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PerDis Tables of Contents: 121314

Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2013 International Symposium on Pervasive Displays
Editors:Bill N. Schilit; Roy Want; Timo Ojala
Location:Mountain View, California
Dates:2013-Jun-04 to 2013-Jun-05
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2096-2; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: PerDis13
Links:Conference Website
  1. Proxemic interaction
  2. Applications
  3. Projection and 3D
  4. Architecture and space
  5. Mobile interaction
  6. Users and communities

Proxemic interaction

Multi-view proxemics: distance and position sensitive interaction BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Jakub Dostal; Per Ola Kristensson; Aaron Quigley
We present work at a previously unexplored intersection of two research areas: proxemic interaction and multi-view display technologies. Multi-view proxemic systems concurrently deliver distinct views from a single display to different viewers depending on a combination of their angle to the display and their distance from it. In this paper we demonstrate the capability to design such an interactive system using only commodity hardware and software. We describe two systems and present results of two user studies with 18 participants. The studies are based on two real-world scenarios of a departure board and a video player (with sub-titles). Our results show that multi-view proxemic systems are accurate and that users find them useful and would use them if they were available. We also discuss some of the design and technological implications of our work.
Waving to a touch interface: descriptive field study of a multipurpose multimodal public display BIBAFull-Text 7-12
  Marko Jurmu; Masaki Ogawa; Sebastian Boring; Jukka Riekki; Hideyuki Tokuda
Multipurpose public displays are a promising platform, but more understanding is required in how users perceive and engage them. In this paper, we present and discuss results and findings from a two-day descriptive field trial with a multipurpose public display prototype called FluiD. Our main objective was to uncover emerging issues of interaction to inform future evaluations. During the field trial within a public research exhibition, people were able to freely interact with the prototype. Twenty-six persons filled out short questionnaires and gave free-form feedback. In addition, researchers in the vicinity of the display gathered observation data. Our main findings include the difficulties encountered with mid-air gesture commands, the lack of agency in case of larger interaction area, and the possibility for stepping out from the implicit-explicit continuum in the face of potential social conflicts.
Cognitive effects of interactive public display applications BIBAFull-Text 13-18
  Florian Alt; Stefan Schneegass; Michael Girgis; Albrecht Schmidt
Many public displays are nowadays equipped with different types of sensors. Such displays allow engaging and persistent user experiences to be created, e.g., in the form of gesture-controlled games or content exploration using direct touch at the display. However, as digital displays replace traditional posters and billboards, display owners are reluctant to deploy interactive content, but rather adapt traditional, non-interactive content. The main reason is, that the benefit of such interactive deployments is not obvious. Our hypothesis is that interactivity has a cognitive effect on users and therefore increases the ability to remember what they have seen on the screen -- which is beneficial both for the display owner and the user. In this paper we systematically investigate the impact of interactive content on public displays on the users' cognition in different situations. Our findings indicate that overall memorability is positively affected as users interact. Based on these findings we discuss design implications for interactive public displays.
Conveying interactivity at an interactive public information display BIBAFull-Text 19-24
  Kazjon Grace; Rainer Wasinger; Christopher Ackad; Anthony Collins; Oliver Dawson; Richard Gluga; Judy Kay; Martin Tomitsch
Successfully conveying the interactivity of a Public Information Display (PID) can be the difference between a display that is used or not used by its audience. In this paper, we present an interactive PID called 'Cruiser Ribbon' that targets pedestrian traffic. We outline our interactive PID installation, the visual cues used to alert people of the display's interactivity, the interaction mechanisms with which people can interact with the display, and our approach to presenting rich content that is hierarchical in nature and thus navigable along multiple dimensions. This is followed by a field study on the effectiveness of different mechanisms to convey display interactivity.
   Results from this work show that users are significantly more likely to notice an interactive display when a dynamic skeletal representation of the user is combined with a visual spotlight effect (+8% more users) or a follow-me effect (+7% more users), compared to just the dynamic skeletal representation. Observation also suggests that -- at least for interactive PIDs -- the dynamic skeletal representation may be distracting users away from interacting with a display's actual content, and that individual interactivity cues are affected by group size.


