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Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2014 International Symposium on Pervasive Displays
Editors:Sebastian Boring; Aaron Quigley; Sven Gehring
Location:Copenhagen, Denmark
Dates:2014-Jun-03 to 2014-Jun-04
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2952-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: PerDis14
Links:Conference Website
  1. Papers Session #1
  2. Papers Session #2
  3. Papers session #3
  4. Papers Session #4
  5. Papers Session #5
  6. Papers Session #6
  7. Papers Session #7
  8. Demos & Posters

Papers Session #1

Is Anyone Looking? Mitigating Shoulder Surfing on Public Displays through Awareness and Protection BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Frederik Brudy; David Ledo; Saul Greenberg; Andreas Butz
Displays are growing in size, and are increasingly deployed in semi-public and public areas. When people use these public displays to pursue personal work, they expose their activities and sensitive data to passers-by. In most cases, such shoulder-surfing by others is likely voyeuristic vs. a deliberate attempt to steal information. Even so, safeguards are needed. Our goal is to mitigate shoulder-surfing problems in such settings. Our method leverages notions of territoriality and proxemics, where we sense and take action based on the spatial relationships between the passerby, the user of the display, and the display itself. First, we provide participants with awareness of shoulder-surfing moments, which in turn helps both parties regulate their behaviours and mediate further social interactions. Second, we provide methods that protect information when shoulder-surfing is detected. Here, users can move or hide information through easy to perform explicit actions. Alternately, the system itself can mask information from the passerby's view when it detects shoulder-surfing moments.
Roles of an Interactive Media Façade in a Digital Agora BIBAFull-Text 7-12
  Claude Fortin; Kate Hennessy; Hughes Sweeney
As a component of urban civic infrastructures, interactive screen technology is often studied, designed and produced top-down style to accommodate the diverging interests of its stakeholders. However, some HCI researchers are calling for new interaction design strategies that could help close the gap between top-down and bottom-up approaches in the study of situated interfaces used for civic engagement. Our paper reports on the public deployment of an interactive platform that might anticipate this next generation of situated interfaces. In Fall 2013, we conducted a ten-week qualitative field evaluation of Mégaphone, a digitally-augmented agora deployed in Montréal's Quartier des Spectacles. Using ethnographic research methods, we collected data in-the-wild and conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with over 21 participants to understand why and how urbanites used the installation. This paper presents five conceptual categories that describe the most salient forms of interaction that we observed between users and Mégaphone's voice-activated media façade.
Analysing Pedestrian Traffic Around Public Displays BIBAFull-Text 13-18
  Julie R. Williamson; John Williamson
This paper presents a powerful approach to evaluating public technologies by capturing and analysing pedestrian traffic using computer vision. This approach is highly flexible and scales better than traditional ethnographic techniques often used to evaluate technology in public spaces. This technique can be used to evaluate a wide variety of public installations and the data collected complements existing approaches. Our technique allows behavioural analysis of both interacting users and non-interacting passers-by. This gives us the tools to understand how technology changes public spaces, how passers-by approach or avoid public technologies, and how different interaction styles work in public spaces. In the paper, we apply this technique to two large public displays and a street performance. The results demonstrate how metrics such as walking speed and proximity can be used for analysis, and how this can be used to capture disruption to pedestrian traffic and passer-by approach patterns.
Smart Citizen Sentiment Dashboard: A Case Study Into Media Architectural Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 19-24
  Moritz Behrens; Nina Valkanova; Ava Fatah gen. Schieck; Duncan P. Brumby
In this paper we introduce the notion of media architectural interfaces (MAIs), which describe the relation between users engaging with dynamic content on media façades through tangible artifacts on street level. Firstly, we outline existing research concerned with public displays, urban screens and media facades, secondly we summarize related works that explore mediated urban interactions in connection with MAIs. We report on the technical set up of a field study, in which we deployed a novel tangible user interface (TUI), called the Smart Citizen Sentiment Dashboard (SCSD). This device gives citizens the opportunity to express their mood about local urban challenges. The input from this TUI is then instantly displayed on a very large (3700 sqm) media façade. The installation ran for three weeks during a media arts festival in Sao Paulo, Brazil. During this deployment period, we were able to gather data to help us understand the relationship between passers-by, participants, the TUI and the media façade. As a result we identified emergent behavior in the immediate space around the TUI and the wider urban space. The contribution this paper makes is in highlighting challenges in the design and deployment of large-scale media architectural interfaces.
Ballade of Women: The Expedition BIBAFull-Text 25-26
  Nigel Papworth; Patrizia Marti; Ambra Trotto; Jeroen Peeters
This video illustrates the exhibition "Ballade of Women" that took places in Siena at the Fondazione Monte de' Paschi in June 2014. The exhibition is, and elicits, a reflection on women's rights: self-determination, emancipation and habeas corpus. It is an exploration on how these themes are represented and perceived in a dialogue between materiality and online content. The exhibition contains an interactive installation, which plays with the concept of fragmentation. It shows how complex and articulated such themes are. This it achieves by actively engaging visitors in a dynamic visual and auditory conversation. The video [1] documents the complete experience of the exhibition.

