system with facial icons to enhance the human user's trust in the agent. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this system in transferring a human expert's skills.
Visualization of Respiration in the Embodied Virtual Communication System and Its Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 89-102
  Tomio Watanabe; Masamichi Ogikubo; Yutaka Ishii
A proposed embodied virtual communication system provides a virtual face-to-face communication environment in which two remote talkers can share embodied interaction by observing their interaction with two types of avatars. One is VirtualActor, a human avatar that represents talker communicative motion and respiratory motion. The other is VirtualWave, an abstract avatar that expresses human behavior and respiration by simplified wave motion. By using the system for the analysis by synthesis of embodied communication, the effectiveness of the visualization of respiration in VirtualActor and VirtualWave is demonstrated by the analysis of the entrainment of interaction and the sensory evaluation in remote communication.
Trends in Usability Research and Activities in Japan BIBAFull-Text 103-124
  Masaaki Kurosu; Tadashi Kobayashi; Ryoji Yoshitake; Hideaki Takahashi; Haruhiko Urokohara; Daisuke Sato
This article presents an outline of information on the usability activities in Japan with a focus on the last 10 years. Although there were many activities in academia, substantial efforts were made in industry, and both activities coincided to form unique usability engineering in the country. Because of the language barrier that exists in many Japanese usability engineering professionals, just a few works have been presented at international conferences. This is the reason why the tried to summarize in English the usability engineering activity in Japan.

IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 2

Introduction BIBFull-Text 127-130
  Dylan Schmorrow; Dennis McBride
Overview of the DARPA Augmented Cognition Technical Integration Experiment BIBAFull-Text 131-149
  Mark St. John; David A. Kobus; Jeffrey G. Morrison; Dylan Schmorrow
The Defense Advance Research Projects Agency Augmented Cognition program is developing innovative technologies that will transform human-computer interactions by making information systems adapt to the changing capabilities and limitations of the user. The first phase of the Augmented Cognition program was to empirically assess the ability of various psychophysiological measures to identify changes in human cognitive activity during task performance in real time. This overview describes the empirical results of a Technical Integration Experiment involving the evaluation of 20 psychophysiological measures from 11 different research groups, including functional Near Infrared imaging, continuous and event-related electrical encephalography, pupil dilation, mouse pressure, body posture, heart rate, and galvanic skin response. These "cognitive state gauges" were evaluated on a common, quasi-realistic, military command and control task called the Warship Commander Task. Participants monitored aircraft on a geographical display for their levels of threat and responded to the threatening ones, as they simultaneously monitored ship communications for ship status information. The task involves a combination of perceptual, motor, spatial, auditory, verbal, memory, and decision-making processing. Task load was manipulated by changing the quantity and types of aircraft appearing throughout the primary task and by varying the presence or absence of the secondary verbal-memory task. Eleven of the gauges significantly identified changes in cognitive activity during the task. This overview summarizes the results and examines the prospects for the successful transition of these cognitive state gauges to operational military human-machine systems.
Real-Time Analysis of EEG Indexes of Alertness, Cognition, and Memory Acquired With a Wireless EEG Headset BIBAFull-Text 151-170
  Chris Berka; Daniel J. Levendowski; Milenko M. Cvetinovic; Miroslav M. Petrovic; Gene Davis; Michelle N. Lumicao; Vladimir T. Zivkovic; Miodrag V. Popovic; Richard Olmstead
The integration of brain monitoring into the man-machine interface holds great promise for real-time assessment of operator status and intelligent allocation of tasks between machines and humans. This article presents an integrated hardware and software solution for acquisition and real-time analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) to monitor indexes of alertness, cognition, and memory. Three experimental paradigms were evaluated in a total of 45 participants to identify EEG indexes associated with changes in cognitive workload: the Warship Commander Task (WCT), a simulated navy command and control environment that allowed workload levels to be systematically manipulated; a cognitive task with three levels of difficulty and consistent sensory inputs and motor outputs; and a multisession image learning and recognition memory test. Across tasks and participants, specific changes in the EEG were identified that were reliably associated with levels of cognitive workload. The EEG indexes were also shown to change as a function of training on the WCT and the learning and memory task. Future applications of the system to augment cognition in military and industrial environments are discussed.
