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Proceedings of the 2011 DESIRE Conference on Creativity and Innovation in Design

Fullname:Proceedings of the Second DESIRE Conference on Creativity and Innovation in Design
Editors:Jean-Bernard Martens; Panos Markopoulos
Location:Eindhoven, Netherlands
Dates:2011-Oct-19 to 2011-Oct-21
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-0754-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: DESIRE11
Links:Conference Website | Conference Program (including Posters)
  1. Externalizations and sketches
  2. Design exploration
  3. Design tools and methods
  4. Understanding and supporting creativity
  5. Roles in design
  6. Tangible interaction I
  7. Collaborative design
  8. Design case studies
  9. Approaches to design
  10. Tangible interaction II
  11. Workshops and tutorials
  12. Doctoral consortium
  13. Roles in design

Externalizations and sketches

3D scanning and printing as a new medium for creativity in product design BIBAFull-Text 15-20
  John Stanislav Sadar; Gyungju Chyon
3D digital scanning and printing has the potential to transform design practice, bringing elements of craft into the production process. While increasingly common in the design departments of universities, 3D scanning and printing are seemingly treated as neutral and magical tools. This misses the great potential they have for enabling new forms of creativity in design practice as a new design medium. To do so, however, requires an understanding of their potentials and propensities. Within the context of producing molds for slip-casting, the authors set about coming to understand the technologies through a set of controlled experiments.
The significance of form elements: a study of representational content of design sketches BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Shahriman Zainal Abidin; Anders Warell; Andre Liem
The purpose of this paper is to understand the significance of form elements through the interpretations of design sketches. These interpretations are provided by designers themselves interpreting expressive characteristics of car images, and by students interpreting the sketches of designers' morphing sequences. In the experimental investigation of the sketching process through morphing sequence exercises, designers used individually driven styles and approaches when creating product form. These approaches produce characteristically different form ideas, which differ (but also show consistency) with respect to type of car category, expression, identity, recognition, format, composition, complexity, etc. Typically, assessment of generated sketch work and ideas is done using relative heuristic evaluation in a comparative design review. Given a large set of automotive sketches, general patterns of styling emphasis can be identified. The paper concludes that perceptions of designers are varied due to the representation format of the ideas as visual hand sketches. The visual hand sketches point out certain meaning and can be categorized with respect to perceptual characteristics according to the PPE framework and suggest that a tool to support evaluation and generation of early design concepts can be developed, and to support the generation of form ideas with desired characteristics for a brand, product category and market.
Externalisation and design BIBAFull-Text 31-42
  Alan Dix; Layda Gongora
External representations are ubiquitous in design from blue-foam models, to formal requirements documents. This paper seeks to explicate the role of externalisation in the light of literature in philosophy, psychology, and design practice. The apparent conflict between theories of embodiment, which emphasises tacit action, and the ideal of reflective practice is resolved in a rich interplay between tacit and explicit knowledge and reasoning. By understanding the kinds of external representation in design their properties, and functions, we are able to make sense of tools and techniques for reflection and creativity and we hope ultimately improve them and design itself.
Connected sketchbook: linking digital files to physical pages BIBAFull-Text 43-46
  Josje Wijnen; Elise van den Hoven
A lot of designers carry around sketchbooks, also called design journals, to record everyday inspirations. This paper describes a concept in which digital files are connected to specific pages of such a physical sketchbook. This way initial notes, drawings or other types of recordings can be united with their digital equivalents, related files or end results (like digital drawings and presentations). Our informal user evaluation points out that indicating file types is preferred over indicating number of files, since it helps users to recollect the digital files that are related to the work described on the physical pages.
Paper equals screen: a comparison of a pen-based figural creativity test in computerized and paper form BIBAFull-Text 47-50
  Stanislaw Zabramski; Sarathkumar Neelakannan
In this paper, we present the results of an experiment investigating how the results of a figural creativity test are affected when paper and pen or tablet PC and stylus are used to test participants. The results show no effect of the testing method on creativity scores obtained by participants. The results indicate that the differences between computerized and paper-based figural creativity tests noticed by previous research might be limited to the influence of User Interface artifacts used. That implies that creativity testing can be introduced to a variety of stylus based computer devices with insignificant influence of the transition from regular pen and paper to screen and stylus as a computer input device.