Papers Session #2

Midair Displays: Concept and First Experiences with Free-Floating Pervasive Displays BIBAFull-Text 27-31
  Stefan Schneegass; Florian Alt; Jürgen Scheible; Albrecht Schmidt
Due to advances in technology, displays could replace literally any surface in the future, including walls, windows, and ceilings. At the same time, midair remains a relatively unexplored domain for the use of displays as of today, particularly in public space. Nevertheless, we see large potential in the ability to make displays appear at any possible point in space, both indoors and outdoors. Such displays, that we call midair displays, could control large crowds in emergency situations, they could be used during sports for navigation and feedback on performance, or as group displays. We see midair displays as a complementary technology to wearable displays. In contrast to statically deployed displays they allow information to be brought to the user anytime and anywhere. We explore the concept of midair displays and show that with current technology, e.g., copter drones, such displays can be easily built. A study on the readability of such displays showcases the potential and feasibility of the concept and provides early insights.
Interacting with 3D Content on Stereoscopic Displays BIBAFull-Text 32-37
  Florian Daiber; Marco Speicher; Sven Gehring; Markus Löchtefeld; Antonio Krüger
Along with the number of pervasive displays in urban environments, recent advances in technology allow to display three-dimensional (3D) content on these displays. However, current input techniques for pervasive displays usually focus on interaction with two-dimensional (2D) data. To enable interaction with 3D content on pervasive displays, we need to adapt existing and create novel interaction techniques. In this paper we investigate remote interaction with 3D content on pervasive displays. We introduce and evaluate four 3D travel techniques that rely on well established interaction metaphors and either use a mobile device or depth tracking as spatial input. Our study on a large-scale stereoscopic display shows that the physical travel techniques (whole-body gestures) outperformed the virtual (mobile touch) techniques with respect to task performance time and error rate.
Exploring Design Parameters for a 3D Head-Up Display BIBAFull-Text 38-43
  Nora Broy; Simone Höckh; Annette Frederiksen; Michael Gilowski; Julian Eichhorn; Felix Naser; Horst Jung; Julia Niemann; Martin Schell; Albrecht Schmid; Florian Alt
Today, head-up displays (HUDs) are commonly used in cars to show basic driving information in the visual field of the viewer. This allows information to be perceived in a quick and easy to understand manner. With advances in technology, HUDs will allow richer information to be conveyed to the driver by exploiting the third dimension. We envision a stereoscopic HUD for displaying content in 3D space. This requires an understanding of how parallaxes impact the user's performance and comfort, which is the focus of this work. In two user studies, involving 49 participants, we (a) gather insights into how projection distances and stereoscopic visualizations influence the comfort zone and (b) the depth judgment of the user. The results show that with larger projection distances both the comfort zone and the minimum comfortable viewing distance increase. Higher distances between the viewer and a real world object to be judged decrease the judgment accuracy.
Vote With Your Feet: Local Community Polling on Urban Screens BIBAFull-Text 44-49
  Fabius Steinberger; Marcus Foth; Florian Alt
Falling prices have led to an ongoing spread of public displays in urban areas. Still, they mostly show passive content such as commercials and digital signage. At the same time, technological advances have enabled the creation of interactive displays potentially increasing their attractiveness for the audience, e.g. through providing a platform for civic discourse. This poses considerable challenges, since displays need to communicate the opportunity to engage, motivate the audience to do so, and be easy to use. In this paper we present Vote With Your Feet, a hyperlocal public polling tool for urban screens allowing users to express their opinions. Similar to vox populi interviews on TV or polls on news websites, the tool is meant to reflect the mindset of the community on topics such as current affairs, cultural identity and local matters. It is novel in that it focuses on a situated civic discourse and provides a tangible user interface, tackling the mentioned challenges. It shows one Yes/No question at a time and enables users to vote by stepping on one of two tangible buttons on the ground. This user interface was introduced to attract people's attention and to lower participation barriers. Our field study showed that Vote With Your Feet is perceived as inviting and that it can spark discussions among co-located people.
Movable, Kick-/Flickable Light Fragments Eliciting Ad-hoc Interaction in Public Space BIBAFull-Text 50-55
  Patrick Tobias Fischer; Franziska Gerlach; Jenny Gonzalez Acuna; Daniel Pollack; Ingo Schäfer; Josephine Trautmann; Eva Hornecker
We describe the design process, technical concept and first insights from a lightweight in-the-wild evaluation of a movable interface for public places. Our wider aim is to understand how the environment can be utilized for novel interface types. Our moveable prototypes are an intermediate step that confirmed known behavioral patterns in public space but also revealed new ones (e.g. creative inclusion of urban furniture and trees) as a result of having multiple objects within a larger interaction space.