Neural Network Analysis of the Mastoid EEG for the Assessment of Vigilance BIBAFull-Text 171-199?
  Mihaela Duta; Chris Alford; Sue Wilson; Lionel Tarassenko
This article is concerned with the analysis of the mastoid electroencephalogram (EEG) using parametric modeling and neural network techniques to assess the vigilance of an individual. One possible application of this work would be the design of a monitoring system for tracking the transitions within the vigilance continuum.
   The strategy presented consists of training neural networks with spectral features extracted from the mastoid EEG. The results are validated against the expert scoring of the vigilance level performed by visual inspection of the central EEG, electrooculographic (EOG), and electromyography (EMG) signals, and against the results obtained by training similar networks with information extracted from the central EEG (widely recognized as providing useful information for vigilance level assessment). To improve the performance of the neural networks, a Kohonen map-based technique for filtering the training data is proposed (this allows labels assigned by an expert to 15-sec epochs to be transcripted reliably to 1-sec segments). The results presented demonstrate conclusively that the tracking of fluctuations from alertness to drowsiness within the vigilance continuum is possible by neural network analysis of a single channel of EEG recorded from the mastoid site.
A Real-Time Index of Vagal Activity BIBAFull-Text 197-209?
  Adam Hoover; Eric Muth
A computer system today receives no data regarding the physiological state of the user, but there are many cases where these data could be useful. For example, as the user becomes bored or lethargic, the system could raise the workload or audiovisual feedback to stimulate arousal. As the user becomes tense or strained, the system could lighten the workload or simplify the feedback to lessen arousal. This type of physiological-based closed-loop feedback could be applied in a number of scenarios, such as training, stressful repetitive work (e.g., air traffic control), and military operations. In this article, the authors describe a computing system that produces a real-time cardiac-based measure of arousal. The measure is based on changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia, an established measure of vagal activity. They describe the measure, the measure's potential and limits, the computing system, and the new directions for physiological monitoring research made possible by such a system.
Functional Optical Brain Imaging Using Near-Infrared During Cognitive Tasks BIBAFull-Text 211-231?
  Kurtulus Izzetoglu; Scott Bunce; Banu Onaral; Kambiz Pourrezaei; Britton Chance
A symbiotic relation between the operator and the operational environment can be realized by an advanced computing platform designed to understand and adapt to the cognitive and the physiological state of the user, especially during sensitive and cognitively demanding operations. The success of such a complex system depends not only on the efficacy of the individual components, but also on the efficient and appropriate integration of its parts. Because near infrared technology allows the design of portable, safe, affordable, and negligibly intrusive monitoring systems, the functional near infrared (fNIR) monitoring of brain hemodynamics can be of value in this type of complex system, particularly in helping to understand the cognitive and emotional state of the user during mentally demanding operations. This article presents the deployment and statistical analysis of fNIR spectroscopy for the purpose of cognitive state assessment while the user performs a complex task. This article is based on data collected during the Augmented Cognition-Technical Integration Experiment session. The experimental protocol for this session used a complex task, resembling a video game, called the Warship Commander Task (WCT). The WCT was designed to approximate naval air warfare management. Task difficulty and task load were manipulated by changing the following: (a) the number of airplanes that had to be managed at a given time, (b) the number of unknown (vs. known) airplane identities, and (c) the presence or absence of an auditory memory task. The fNIR data analysis explored the following: (a) the relations among cognitive workload, the participant's performance, and changes in blood oxygenation levels of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; and (b) the effect of divided attention as manipulated by the secondary component of the WCT (the auditory task). The primary hypothesis was that blood oxygenation in the prefrontal cortex, as assessed by fNIR, would rise with increasing task load and would demonstrate a positive correlation with performance measures. The results indicated that the rate of change in blood oxygenation was significantly sensitive to task load changes and correlated fairly well with performance variables.
Functional Optical Brain Imaging Using Near-Infrared During Cognitive Tasks BIBAFull-Text 229-257?