Yarely: a software player for open pervasive display networks BIBAFull-Text 25-30
  Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies; Adrian Friday; Graham Clinch
This paper describes Yarely, a software player designed to support the next generation of pervasive display networks. We identify five design goals for future digital signage players: the ability to provide basic signage functionality (media scheduling and playback) and support for openness, extensibility, resilience and appropriation. The paper describes the design and implementation of Yarely in light of these design goals. We present an evaluation of the system in the form of deployment and usage data alongside a reflection on the degree to which Yarely successfully addresses the needs of future pervasive display systems.
Application discoverability on multipurpose public displays: popularity comes at a price BIBAFull-Text 31-36
  Simo Hosio; Jorge Goncalves; Vassilis Kostakos
An important step in developing multipurpose public displays is understanding application discoverability: the effort required to locate or "discover" an application amongst others. Discoverability can affect the adoption and potential success applications. Here we investigate the effects of application discoverability on two aspects of application use: relative utility and conversion rate. We do so by testing three conditions that provide incremental discoverability to an application. Our results indicate that increased discoverability leads to higher relative utility but lower conversion rates. We discuss the implications our findings have on evaluating applications on multipurpose displays, and finally we show how our results contribute to understanding the economics of discoverability mechanisms.
A comparison of two display models for collaborative sensemaking BIBAFull-Text 37-42
  Haeyong Chung; Sharon Lynn Chu; Chris North
In this paper, we investigate how a distributed model of sensemaking, spread out over multiple displays and devices, impacts the sensemaking process for the individual and for the group, and whether it provides any feasible opportunities for improving the quality and efficiency of sensemaking efforts. Our study compares the use of two display models for collaborative visual analytics, one based on the model of the personal displays with shared visualization spaces and the other based on the distributed model whereby different displays can be appropriated as workspaces in a unified manner by collocated teams. Although the general sensemaking workflow did not change across the two types of systems, we observed that the system based on the distributed model enabled a more transparent interaction for collaborations, and allowed for greater 'objectification' of information. Our findings have significant implications for how future visual analytics systems can be designed to motivate effective collaborative sensemaking.
HydraScope: creating multi-surface meta-applications through view synchronization and input multiplexing BIBAFull-Text 43-48
  Björn Hartmann; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Wendy E. Mackay
As computing environments that combine multiple displays and input devices become more common, the need for applications that take advantage of these capabilities becomes more pressing. However, few applications are designed to support such multi-surface environments. We investigate how to adapt existing applications without access to their source code. We introduce HydraScope, a framework for transforming existing web applications into meta-applications that execute and synchronize multiple copies of applications in parallel, with a multi-user input layer for interacting with it. We describe the Hydra-Scope architecture, validated with five meta-applications.

Projection and 3D

Displaydrone: a flying robot based interactive display BIBAFull-Text 49-54
  Jürgen Scheible; Achim Hoth; Julian Saal; Haifeng Su
This paper introduces the Displaydrone, a novel system that combines a multicopter (flying robot) with a video projector and a mobile phone into a flying interactive display for projecting onto walls and arbitrary objects in physical space. Being quickly and flexibly deployed in open space, the Displaydrone allows the angle and direction of the projection to be adjusted on the fly. We realized the Displaydrone system with a custom-built octocopter, an off-the-shelf pico projector, an Android phone and went on flying. By carrying out an experimental evaluation we obtained first impressions on how the Displaydrone is perceived by a viewing audience. The paper highlights the findings and discusses the Displaydrone's potential for enabling new kinds of social group interactions in physical space.
Be green: implementing an interactive, cylindrical display in the real world BIBAFull-Text 55-60
  Rouien Zarin; Nicholas True; Nigel Papworth; Kent Lindberg; Daniel Fallman
Many studies in Human-Computer Interaction and related fields, such as pervasive displays, have historically centered around user evaluation and knowledge production, focusing on usability issues and on creating a more efficient user experience. As the trajectory of HCI moves toward the so-called 'third wave', new values are being emphasized and explored. These include concepts such as embodiment and engagement, complementing usability as the primary metric of evaluation. This paper explores the ideation, iteration, design, and real-world deployment of such a 'third wave' interactive pervasive installation in the form of an interactive, large cylindrical display. The purpose was to display the air quality data in a manner that would inspire elevated environmental consciousness and discussion among Umeå citizens, especially with regard to the environmental impact of different methods of transportation.
Perceiving layered information on 3D displays using binocular disparity BIBAFull-Text 61-66
  Nora Broy; Florian Alt; Stefan Schneegass; Niels Henze; Albrecht Schmidt
3D displays are hitting the mass market. They are integrated in consumer TVs, notebooks, and mobile phones and are mainly used for virtual reality as well as video content. We see large potential in using depth also for structuring information. Our specific use case is 3D displays integrated in cars. The capabilities of such displays could be used to present relevant information to the driver in a fast and easy-to-understand way, e.g., by functionality-based clustering. However, excessive parallaxes can cause discomfort and in turn negatively influence the primary driving task. This requires a reasonable choice of parallax boundaries. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we identify the comfort zone when perceiving 3D content. Second, we determine a minimum depth distance between objects that still enables users to quickly and accurately separate the two depth planes. The results yield that in terms of task completion time the optimum distance from screen level is up to 35.9 arc-min angular disparity behind the screen plane. A distance of at least 2.7 arc-min difference in angular disparity between the objects significantly decreases time for layer separation. Based on the results we derive design implications.
Towards a framework for projection installations BIBAFull-Text 67-72
  Hans William Falck; Kim Halskov
Projection installations are part of Spatially Augmented Reality, where the projection medium is used to enrich a fixed, bounded physical space with digital content. Projection technology enables us to turn many kinds of physical objects into displays. In this paper we develop and present a conceptual framework that addresses three aspects of a projection installation: the content associated with the object, the digital content, and the relation between the two. We conclude the paper with a set of strategies commonly used in projection installations: Enhancing or emphasizing physical aspects; Transforming materiality; Adding virtual objects; 3D effects; Complex content on simple objects or simple content on complex; Strong versus loose connections between the physical object and the digital content. This paper is based on four cases, two of which concern cultural heritage installations, the others concerning urban computing, including media architecture.