Papers session #3

UbiOpticon: Participatory Sousveillance with Urban Screens and Mobile Phone Cameras BIBAFull-Text 56-61
  Marcus Foth; Tommi Heikkinen; Johanna Ylipulli; Anna Luusua; Christine Satchell; Timo Ojala
In many cities around the world, surveillance by a pervasive net of CCTV cameras is a common phenomenon in an attempt to uphold safety and security across the urban environment. Video footage is being recorded and stored, sometimes live feeds are being watched in control rooms hidden from public access and view. In this study, we were inspired by Steve Mann's original work on sousveillance (surveillance from below) to examine how a network of camera equipped urban screens could allow the residents of Oulu in Finland to collaborate on the safekeeping of their city. An agile, rapid prototyping process led to the design, implementation and 'in the wild' deployment of the UbiOpticon screen application. Live video streams captured by web cams integrated at the top of 12 distributed urban screens were broadcast and displayed in a matrix arrangement on all screens. The matrix also included live video streams of two roaming mobile phone cameras. In our field study we explored the reactions of passers-by and users of this screen application that seeks to inverse Bentham's original panopticon by allowing the watched to be watchers at the same time. In addition to the original goal of participatory sousveillance, the system's live video feature sparked fun and novel user-led appropriations.
Displaying Locality: Connecting with Customers and Visitors In-Situ via their Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 62-67
  Chris Greenhalgh; Alan Chamberlain; Mark Davies; Kevin Glover; Stela Valchovska; Andy Crabtree
A large and growing proportion of the general population in the UK and similar nations routinely carry smart phones and access the Internet while on the go. However, especially in rural areas, mobile Internet access can be intermittent and slow, and the particularities of the immediate locality can get lost in the non-geographical vastness of the Internet. In order to understand more about the opportunities and challenges of connecting with customers and visitors in-situ on their mobile phones we extended a media authoring and distribution research system to support both Internet-based and off-Internet situated displays for discovering and downloading local multimedia content. Within a broader participatory process, we ran a workshop with members of the community of a small countryside town, working with participants to understand the local relevance of this kind of system. The ability to work off-Internet was considered important in some specific rural situations. The local and situated character of the system led to a proposal to establish a town-wide network and a common identity through such a system, and through this to steer visitors from entry points (e.g. significant tourist sites) to other sites and enterprises within the town.
Application Diversity in Open Display Networks BIBAFull-Text 68-73
  Constantin Taivan; Rui José
We envision that future public display networks will be more interactive and open to applications from third parties similar to what we already have with smartphones. This paper investigates the application landscape for interactive public displays aiming to understand what would be the design and usage space for this type of applications. In particular, we explore people's perceptions and expectations regarding the diversity of applications that may emerge in future application ecosystems for public displays. We have devised a research methodology anchored on what is currently the rich and diverse range of applications in the mobile application market. We used a set of 75 mobile applications from Google Play application store and asked 72 participants about their relevance for public displays. The results showed that people had a clear preference for applications that disseminate content, and also that these preferences are affected by the type of location where the displays are deployed. These insights improve the understanding of the variables that may affect diversity in future display application ecosystems and inform the development of potential app stores in this context.
Supporting Community Participation in Interactive Exhibits BIBAFull-Text 74-79
  Nick Taylor
We describe the Byker Lives Table, an interactive installation that aimed to support user-contributed content in an exhibition of community history around a landmark housing development. As both the history of the development and subsequent social problems in the area are contentious issues, we aimed to support discussion around content that might mean very different things to different people. Based on a yearlong deployment, we reflect on the exhibit in terms of its ability to support community participation, create dialogue representing multiple perspectives on the content and allow lightweight curation.
cAR: Contact Augmented Reality with Transparent-Display Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 80-85
  Juan David Hincapié-Ramos; Sophie Roscher; Wolfgang Büschel; Ulrike Kister; Raimund Dachselt; Pourang Irani
We present Contact Augmented Reality (cAR), a form of AR where a mobile device with a transparent display rests on top of the augmented object. cAR is based on the notion that interactions with digital content are enriched by the tangibility of physically moving a device on and off the augmented object. We propose and implement three categories of cAR interaction techniques: contact-based, off-contact and content-aware. We built two cAR prototypes and explore how cAR can be applied to the domain of active reading. A first low-fidelity prototype, consisting of an interactive tabletop and transparent acrylic tangibles, allowed us to iteratively design and test interaction techniques. The second and higher-fidelity prototype, called a tPad, uses a semi-transparent touch-enabled 7" LCD display that is placed on top of back-lit paper documents. The tPad uses an external camera and feature matching algorithms to identify the document and to determine its location and orientation. We report on user feedback and elaborate on the salient technical challenges for cAR devices.

