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Proceedings of the 2010 DESIRE Conference on Creativity and Innovation in Design

Fullname:Proceedings of the First DESIRE Conference on Creativity and Innovation in Design
Editors:Bo T. Christensen; Tore Kristensen; Suzan Boztepe
Location:Aarhus University, Denmark
Dates:2010-Aug-16 to 2010-Aug-17
Standard No:ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: DESIRE10
Links:Conference Website | Downloadable Proceedings
  1. Keynote abstracts
  2. Papers

Keynote abstracts

Some ways cognitive science might inform design BIBA 1
  Barbara Tversky
Design is fast and specific; cognitive science is slow and general. Can cognitive science be of use to design? Two projects are suggestive. In one, we turn users into designers, and extract cognitive design principles from their graphic and verbal productions for the design of visual explanations and graphic displays. In the other, we study the origins of designers' innovations, finding that both reconfiguration and reinterpretation are key to a process of constructive perception.
Claims and evidence in design research BIBA 2
  Erik Stolterman
Design as a human approach of innovation and change is increasingly growing in attention and recognition. It seems as if any approach of inquiry and action also inspires attempts of improvement. This means that at the same time as an approach is accepted as fundamentally useful, researchers and practitioners start to explore how to change and improve the approach. Today we can see a lot of efforts aiming at improving design as a valuable approach of innovation and change by supporting practicing designers with new theories, models, methods, and tools for design. In this presentation I will examine and discuss what it means to improve design. Many questions emerge when attempts are made to improve design, for instance, are there different types of improvements, how can we measure the success of improvement, how do we know that theories and models produced by design research are valuable and can deliver in the intended way. I will also discuss what the notions of claims and evidence might mean in this kind of design research.
Creativity and innovation at LEGO BIB 3
  Peter Hobolt Jensen


Changing conceptualisations of creativity in design BIBAFull-Text 4-11
  Hedda Haugen Askland; Michael Ostwald; Anthony Williams
A critical dimension of a designer's work is the search for novel or original solutions to problems; it is about imagining and synthesising new possibilities. As such, a key element of design is creativity. Understanding creativity and how to enhance creative performance is therefore of great importance to the design disciplines. Nonetheless, questions regarding the concept and phenomenon of creativity as it relates to design remain relatively underdeveloped. This paper considers the main approaches to creativity within the design disciplines and the changing nature of conceptual thinking regarding creativity in design.
Creativity methods in interaction design BIBAFull-Text 12-21
  Michael Mose Biskjaer; Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov
The field of interaction design encompasses a variety of methods for fostering innovation and creativity. In this paper, we present a selection of such methods that scaffold ideation and concept development in the early phases of design. As a conceptual frame for discussing these methods, we introduce four aspects that are particularly salient in the field of interaction design: tradition and transcendence, convergence and divergence, degree of structure, and sources of inspiration. We then outline how the methods relate to each of these aspects. The paper contributes to design practitioners by providing an overview of the methods and insights into when and how they may be employed to foster creativity and innovation in the design process; with regards to design research, the main contribution of the paper lies in the establishment and discussion of the four aspects as a frame for analyzing and comparing design methods.
Evaluating creativity in humans, computers, and collectively intelligent systems BIBAFull-Text 22-28
  Mary Lou Maher
Creativity studies focus on the processes that produce creative artifacts and how we evaluate an artifact to determine if it is creative. This paper focuses on the essential criteria in evaluating if a potentially creative artifact is creative. Evaluating creativity is still largely subjective and not well supported with computational tools. An evaluation metric is presented as a way of measuring three essential criteria for creativity: novelty, value, and unexpectedness. The metric is independent of the domain or discipline and does not depend on whether the system producing the creative artifact is a person, a computer, or a combination of human and computer agents. Novelty is a measure of the distance from other artifacts in the space, characterizing the artifact as similar but different. To distinguish this from novelty, value is a measure of the artifact's performance or acceptance rather than a measure of how the artifact's description differs from other artifacts in its class. A metric for value has to accommodate that a creative artifact can change the value system by introducing a performance or function that did not exist in the class of known artifacts. Unexpectedness is measured by how far the artifact is from the expected next artifact.
Tangible business model sketches to support participatory innovation BIBAFull-Text 29-33
  Robb Mitchell; Jacob Buur
This paper introduces the notion of "tangible business model sketches" -- interactive sculpture-like mechanisms -- to stimulate discussions concerning how businesses create and capture value. We outline the need for opening up discussions around innovation that these models address and their proposed utility for designers. We present three examples that model aspects of lighting design, audiology and internet businesses. Responses from industrial partners suggest that unforeseen interactions and unpredictable feedback are important qualities for tangible business models to achieve the aim of expanding business discussions among non-specialists like designers.