Architecture and space

Extending architectural theories of space syntax to understand the effect of environment on the salience of situated displays BIBAFull-Text 73-78
  Nick Dalton; Paul Marshall; Ruth Dalton
Research is increasingly focusing on the role of spatial context in encouraging or discouraging interaction with public displays. However, there are few tools available to aid researchers in analyzing space in terms of its relevant properties when deciding where the most appropriate location is to position a display. In this paper we argue that a taxonomy of space is necessary to begin to understand how to enhance interaction within it. Previous work has suggested that a group of architectural theories known collectively as Space Syntax may be relevant to the problem of positioning situated displays. This paper reports on an initial study conducted to examine the utility of Space Syntax measures for positioning public displays for maximum salience. The outcome of the study was that different representations were found to be more memorable when positioned in different shapes of spaces. Specifically, the memorably of text and images differed with the size and jaggedness of the space in which they were displayed. We suggest that tools need to be developed for public display researchers to systematically study these and similar effects across a variety of contexts. We introduce software called Infinite Horizon that has been developed to facilitate this taxonomic work.
Exploring the effect of spatial layout on mediated urban interactions BIBAFull-Text 79-84
  Moritz Behrens; Ava Fatah gen. Schieck; Efsathia Kostopoulou; Steve North; Wallis Motta; Lei Ye; Holger Schnadelbach
In this paper we focus on the spatial configuration and emergent social interactions in two locations in London mediated by interactive and networked urban displays. Our analysis draws upon interactions mediated through displays we implemented in the real world connecting four urban spaces [1]. We outline our case study and the methodology we implemented, including the analysis of the spatial layout on the micro/local scale in two sites, followed by the observations of social behavior and technologically mediated interactions by actors, spectators and passers-by during two community events, before finally outlining the following identified interaction zones: 1) direct interaction space surrounding the display (direct); 2) the surrounding public space (wide); and 3) across spatial boundaries i.e. the remotely connected space through networked displays (connected) over time. We highlight site-specific interactions and compare them to the more generic types of interactions, thus contributing to the understanding of mediated social interactions. We suggest that the properties of the spatial layout play a significant role and, to a certain extent, frame the type of interactions mediated through public displays. We highlight in particular the dynamic and interconnected nature of this mediation, defined through the spatial layout, people, type of social activities, and time of the day.
Clearing the virtual window: connecting two locations with interactive public displays BIBAFull-Text 85-90
  Jonna Häkkilä; Olli Koskenranta; Maaret Posti; Leena Ventä-Olkkonen; Ashley Colley
Public displays offer the possibility to open a virtual window to another place by showing a live video feed from a remote location. In this paper, we describe our research investigating connecting two spaces with pervasive displays, where the ability to see through the virtual window was user controlled. The set-up was designed to resemble a frozen window, where the user was able to melt the surface using gesture input. We organized a four day field study with four alternating designs to evaluate our system, and collected feedback from 14 users through online surveys and focus groups. Our salient findings reveal that Ice Window was perceived as fun and interesting, and it has potential for facilitate awareness and informal ways of collaboration not only between the two locations, but also at one side of the display. People were most comfortable with a design that implemented two-sided melting of the ice. This was perceived as best able to indicate communication attempts between the two locations whilst respecting privacy.
Beyond the vision paradigm: design strategies for crossmodal interaction with dynamic digital displays BIBAFull-Text 91-96
  Claude Fortin; Kate Hennessy; Ruedi Baur; Pierre Fortin
The purpose of our research is to develop new interaction paradigms for dynamic digital displays (DDDs) in public space. Our lab is currently developing an ontological framework that comprises seven different interaction paradigms for DDDs. Still in its budding stages, this framework is intended to assist HCI practitioners in the conception and evaluation of architectural scale DDD installations. This paper theoretically discusses crossmodal interaction as one of these seven interaction paradigms. We used an architectural approach that draws on medium specificity -- a fine arts concept foreign to HCI -- to conduct a phenomenological analysis of DDDs that have been deployed in an actual public space in Montréal, Canada. After interviewing DDD design artists and performing our preliminary observational analyses, we found four design strategies that were used to produce crossmodal interaction on an architectural scale, helping shift the experience of DDDs beyond the vision paradigm.