Papers Session #4

Flexible Registration of Multiple Displays BIBAFull-Text 86-91
  Björn Wöldecke; Dionysios Marinos; Christian Geiger
In this paper, we describe a framework to configure multi-display setups for pervasive display applications. We explain our methods and test them with a simple setup consisting of a large display wall and a mobile tablet computer. We use these displays to provide an off-axis view into a virtual scene for a single viewer. Our approach requires a tracking system, which provides the position and orientation of at least one trackable marker and, depending on the display setup, the appropriate combination of our methods to perform the 3D registration. Our contribution is a framework providing flexible and exact methods to allow for an efficient registration of stationary and movable displays in common 3D tracking environments, where the stationary displays can also be located outside the tracking area. Our methods are compared and discussed based on several screen registration experiments conducted in our facilities.
SenScreen: A Toolkit for Supporting Sensor-enabled Multi-Display Networks BIBAFull-Text 92-97
  Stefan Schneegass; Florian Alt
Over the past years, a number of sensors have emerged, that enable gesture-based interaction with public display applications, including Microsoft Kinect, Asus Xtion, and Leap Motion. In this way, interaction with displays can be made more attractive, particularly if deployed across displays hence involving many users. However, interactive applications are still scarce, which can be attributed to the fact that developers usually need to implement a low-level connection to the sensor. In this work, we tackle this issue by presenting a toolkit, called SenScreen, consisting of (a) easy-to-install adapters that handle the low-level connection to sensors and provides the data via (b) an API that allows developers to write their applications in JavaScript. We evaluate our approach by letting two groups of developers create an interactive game each using our toolkit. Observation, interviews, and questionnaire indicate that our toolkit simplifies the implementation of interactive applications and may, hence, serve as a first step towards a more widespread use of interactive public displays.
Gestures Everywhere: A Multimodal Sensor Fusion and Analysis Framework for Pervasive Displays BIBAFull-Text 98-103
  Nicholas Gillian; Sara Pfenninger; Spencer Russell; Joseph A. Paradiso
Gestures Everywhere is a dynamic framework for multimodal sensor fusion, pervasive analytics and gesture recognition. Our framework aggregates the real-time data from approximately 100 sensors that include RFID readers, depth cameras and RGB cameras distributed across 30 interactive displays that are located in key public areas of the MIT Media Lab. Gestures Everywhere fuses the multimodal sensor data using radial basis function particle filters and performs real-time analysis on the aggregated data. This includes key spatio-temporal properties such as presence, location and identity; in addition to higher-level analysis including social clustering and gesture recognition. We describe the algorithms and architecture of our system and discuss the lessons learned from the systems deployment.
Scheduling Interactive and Concurrently Running Applications in Pervasive Display Networks BIBAFull-Text 104-109
  Ivan Elhart; Marc Langheinrich; Nemanja Memarovic; Tommi Heikkinen
Today's digital signage systems typically show advertisements in the form of images or short videos that their owners and/or operators have arranged in well-defined sequences well before presentation time. In order to make such displays more attractive, both researchers and advertisers have recently begun to explore the concept of interactive applications that allow passers-by to directly or indirectly control a display's content. To integrate such applications with traditional digital signage concepts requires new forms of shared control over application and content scheduling, ultimately creating multi-user and multi-application display systems that go beyond predefined sequences of content items. In this paper we present a system for scheduling both interactive content and traditional digital signage content on networked public displays. We offer a formal notation for describing such novel scheduling problems, based on a list of requirements for scheduling interactive and concurrently running display applications, and describe a web-based application development framework and API for dynamic application scheduling. We also report on an initial prototype system that we have deployed on a university campus.
The 'Making of' Mégaphone, an Interactive "Speakers' Corner" and Digitally-Augmented Agora in Public Space BIBAFull-Text 110-111
  Claude Fortin; Kate Hennessy; Hughes Sweeney
Co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada (NFB) in collaboration with the Quartier des Spectacles Partnership (PQdS), this 5min39sec video presents some of the highlights of the making of Mégaphone, a site-specific architectural scale art installation directed by Étienne Paquette, and conceptualized and designed by the Montréal multimedia event design firm, Moment Factory (MF). The video includes short interview clips with key stakeholders and creative artists who explain their design vision and rationale for modelling the installation into an interactive "Speakers' Corner" and digitally-augmented agora. The footage shows the Promenade des artistes -- a small plaza in downtown Montréal, Canada -- being transformed into an installation setting with urban furniture and industrial containers that spatially define it as an intimate, yet monumental multimedia public venue.

