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ITAP Tables of Contents: 15-115-2

ITAP 2015: First International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, Part II: Design for Everyday Life

Fullname:ITAP 2015: First International Conference on Human Aspects of IT for the Aged Population, Part II: Design for Everyday Life
Note:Volume 26 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Jia Zhou; Gavriel Salvendy
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9194
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20913-5 hcibib: ITAP15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-20912-8 (print), 978-3-319-20913-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. ITAP 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Health Care Technologies and Services for the Elderly
    2. Home and Work Support
    3. Smart Environments and AAL
    4. Communication, Games and Entertainment

ITAP 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Health Care Technologies and Services for the Elderly

The Role of Health Status in Older Adults' Perceptions of the Usefulness of eHealth Technology BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Ryan Best; Dustin J. Souders; Neil Charness; Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between an older individual's self-reported health and the perceived usefulness of computers in assisting with health-related tasks. Methods: A total of 210 older adults (age ≥ 60) completed questionnaire items pertaining to demographics, general health, perception of importance of daily activities, technology experience and use, and perceived usefulness of computers and the Internet. Results were obtained using a factor analysis and multiple regression. Results: Self-reported health was found to have a significant negative relationship with the importance of health-related activities to daily living (Beta = -0.210) but a significant positive relationship with the perceived usefulness of computers in assisting with the same health-related activities (Beta = 0.151). Discussion: Results indicate that adoption of health-supporting technologies could be facilitated by user-centered designs that better accommodate older adults in poor health. Alternatively, adoption may be facilitated by making the potential usefulness of computers more salient to older adults.
Keywords: Self-reported health; eHealth technology; Technology adoption
The Use of Smartwatches for Health Monitoring in Home-Based Dementia Care BIBAKFull-Text 15-26
  Costas Boletsis; Simon McCallum; Brynjar Fowels Landmark
A large number of dementia patients receive home-based care, in order to maintain their independence and improve quality of life and health status. The current formal home-based care model presents certain limitations related to the monitoring of the patients and the reporting of the progression of physical and cognitive decline. In recent years, novel care models and assistive technologies have been proposed in order to improve the quality of care and assistance services. In this paper, we test the assumption that the use of smartwatches for monitoring physical health aspects of dementia patients can benefit formal home-based care, by providing formal caregivers with additional, important information about significant, health-related events that may have happened during the non-visit home care hours. We perform a qualitative feasibility study -- consisted of a small-scale usability study with one dementia patient, and an expert (physician) review -- in order to test and evaluate the efficacy of a smartwatch intervention in home-based dementia care, as well as to examine its potential for a subsequent, larger-scale study. The smartwatch documented participant's health-related issues regarding night sleep disturbances, potentially frequent toilet visits, daytime snoozing, low sleep quality and early waking up times. Those issues were verified by the project's physician and, subsequently, measures can be taken to ensure the patient's good health, safety, and quality of life.
Keywords: Cognitive impairment; Dementia; Home-Based care; Smartwatch; Wearable computing
Lack of Development and Usability Descriptions in Evaluation Reports on Online Health Information Tools for Older Patients BIBAKFull-Text 27-37
  Sifra Bolle; Julia C. M. van Weert; Ellen. M. A. Smets; Eugène F. Loos
New media play an increasing role in the everyday life of older individuals. They extensively use the Internet to search for health-related information. In our systematic review we found that online health information tools have been proven to be effective in improving self-efficacy and several clinical outcomes in older (≥ 65 years) patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the development and usability of the effective online health information tools. The reporting of the development of the online health information tools turned out to be too succinct. Moreover, we were unable to evaluate the usability of online health information tools as none of them were publicly available. We argue the need to report more detailed information about the development and usability of online health information tools in evaluation studies in order to replicate findings and to develop new evidence-based online health information tools for older patients.
Keywords: Older adults; eHealth; Website usability; Online health information tools
Older Users' Rejection of Mobile Health Apps a Case for a Stand-Alone Device? BIBAKFull-Text 38-49
  André Calero Valdez; Martina Ziefle
Mobile health apps make up an enormous market in mobile phone app stores. These apps allow automatic measurement of vital parameters and transmission of data to the doctor. Older users often reject mobile health apps for various reasons. We investigate the influence of several user factors on the willingness to use a health app integrated in a mobile phone vs. a stand-alone device. Furthermore we look into the modality for data transmission and its influence on the overall acceptance. In a questionnaire study (n=245) we ask both healthy and chronically ill (heart disease and diabetes) for their preferences. Using multiple linear regression analysis we found that the motives to use such a device influence the preference for an integrated device four times more strongly than the participants age. Still, the older the users are the more they prefer a stand-alone device.