Mobile interaction

Mobile applications for open display networks: common design considerations BIBAFull-Text 97-102
  Rui José; Jorge Cardoso; Florian Alt; Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies
Mobile devices can be a powerful tool for interaction with public displays, but mobile applications supporting this form of interaction are not yet part of our everyday reality. There are no widely accepted abstractions, standards, or practices that may enable systematic interaction between mobile devices and public displays. We envision public displays to move away from a world of closed display networks to scenarios where mobile applications could allow people to interact with the myriad of displays they might encounter during their everyday trips. In this research, we study the key processes involved in this collaborative interaction between public shared displays and mobile applications. Based on the lessons learned from our own development and deployment of 3 applications, and also on the analysis of the interactive features described in the literature, we have identified 8 key processes that may shape this form of interaction: Discovery, Association, Presence Management, Exploration, Interface Migration, Controller, Media Upload and Media Download. The contribution of this work is the identification of these high-level processes and an elicitation of the main design considerations for display networks.
PresiShare: opportunistic sharing and presentation of content using public displays and QR codes BIBAFull-Text 103-108
  Matthias Geel; Daniel Huguenin; Moira C. Norrie
Public displays have seen a widespread adoption in public places such as train stations, airports and museums, where they are often used to show time tables, schedules but also advertisements or complementary information. But even within organisations or universities, public- and semi-public displays have proven themselves to be valuable means of promoting awareness of current events, latest company news, or upcoming meetings and talks. However, opportunistic sharing of content between mobile devices and such displays remains a challenge.
   In this paper, we present a novel technique based on QR codes to facilitate interaction with public displays and to simplify user interaction. We investigate how web technologies can be used both on the client-side as well as for the infrastructure itself in order to provide a lightweight and flexible architecture. As a proof-of-concept, we developed PresiShare, a web-based platform for presenting and sharing pictures, music and documents on any display. We have evaluated our approach by conducting a formal user study that analyses the interaction techniques proposed. Furthermore, we report our findings from a live deployment within our research group where we collected qualitative feedback and usage statistics.
Wordster: collaborative versus competitive gaming using interactive public displays and mobile phones BIBAFull-Text 109-114
  Petri Luojus; Jarkko Koskela; Kimmo Ollila; Saku-Matti Mäki; Raffi Kulpa-Bogossia; Tommi Heikkinen; Timo Ojala
We report the design, implementation and evaluation of Wordster, a word finding game played with public displays and mobile phones. The study shows how collaborative gaming in the single player mode enhances social interaction via co-location and spectator view. The usability and playability of the mobile multiplayer mode targeted for competitive gaming between players and realized by coupling a public display and a personal mobile phone into a distributed interface were found good in a controlled user evaluation. However, the adoption of the mobile multiplayer mode in an uncontrolled evaluation "in the wild" was poor, challenging the findings of the controlled user evaluation.
GPS lens: GPS based controlling of pointers on large-scale urban displays using mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 115-120
  Sven Gehring; Christian Lander
The increasing number of media façades in urban spaces offers great potential for interaction. Due to their size and physical properties interacting with them directly by touching them is not possible. In this paper, we present a sensor-based approach, which relies on the GPS, compass and accelerometer data of a mobile device to control a pointer on large-scale urban displays, such as media façades. We calculate the pointing direction based on the location and orientation of the mobile device and display a preview of the content around the current cursor position to overcome the limitations of current GPS sensors. We further report on an initial user evaluation, revealing the presented approach as accurate and easy-to-use.