Physical tools for creativity with textile materials BIBAFull-Text 34-43
  Elisabeth Heimdal
This paper seeks to develop a better understanding of how physical objects can stimulate creativity, studying the case of textile material samples employed to inspire textile designers to use new responsive materials and technologies in their designs. I show: 1) how physical objects can act both as triggers for idea generation and as solution proposals in a design process; 2) how the correlation between the developed idea and the relevant inspirational material can be of different kinds and 3) how the complexity and level of generic character of material samples influence their inspirational qualities. I finish with a brief presentation of an ongoing project investigating how architects can be inspired to use textile materials.
Exploring creative process via improvisation and the design method RePlay BIBAFull-Text 44-51
  Layda Gongora
RePlay is an exploratory method being developed by the author as a tool to observe creativity in action and how improvisation similar to brainstorming is a useful embodied technique in collaborative and an often inter-disciplinary design process. This paper reflects on a pilot study conducted with a group of improvisation actors to experiment with the method and its development. The contribution of the paper is to explore the value of RePlay as an embodied approach for observing as well as enhancing creativity both as method for observation and developing it as a creative tool. The method involves the use of body storming in the early stages of co-creation on behalf of participants as well as reflection on the activity afterwards. This exploratory method builds upon Dix et al. [7, 21] BadIdeas as well as improvisation techniques and the use of props in collaborative brainstorming. What follows, is an overview of design methods as well as a summary of some of the work that has been done in the area of Human-Computer Interaction and other disciplines regarding the use of improvisation. This paper also includes a summary of the results of a pilot study utilizing RePlay as well and proposed future work and directions for research.
Sketching beyond paper and pencil: lessons learned from using Sketchify BIBAFull-Text 52-61
  Zeljko Obrenovic; Jean-Bernard Martens
Some recent discussions in the interaction design community have called attention to sketching as an omnipresent element of any disciplined activity of design, and have pointed out that sketching should be extended beyond the simple creation of a pencil trace on paper. More specifically the need to deal with all attributes of a user experience, especially the timing, phrasing, and feel of the interaction, has been identified [3]. In this article, we present our experiences in using Sketchify, a tool which extends the concept of paper and pencil sketching to the more generic concept of rapid manipulation of interactive materials. We present our observations from a case studies in which Sketchify has been used with a group of 12 bachelor students performing small assignments over a period of seven weeks. We describe the lessons learned, first presenting elements that were easy to use and understand, followed by some less successful aspects, and ending with a summary of deduced issues. We observed that Sketchify aids in reflection and conversation, and supports the designers' memory and cognition. Its unique strength is that it allows designers to quickly understand the possibilities and limitations of interactive user interface, as well as of the technologies involved.
Poetic design: an exploration of the parallels between expert poetry composition and innovative design practice BIBAFull-Text 62-71
  Erin L. Beatty; Linden J. Ball
Despite parallels between the structure of poetry composition tasks and design tasks, there appears to be no previous research exploring the consequences of these correspondences for an understanding of skilled behaviour in these two domains. In the present study we interviewed five expert poets about their creative practices and conducted a thematic analysis comparing these practices to key findings concerning the nature of design expertise. Our discussion focuses on three behavioural equivalences that appear to be associated with poetry composition and innovative design: (1) the role of "sources of inspiration" [15] in contextualizing activity and in informing the creation of novel solution ideas; (2) the involvement of "primary generators" [13] in scoping tasks in terms of core objectives; and (3) the fluid and flexible nature of problem and solution representations, as captured by the notion that problem and solution spaces "co-evolve" [14].
Creative imaginings: a model of imagination in design BIBAFull-Text 72-82
  Mads Nygaard Folkmann
The paper aims to develop a model for conceiving an important part of creative processes in design: human imagination. Whereas most creativity models focus on methods for enhancing creative work for example in collaboration with others, the approach of the paper is to contribute to design epistemology and to attempt a philosophical-phenomenological investigation of the inner dynamics of human imagining. Thus, the paper does not set out to peer inside the designer's mind but to investigate the construction of meaning in design structurally through the notion of Schematization as it unfolds on the interface between consciousness and the material world. The paper argues that knowledge about creativity in design can be informed by a look behind the factors of its dynamics.
Opening and constraining: constraints and their role in creative processes BIBAFull-Text 83-89
  Balder Onarheim; Stefan Wiltschnig
Requirements and constraints are important notions in framing the problem space for design processes. Linear models of creativity have difficulties in accounting for the double influence of constraints on creativity as opening and constraining simultaneously. After a review of relevant literature from the creativity, insight and design requirements literature we propose a conceptual H model. It is able to accommodate seemingly opposing findings concerning the roles of requirements/constraints on creativity in an integrative manner.