Keywords: Diabetes; Heart disease; User diversity; Mobile phones; Aging; Technology acceptance
Delivering Telemonitoring Care to Digitally Disadvantaged Older Adults: Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) Design Recommendations BIBAKFull-Text 50-60
  Hongtu Chen; Sue E. Levkoff
Although telemonitoring has promise in improving care delivery and reducing unnecessary health care costs, the recent years have witnessed growing interest in identifying and resolving barriers to engagement, participation, and spreading of telemonitoring service programs among digitally disadvantaged populations. Based on a review of three key conceptual perspectives relevant to the problem of the digital divide, specific issues concerning technological acceptance, human resources development, and collaboration with service systems are described. Major strategies and policy implications are discussed with regard to HCI design considerations for telemonitoring of medical and aging conditions of the target population, integration of the telemonitoring service into the existing clinical and social context, and development of reimbursement policy that supports not only service use but also access to technology services and additional training for effective use of the technology.
Keywords: Digital divide; Telemonitoring; Older adults; Policy
Accessibility in Serious Games for Adults Aging with Disability BIBAKFull-Text 61-71
  Keiko Gomez-Gurley; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Maribeth Gandy Coleman; Jason C. Allaire
As serious games rise in number and popularity, particularly for therapeutic purposes, so rises the importance of making these games accessible to those with disabilities. We discuss the state of accessibility for commercial and research-based serious games, common age-related considerations for accessible designs, and recommendations for usability testing protocols. We close with a case study of a visual accessibility investigation of a research-based cognitive training game, Food for Thought.
Keywords: Aging; Design; Accessibility; Age-related change; Cognition; Perception; Movement; Displays; Serious games; Cognitive training games
How Measuring an Older Person's Walking Pattern Can Help Keep Them Mobile BIBAKFull-Text 72-81
  Diana Hodgins; Ian McCarthy
One of the common causes of falls is gait deficiency, and the first aim of the study was to ascertain how specific gait parameters of elderly people with gait and balance issues compare to those of the healthy elderly population. Eleven 'at risk' elderly people were compared with eighteen healthy people.
   The second aim was to explore the potential of using objective data to support personalised exercise over a two year period to help prevent falls. The 'at risk' group attended a weekly balance class and were monitored regularly.
   The results indicate that gait can be adapted by instruction and exercises. Regular monitoring provided the participants with the incentive to continue with the exercises. No participant fell during the monitoring period and all remained active. These results indicate that it is possible to personalise exercises and provide motivation using gait data and this could potentially reduce falls in the elderly.
Keywords: Mobility; Gait; Monitoring; Sensors; Elderly; Falls
Opportunities for Technology: Translating an Efficacious Intervention to Improve Medication Adherence Among Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 82-88
  Kathie Insel; Jeannie K. Lee; Gilles O. Einstein; Daniel G. Morrow
We developed and tested the Multifaceted Prospective Memory Intervention (MPMI) to improve medication adherence among older adults (≥ 65 years of age) who were prescribed at least one daily medication for the control of high blood pressure. Blood pressure control is important because high blood pressure is a leading cause of stroke, heart failure, retinopathy, renal disease as well as pathology in other end organs including the brain. The MPMI resulted in improvement from 57% at baseline to 78% adherence to the inter-dose interval post intervention, but most of these gains were lost after 5 months. The control condition started at 68%, was stable during the intervention, but dropped to 62% after 5 months of additional monitoring. The intervention was successful, but the effects were not sustained. Continued investigation to find ways to enhance self-management among older adults using technology is needed in order to maintain health and function.