  Kay Stanney; Shatha Samman; Leah Reeves; Kelly Hale; Wendi Buff; Clint Bowers; Brian Goldiez; Denise Nicholson; Stephanie Lackey
As technology advances, systems are increasingly able to provide more information than a human operator can process accurately. Thus, a challenge for designers is to create interfaces that allow operators to process the optimal amount of data. It is herein proposed that this may be accomplished by creating multimodal display systems that augment or switch modalities to maximize user information processing. Such a system would ultimately be informed by a user's neurophysiological state. As a first step toward that goal, relevant literature is reviewed and a set of preliminary design guidelines for multimodal information systems is suggested.
Dynamic Models of Augmented Cognition BIBAFull-Text 259-275?
  Peter M. Young; Benjamin A. Clegg; Charles A. P. Smith
With changing technology and improving understanding of human neural mechanisms, the point is rapidly approaching where human-computer interaction could integrate information based on real-time cognitive state detection to adapt input to the user. This will result in a novel closed-loop system around a human operator. The shift to interactions around a closed-loop has the potential to produce fundamental changes in system performance of even well-understood open-loop scenarios. This article presents modeling based on engineering control systems theory that offers insight into such closed-loop systems. The model shows how dynamic instability can result from introducing feedback within a system and provides some methods that can be applied to remove such instability and optimize performance. The authors also examine the robustness of the closed-loop system to (parametric) variations in the (model of the) human operator. The use of such models allows for a systematic approach to analysis. This opens the door to many issues for future research, including system efficiency, design and optimization, as well as suitability of systems to variations across both operators and tasks. Some of the implications of such models for the future operation of human-computer systems are discussed, especially with a view to future work.
Postural Control as a Probe for Cognitive State: Exploiting Human Information Processing to Enhance Performance BIBAFull-Text 275-287?
  Carey D. Balaban; Joseph Cohn; Mark S. Redfern; Jarad Prinkey; Roy Stripling; Michael Hoffer
The battlefield of the future will require the warfighter to multitask in numerous ways, seriously taxing the cognitive and perceptual capabilities of even the most advanced warrior. A principal concern in developing a better understanding of how current and proposed computational technologies can supplement and augment human performance in this and other environments is determining when such assistance is required. This challenge can be parsed into 2 components: determining what set of measurements accurately reflects cognitive state, and identifying techniques for synthesizing this set of measurements into a single collective cognitive state variable. The primary thesis of this proposal is that automatic human behavioral responses serve as inherent probes for cognitive state. Further, the human perception-action system is uniquely designed to capture, process, integrate, and act on an extraordinarily diverse range of information freely available in the natural environment. Together, this system and the surrounding environment which acts on it-and on which the system acts-form a dynamic coupling. Under normal conditions these couplings remain intact. When stressed, these couplings become degraded. Based on this understanding, the authors propose a unique suite of Cognitive Workload Assessment (CWA) tools, based on real-time measurements of postural control that can serve as both a stand-alone indicator of cognitive state as well as a cueing filter for engaging other CWA sensor suites that are currently under development.
Book Review: Paper prototyping-The fast and easy way to design and refine user interfaces, by Carolyn Snyder BIBFull-Text 287-288?
  Jianming Dong
Book Review: HCI Models, theories, and frameworks: Towards a multidisciplinary science, by John M. Carroll BIBFull-Text 289-290
  A. Ant Ozok

IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 3

An Investigation of Text Throughput Speeds Associated with Pocket PC Input Method Editors BIBAFull-Text 293-308
  Patrick M. Commarford
Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are becoming increasingly popular in the United States and elsewhere. These devices are small, lightweight, and extremely mobile. One of the biggest drawbacks of PDAs has been the slow speed at which data can be entered. Researchers have studied the rates at which individuals can enter uncorrected text to a PDA using Palm OS software (Graffiti and the virtual keyboard). However, this is the first investigation of the speed at which users can enter corrected text to a PDA running Microsoft Windows CE. The results indicate that users are faster with the virtual keyboard than with the letter recognizer. Despite performance differences, users did not indicate greater satisfaction with the soft keyboard or the letter recognizer.
