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Proceedings of the 2012 ACM International Symposium on Pervasive Displays

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2012 International Symposium on Pervasive Displays
Editors:Rui José; Elaine Huang
Location:Porto, Portugal
Dates:2012-Jun-04 to 2012-Jun-05
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1414-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: PerDis12
Links:Conference Website
  1. Visual Attention
  2. Interaction Techniques
  3. Content and Control
  4. Application Development and Deployment
  5. Architecture and Space
  6. Engagement and Acceptance
  7. Collaborative Displays

Visual Attention

Factors influencing visual attention switch in multi-display user interfaces: a survey BIBAFull-Text 1
  Umar Rashid; Miguel A. Nacenta; Aaron Quigley
Multi-display User Interfaces (MDUIs) enable people to take advantage of the different characteristics of different display categories. For example, combining mobile and large displays within the same system enables users to interact with user interface elements locally while simultaneously having a large display space to show data. Although there is a large potential gain in performance and comfort, there is at least one main drawback that can override the benefits of MDUIs: the visual and physical separation between displays requires that users perform visual attention switches between displays. In this paper, we present a survey and analysis of existing data and classifications to identify factors that can affect visual attention switch in MDUIs. Our analysis and taxonomy bring attention to the often ignored implications of visual attention switch and collect existing evidence to facilitate research and implementation of effective MDUIs.
Visual highlighting on public displays BIBAFull-Text 2
  Morin Ostkamp; Gernot Bauer; Christian Kray
Public displays are often used to broadcast large amounts of information to people who pass by the displays. Flight departure boards, stock market displays and information systems at large conferences are examples for this kind of pervasive displays. While such displays serve a large number of users, one key disadvantage for individual users results from the difficulty to pinpoint which of the many items shown is relevant to them. This paper introduces a novel method to address this problem through visual highlighting and compares it to existing approaches. In doing so, we propose a set of criteria, that can also be used by designers of public display systems to select the most well suited approach for a given application scenario. In addition, these criteria can contribute towards ensuring the comparability of future studies in public display systems.
Proxemic peddler: a public advertising display that captures and preserves the attention of a passerby BIBAFull-Text 3
  Miaosen Wang; Sebastian Boring; Saul Greenberg
Effective street peddlers monitor passersby, where they tune their message to capture and keep the passerby's attention over the entire duration of the sales pitch. Similarly, advertising displays in today's public environments can be more effective if they were able to tune their content in response to how passersby were attending them vs. just showing fixed content in a loop. Previously, others have prototyped displays that monitor and react to the presence or absence of a person within a few proxemic (spatial) zones surrounding the screen, where these zones are used as an estimate of attention. However, the coarseness and discrete nature of these zones mean that they cannot respond to subtle changes in the user's attention towards the display. In this paper, we contribute an extension to existing proxemic models. Our Peddler Framework captures (1) fine-grained continuous proxemic measures by (2) monitoring the passerby's distance and orientation with respect to the display at all times. We use this information to infer (3) the passerby's interest or digression of attention at any given time, and (4) their attentional state with respect to their short-term interaction history over time. Depending on this attentional state, we tune content to lead the passerby into a more attentive stage, ultimately resulting in a purchase. We also contribute a prototype of a public advertising display -- called Proxemic Peddler -- that demonstrates these extensions as applied to content from the Amazon.com website.