Keywords: Medication adherence; Aging
Taiwanese Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients' Acceptance and Resistance Toward the Health Cloud BIBAKFull-Text 89-100
  Wen-Tsung Ku; Pi-Jung Hsieh
As the Taiwanese society ages, the demand for cloud services is rising, particularly among middle-aged and elderly patients, since it enables people to live independently and access health care easily. Despite cloud services great potential, there are gaps in our understanding of how patients evaluate change related to the health cloud and why they resist it. In keeping with the technology acceptance and status quo bias perspectives, this study develops an integrated model to explain middle-aged and elderly patients' intention to use and resistance to health cloud services. A field survey was conducted in Taiwan to collect data from middle-aged and elderly patients. The structural equation model was used to examine the data. The results showed that patients' resistance to use health cloud services was caused by sunk costs, inertia, and transition costs. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavior control have positive and direct effects on behavioral intention to use. The results also indicate a significant negative effect in the relationship between middle-aged and elderly patients' intention and resistance to using the health cloud. Our research illustrates the importance of incorporating user resistance into technology acceptance studies in general and health technology usage studies in particular. There are grounds for a resistance model that can serve as the starting point for future studies in this relatively unexplored, yet potentially fertile, area of research.
Keywords: Health cloud; Middle-aged and elderly patients; User resistance; Technology acceptance; Status quo bias
Multi-disciplinary Design and In-Home Evaluation of Kinect-Based Exercise Coaching System for Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 101-113
  Gregorij Kurillo; Ferda Ofli; Jennifer Marcoe; Paul Gorman; Holly Jimison; Misha Pavel; Ruzena Bajcsy
Physical activity is recognized as one of the most effective measures to reduce risk of injury and to improve the quality of life in elderly. Many of the elderly however lack the motivation, confidence and skills to engage in regular exercise activity. One of the promising approaches is semi-automated coaching that combines exercise monitoring and interaction with a health coach. To gain a better understanding of the needs and challenges faced by the elderly when using such systems, we developed Kinect-based interactive exercise system to encourage healthy behavior and increase motivation to exercise. We present the multi-disciplinary design process and evaluation of the developed system in a home environment where various real-world challenges had to be overcome.
Keywords: Gerontechnology; Interactive exercise; Kinect; Health coaching
Considerations in Evaluating Technologies in Memory Care Units BIBAKFull-Text 114-122
  Amanda Lazar; Hilaire J. Thompson; George Demiris
As the population ages worldwide, dementia is becoming increasingly prevalent. There is a pressing need to investigate non-pharmacological interventions to meet the needs of people with dementia. Technology may be one tool to enhance the lives of people with dementia without the use of medication. However, conducting studies with people with dementia in memory care units (MCUs) has unique challenges. In this paper, we discuss methodological and logistical considerations in designing, recruiting for, and conducting technology evaluations in memory care units. These considerations are based on a six-month study evaluating a technology system designed to encourage people with dementia to participate in recreational activities. Findings will assist researchers in conducting studies deploying technology tools for people with dementia in memory care units and assisted living facilities.
Keywords: Dementia; Study planning; Computers; Multimedia
Influence of Mobile ICT on the Adherence of Elderly People with Chronic Diseases BIBAKFull-Text 123-133
  Alexander Mertens; Peter Rasche; Sabine Theis; Matthias Wille; Christopher Schlick; Stefan Becker
A great variety of applications for mobile devices are designed to support users during medical intake. One of these applications is 'Medication Plan' which aims at supporting regular and correct intake of medication and documentation of vital parameters. The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of demographic and health-related factors on user behavior and patterns of use. The application was available free of charge between 2010 and 2012 in the Apple™-App-Store™. The study is based on data collected via an online questionnaire. In total 1799 participants generated 1708 complete data sets. 69% of the users (74% male) with a median age of 45 applied 'Medication Plan' for more than one day. The mean duration of application increased substantially with age (< 21 years = 23.3 days; > 60 years = 103.9 days). However, other demographic factors (sex, educational status etc.) had no effect on usage intensity. Users with complicated medical treatment or aged > 60 years applied the application for 3 month on average. This is a promising trend towards the support treatment of chronic conditions with mobile applications.
Keywords: Adherence; Elderly patients; Ergonomics; HCI; ICT; Telemedicine
Principles for Developing Digital Health Interventions for Prostate Cancer: A Community-Based Design Approach with African American Men BIBAKFull-Text 134-145
  Otis L. Owens
To reduce disparities related to prostate cancer among African American men, the American Cancer Society recommends that men make an informed decision with their healthcare provider about whether prostate cancer screening is right for them. The informed decision-making process can be facilitated through technology by teaching men about prostate cancer and providing them with activities to build their self-efficacy. However, these tools may be most effective when they are developed using a set of validated design principles, such as the Usability Engineering Lifecycle, in conjunction with a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process. Using CBPR can be especially useful in designing tools for minority communities, where men have the highest prostate cancer incidence and mortality. This paper describes the author's process for using CBPR principles to develop a prostate cancer education program for African American men and also discusses the value of using these principles within an existing usability framework.