Users and communities

OpenWindow: citizen-controlled content on public displays BIBAFull-Text 121-126
  Niels Wouters; Jonathan Huyghe; Andrew Vande Moere
In this paper, we investigate the true 'public' potential of public displays by shifting the responsibility to create or control content from the traditional central authority to the citizen. To evaluate the potential value of this concept, we have designed and deployed a set of small public displays behind the street-side windows of three separate houses, of which the households were each invited to provide their own content. During a three-week, in-the-wild field study, we have analyzed the impact of citizen-controlled public displays on both participants and community members, and have observed the relationships between the public display and the neighborhood. Our analysis shows how delegating the control over content on a public display to members of the community can influence social cohesion in the immediate environment as it offers an additional opportunity for discourse. Observations also highlight how the effectiveness of citizen-controlled public displays can be dependent on pre-existing social, cultural or linguistic issues. This experiment aims to illustrate the value of a more socially- and location-relevant integration of public displays in our urban neighborhoods as a multifaceted yet democratic medium of public communication.
Tethered or free to roam: the design space of limiting content access on community displays BIBAFull-Text 127-132
  Nemanja Memarovic; Keith Cheverst; Marc Langheinrich; Ivan Elhart; Florian Alt
Many design decisions need to be made when creating situated public displays that aim to serve a community. One such decision concerns access to its contents: should users be able to access content remotely, e.g., via a web page, or should this be limited to users who are co-located with the display? A similar decision has to be made for community content upload: do posters need to be co-located with the display or can posts be made from any location? In other words, content display and creation can be 'tethered' to a display or it can be 'free to roam', i.e., accessible from anywhere. In this paper we analyze prior community display deployments in an attempt to explore this space and produce a taxonomy that highlights the inherent design choices. Furthermore, we discuss some of the reasons that may underlie these choices and identify opportunities for design.
Street infographics: raising awareness of local issues through a situated urban visualization BIBAFull-Text 133-138
  Sandy Claes; Andrew Vande Moere
This paper presents the evaluation study of Street Infographics, an urban intervention that visually represent data that is contextually related to local issues, and is visualized through situated displays that are placed within the social and public context of an urban environment. Based on the design characteristics of urban visualization, we defined six specific design principles and applied these in the deployment of a low-fidelity prototype during an in-the-wild study. Designed to augment an existing street sign with socially- and locally-relevant information, the resulting urban visualization encourages people to gain local knowledge, reflect on their perception and even foster social interaction. We describe the design of Street Infographics and its effect on local residents, as measured before and after our intervention. Our case study should be considered one of the first steps towards a better understanding of the true potential of the use of data visualization in a public context, such as for engaging citizens in acting towards a more qualitative and sustainable neighborhood.
A practical framework for ethics: the PD-net approach to supporting ethics compliance in public display studies BIBAFull-Text 139-143
  Marc Langheinrich; Albrecht Schmidt; Nigel Davies; Rui José
Research involving public displays often faces the need to study the effects of a deployment in the wild. While many organizations have institutionalized processes for ensuring ethical compliance of such human subject experiments, these may fail to stimulate sufficient awareness for ethical issues among all project members. Some organizations even require such assessments only for medical research, leaving computer scientists without any incentive to consider and reflect on their study design and data collection practices. Faced with similar problems in the context of the EU-funded PD-Net project, we have implemented a step-by-step ethics process that aims at providing structured yet lightweight guidance to all project members both stimulating the design of ethical user studies, as well as providing continuous documentation. This paper describes our process and reports on 3 years of experience using it. All materials are publicly available and we hope that other projects in the area of public displays, and beyond, will adopt them to suit their particular needs.