Interaction Techniques

A scalable framework for markerless camera-based smartphone interaction with large public displays BIBAFull-Text 4
  Matthias Baldauf; Peter Fröhlich; Katrin Lasinger
The camera-based control of large markerless displays through smartphones in real-time is an appealing novel interaction technique in urban environments and opens a wide range of new use cases. While recent research has focused on investigating respective user aspects using simplified lab prototypes, this paper addresses the question how such services can be technically enabled for a large network of screens. We present our efforts towards a suitable distributed framework for enabling such smartphone-based screen services at a large scale and introduce a prototypical implementation. To illustrate its features we present two concrete interactive services we realized on top of the framework.
Designing for mobile interaction with augmented objects BIBAFull-Text 5
  Martin Tomitsch; Mark C. Mitchell; Hanley Weng
Handheld projectors represent an emerging type of pervasive display that can provide situated, personalised access to digital information. Beyond the projection of content such as photos or websites they can be used to augment physical everyday objects with digital information. This approach has several advantages compared to other augmented reality (AR) technologies. For example handheld projectors eliminate the need to wear head-mounted displays and provide a true integration of the virtual overlay with the physical environment. Yet little is known regarding user interaction with projection-based AR interfaces. The work described in this paper aims to fill this gap through an explorative comparison of four interaction techniques. The techniques were evaluated with two iterations of a projection-based interface that augments physical books with digital information. The interface was prototyped with a fixed projector and a depth-camera sensor to simulate handheld projection. The paper provides a discussion of the techniques along with insights regarding the interface design of projection-based AR interfaces.
Investigating intuitiveness and effectiveness of gestures for free spatial interaction with large displays BIBAFull-Text 6
  Luke Hespanhol; Martin Tomitsch; Kazjon Grace; Anthony Collins; Judy Kay
A key challenge for creating large interactive displays in public spaces is in the definition of ways for the user to interact that are effective and easy to learn. This paper presents the outcomes of user evaluation sessions designed to test a series of different gestures for people interacting with large displays in the public space. It is an initial step towards the broader goal of establishing a natural means for immersive interactions. The paper proposes a set of simple gestures for the execution of the basic actions of selecting and rearranging items in a large-scale dashboard. We performed a comparative analysis of the gestures, leading to a more in-depth understanding of the nature of spatial interaction between people and large public displays. More specifically, the analysis focuses on the scenarios when the interaction is restricted to an individual's own body, without any further assistance from associated devices. The findings converge into the elaboration of a model for assisting with the applicability of spatial gestures in response to both the context and the content they are applied to.

Content and Control

The interacting places framework: conceptualizing public display applications that promote community interaction and place awareness BIBAFull-Text 7
  Nemanja Memarovic; Marc Langheinrich; Florian Alt
The proliferation of public displays, along with ubiquitous wireless communication and sensing technology, has made it possible to create a novel public communication medium: open networked pervasive displays would allow citizens to provide their own content, appropriate close-by displays, and increase their own awareness of a display's surroundings and its local communities. We envision that such displays can create interacting places, i. e., public spaces that promote community interaction and place awareness. In this paper we describe our Interacting Places Framework (IPF), a conceptual framework for designing applications in this novel research space that we developed based on four distinct public display studies. Our IPF focuses on 4 elements: 1) content providers, i. e., entities that will supply content; 2) content viewers, i. e., people who are addressed by the content; 3) communication channels that deliver the content and range from inclusive, i. e., open-for-everyone, to exclusive, i. e., closed-group channels; and 4) an awareness diffusion layer that describes how community awareness building happens both explicitly, i. e., through content tailored towards a specific audience, and implicitly, by observing output for other people.
Beyond interaction: tools and practices for situated publication in display networks BIBAFull-Text 8
  Rui José; Hélder Pinto; Bruno Silva; Ana Melro; Helena Rodrigues
The ability to engage users in content generation is both a major goal and a major challenge for public displays. While previous work has extensively explored the specific challenges associated with interaction processes, little attention has been paid to the broad range of issues that go beyond interaction itself. More specifically, public display systems do not seem to offer a set of tools and techniques that people may feel comfortable to use for whatever communication purposes they might have. There are no publication concepts that can frame expectations on how content creation, distribution, presentation and curation are handled by display systems. In our research, we seek to explore new publication concepts for public displays, and for that purpose we have developed instant places, a platform enabling people to connect with the places they visit and control the projection of their identity in public displays. The system frames interaction events within two specific publication concepts: pin badges and posters. We describe our first deployments at three different locations and the results obtained from usage data and in-situ surveys about content publication practices.