Keywords: Usability; Community based participatory research; Health disparities; Prostate cancer; Minority health
Evaluation of Complex Distributed Multimodal Applications: Evaluating a TeleRehabilitation System When It Really Matters BIBAKFull-Text 146-157
  Carlos Pereira; Nuno Almeida; Ana Isabel Martins; Samuel Silva; Ana Filipa Rosa; Miguel Oliveira e Silva; António Teixeira
The evaluation of applications or systems within dynamic environments is complex. The existence of multiple hardware and software items which share the same space can provoke concurrency issues and result in erratic interactions. A sudden change within the environment can result is dramatic changes both to the user and application itself which can pass unnoticed in traditional evaluation methodologies. To verify if a component is compatible with a given environment is of paramount importance for areas like pervasive computing, ambient intelligence or ambient assisted living (AAL). In this paper, a semi-automatic platform for evaluation is presented and integrated with a TeleRehabilitation system in an AAL scenario to enhance evaluation. Preliminary results show the advantages of the platform in comparison with typical observation solutions mainly in terms of achieved data and overall ease of use.
Keywords: Evaluation; Multimodality; TeleRehabilitation
Innovative Technology-Based Healthcare and Support Services for Older Adults: How and Why Industrial Initiatives Convert to the Living Lab Approach BIBAKFull-Text 158-169
  Maribel Pino; Caroline Moget; Samuel Benveniste; Robert Picard; Anne-Sophie Rigaud
To support older adults with age-related or chronic diseases living in the community, suppliers are increasingly turning to Personal Health Systems (PHS) for remote care delivery. Despite the advantages of PHS, implementing these systems brings on several challenges on the technical level, but also related to the diversity of end-users, the characteristics of the ecosystem, the innovation process itself, regulatory and social aspects. To discuss these issues, we study two different PHS currently under implementation and deployment by two French companies: a telehealth service for frail older adults living at home and a GPS-based monitoring service to deal with wandering and disorientation of persons with dementia. We describe and compare problematic situations faced by these companies on three levels -- demand, supply, and context -- and explain why they decided to evolve towards a Living Lab approach to improve technology acceptance and social and economic return on investment.
Keywords: Living-lab; Innovation; Healthcare; PHS; User involvement; Older adults
Developing Radical-Digital Interventions to Tackle Loneliness Amongst the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 170-180
  Dhruv Sharma; Lynne Blair; Stephen Clune
Loneliness is a growing issue amongst older people and one popular approach to tackling it is by developing non-medical interventions such as befriending services, mentoring provisions, social clubs, etc. Our analysis reveals that these interventions are predominantly incremental-physical in nature and that there is a lack of radical-digital ones. In this paper we discuss the properties of digital technologies that can be potentially helpful for the elderly and we suggest that social innovation provides a robust theoretical framework to conceive radical-digital loneliness interventions. We also draw parallels between loneliness interventions based on social innovation and the emerging 'sharing economy' in the digital world and discuss the role of third paradigm of HCI research in this area.
Keywords: Elderly; Loneliness; Interventions; The third paradigm; Radical-digital
Effects of Using Care Professionals in the Development of Social Technology for Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 181-192
  Marie Sjölinder; Isabella Scandurra
In some situations when developing technology for elderly, the intended users are too fragile and cannot participate themselves in the design process. The aim with this study was to investigate the use of care personnel as mediators for the elderly in the design process. The system that was developed was an information and communication technology system for sharing information and for keeping in touch with friends and family. Initially the care personnel misunderstood the need of technology among the elderly. During the project the care personnel changed their view and suggested new ways of using the technology. When the devices where placed in the rooms of the elderly the usage was low, but when the system was used in the dining areas as something to gather around, e.g. to show each other pictures of friends and family, the system became a success.