Proactive Task Support Enabled by a Neural Network: A Prototype for Telephone Triage BIBAFull-Text 309-332
  Mike Leung; Ji-Ye Mao
This research proposes the use of neural networks for providing task support in a proactive but relatively unobtrusive manner. The user interface features separate and persistent advice windows, where procedural advice and relevant domain knowledge are displayed continuously, side by side to the task window. The display is updated in short intervals. As the central component of the back end, a neural network identifies the user's current task and relevant advice based on the task progress. A prototype, Telephone Triage Assistant (TTA), has been built to demonstrate the user interface style and the proposed approach. It supports novice nurses' triage task based on a telephone interview. The usability of TTA has been informally evaluated at a medical call center, and the feedback was encouraging in general.
Determining Causes and Severity of End-User Frustration BIBAFull-Text 333-356
  Irina Ceaparu; Jonathan Lazar; Katie Bessiere; John Robinson; Ben Shneiderman
Although computers are beneficial to individuals and society, frequently users encounter frustrating experiences when using computers. This study represents an attempt to measure, in 111 participants, the frequency, the cause, and the level of severity of frustrating experiences. The data show that frustrating experiences happen on a frequent basis. The applications in which the frustrating experiences happened most frequently were Web browsing, e-mail, and word processing. The most-cited causes of frustrating experiences were error messages, dropped network connections, long download times, and hard-to-find features. The time lost due to frustrating experiences ranged from 47% to 53% of time spent on a computer, depending on the location and study method. After extreme cases were discarded, the time lost was still above 38%. These disturbing results should be a basis for future study.
Usability Inspection by Metaphors of Human Thinking Compared to Heuristic Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 357-374
  Kasper Hornbaek; Erik Frokjaer
A new usability inspection technique based on metaphors of human thinking has been experimentally compared to heuristic evaluation (HE). The aim of metaphors of thinking (MOT) is to focus inspection on users' mental activity and to make inspection easily applicable to different devices and use contexts. Building on classical introspective psychology, MOT bases inspection on metaphors of habit formation, stream of thought, awareness and associations, the relation between utterances and thought, and knowing. An experiment was conducted in which 87 novices evaluated a large Web application, and its key developer assessed the problems found. Compared to HE, MOT uncovered usability problems that were assessed as more severe for users and also appeared more complex to repair. The evaluators using HE found more cosmetic problems. The time spent learning and performing an evaluation with MOT was shorter. A discussion of strengths and weaknesses of MOT and HE is provided, which shows how MOT can be an effective alternative or supplement to HE.
Cognitive Modeling of Student Learning in Web-Based Instructional Programs BIBAFull-Text 375-402
  Sherry Y. Chen; Robert D. Macredie
There has been tremendous growth in Web-based instruction over the past few years. Because the user group of Web-based instruction includes learners from heterogeneous backgrounds, individual differences become an important issue in the development of Web-based instructional programs. Among a variety of individual differences, cognitive style is a particularly important characteristic. This study aims to determine the relationships between learners' cognitive styles and their perceptions and attitudes toward the features of a Web-based instructional program. The results indicate that cognitive styles influence students' reactions to nonlinear interaction, independent learning, and navigation tools and the difficulties and problems that they encounter. The findings are applied to develop a learning model that can support the design of Web-based instructional programs.
Ethnography, Scenario-Based Observational Usability Study, and Other Reviews Inform the Design of a Web-Based E-Notebook BIBAFull-Text 403-426
  Yolanda Jacobs Reimer; Sarah A. Douglas
As users turn to the World Wide Web to accomplish an increasing variety of daily tasks, many engage in information assimilation (IA), a process defined as the gathering, editing, annotating, organizing, and saving of Web information, and the tracking of ongoing Web work processes. The process of IA, which is similar to traditional note taking but in the Web environment, emerges from a literature review and an ethnographic field study, as presented in this article. Despite strong evidence which suggests that IA is critical to many Web users, however, a scenario-based observational usability study and a heuristic evaluation indicate that it is currently not well supported by existing software applications. This article, which culminates in the presentation of NetNotes-a Web-based e-notebook developed specifically to support the process of IA-illustrates how design requirements can be effectively extracted and synthesized from a variety of complementary background user studies.