Design exploration

What you see is what you design: exploring the influence of inspiration images in designers' ideation BIBAFull-Text 53-60
  Pei-Jung Cheng; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
The purpose of this study is to investigate how different kinds of images may interact with designers' associative mechanism in the ideation process. The study includes an experiment with 20 graphic design students and the results were analyzed and coded by five researchers. Our analysis shows that different inspirational images (e.g., adult human figure, faces of children and some specific objects) have different influences on designers' thinking (choosing a specific restaurant type) for the design task.
Examples galleries generated by interactive genetic algorithms BIBAFull-Text 61-71
  Dimitri Masson; Alexandre Demeure; Gaëlle Calvary
Examples browsing is a common designer practice in user interface design. Several design galleries can be found on Internet. However, those galleries are hand crafted and thus limited and cumbersome to build. In this paper, we claim for tools for supporting both the production and exploration of examples. We describe a running prototype based on Interactive Genetic Algorithms (IGA), and relate an early evaluation.
Capturing and analysing shape creation in design BIBAFull-Text 73-79
  Gareth Paterson
Explicit knowledge of how shape is created is lacking from the research literature. As this is a predominantly visual process it is difficult, if not impossible, to express in words. Substituting shape rules for verbal reports in protocol analysis, however, overcomes this difficulty. Shape rules employed in this way allow practitioners, and researchers, to record and reflect on the otherwise inexpressible processes central to visual creativity.
The application of learning algorithms in the development of natural interaction BIBAFull-Text 81-84
  Emilia Barakova; Ruud Mestrom; Willem Willemsen
This paper argues that natural interaction with a machine can be realized and improved by using learning algorithms. Through the use of supervised and reinforcement learning algorithms, a robot was created that can be trained to perform actions using only verbal commands. The user has complete freedom in choosing preferred commands and what actions should be linked to these commands. The combination of supervised and reinforcement learning resulted in a fundamentally different way of interaction with a robot. The way this system was set up can be used as a framework for new projects, giving designers a new tool to improve human-machine interaction.
Facet lens: local exploration and discovery in globally faceted data sets BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Christian Lambeck; Jan Wojdziak; Rainer Groh
The process of design and construction in the field of automotive engineering produces lots of digital documents like images, text documents, calculation sheets, videos or 3Dmodels. Their amount, size and file type diversity increase rapidly since project team structures are getting more and more interdivisional. To regain an overview of the available items and their characteristics, the utilization of a faceted browser (or faceted search) is a comfortable approach. Its textual property selection is already state of the art and leads to a reduced result set. But its deficiency is located in the global, overall affection of the search field. By introducing Facet Lens, we combine the benefits of the classical facet based search by topological context on a multi-touch device. The designer is able to screen the visual results for specific properties by moving the lens above the surface. Therefore, only regional subsets can be taken into account and the area is discovered along a user defined path individually. We argue that this is more intuitive and meets the creative and cooperative way to work in an interdisciplinary team much more than strict, textual filtering on all available items.

Design tools and methods

Crafting user experiences by incorporating dramaturgical techniques of storytelling BIBAFull-Text 91-102
  Berke Atasoy; Jean-Bernard Martens
Design is changing into an experience-oriented discipline and therefore designers need appropriate tools and methods to incorporate experiential aspects into their designs. We argue that the creative skills required of designers are starting to overlap with those required of professional storytellers. Understanding the structural strategies behind storytelling and learning how to incorporate them into a design process is becoming increasingly relevant for designers when they want to envision, discuss and influence user experiences. We have specifically investigated dramaturgical techniques from film and sequential art (also known as comics) in order to establish how they can inspire existing conceptual design methods such as brainstorming, scenarios, personas and storyboarding. The specific tool entitled "Storify" that we present at the end of this paper is a concrete proposal for how to support designers in their creative efforts when crafting and communicating stories about envisioned experiences.
Tracing situated effects of innovative design methods: inexperienced designers' practices BIBAFull-Text 103-113
  Jung-Joo Lee; Kirsikka Vaajakallio; Tuuli Mattelmäki
In recent years the design research community has been active in developing new methods for user involvement and collaboration in the design process. The new methods, often called innovative design methods, correspond more to designer's genuine ways of thinking and working than do traditional user-centered ones. The entire purpose of innovative method is to allow for designer's creativity in the design of method and reflective learning, instead of relying on predefined rules of method. For this reason, codification and scientific evaluation are often regarded very challenging, if meaningful at all. This leads us to raise a question; what could be relevant ways of framing and communicating innovative design methods to better capture their nature and value?
   As one attempt to explore this question, our study takes a close look at inexperienced designers' practices with innovative methods, such as probes or co-design workshops. We chose students as research subjects because their situated actions -- and the challenges they face in understanding and applying these methods -- reveal just kind of knowledge about the innovative methods that needs to be communicated. To do this, we analyzed students' learning diaries written during the design course. When the students reported uncertainties and disappointments due to 'ill-defined' nature of such methods, we were able to trace the reasons for disappointments. We also found that the innovative design methods in fact supported the students for empathic learning and design inspiration from the making process of the methods.
On the development of electronic design tools and associated guidelines for supporting the early stages of the design process BIBAFull-Text 115-126
  Derya Ozcelik; Javier Quevedo-Fernandez; Jos Thalen; Jacques Terken
According to the user-centred design (UCD) philosophy, users should be involved as much as possible in the different stages of the design process, to optimize the likelihood that design proposals will be appreciated by users. In this paper, first we consider some challenges and questions that are raised by this general guideline. Next, we summarize outcomes of an ongoing project that addresses the question of when and how to involve the user in the design process. We report UCD opinions and practices in industry. In addition, we present work in progress aiming to develop tools and guidelines that should support design departments in industry to develop design proposals that optimize the fit-to-context. This includes a study investigating the effects of realism and animation of concept representations on user feedback. These studies help us to get a better understanding of when and how to involve users in the design process.
Magical Bits: designing through experiencing the future end product BIBAFull-Text 127-130
  Katja Grufberg; Lars Erik Holmquist
This paper describes a method for designers to brainstorm around, and to experience, an end product before it is even conceptualized. Magical Bits are simple physical models representing the main property of a technology or a main function of a future end product. Knowing the end product's main function, and using these models as if they were working products, can help to put the experience in focus. By stepping away from the computer, technical limitations and "single solution thinking", the aim of this method is to let a designer develop through experiencing the users' perceptions and emotions, which should have a central role in the beginning of a design process.
Reframing connections: an approach to stimulate creativity BIBAFull-Text 131-134
  Tore Bleuzé; Jan Detand; Patrick Debaets
Today, more and more products are made with different materials and composites to fulfil the more and more requiring product needs. New materials and production processes creates new possibilities for designers. Designing connections is still an important aspect of developing products. The connections influence the assembly, the product aesthetics, the strength of the product,... How to design and construct a product depends on the creativity and the experience of the designer. The creativity is the main force behind design and innovation. This paper discusses an approach which considers connections on different levels. By looking at connections in different ways, designers could create new insights and stimulate their creativity.