Keywords: Social technology; Welfare technology; Elderly; Community-based participatory research; Co-participatory design; Community networks; Professional-patient relations
More Light! Improving Well-Being for Persons Suffering from Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Charlotte A. Sust; Peter Dehoff; Christina Hallwirth-Spörk; Dieter Lang; Dieter Lorenz
Daylight regulates the wake-sleep cycle by acting on specific receptors of the retina that are sensitive to the blue component of the spectrum. Especially in the winter months, the amount of daylight exposure is insufficient for adequate control of the circadian rhythm in many people because they increasingly stay indoors. This is particularly true for elderly or mobility-impaired persons, as well as for residents of care homes, where prevailing levels of illuminance and colour temperature are frequently too low. This not only has negative consequences for the residents' cognition, but also impairs their sleep-wake rhythms. Starting from the hypothesis that suitably designed, biologically effective artificial lighting can compensate for the lack of daylight and lead to regulation of the wake-sleep rhythm, a study comprising approximately 60 participants investigated whether an improvement in the mental and emotional condition of the residents can be achieved. Appropriate lighting was installed in four wards of two Caritas Socialis care homes in Vienna and from October 2012 until April 2013: basic illumination (static, 300 lux, 3000 K) and intervention illumination (dynamic, 800-1200 lux, 3000-6500 K) were alternated (roughly every four weeks). The results indicated that agitated behavior (as measured by the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory) increased with basic illumination and decreased in the intervention situation. Communicative behavior (observation inventory) was likewise positively influenced, particularly the non-verbal component.
Keywords: Biologically effective lighting; Dementia; Well-being; Field study
The Design of Pain Management and Creative Service for Older Adults with Chronic Disease BIBAKFull-Text 201-210
  Wang-Chin Tsai; Chia-Ling Chang; Hsuan Lin
Chronic Disease is expected to affect approximately 3 million older adults by the year 2030 in Taiwan. It is one of the top causes of disability, mobility problems, and chronic pain among older adults. With so many individuals affected, it is important to identify how to effectively manage the pain associated with chronic pain disease. The purpose of the present research was to understand the factors and needs critical to the successful management of chronic pain and to create the management and service tools currently available to the older adults. We conducted structured interviews with subject matter experts, target user, and brainstorming for the pain management development. All of the process reviewed were found to be current chronic problem pain lacking in several key areas, such as failing to include critical variables and difficulty integrating the data collected into a meaningful representation of one's pain experience. Resolving these issues will improve the quality of life for individuals suffering from chronic pain. The researches provides 3 pain care system concepts through the convenience of household devices combined with cloud computing technology, touch interface and information design (The Pain Tracker, The Pain Helper, The Pain Exerciser). According to older patients with chronic pain, considering the both of physiological and psychological part of the demand to conduct innovative service design, the health care self-management concept will enhance the better quality of life of older chronic patients.
Keywords: Chronic pain; Older adults; Pain management
The Design of Mobile Technology to Support Diabetes Self-Management in Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 211-221
  Laura A. Whitlock; Anne Collins McLaughlin; Maurita Harris; Jessica Bradshaw
Type 2 diabetes is a concern for older adults and an increasing concern for society as the percentage of older persons rises across the globe. Though potentially deadly, it is a disease that responds well to self-management through behavior: adherence to dietary guidelines, medication regimens, and exercise. However, older persons with type 2 diabetes tend to self-manage poorly, despite educational initiatives. Based on a review of the challenges faced by persons with type 2 diabetes and the state of existing highly rated diabetes self-management applications, we propose a list of design practices and core features most needed in mobile technologies designed to support the self-management of diabetes in older adults.
Keywords: Older adults; Aging; Chronic health condition; Type 2 diabetes; Mobile technology; App; Support
Design and Fabricate Neckwear to Improve the Elderly Patients' Medical Compliance BIBAKFull-Text 222-234
  Xiaolong Wu; Young Mi Choi; Maysam Ghovanloo
According to the estimation of the US National Council for Patient Information and Education, there is millions of prescription written each year, but only half of them are correctly followed by patients. Non-compliance with medicine prescription will result in higher medical cost, more hospitalizations, more complicated pill dosage, and even a threat to life. In order to improve elderly people's medical compliance, a new approach that utilizes microelectronics technology in wearable neckwear has been proposed. The sensors in the neckwear are able to detect whether the user has actually taken the pill and which pills the user has taken. During the design iteration, elderly participants' medication related behavioral data and their opinions towards the neckwear reminder concept were first gathered by interviews. The result has demonstrated that wearable neckwear seemed to be a potential solution to improve elderly people's medication compliance. Then a set of physical (non-functional) prototypes was created based on the initial survey input. Usability testing was conducted in order to measure elderly people's preferences in relation to shape, comfort, desirability, ease of use and other factors. This paper documented the development of this prototype and focused on the design challenges that have been encountered, and how the problems have been solved.