Papers Session #5

Magnetic Cursor: Improving Target Selection in Freehand Pointing Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 112-117
  Ville Mäkelä; Tomi Heimonen; Markku Turunen
We present the magnetic cursor, a technique that aims to make distant freehand interaction with targets easier in large-screen public display applications. The magnetic cursor automatically warps to a selectable object that is close by, moves slower while on the object, and shows the relative cursor location visually to the user. Two designs of the magnetic cursor were compared to the snap-to-target technique in a 19 participant user study. Results indicate that the magnetic cursor design with weaker magnetism effect outperforms the other techniques in terms of target selection efficiency. Subjective feedback indicates that snap-to-target and the magnetic cursor design with weaker magnetism effect meet the participants' expectations for freehand pointing and are preferred to unassisted pointing and the magnetic cursor with stronger magnetism. Our findings suggest that the visual feedback of cursor location and short, static activation threshold for the magnetism effect can help users maintain the cursor within the active motor space of a target, especially when several selectable targets are situated in close proximity.
Effect of Bezel Presence and Width on Visual Search BIBAFull-Text 118-123
  James R. Wallace; Daniel Vogel; Edward Lank
We investigate how the presence and width of interior bezels impacts visual search performance across tiled displays. In spite of a potential benefit from structured segmentation, we do not find significant differences in visual search time, and note a small effect size of less than 0.5% for bezel width. However, we find participants are more accurate when searching for targets spanning a bezel. Based on these findings, we suggest two implications for the design of tiled displays: 1) that additional costs associated with thinner bezels may not provide significant return on investment; and 2) that bezels may act as visual anchors, and be useful for the placement of interface elements.
Evaluating the Use of a Very Large-scale Presentation and Collaboration Framework BIBAFull-Text 124-129
  Markus Rittenbruch
In this paper we describe the use and evaluation of CubIT, a multi-user, very large-scale presentation and collaboration framework. CubIT is installed at the Queensland University of Technology's (QUT) Cube facility. The "Cube" is an interactive visualisation facility made up of five very large-scale interactive multi-panel wall displays, each consisting of up to twelve 55-inch multi-touch screens (48 screens in total) and massive projected display screens situated above the display panels. The paper outlines the unique design challenges, features, use and evaluation of CubIT. The system was built to make the Cube facility accessible to QUT's academic and student population. CubIT enables users to easily upload and share their own media content, and allows multiple users to simultaneously interact with the Cube's wall displays. The features of CubIT are implemented via three user interfaces, a multi-touch interface working on the wall displays, a mobile phone and tablet application and a web-based content management system. The evaluation reveals issues around the public use and functional scope of the system.
What Chalk and Tape Can Tell Us: Lessons Learnt for Next Generation Urban Displays BIBAFull-Text 130-135
  Lisa Koeman; Vaiva Kalnikaite; Yvonne Rogers; Jon Bird
In recent years, many researchers have explored the different roles public displays can play in the urban environment. A particular focus has been on the deployment of digital screens. A range of technical, spatial and social factors have been found to influence the appeal, acceptance and usage of such screens. As there are still a range of unsolved issues around digital screens, including display blindness and evaluation apprehension, we argue that when thinking about the design of next generation urban displays, it is important to not only focus on these digital screens. Instead, we propose also investigating other types of displays, including non-digital ones. We contribute to this evaluation of a wider range of public displays by presenting two case studies in which non-digital public visualisations of local data were deployed in urban communities. Based on the findings from these studies, we distinguish four affordances of non-digital public displays and describe the opportunities these reveal for the design of future urban displays.
Assessing the Impact of Dynamic Public Signage on Mass Evacuation BIBAFull-Text 136-141
  Norman Langner; Christian Kray
Dynamic signage is one main use case for public displays with clear benefits for their target audiences: content (i.e. directions) can be adapted if circumstances change and can be relayed quickly to large numbers of people. This is particularly true in cases where sudden and dangerous events occur, for example a fire or an explosion. In this paper, we analyse the impact that public displays providing dynamic directions can have on large-scale evacuation at a mass event. In order to achieve this, we developed an agent-based model that we applied to a scenario requiring the evacuation of a local football stadium. The results indicate that dynamic signage can speed up evacuation and reduces fatalities in the vast majority of simulated cases.