Understanding and supporting creativity

Understanding the creative mechanisms of design thinking: an evolutionary approach BIBAFull-Text 137-147
  Katja Thoring; Roland M. Müller
In this article, we analyse the concept of design thinking with its process, the team structure, the work environment, the specific culture, and certain brainstorming rules and techniques. The goal of this work is to understand how the creative mechanisms of design thinking work and how they might be improved. For this purpose, we refer to the idea of creativity as an evolutionary process, which is determined by generation (i.e., recombination and mutation), selection, and retention of ideas. We evaluate the design thinking process in terms of its capabilities to activate these mechanisms, and we propose possible improvements. This paper contributes to a better understanding of creative design processes in general and the design thinking process in particular, and will serve as a foundation for further research about creative mechanisms.
Teaching creative design: a challenging field BIBAFull-Text 149-156
  Hedda Haugen Askland; Anthony Williams; Michael Ostwald
This paper considers the issue of creativity in design education. More specifically, it discusses key challenges for teaching creative design as they are identified by design academics. The paper presents an analysis of primary data collected for an ongoing research project on assessing creativity in design. It identifies six key issues facing design academics when teaching creative design courses, namely: terminology; subjectivity and marking; culture and context; personalities; resources; and pedagogical approach.
Investigating exceptional poets to inform an understanding of the relationship between poetry and design BIBAFull-Text 157-165
  Erin L. Beatty; Linden J. Ball
Our previous research has indicated that poetry and design are two forms of creative activity that have many parallels, including the role of "sources of inspiration" in driving the creation of solution ideas and the central involvement of initial solution concepts or "primary generators" [11] in providing a way for designers/poets to scope tasks in terms of core objectives. In the present paper we report a study involving interviews with two highly-respected, award-winning UK poets who we consider to be exceptional in their field (i.e., "super-experts"), given their major international standing. Our research allowed us to generalise key aspects of our earlier findings, such as the role of primary generators, and also uncovered new observations, perhaps because of the highly self-reflective nature of these poets' understanding of their own expertise, which was not so apparent in our previous studies with less expert individuals. Our discussion explores the nature of our super-experts' poetic creativity, as well as the implications of our analysis for an understanding of design expertise.
Dissecting the creative leap: the inside of creation BIBAFull-Text 167-170
  JFM. (Hans) d'Achard van Enschut
This paper will touch on the aspects that are present in the 'way of working' of Artists. A description is created using a black box approach and in-depth interviews with artists. A crucial role for consciousness was identified. The derived description enables a meaningful discussion on the act of creating. Calling this a model will do injustice to the highly intuitive and illusive event (or period) of artistic creation. Case studies and interviews used in this paper indicate that it holds meaning across various disciplines like Visual Arts, Architecture, Music, Performing arts, Painting, Writing, etc.
Cooperation, curiosity and creativity as virtues in participatory design BIBAFull-Text 171-174
  Marc Steen
In this essay, I explore how virtue ethics can help to better understand participatory design (PD) processes. Three virtues are discussed that people need in order to become PD virtuosos: cooperation, curiosity and creativity.