Keywords: Medical compliance; Wearable

Home and Work Support

Psychosocial Approach of Skills Obsolescence in Older Workers: Contribution of Methodological Triangulation BIBAKFull-Text 237-246
  Florence Cros; Marc-Eric Bobillier Chaumon; Bruno Cuvillier
Information and Communication Technologies have spread rapidly these last decades. The employment sphere has not been unaffected by these technological developments. One of the greatest risks of computerization is the rise of inequalities between two kinds of workers: those who have knowledge, an easy practice of ICT and those who do not. Older workers constitute a major part of this second kind of workers. They represent a group that is disadvantaged by technological developments. How may the widespread use of ICT in the workplace impact on older workers' activity? In attempting to answer this question, we will focus on the notion of skills obsolescence. The aim of this article is to focus on methodological triangulation to understand the dynamic construction of skills.
Keywords: ICT; Older workers; Skills obsolescence; Methodological triangulation
HAVAS: The Haptic Audio Visual Sleep Alarm System BIBAKFull-Text 247-256
  Ali Danesh; Fedwa Laamarti; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik
Sleep inertia is a transitional state of decreased performance or disorientation that occurs immediately after awakening [1]. We introduce HAVAS as a potential prevention measure to sleep inertia. It is a haptic audio visual alarm system that determines an optimal awakening time by considering the sleep stages. It consists of two major parts: Smart Bed Sheet and Smart Phone App. The design principles, methodology, and implementation are explained in detail in the following pages. Additionally, a comparison is drawn between the proposed system and those from similar studies. Moreover, the results of preliminary feasibility tests are presented at the end.
Keywords: Sleep inertia; Sleep stages; Sleep monitoring
CogniWin -- A Virtual Assistance System for Older Adults at Work BIBAFull-Text 257-268
  Sten Hanke; Hugo Meinedo; David Portugal; Marios Belk; João Quintas; Eleni Christodoulou; Miroslav Sili; Miguel Sales Dias; George Samaras
This paper presents an innovative virtual assistant system, which aims to address older adults' needs in a professional environment by proposing promising and innovative virtual assistance mechanisms. The system, named CogniWin, is expected to alleviate eventual age related memory degradation and gradual decrease of other cognitive capabilities (i.e. speed of processing new information, concentration level) and at the same time assist older adults to increase their learning abilities through personalized learning assistance and well-being guidance. In this paper we describe the overall system concept, the technological approach, the methodology used in the elicitation of user needs, and describe the first pre-trials' evaluation.
Developing Mobile Application Design of Virtual Pets for Caring for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 269-277
  Hsiu Ching Laura Hsieh
In the population ageing society, the companionship and care of the elderly, the medical system, and the consumer trend cannot be neglected. The contact with the external and the ones caring about oneself is essential for the elderly. This study aims to develop application with the functions of healthcare and accompanying, and the accessibility design is included in the interface, where virtual pets are the major communication media to assist the elderly in using mobile application. The required functions and contents in mobile application as well as the preference for the interface and models of interaction for the elderly are investigated in this study. It aims to ease and convince the elderly of the easy use. In the process of cultivating and training the virtual pet mobile application, the elderly could be accompanied and reduced the sense of loneliness; in the further use and interaction with virtual pet mobile application, the physical and metal conditions of the elderly could be real-time monitored and recorded to assist monitoring stations in managing the physical conditions of the elderly and nursing personnel in periodical checks. This research is preceded as following. First, literatures are reviewed. Second, Focus Group Interview is utilized for concluding the application contents and functions and the requirements and preference of the elderly for virtual pets. Third, an application experimental prototype is designed according to such requirements and preference. Fourth, the questionnaire, aiming to test the usability of the elderly, is filled. Fifth, the principles and suggestions for mobile application design suitable for the elderly are concluded based on the test results and analyses. The research outcome would assist in and contribute to the accessibility design of mobile application and the application to medical care by providing possible solutions for insufficient caring manpower in ageing societies and uneven distribution of medical resources.