Human Body as the Medium in Dance Movement BIBAFull-Text 427-444
  Mamiko Sakata; Mariko Shiba; Kiyoshi Maiya; Makoto Tadenuma
To clarify mechanisms involved in the human recognition of body-mediated information, this study examines what kinds of impressions and emotions are perceived from body movements in dance. The study attempted to develop multiple regression models to investigate the effects of physical movement factors on impressions and emotions. The regression analyses show that people perceive emotional information from the body-mediated information, even without facial expressions. Those results suggest that the body does not only have an additional or secondary function, but also plays an important role as independent media in human communications. Emotions are actually expressed and impressed, that is, communicated through the human body as the medium.

IJHCI 2004 Volume 17 Issue 4

Sharing Sense of Walking With Locomotion Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 447-462
  Hiroaki Yano; Kaori Kasai; Hideyuki Saito; Hiroo Iwata
This article proposes a method of enabling users to share the sensation of walking with each other in a virtual environment (VE). Achieving this shared sensation requires physical equipment, with algorithms to control it. As an example of such physical equipment, a new footpad type of locomotion interface (LI), named GaitMaster2, has been developed and physiologically evaluated. An algorithm for the positional control of users' feet has been proposed, enabling the users to share various aspects of the sensation of walking. As an evaluation, two footpad type LIs were connected via a network. Using the proposed control algorithm, there followed the construction of a master-slave walking environment and a synchronized walking environment. These experiments demonstrated that this method is effective for sharing the sensation of walking in a VE.
Effects of Duration of Immersion in a Virtual Reality Environment on Postural Stability BIBAFull-Text 463-477
  Atsuo Murata
Few studies have been carried out to examine the relation between postural stability and subjective reports or feelings of motion sickness. Two views seem to exist on the relation between immersion in a virtual reality (VR) environment and subjective feelings of motion sickness. One predicts that the immersion induces both postural instability and motion sickness. Another view is that preimmersion postural instability predisposes people to motion sickness. However, these views are not supported by empirical research. Longer immersions in a VR environment may induce higher levels of postural instability and symptoms of motion sickness. In this study, effects of long-hours immersion in a VR environment on postural stability were examined to approach the underlying mechanism of postural instability and motion sickness using force platform measurement and self-reported questionnaire on motion sickness. As a result, it was suggested that longer immersion in a VR environment induced postural instability and symptoms of motion sickness.
The Computer-Email-Web (CEW) Fluency Scale-Development and Validation BIBAFull-Text 479-506
  Ulla Bunz
The purpose of this research was to develop an instrument to assess people's fluency with the computer, e-mail, and the Web (CEW fluency). Such an instrument, tapping into digital divides, could fill the existing void that exists between previously developed computer literacy or experience scales and the ever faster development of Internet technology. The research was conducted in 2 stages. The first study (N = 284) tested 52 Internet fluency items. A principle component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in 21 remaining items in 4 constructs: computer fluency (a = .85), e-mail fluency (a = .89), Web navigation (a = .84), and Web editing (a = .82). The 4-factor solution accounted for more than 67% of the total variance. Correlation analysis showed that there was no multicolinearity of items. The second study (N = 143) aimed at testing the CEW Fluency Scale for reliability and validity. Participants completed a 77-item questionnaire containing the CEW Fluency Scale, the Computer Use Scale (Panero, Lane, & Napier, 1997), items from the Georgia Tech WWW survey (GVU, 1998), and demographic items. The 4 constructs of the CEW Fluency Scale held up in the reliability analysis, as Cronbach's alphas were as follows: computer fluency (a = .72), e-mail fluency (a = .75), Web navigation (a = .64), and Web editing (a = .79). Correlation analysis showed that comfort with the computer or the Internet, or satisfaction with one's skills, correlated highly with the CEW fluency items. Regression analysis revealed that duration of Internet usage and level of expertise as defined by the Georgia Tech WWW survey were the strongest predictors of CEW fluency, R = .614, adjusted R2 = .368, F(2, 131) = 39.643, p < .001. Overall, preliminary support for the scale's reliability and validity was found.