Roles in design

A theory of skills of software, interaction and graphics designers: contrasting aspects emerging from empirical studies BIBAFull-Text 177-188
  Marcus Nirbrant; Ebba Thora Hvannberg; Siniia Lindquist
Traditionally, education in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and interaction design has emphasized methods of usability evaluation and how to elicit needs of users. However, there is also a need for design skills to translate this information into proper design. By characterizing required skills of practitioners in fields relevant to the development of graphical user interfaces, we seek to find implications for interaction design education. Eight practitioners in graphic design, software development and interaction design were interviewed about work processes, idea generation and creative approaches. The analysis of the interviews has exposed a theory of similarities and differences between the work roles in the different fields. We present a model to illustrate this theory.
Endless innovation: the role of industrial design in maintaining the relationship between business & society BIBAFull-Text 189-192
  Dominika Potuzakova; Nick Sturkenboom; Dirk Snelders
There are many businesses on the market that cannot clearly see the strategic value of industrial design. Managers often see designers as a separate concern in a developmental process, namely to give a product or system a final look and shape. In this paper we would like to change this view, and stress that industrial design is of strategic value to companies, and should be implemented early and throughout the whole developmental process. The strategic value of industrial design is presented here as a capacity that creates and sustains a symbiotic relationship between business and society. By presenting this strategic capacity of design in a diagram and further explaining the various implications in the text we intend to promote the view of industrial design as a central capacity of innovation in business.
The design researcher in quandary: the conflicting roles of being both a designer and a design researcher BIBAFull-Text 193-196
  Maiken Hillerup Fogtmann; Sofie Kinch
In the field of practice-based research we articulate the dilemma that emerges as the creative designer embraces the role of being an interaction design researcher. We exemplify the dilemma in a specific design case originating from a PhD project. In this case, we use sketching to illustrate how the design researcher embodies the creative designer at all times. We show how the dilemma becomes tangible in the conversation with the material when having to manage a set of design constraints, concerns and sensibilities. We acknowledge that when taking on both roles at the same time there are two different clients with different agendas to serve. Where one is concerned with making the best possible product the other pertains to the contribution of knowledge. Finally, we state the importance of having a strong research question when balancing a research program while at the same time creating a new, desired reality.

Tangible interaction I

Cyranic contraptions: using personality surrogates to explore ontologically and socially dynamic contexts BIBAFull-Text 199-210
  Robb Mitchell; Alex Gillespie; Brian O'Neill
Understanding contexts is an important challenge that is made harder for designers by the increasing speed at which contexts change. To assist designers, three types of contextual dynamism are distinguished: physical, ontological and social. To inform understanding ontological dynamism and social dynamism, "social contraptions" -- a form of socially interactive design experimentation is proposed. This paper focuses on cryanic social contraptions in which unseen users interact through a human surrogate that they guide via radio transmissions. Observations from initial trials are reported along with a discussion of themes arising for design and an appraisal of this approach's potential as a design tool.
Tiblo: a tangible learning aid for children with dyslexia BIBAFull-Text 211-220
  Sumit Pandey; Swati Srivastava
Dyslexia is a learning disability, which affects the ability to read and spell correctly. Special schools for children with dyslexia focus on individual growth, learning and psychological difficulties faced by the child. In this paper, we describe the design, development and testing of Tiblo (Tangible Interactive BLOcks), a tangible learning aid for children with dyslexia in the age group of 8 to 12 years. Tiblo has been specifically designed keeping in mind the psychological and emotional effects of dyslexia. We explain the process and results of an ethnographic study conducted at a school for children with dyslexia; the resulting concept development and prototyping. Further, we outline the testing process with the students at the school and the results of the same. The results showed that the children have a greater engagement in their classroom activities and there is an improvement in their retention abilities on using Tiblo. Also, they had a very strong sense of attachment and ownership towards the blocks and like to personalize it. This was in sharp contrast with other digital learning aids which offer a symptomatic and subject specific approach to aiding children with dyslexia and hence do not develop a personal one to one relationship with the child.
Making sense of "things": developing new practices and methods for using tangible materials in collaborative processes BIBAFull-Text 221-225
  Trine Heinemann; Stella Boess; Jeanette Landgrebe; Robb Mitchell; Maurice Nevile
We identify an empirical gap in the application of an activity common to Participatory Design and Innovation, namely the tangible workshop. We suggest that tangibles or "things", while often used, remain under investigated in terms of their role in facilitating collaboration in Design and Innovation workshops. Not much is known as yet about how the participants in these workshops might make very different sense of such "things" depending on, for instance, who they are or the physical features of the "things" being employed. We thus propose a research agenda that systematically and empirically explores the role of "things" in design and innovation workshops, which will ensure that we can develop new practices or toolkits for workshops that are informed by empirically generated knowledge of how people make sense of "things".
Sharing meaning and physical activity through a tangible interactive lighting object BIBAFull-Text 227-232
  Júlia Nacsa; Emilia Barakova; Joep Frens
This paper searches to explore the relation between designing for interaction and designing for systems by building an interactive lighting object as a part of a system for sharing meaning. The reflective transformative design process with extensive user involvement resulted in creation of an interactive lamp that expresses human-inspired behaviours that can be shared with another lighting object. Different from existing studies, the sharing of meaning was explored in the interaction between the human and the product instead of merely by observation. The preliminary tests showed that shared meaning through interactive lighting behaviours were difficult to interpret to be similar on cognitive (perceptual) level. On the level of experience the object promoted shared aesthetically pleasing responses and was intriguing for users to explore and create shared value.