Keywords: Mobile application; Virtual pet; Virtual elder care; Accessibility
Implementing the SimpleC Companion: Lessons Learned from In-Home Intervention Studies BIBAKFull-Text 278-289
  Chantal Kerssens; Renu Kumar; Anne Edith Adams; Camilla C. Knott; Wendy A. Rogers
This paper provides insights from our experiences that would guide the implementation of home- and community-based intervention studies, in particular field tests of technology in older adults with varying degrees of cognitive impairment and their informal (family) caregivers. Critical issues include recruitment in a vulnerable and frail population, intervention and protocol design, environmental and technology-specific barriers to implementation, and facilitators of success. Our experiences and recommendations should be relevant to a broad range of longitudinal field tests, particularly those with older adult populations.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Caregivers; Dementia; Seniors; Disease management; Caregiver burden; Recruitment; Retention; Applied research; Field test; mHealth; Healthcare technology
Investigation of Sensitivity of Foot Soles to Vibrational Stimuli: First Results for Developers of Information Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 290-299
  Stefan Lutherdt; Eva Kaiser; Tim Kirchhofer; Philipp Wegerich; Hartmut Witte
This paper gives the first results of basic researches to identify parameters and requirements for the development of a vibrational interface in shoe soles. This interface is an integral part of a system to support orientation and navigation of elderly in new and/or unfamiliar environments. To meet the requirements of the later users it is necessary to know the restrictions, basics and needs of this new technology. For these analyses a test bench was developed to examine the sensitivity of the user's foot sole to vibrational stimuli, and to determine the amount of information which could be transmitted. Another result of first test runs is the possibility to decrease the number of vibrational actuators beneath the foot sole.
Keywords: Foot sole; Vibro-tactile stimuli; Mechanoreceptors; Vibrational interface for orientation; Elderly
Robotic Interfaces Design BIBAKFull-Text 300-310
  Angie L. Marin Mejia
In the Human Robot Interaction field, developers choose among different solutions to portray a face, ranging for mechanical solutions, or avatars displayed on screens attached to the robot's body. Those designs are commonly displayed separately, being a mechanical head and a tablet size screen, or a screen with the avatar's face and a different one for the Graphical User Interface. The user interactions with the avatar and the GUI are noticeably divided by screen, and interaction designers can make use of design guidelines for computer systems during their design process. However, when the Avatar and Graphical User Interface are displayed together in the same screen, visual and interactive features compete for user's attention, increasing the complexity and affecting users' impression of the robotics system.
   It is known that prior knowledge affects older user's interactions, and navigation structures for can be applied trying to elicit that prior knowledge. However, when it comes to robots and elderly people, interaction designers should consider a robot's embodiment as a variable in the interaction equation, whether they are making decisions for the avatar or the GUI.
   Designers have little empirical research to guide them in creating such combined models for robotics interfaces and older adults. The fashion in which the visual interfaces of a robot are designed could make the difference in how often and ease individuals use that technology. The true challenge in designing a robotic interface for a system that displays an avatar and a Graphical User Interface in the same screen is representing a GUI Interaction structure without affecting the state of the embodied agent or avatar.
   The present research approaches this issue. Different Robotic Interfaces designs for Avatar + GUI with older adults as users are analyzed. The study reported in this paper, implements a robotic female Avatar and Graphical User Interface of our own design. Both designs share the same screen on Homemate, a consumer robot developed to assist the elderly with errand services, communication, entertainment capabilities, and that employs a screen instead of head, allowing us to explore whether these design considerations of Avatar + GUI produce any effect in older adults impressions of an assistant robot.
Keywords: Robotics; Interface; Design; Avatar; Elderly; User experience; Interaction; GUI; UX; Older adults
An Adaptable AR User Interface to Face the Challenge of Ageing Workers in Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 311-323
  Maura Mengoni; Matteo Iualè; Margherita Peruzzini; Michele Germani
In the last years introducing measures to face age discrimination and increasing work safety in production environments have become crucial goals. The present research proposes an innovative user interface exploiting Augmented Reality techniques to support frail people, mainly elderly, in everyday work on complex automated machines. It adapts its functionalities according to the user skill, tasks, age, and cognitive and physical abilities thanks to a set of knowledge-based configuration rules. A case study is described to illustrate the methodology to manage the complexity of configuration rules and the resulting developed platform.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Accessibility; User-centred design; Adaptation; Augmented reality
Development of Caricature Robots for Interaction with Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 324-332
  Jeffrey Sebastian; Chih-Yin Tai; Kim Lindholm; Yeh-Liang Hsu
This paper proposes a concept of combining the techniques of classic animation and robotic design to create a simple robot capable of interacting with older adults, denominated "caricature robots". A caricature robot can be described as "a non-humanoid robot that can show simplified humanoid motions in exaggerated ways". To achieve that illusion, three key elements should be met in a caricature robot: functionality, simplicity in motion and personality. While interaction for every older adult can be different, users are allowed to personalize their caricature robot by creating their own set of motions and personas that suits their personal taste. This is made possible through the "Body Cerebellar and Brain" control structure and the MotionClips software developed in this research. MusicMouth is used to exemplify caricature robots. Through the advantage of customization and personalization, caricature robots present a range of scenarios.