Investigating visual analogies for visual insight problems BIBAFull-Text 90-100
  Corina Sas; Eric Luchian; Linden Ball
Much research has focused on the impact of analogies in insight problem solving, but less work has investigated how the visual analogies for insight are actually constructed. Thus, it appears that in the search for their facilitative impact on the incubation effect, the understanding of what makes good visual analogies has somehow been lost. This paper presents preliminary work of constructing a set of 6 visual analogies and evaluating their impact on solving the visual problem of eight coins. Findings suggest that in visual analogies, the insight cues are the most beneficial ones, especially when integrated, and that depth cues are important surface aspects in facilitating incubation effect. Our findings support the facilitative cue theory and replicate previous outcomes on the importance of impasse experience as a prerequisite for analogical transfer.
Wicked games: on the design of ethical gameplay BIBAFull-Text 101-111
  Miguel Sicart
This paper introduces a definition of ethical gameplay as a relevant concept for understanding the moral possibilities of computer game design. Ethical gameplay is the experiential outcome of a player taking choices based on the moral evaluation of a given dilemma. This paper proposes that these type of experience should be designed as wicked problems for players.
Creation and validation of symbols with purposeful games and online survey BIBAFull-Text 112-120
  Ralf Hebecker; Chris Ebbert
This paper presents study results based on a specially designed and constructed web platform called www.sketcharoo.com. Sketcharoo uses a "Game with a Purpose" (GWAP) and a conventional survey to investigate how online participants translate text terms into drawings, and back into text. A specially developed "Simplicity Index" permits the quantification of symbol performance.
   The investigation of acts of cognition and translation are of great relevance for psychology, marketing, and design. This is of importance for big content providers such as Google, market researchers, psychologists, and educators. We are presenting examples of both the numerical results obtained from participant text input, as well as some of the sketches provided by participants. Our system gives good insight into, and allows for, efficient symbol creation and verification, and represents an attractive and cost efficient way to engage the web population in these efforts.
Hive-mind space model for creative, collaborative design BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Li Zhu; Piero Mussio; Barbara Rita Barricelli
The complexity of design problems and the expanding scale of design projects require more comprehensive knowledge than any individual can possess, which therefore mandates that multidisciplinary design teams collaborate. However, communication gaps arise among diverse design teams during the collaborative design process. Moreover, the co-evolution of design communities and their systems requires an open software-development environment to support emerging needs. To tackle these issues, the hive-mind space (HMS) model is being proposed to support collaborative design and to foster creativity among design teams. This paper describes overall HMS structure and highlights its mediation mechanism, which overcomes communication gaps by exchanging virtual boundary objects to achieve shared understanding during the collaborative design process. Two concrete cases are presented to illustrate how the HMS model has been implemented, bringing together diverse design communities and giving them the chance to construct their own situations. This allows them to control how problems are described, thus spurring their creativity to life.
The design studio, models of creativity and the education of future designers BIBAFull-Text 131-137
  Anthony Williams; Michael Ostwald; Hedda Haugen Askland
The design studio is integral to design education. It plays an important role in the training of future designers, representing a key space for experimentation and creative activity. In contrast to other elements of design education, the studio gives students first hand experiences of the design process and the practical aspects of designing. It introduces them to the concept of creativity and gives them experiences of and knowledge about the creative design process. This paper discusses the problems facing the contemporary design studio through an exploration of its development and its relationship to the "romantic" notion of creativity. The paper argues that there is a paradox implicit in current educational practice which is due to the design disciplines' continual fascination with the romantic model of creativity; a model which understands creativity as an, innate, spontaneous ability that cannot be taught or assessed.
Investigating emotions in creative design BIBAFull-Text 138-149
  Corina Sas; Chenyan Zhang
A wealth of research has suggested that emotions play a significant role in the creative problem solving process, but less work has focused on investigating the role of emotions in the design process. This is surprising given that creative problem solving lies at the heart of the design processes. In an exploratory study we interviewed 9 expert designers about their emotions during the design process. The content analysis allowed us to identify the various types of emotions relevant in the design process and to extend Wallas' model of creative problem solving with emotional components for each of its stages. In addition, we identified two important roles of emotions in design and several ways in which expert designers regulate their emotions. We discussed the theoretical and practical applications of our work.
'Le concert, c'est moi' BIBAFull-Text 150-153
  Nicolas Makelberge
In this paper I elaborate on the common notion of "collaboration" within music. I do so by contrasting what it constituted historically in the context of the piano, to that of some new interfaces of musical expression (NIME) collaborative in particular. By doing so I hope to shine light on the success (or lack there of) of many of these projects -- and ultimately discuss some other realities of academia that might play an determinant role in these musical instruments success "beyond the lab".