Collaborative design

Interest-based converge process: facilitating negotiation in collaborative design BIBAFull-Text 233-244
  Susana B. La Luz-Houchin
Trends in design, business and education point to increased demand for the role of interdisciplinary collaboration. Designers are incorporating stakeholders into a collaborative design process in various ways to share expertise, ideas, resources, and/or responsibilities for the sake of developing solutions to problems.
   Conflict management is the leverage point for truly successful collaboration. While conflict is natural and desirable, if unmanaged, it will not go away, but only become more serious. Interest-based negotiation a method of managing conflict during which parties attempt to preserve their relationship and meet each side's needs as opposed to focusing on positions that may be incompatible.
   Traditional design processes have multiple iterations of diverging/generating and converging/making decisions. If multiple people from varying backgrounds are involved in this process, the convergent stage most frequently gives rise to differing perspectives and conflict.
   Given the high potential for conflict during convergent stages of a collaborative design process, the intent of this research is to develop a tool to help designers integrate interest-based negotiation into these stages for the purpose of facilitating collaborative design. By facilitating Interest-based negotiation during convergent stages with stakeholders, designers will be opening up their process to a more people-centered, collaborative perspective.
On the use of design patterns in collaborative design processes BIBAFull-Text 245-254
  Claudia Iacob; Ernesto Damiani
Even if the usefulness of a knowledge repository represented as a collection of design patterns is largely recognized in the literature, little work has been done in investigating and measuring the impact such a collection would have on collaborative design processes involving designers. The paper describes the results of a case study designed to bring some insight into the matter. 18 design workshops were conducted with 18 teams of undergraduate students in Computer Science. Making use of a collection of design patterns for the design of synchronous applications, they were asked to design the GUI and the interaction process of applications which support synchronous collaboration in activities such as drawing, text editing, game solving, and searching. To answer the questions addressed by the case study, the results of the workshops were triangulated from: i) audio recordings of the conversations of each team, ii) notes taken on the participants interactions by a facilitator present during the workshops, and iii) feedback provided by each participant through a questionnaire, at the end of each workshop.
Cultivating collaborative design: design for evolution BIBAFull-Text 255-266
  Li Zhu
In this paper, we describe our aim to bring creativity and collaborative design together to achieve better practice in collaborative design. We explore creativity support tools for distributed multidisciplinary design teams in the collaborative design context. We provide both a meta-design model and its prototype -- namely, the Hive-Mind Space model and MikiWiki. We do not distinguish design and use time since our approach to collaborative design is one of meta-design. That is, in the sense of designing design context and designing the design process, each use situation can be a potential design situation at the use time. To evaluate the Hive-Mind Space model and its prototype, we have applied MikiWiki in two different application domains -- respectively, a role-playing game and the energy domain. Some of our findings and reflections are also shared in this paper.
Locast H2flow: creative learning tool for participatory urbanism BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Pelin Arslan; Liselott Brunnberg; Federico Casalegno; Zoe Schladow
This paper aims to show the contribution of participatory learning and co-design skills in making education more productive and personally fulfilling. The Locast H2flow Project is an educational learning experience for teenagers to develop an awareness of sustainable water usage in their community. The project incorporates the Locast platform as a tool for urban exploration, documentation, civic engagement, and ultimately participatory learning through technology. The Locast web and mobile application allows students to explore the issues surrounding water in their local context. This distributive approach further integrates the learning experience into the community through a hands-on workshop.