Application Development and Deployment

Towards multi-application public interactive displays BIBAFull-Text 9
  Tomas Lindén; Tommi Heikkinen; Vassilis Kostakos; Denzil Ferreira; Timo Ojala
Public displays are becoming a common sight in the urban landscape and they are increasingly being equipped with interaction components such as touch screens. In addition, the Web and its set of enabling technologies are attractive for realizing applications for public displays. We argue that to develop multi-application public displays, then services generally need to be easy to develop, robust, and be easy to deploy and maintain. In this position paper we present a virtual machine-based Web application platform, for decentralized deployment of interactive services on heterogeneous public displays, which satisfies the aforementioned requirements. We also report on some usage experiences of utilizing the platform in a network of large public displays, which we have deployed in a mid-size city.
Designing application stores for public display networks BIBAFull-Text 10
  Sarah Clinch; Nigel Davies; Thomas Kubitza; Albrecht Schmidt
Current public display systems are often ignored by passersby. We believe that increasing the level of engagement requires substantial innovation for the content shown -- and that this in turn requires opening up displays to new forms of applications and content from a wide variety of sources. In this paper we consider the design of "application stores" that are intended to facilitate the introduction of these new forms of content in future display networks.
iScreen: a toolkit for interactive screens BIBAFull-Text 11
  Marcus Handte; Stephan Wagner; Wolfgang Apolinarski; Pedro Jose Marron
With the advent of touch-centric operating systems such as iOS and Android, an ever-increasing number of mobile devices are equipped with touch screens. Several integrated computer systems extend this trend to traditional computers and they provide a cost-efficient hardware platform for a pervasive deployment of interactive displays in a variety of environments. However, to be useful for a particular application scenario, their software needs to be customized. Without further support, this customization can be a time-consuming and costly undertaking which may ultimately limit their applicability. To mitigate this, we have developed the iScreen software toolkit that aims at minimizing the development effort by providing a set of reusable building blocks for interactive applications. In this paper, we present the toolkit's architecture and we describe a number of components that we have implemented on top of it. To validate our work, we present four example applications some of which we have been using on a day-to-day basis over the last two years.

Architecture and Space

The role of context in media architecture BIBAFull-Text 12
  Andrew Vande Moere; Niels Wouters
In this paper, we investigate the contextual characteristics of media architecture -- parameters that impact its integration in the existing social fabric -- from a socio-demographic (environment), technical (content) and architectural (carrier) perspective. Our analysis draws upon four real-world examples of media architecture, which have been specifically chosen to demonstrate a prototypical range of context-related symptoms, including a deliberate case of vandalism, the disconnection of a building-wide lighting installation, or the inappropriate integration of a screen on an existing architectural facade. In spite of its intrinsic 'dynamic' character, we conclude that media architecture seems not well prepared to adequately respond to changes in its context over time. As a result, we propose a set of guidelines that target all relevant stakeholders, ranging from architectural designers to content managers and public authorities, in an aim to improve media architecture's acceptance and credibility, towards its long-term sustainability in our urban fabric.
Perspective views in video communication systems: an analysis of fundamental user requirements BIBAFull-Text 13
  Kai Kasugai; Felix Heidrich; Carsten Röcker; Peter Russell; Martina Ziefle
This paper presents the evaluation of a mixed reality communication system for the home domain, called roomXT. The system uses a wall-sized display that is seamlessly integrated into a living lab, to create a 'life-like' video communication experience. In order to demonstrate the potential of this approach, we conducted a living lab study comparing the developed prototype with a desktop-based system. A special video communication application, which enables spatially separated users to have a joint dinner experience, served as a common basis for the different test conditions. Results of the study show that the overall concept of roomXT was well received by users of a wide age range and that the developed prototype system seems to be preferred to commercially available video communication solutions with respect to the tested quality dimensions.
Mapping interaction onto media façades BIBAFull-Text 14
  Nancy V. Diniz; Carlos A. Duarte; Nuno M. Guimarães
This paper discusses the emergence and need of principles and guidelines for the design of interaction spaces based on media façades, as large public interactive spaces. Media façades, as new architectural creations, are being designed and built all over the world, and possibilities for interaction with individuals and groups of users are being discovered in multiple dimensions. This paper consolidates a number of empirically observed features of current projects and maps these onto a systematic framework of feature domains. We expect the framework to help in conceptualization, analysis and evaluation of current and future designs and to guide the design of the active and interactive solutions.