Papers Session #6

Tandem Browsing Toolkit: Distributed Multi-Display Interfaces with Web Technologies BIBAFull-Text 142-147
  Tommi Heikkinen; Jorge Goncalves; Vassilis Kostakos; Ivan Elhart; Timo Ojala
We present the Tandem Browsing toolkit that allows developers to build multi-display and multi-user applications for pervasive displays with web technologies. Existing tools for this purpose either focus on user needs, rather than developer needs, or do not rely on open web standards. Our proxy-based toolkit allows developers to conceptualize, design and implement interfaces that orchestrate multiple devices in navigating through online content, without any modifications to user devices. We first describe the design and implementation of our toolkit, followed by a qualitative validation with web developers. Then we illustrate the functionality of the toolkit with three prototypes. We conclude with a discussion on the toolkit's characteristics and capabilities.
RED: a framework for prototyping multi-display applications using web technologies BIBAFull-Text 148-153
  Roberto Calderon; Michael Blackstock; Rodger Lea; Sidney Fels; Andre de Oliveira Bueno; Junia Anacleto
We present the Really Easy Displays framework (RED), a web-based platform to facilitate spontaneous interaction between devices and applications. RED provides a single abstraction for content and interaction between display types, data streams and interaction modalities, and allows developers to create multi-display applications by enabling the sharing of web document object models (DOMs) across displays. We present lessons learned from using RED in our own research, hands-on workshops with developers and interviews with long-term developers over the course of a year. We provide initial evidence that the use of web-technologies in a framework like RED can mitigate some barriers encountered in by multi-display interaction scenarios, and we propose future work to improve RED.
I Love My Display: Combatting Display Blindness with Emotional Attachment BIBAFull-Text 154-159
  Kabo Lee; Sarah Clinch; Chris Winstanley; Nigel Davies
There is evidence that the public are learning to either ignore or actively avoid public displays. While most research has focused on addressing this issue by increasing the perceived value of the content shown we have been inspired by the strong bind between mobile phones and their users to explore an alternative approach, i.e. to encourage viewers to form emotional attachments with displays. In this paper we report on our early studies that explore this idea in a real-world testbed.
Who cares about the Content? An Analysis of Playful Behaviour at a Public Display BIBAFull-Text 160-165
  Martin Tomitsch; Christopher Ackad; Oliver Dawson; Luke Hespanhol; Judy Kay
In this paper, we report on a field deployment study of a public interactive display, in which we observed a surprising number of interactions that seemed to be more concerned about playing 'with' the display rather than exploring its content. The display featured information about events at a nearby theatre and activities at the university, and supported four basic gestures for navigating through the content. To indicate its interactive capabilities, the display represented passers-by as a mirror image in the form of a skeleton. Our analysis of depth video recordings suggests that this representation may have triggered some of the playful behaviour we observed in the deployment study. To better understand how and when people engaged in playful behaviours, we conducted an in-depth analysis of the 40 recordings of longest duration. These had a total of 102 people recorded over an 8-day period. We discuss our observations in the context of performative aspects of human actions in public space, and how they can be fed back into the design of gesture interfaces for public displays.
Screens in the Wild: Exploring the Potential of Networked Urban Screens for Communities and Culture BIBAFull-Text 166-167
  Ava Fatah gen. Schieck; Holger Schnädelbach; Wallis Motta; Moritz Behrens; Steve North; Lei Ye; Efstathia Kostopoulou
In this paper, we describe our Research-in-the-Wild driven methodology to tackle a complex range of social, technical and interactional issues when implementing networked Urban Screens in London and Nottingham, UK [1]. The diversity of the local communities provides a unique opportunity for the research to examine interactions within the town centres, as well as UK-wide.