Design case studies

Exploring a digital economy design space in theme parks BIBAFull-Text 273-284
  Abigail Durrant; Michael Golembewski; David S. Kirk; Steve Benford; Duncan Rowland; Derek McAuley
This paper describes a creative process in which findings from a set of empirical studies were used to inspire and inform a novel design space populated with conceptual designs. Our subject of inquiry was the theme park, and we were particularly interested in exploring souvenir creation and consumption as part of the visitor experience. In presenting a rich case description of our design process and concepts, we demonstrate the potential contribution of design practice to an interdisciplinary research programme delivering understandings on human, infrastructural and innovation concerns in the digital economy.
Negotiating uncertainty: process, artifact, and discourse in a case study of technologies to address SIDS BIBAFull-Text 285-296
  Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Juan D. Rogers; Jay David Bolter
We describe the creative strategies used to develop two technologies that address sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An engineer and his team developed one of the technologies and an artist developed the other. We discuss the creative strategies and the resulting technologies in terms of their negotiation of uncertainties occurring at many levels: the uncertainty of the creative process, the uncertainty of SIDS, and the uncertainty inherent in technological interventions for SIDS.
Traditional approaches using new technologies: case studies of printed wallpaper using UV inkjet printing BIBAFull-Text 297-306
  Carinna Parraman; Sophie Adams-Foster
The objective of the Wallpaper Project, in collaboration with Roland DG (UK) Ltd and with support from European Research Development Funding (ERDF), was to develop a range of printed materials and surfaces that could be developed as print on paper, textiles and applied to walls, which could be interactive with the user with a long term objective to adapt to changes in the environment. The paper explores contemporary approaches to wallpaper design that combines craft, design, cutting-edge fabrication and novel printing technologies. New printing technologies are now being used to print onto a range of materials (plastics, metal, wood, uncoated papers) and can be used to trial new inks and methods of printing (UV hardening, metallic colours, ceramic, three-dimensional, non standard colour).
   Using the wallpapers created by MA Multi-disciplinary Printmaking students and research staff at Centre for Fine Print Research, University of the West of England, Bristol, this paper describes a series of case studies, and highlights a range of interesting opportunities and decision processes creative practitioners encountered when using new technologies.
   The wallpaper project is part of a larger enquiry into 2D and 3D printing. The paper discusses the wider implications of a novel process and materials-led exploration that explores new UV printing, additive layer manufacturing and rapid prototyping.

Approaches to design

Foundations for studying creative design practices BIBAFull-Text 309-315
  Lassi A. Liikkanen; Miko Laakso; Tua Björklund
We argue that empirical research on creativity in design is detached from the realities of the design profession and therefore unable to contribute much to the development of the discipline. We believe that by taking an industry needs-centered approach to research and starting by understanding design practices we can find better and more fruitful research questions. This theoretical paper presents an overview of the empirical approaches to studying creativity in design, specifically in the front end of the design process. We define a practice-based approach for design research and review some studies pertinent to this approach. We discuss the theoretical foundations of the practice-based approach and propose it can yield several insights into professional designers' productivity. We expect that this style of inquire can advance design tools for both practitioners and students in the future.
Studying the appearance and effect of creativity within the latter stages of the product development process BIBAFull-Text 317-328
  Chris Snider; Elies Dekoninck; Steve Culley
This paper presents a framework and coding scheme for identifying creative design approaches, particularly towards the end of the design process. These were evaluated using five undergraduate students over a 22 week individual project. The designers either followed a routine approach (using well-understood schemes), an opportunistic approach (developing creative results through changes in how they apply the available variables to the task), or an astute approach (developing creative results by changing the variables themselves). The coding scheme allows greater understanding of the creative design process, which will then be used to improve support for designers, to the benefit of their working style and project.
Relational messages in product design BIBAFull-Text 329-332
  Kathy Pui Ying Lo
This paper introduces the concept of relational messages to examine the social and psychological aspects of product design. The concept mainly draws on communication theories and insights arising from empirical research regarding users' emotional responses to service tangibles. It offers an alternative set of lens for product designers to examine their creative practice, and serves as a useful framework for researchers to analyze the psychological impact of design work. Examples of relational messages in service tangibles, products for shared use and gift products are discussed. The paper rounds up by highlighting implications for design and future research possibilities.