Engagement and Acceptance

Encouraging spectacle to create self-sustaining interactions at public displays BIBAFull-Text 15
  Ben Bedwell; Theresa Caruana
We present the first public trial of a novel mobile phone-public display application and discuss how key results from the trial can influence future designs of high visibility human-computer interactions. This paper describes how the design and deployment of the installation was engineered to utilise the single user's interaction, both to attract participants and onlookers as well as to sustain a continuous flow of new participants. We present a series of significant ethnographic observations relating to the public's interaction with the installation during its use then discuss how these features contributed to the success of the installation's original aims and how observations of unexpected behaviour offer insight into design strategies that can be employed to foster the role of participant as a crucial aspect of the overall spectacle.
An investigation on acceptance and rejection of public displays in a knowledge company BIBAFull-Text 16
  Eleonora Mencarini; Leonardo Giusti; Massimo Zancanaro
A field study on the dynamics of acceptance and rejection of public displays in a knowledge work environment is presented. This study has been conducted on the premises of a research center that employs more than 400 people. We report the motivations for the deployment of a public display infrastructure by the Communication Office, and present the results of the field study conducted 18 months after the initial installations. The results showed that there were several limitations for addressing the information needs of employees through the public displays. The main reasons being they were not properly situated in the everyday lifecycle of the institute, and the visual layout was somehow confusing and often ineffective. However, one of the main design goals was the address the need to propose a new corporate identity after a recent company restructuring. This was communicated more effectively even if not generally accepted. Starting from these results, we proposed two main design strategies to make the deployment of public display systems more effective in terms of perceived usefulness and acceptance: (1) seamless integration of the public display into the everyday life of the community and (2) active involvement of the members of the community in the creation and diffusion of content.
How to evaluate public displays BIBAFull-Text 17
  Florian Alt; Stefan Schneegaß; Albrecht Schmidt; Jörg Müller; Nemanja Memarovic
After years in the lab, interactive public displays are finding their way into public spaces, shop windows, and public institutions. They are equipped with a multitude of sensors as well as (multi-) touch surfaces allowing not only the audience to be sensed, but also their effectiveness to be measured. The lack of generally accepted design guidelines for public displays and the fact that there are many different objectives (e.g., increasing attention, optimizing interaction times, finding the best interaction technique) make it a challenging task to pick the most suitable evaluation method. Based on a literature survey and our own experiences, this paper provides an overview of study types, paradigms, and methods for evaluation both in the lab and in the real world. Following a discussion of design challenges, we provide a set of guidelines for researchers and practitioners alike to be applied when evaluating public displays.

Collaborative Displays

The LunchTable: a multi-user, multi-display system for information sharing in casual group interactions BIBAFull-Text 18
  Miguel A. Nacenta; Mikkel R. Jakobsen; Remy Dautriche; Uta Hinrichs; Marian Dörk; Jonathan Haber; Sheelagh Carpendale
People often use mobile devices to access information during conversations in casual settings, but mobile devices are not well suited for interaction in groups. Large situated displays promise to better support access to and sharing of information in casual conversations. This paper presents the LunchTable, a multi-user system based on semi-public displays that supports such casual group interactions around a lunch table. We describe our design goals and the resulting system, as well as a weeklong study of the interaction with the system in the lunch space of a research lab. Our results show substantial use of the LunchTable for sharing visual information such as online maps and videos that are otherwise difficult to share in conversations. Also, equal simultaneous access from several users does not seem critical in casual group interactions.
Using handheld devices and situated displays for collaborative planning of a museum visit BIBAFull-Text 19
  Inna Belinky; Joel Lanir; Tsvi Kuflik
A museum visit is often a collaborative activity with many people visiting the museum with family or friends. However, mobile museum guides often separate the group rather than enhance group interaction. As part of our efforts to support group activity in the museum we introduce a novel museum visit planning system that enables small groups of visitors to collaboratively plan their visit. After individual planning from home, a group of visitors can re-plan their visit as needed to accommodate for changes due to group preferences or environmental constraints. Visitors use a handheld device, also used as a museum visitors' guide, to interact with a situated display located at the entrance of the museum. We describe the system and discuss some of the design challenges we had of designing a groupware system in a public space such as a museum.
Creating engagement with old research videos BIBAFull-Text 20
  Agnese Caglio; Jacob Buur
User-centred design projects that utilize ethnographic research tend to produce hours and hours of contextual video footage that seldom gets used again once the project is complete. The richness of such research video could, however, make it attractive for other project teams or researchers as source of inspiration or knowledge of a particular context or user group -- if it were practically feasible to engage with the material later on. In this paper we explore the potentials of using old research footage to stimulate reflection, conversations and creativity by presenting it on pervasive screens to colleague designers and researchers. The setup we designed included large and small screens placed in a social space of a research environment, the communal kitchen. Through screenings of ten different 'old' research videos accompanied by various prompt questions and activities we built an understanding of how such material might be presented to achieve engagement. In particular we will suggest how engagement can be encouraged in three directions: immediate conversation, creative production, and reflective observation, and point to the factors that affect these outcomes.