Papers Session #7

Ownership and Trust in Cyber-Foraged Displays BIBAFull-Text 168-173
  Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies; Thomas Kubitza; Adrian Friday
In this paper we investigate the willingness of public display owners to support cyber-foraging (appropriation) of displays by mobile users. Large digital displays are common in public and semi-public spaces and have the potential to provide a useful infrastructure for mobile users. Supporting display-foraging is not just a technical problem but will require support from viewers and display owners. We present the results of four studies exploring attitudes to display appropriation in order to understand the implications of supporting this type of cyber-foraging for future public displays.
What's in it for me: Exploring the Real-World Value Proposition of Pervasive Displays BIBAFull-Text 174-179
  Simo Hosio; Jorge Goncalves; Hannu Kukka; Alan Chamberlain; Alessio Malizia
The future of pervasive public display networks is loaded with high expectations. Non-commercial displays are commonly envisaged as proliferating in numerous contexts and domains, where they offer various uses for a variety of everyday users. In this paper we discuss why this vision is perhaps over optimistic and the realities of deploying, designing and understanding such systems should not be taken for granted. Understanding the value of public display deployments in respect to location managers, and the real-world costs of longitudinal in-the-wild deployments are both commonly overlooked in much of the related literature. Within this paper we develop a discussion in reference to several real-life events by presenting examples from the past five years of running the open UBI Oulu initiative in Oulu, in northern Finland. The purpose of this research is to raise awareness about these aspects of in-the-wild display deployments and to be support the research community in creating sustainable public display deployments.
Understanding Engagement with Interactive Public Displays: an Awareness Campaign in the Wild BIBAFull-Text 180-185
  Gonzalo Parra; Joris Klerkx; Erik Duval
In this paper, we present the findings from a field study that quantifies the different engagement phases of an interactive public display: from noticing interactivity and the first reaction to it, to actually interacting with the screen and expressing interest in a campaign. For this purpose, we developed an interactive public display for a real-life campaign that aims to increase awareness on cardiac arrests and Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation (CPR). In our study, we deployed two public displays with interactive prototypes in the biggest railway station of Brussels (Belgium), which resulted in 10,000+ passers-by and more than 1,000 reactions. We conclude that although interactive displays are effective at capturing attention and do provide a high conversion rate from passers-by to users interacting, this does not directly translate into achieving the goal of the display for the campaign as only 0,10% of them reach the final stage (visiting a website).