Tangible interaction II

Cueing the past: designing embodied interaction for everyday remembering BIBAFull-Text 335-345
  Dirk van Erve; Gerrit-Willem Vos; Elise van den Hoven; David Frohlich
Embodied interaction describes how meaning in interaction is created through engagement. With this approach as a source of inspiration for three exploratory design cases this paper explores the possibilities of embodied interaction in storing, retrieving and enriching everyday memories. Following the principles of designing for embodiment, all three design cases aim at cueing memories through visual modalities like photo and video. We discuss these case studies in light of the embodied interaction and memory theory. Our findings indicate that everyday remembering may be a suitable application area for combining it with embodied interaction, because of its abstract and personal nature.
Keynect: tangible social network BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  Sumit Pandey; Swati Srivastava
This paper presents 'Keynect', a service based installation based on the idea of building a tangible social network, which is a new kind of social network based on real world objects and social behavior. The concept is inspired by theoretical work done on the nature of always on networked devices and their effects on our culture and behavior, which suggests that we are rapidly becoming isolated, ignorant and unconcerned about the people in our own immediate vicinity. The Keynect system is based on the idea using common interactions we have with the networked objects we own and linking them to a shared object that we come in contact with on almost a daily basis, like keys. It uses key rings and a common key hanging board as a means of sharing the data across a particular space. Photographs and sounds recorded by the people are used as links and triggers shared by the key rings acting as a prop to enable spontaneous conversations, discussions and discovery. The photographs and sounds are exchanged between the key rings, randomly everyday and old data archived in the system based on un-use. The old data is selectively re-infused into the system at random creating a audio-visual history of the space created by people living in it and through the process of discovering it, creating links between people as well. The system was prototyped and tested in the context of a university building. The larger goal of the system is to make people aware of others sharing the same space through the process of discovery and engage them by using shared objects as links.
Quality and rules for mechanical aspects of tangible interaction design BIBAFull-Text 351-354
  M. Broekhuijsen; F. Delbressine; L. Feijs
This paper describes the application of Exact Kinematic Constraint Design to designs meant for tangible interaction with users. The paper gives rules for generating high quality mechanical designs for tangible interactions. Each rule is explained using examples made in LEGO and real world examples.

Workshops and tutorials

i|o cards: a tool to support collaborative design of interactive objects BIBAFull-Text 357-358
  Gabriela Carneiro; Zhu Li
This paper describes the groundwork and use of the i|o cards, a tool developed to support the collaborative design of interactive objects involving people from different backgrounds. The cards bring physical computing basic concepts to a tangible level and can be adopted during hands-on workshops as a visual common vocabulary to illustrate and promote grounded discussions about interactive systems. From the many application possibilities, some of them are mentioned to illustrate the cards potential.
Analysis, redesign and evaluation with teasing apart, piecing together BIBAFull-Text 359-360
  Clare J. Hooper
This tutorial will introduce participants to Teasing Apart, Piecing Together (TAPT), a two-phase design method for understanding and redesigning user experiences in new contexts (e.g. moving from the web to mobile). TAPT was developed to address a gap in the field for methods oriented around experiences, particularly with respect to understanding their social and emotional facets. Addressing such facets helps us build better designs for people from 'non-standard' backgrounds (e.g. those who are currently offline). TAPT has been successfully used in both industry and academia, and this workshop will draw on the tutor's experiences in the field.
Multi sensory design BIBAFull-Text 361-362
  Hendrik N. J. Schifferstein
Designers who intentionally try to create specific experiences for people, are more likely to succeed if they are aware of the messages conveyed by the different sensory channels and of their contribution to the overall experience. This paper describes a Multi Sensory Design approach in eight steps: selecting the target expression, conceptual exploration, sensory exploration, sensory analysis, mind map, user-interaction scenario, model making, and multisensory presentation. The MSD approach is unique in that perceptual knowledge obtained through explorations in all sensory modalities is explicitly incorporated in the design process. The ultimate design challenge is to develop a product that provides users with an interesting, rich experience, and nonetheless is perceived as a coherent whole.
Prototype hacking: succinct physical communication for design and business BIBAFull-Text 363-364
  David Cranor; Philippa Mothersill
This workshop aims to bring people from academic and corporate organisations together to facilitate discussions about the different reasons for developing and sharing prototypes, as well as to provide a forum for the attendees to share methods, tools and techniques for supporting the creative design process. The seeding of this discussion aims to inspire the attendees to further these ideas within their organisations, and through this integrate the 'hacker' mindset -- the idea of putting together existing resources in a clever fashion to suit other purposes [6] -- into their own development methodology.
Integrating laboratory paradigms and ethnographic field studies for advancing analyses of creative processes BIBAFull-Text 365-366
  Stefan Wiltschnig; Balder Onarheim; Bo T. Christensen; Peter Dalsgaard; Henrik Korsgaard; Linden J. Ball; Joel Chan; Aaron Houssian; Anne-Marie Hebert
This symposium responds to calls for an integration of in-vivo and in-vitro methods when studying how people tackle complex, open-ended issues in the areas of creativity, design, and innovation. Bringing together expertise from multiple perspectives and methodological backgrounds we explore fruitful ways towards integrative approaches to analyzing creative processes and practices. The theme is addressed from theoretical and practical viewpoints.