BadIdeas 3.0: a method for creativity and innovation in design BIBAFull-Text 154-162
  Paula Alexandra Silva
Creativity and innovation emerge as fundamental requisites in terms of design and development of present-day user interfaces. While conventional user interfaces need to ensure usability, less conventional interfaces additionally require creativity and innovation. In order to nurture these elements throughout the process of design and development of novel user interfaces, the author proposes the use of the BadIdeas 3.0.
   The BadIdeas 3.0 method initially focuses on the generation of bad ideas, which are then submitted to a critical examination. This examination subsequently results in a more convergent analysis of the bad ideas. Later in the method, these ideas are transformed until they are of good use and have materialised into a tangible artefact or idea for future implementation.
   This paper presents the BadIdeas 3.0 method in full, explaining its structure and providing guidelines for its use.
China -- Utzon's desire: the contribution of traditional Chinese art and architecture towards the creativity of Jørn Utzon BIBAFull-Text 163-173
  Chen-Yu Chiu
Although there is irrefutable evidence that Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1918-2008) has drawn various inspirations from traditional Chinese art and architecture, there is a dearth of in-depth historical discussion in extant literature about his affinity with Chinese culture. This paper explores an un-charted domain of modern architectural history about Utzon's creativity in the name of his "China". Utzon's writings and publications in "Chinese style" are examined as the testimony of Utzon's expropriation of a series of ideologies from "China." This paper does not directly focus on Utzon's architectural creations, nor the sources of his "China."
   Despite being a relatively reclusive architect whose publications were few and far-between, "China" had repeatedly appeared as the key theme in many of Utzon's writings and publications during his lifetime. Using these materials as the basis, this paper argues that Utzon's "China" was a critical instrument that would have been vitally important in shaping his inner creativity, responding both his inclination and inspiration. More importantly, Utzon's "China" manifested not only his self-sustaining intention and self-esteem, but also his never-satisfied state of morality, or even anxiety of mind.
   Through critical analysis of Utzon's writings on "China" between 1947 and 2008, this article points out the specific features of Utzon's architectural creation which could be attributed to a series of unmistakably "Chinese" characteristics. It explores what Utzon's "China" had been referred to, and how "China" had inspired Utzon. It reveals that "China" played a multifaceted role not only in Utzon's architectural creations but also in his psychological and philosophical consciousness. This article suggests that Utzon's cross-cultural intention, as his pursuit of "China," and later his transculturation within the "Chinese style" directly contributed towards the brilliance of his creativity. This paper further calls for serious attention to the parallelism between Utzon's architectural creation and his "China."
Designing business actor strategies for the electrical vehicle market: an explorative approach BIBAFull-Text 174-180
  Anders Klitmøller; Morten Rask; Anne Flemmert Jensen; Mia Walde
The study and understanding of the emergent market of electric vehicles holds an interest for companies across the globe as the ability to frame and influence the rules of this potentially global market can lead to large scale success for the firms involved. In general, the main research conducted in the area of consumer understanding in the context of business actor strategies has been quantitative which has given a linear understanding of the hopes and motivations that drive consumer behaviour. The method seems more appropriate for testing existing products than in this case where we seek to explore future perceptions of an innovative concept. This article takes a qualitative approach that seeks to understand the context based and processual aspects of consumer behaviour. By using the case of the etrans Design Collaboration, a three year EU funded project that seeks to make electrical vehicles a commercial success in Denmark, we present five consumer voices derived from an in depth qualitative study. These are positioned using an adoption curve for the introduction of innovative products such as the electric vehicles, and combined with a model for strategic business design in emergent markets. In the case of the emergent market of electrical vehicles, we find that companies that focus on the development and design of tangible products, rather than systems such as infrastructure, will be the first to be adapted into the market of electric vehicles, thereby gaining a strategic and competitive advantage.
Designing creativity tools to support business innovation BIBAFull-Text 181-188
  Julian Malins; Graham Grant
There are a wide range of approaches and organizations, which have the common aim of supporting SME's to deliver new products and services. This paper examines the various approaches which have been taken and in particular describes the work of The Centre for Design & Innovation (www.c4di.org.uk), Aberdeen, which has been established to provide innovation support for small to medium sized companies in Scotland. The centre has adopted a user-centered approach that encourages companies to consider their core values, identify opportunities based on their customers needs and encourage new thinking based on a reevaluation of the company's innovation culture. This paper examines the philosophical basis for the development of the new centre and subsequent methodology that has been adopted. It also describes a number of resources that have been developed to help SME's with their innovation processes. This is based on a user-centered, ethnographical strategy. Serious play is used to help companies shift their perspective which in turn leads to new insights. Recognition of the barriers to creative thinking enables companies to develop an innovation culture that promotes continuous innovation and development. Prototyping methods are described that help companies develop and evaluate concepts and encourage co-design and interdisciplinary working.