Demos & Posters

Enriching Public displays Ads Recommendations using an Individual: Group cooperation model BIBAFull-Text 186-187
  Francisco Martinez-Pabon; Juan Camilo Ospina-Quintero; Victor Garzon-Marin; Angela Chantre-Astaiza; Mario Muñoz-Organero; Gustavo Ramirez-Gonzalez
Ads recommendations delivery on digital signage environments must consider group and individual profiles. Although the ads recommendation precision is relevant and frequently explored, a good serendipity/precision balance must be a concern on Digital Signage context. This paper introduces a public display recommender system approach based on an individual-group cooperation model implemented throughout a Smart TV -- Smartphone interaction scheme.
CSCT -- Computer Supported Cooperative Teaching BIBAFull-Text 188-189
  Adam Buckland; Aaron Quigley
Personal tablet style devices are projected to become a staple in classroom settings due to their increasing capabilities, improving affordability, portability, weight and ability to hold the texts a student might need. However, these devices are not islands of computing and storage and instead represent a display ecosystem which can support new forms of interaction, teaching, planning, coordination and hence learning. In this paper, we describe CSCT -- Computer Supported Cooperative Teaching, a system to allow teachers in a one-tablet-per-child classroom to gain valuable feedback from their students, making the classroom more effective and allowing teachers to create lesson plans that more accurately reflects the learners abilities. We describe the design and motivation for such a system.
Supporting Conversation and Community Interaction With A Table-Top Community Garden Application BIBAFull-Text 190-191
  Roberto Calderon; Michael Blackstock; Rodger Lea; Sidney Fels; Andre O. Bueno; Junia Anacleto
Third places are social places like coffee shop and bars, where people come together to catch up with friends and meet new people. Our research explores how Ubiquitous Computing experiences in public space, particularly interactive public displays, can be leveraged to encourage interaction between strangers. We present a multi-display application based on the metaphor of a table-top community garden. This application is built using our Really Easy Displays (RED) framework, a set of web based technologies that allow the rapid development of applications that span multiple displays, sensors and actuators. The prototype makes use of a situated large screen, a projected surface and an Arduino microcontroller to support collaborative interaction, by allowing groups of people to collectively nurture a table-top garden by interacting with furniture, touch-enabled projections and mobile phones.
LUME -- Building Identity, Displaying Content, and Engaging Users Through Network of Interactive Display BIBAFull-Text 192-193
  Federico Casalegno; Yihyun Lim; Catherine Winfield; Karina Silvester; Marcus Lowe; Stella Kim; Cagri Hakan Zaman
Interactive LUME Display project explores tangible interactions with digital content through spatially embedded computation in public space at multiple scales from low to high resolution of interactivity. Composed of four interactive touch points, from a mobile app to a large display installation, LUME aims to build the identity for the department of Comparative Media Studies/Writing at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, by increasing awareness and visibility of the different research labs within the department, displaying variety of content, acting as a place finder, and engaging all potential users.
Development of Corneal Reflection-based Gaze Tracking System for Public Use BIBAFull-Text 194-195
  Takashi Nagamatsu; Kaoruko Fukuda; Michiya Yamamoto
In this paper, we describe a corneal reflection-based gaze tracking system for public use. There are two problems to be solved when gaze tracking technologies are employed as the interaction mechanism for public display. One is to realize a personal calibration-free system. The other is the extension of the tracking range. We developed a personal calibration-free gaze tracking system at the Maritime Museum of Kobe University by using two calibrated cameras and multiple light sources. Furthermore, we are developing a system that changes lighted LEDs dynamically to estimate the gaze in a wide range.
Ad-hoc Registration and Configuration of Social Object Labels BIBAFull-Text 196-197
  Marcus Winter
This paper presents Social Object Labels (SOLs) as a ubiquitous annotation platform and highlights the specific aspect of ad-hoc registration and configuration. It argues that this quality reduces costs and risks for organisations trialling and adopting the system, as it allows deployment in the target environment without custom development, workflow changes or technical assistance. The paper discusses functionality related to ad-hoc deployment and registration and their implementation in a current SOL prototype.
Demo: An Ecosystem for Open Display Networks BIBAFull-Text 198-199
  Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies; Adrian Friday; Miriam Greis; Marc Langheinrich; Mateusz Mikusz; Thomas Kubitza; Christopher Winstanley
While traditional displays networks are typically closed systems, researchers are now beginning to explore the notion of open display networks in which content can be obtained from a wide range of sources. Open display networks have very different properties to closed networks as they need to deal with multiple management domains and conflicting content and scheduling requirements from different stakeholders. A key challenge is to provide an appropriate software infrastructure to support openness at all stages (e.g. content distribution, schedule creation, media playback). In this work we demonstrate a suite of software components that together provide a comprehensive eco-system for open pervasive display networks.
Exploring Gesture Based Interaction with a Layered Stereoscopic 3D Interface BIBAFull-Text 200-201
  Maaret Posti; Leena Ventä-Olkkonen; Ashley Colley; Olli Koskenranta; Jonna Häkkilä
Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) is an emerging trend among visualization and display techniques, and spreading especially in the area of the entertainment industry. Due the emerging phase of the technology, it is not yet known which kinds of interaction design solutions are optimal. In this paper, we investigate different gestures to interact with an S3D interface, by comparing one-handed and two-handed interaction with objects in a 3D puzzle game, where objects had to be manipulated between different depth layers. Additionally, two different interaction modes to change objects' depth level were compared, level toggling and stepped direct manipulation. The results indicate that single-handed gestures using a depth toggling interaction were the preferred and fastest way to interact with the S3D puzzle.