Doctoral consortium

Supporting communication between parents and primary school children with the use of technology BIBAFull-Text 423-424
  Nela Brown; Tony Stockman
Growing workload of parents and increased amount of children's after-school activities leads to decreased amount of daily contact between family members. Linking the concepts of calm technology, attention theory and connectedness-oriented communication, this PhD research aims to investigate the type of communication parents and primary school children need in order to feel connected to each other and provide a design framework for supporting such communication with the use of technology.
Research summary: multiple-case study of artists' and engineers' technology development practices BIBAFull-Text 425-426
  Jill Fantauzzacoffin
This research summary describes a comparative, multiple-case study of the work practices of artists and engineers independently developing similar technologies. The goal of the study is to develop evidence-based articulations, or vocabularies, to support the discourse of creative practice particularly with respect to technological innovation in the arts and engineering. This study informs part of my dissertation research, the overall project of which is to contribute to the body of scholarship that acts as ongoing articulation, clarification, and discourse about technological art, specifically when that art contributes to technological invention.
Exploring the body and mind connection via improvisation in the design process BIBAFull-Text 427-428
  Layda Gongora
RePlay is an exploratory environment being developed by the author to observe a concept she would like to call creativity in action. "Creativity in Action" is based in particular upon theories related to embodiment, situated action (Suchman) and describes a type of creativity that has the potential to be reflective as well as ephemeral and transformative in nature (Boden). Creativity in Action encourages awareness through reflection during the creative process by drawing attention to physical aspects of creative process. Via RePlay the author explores themes important to creative process for example reflection, flow, improvisational creativity, enactive perception and bodily externalizations. As a participant the value of RePlay is as an embodied approach for observing as well as enhancing reflection and understanding how bodily externalization is an important component of design process especially in the design of tangibles where the body is an important parameter.
Design language for creating a meaningful interaction design BIBAFull-Text 429-430
  Yi Ji
This research investigates the development of a interaction design language for use by both interaction designers and users. The purpose of this research is to explore a novel interaction design pattern system which enables design of high levels of interaction experience for user in a particular interaction context. To formalize this framework, a practice-based research methodology is used to evaluate the outcome of design work focusing on how the interaction designer uses the interaction design framework to create a meaningful user's interaction.
Social aspects of music and interactive technologies in facilitating face-to-face interactions in third places BIBAFull-Text 431-432
  Mayur Karnik
Emerging communication technologies are fundamentally changing our social lives. The relationships between our new digital and traditional physical social activities are changing dynamically, continuously evolving, rapidly integrating with one another. This paper describes research motivation and work-in-progress towards an investigation of social aspects of music and interactive technologies within the context of 'third' places such as bars, cafes, clubs, etc. The goal of this research work is to create methods, tools and guidelines to inform the design of novel systems that help lower social barriers and facilitate natural (face to face) interactions between strangers in co-located scenarios.
Develop and evaluate visual analogies to support insight and creative problem solving BIBAFull-Text 433-434
  Eric Luchian
While most of the work on analogies has focused on the role of conceptual metaphors in learning and understanding, less attention has been paid to the visual analogies for insight and creative problems. This paper reports the result of two preliminary experimental studies investigating the role of visual analogies for cueing the insight problem solving process. A systematic construction, reflection on and analyses of visual cues for insight problems could lead us to guidelines on how analogies are formed and how these guidelines could be applied in the creative design process.
Emotional wellbeing and radiotherapy: a methodological approach to improving the patient experience BIBAFull-Text 435-436
  Tara Mullaney
Medical technological advances have been instrumental in improving the physical health of many individuals over the past 50 years. However, the impact that a patient's care experience has on their emotional health has just begun to be explored. Using quantitative, qualitative, and design research methods, I am researching stress, anxiety, and perceptions of care in cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. This 3-tiered methodological approach allows me to create a holistic understanding of the patient experience. Based upon insights gained from this data, I am implementing design interventions within this environment to evaluate their ability to improve the patient experience.

Roles in design

Discovering Madeira: a case study of cultural probes BIBAFull-Text 439-447
  Jos P. van Leeuwen; Mayur Karnik; Ken Keane
This paper describes a case study of using Cultural Probes in an early stage of a 'research-through-design' project aiming at innovations in social media. We discuss our rationale and process of designing the cultural probes, along with the method developed for interpreting the responses. Finally, we present some of the insights gathered and how these lead to ideation.