Keywords: Interaction; Caricature robots; Robotic motion design
Computer Input Devices and the Elderly: A Musculoskeletal Disorder Focus BIBAKFull-Text 333-340
  Alvaro D. Taveira; Sang D. Choi
The aging process carries important implications for the design of human-computer interfaces. Decreases in vision, motor control and muscle force combined with a higher vulnerability to musculoskeletal disorders and to degenerative diseases should be taken in consideration when designing and selecting computer input devices for the elderly. This study reviews the recent research literature on computer input devices and their adequacy to the elderly user. Significant findings from evaluative studies are summarized, and recommendations are provided.
Keywords: Computer input devices; Aging; Older; Elderly; MSDs
Development of Automatic Speech Recognition Techniques for Elderly Home Support: Applications and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 341-353
  Michel Vacher; Frédéric Aman; Solange Rossato; François Portet
Vocal command may have considerable advantages in terms of usability in the AAL domain. However, efficient audio analysis in smart home environment is a challenging task in large part because of bad speech recognition results in the case of elderly people. Dedicated speech corpora were recorded and employed to adapted generic speech recognizers to this type of population. Evaluation results of a first experiment allowed to draw conclusions about the distress call detection. A second experiments involved participants who played fall scenarios in a realistic smart home, 67% of the distress calls were detected online. These results show the difficulty of the task and serve as basis to discuss the stakes and the challenges of this promising technology for AAL.
Keywords: Automatic speech recognition; Aged voices; Home automation; Vocal command; Distress call; Ambient assisted living
Aging Working Population: Hearing Impairment a Growing Challenge for the Working Environment BIBAKFull-Text 354-364
  Verena Wagner; K. Wolfgang Kallus
Population developments raise expectations of an aging working population. These create new challenges for the working world. One is to deal with age-related impairments such as hearing impairment which impacts performance due to impairment of speech comprehension, memory performance and can lead to safety risks. In order to compensate this proactively a basic question has to be answered: Are problems in auditory processing and memory performance due to deficits in peripheral hearing or due to age-related or secondary deficits in central processing components? Two studies were conducted to check the role of peripheral factors. Young normal hearing participants have to perform a verbal memory task under different hearing conditions that simulate hearing impairment. The results show significant effects of induced hearing impairment and provide further evidence that verbal memory performance deficits of hearing impaired are based on a peripheral hearing loss/early processing stages and maybe less on central processing components.
Keywords: Aging working population; Hearing impairment; Verbal memory performance

Smart Environments and AAL

Spatial Modeling Factors in Sensor-Based Ambient Assisted Living Technologies Designed for Ageing Populations BIBAKFull-Text 367-376
  Dua'a Al-Hajjar; Reem Al Ehaidib; Sarah Al Muhanna; May Al Sohibani; Areej Al-Wabil
In this paper, we synthesize research on the different emerging Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) sensor-based technologies and examine the spatial parameters that are used in these systems. Different lenses in examining the AAL literature are considered, such as the chronological development in sensor-based AAL and the human factors in the design of sensor-based AAL in various contexts. Relevant metrics and standards in AAL design are highlighted. A comparative prospective of these metrics and how they are applied in recent studies and systems are also discussed. The paper presents a categorization of those technologies based on their selection of the spatial information to obtain a clearer understanding of the relationship between spatial modeling and the accuracy of these technologies. Implications for the design of AAL and situated interaction in AAL contexts are discussed.
Keywords: AAL sensors; AAL human factors; Spatial metrics
Modeling the Interaction and Control of Smart Universal Interface for Persons with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 377-388
  Shady Aly; Ghassan Kbar; Mohammed Abdullah; Ibraheem Al-Sharawy
A little if not rare work has been considered empowering the PWD with smart universal assistive technologies at the workplace. Most researches focus on specific or single impairment condition such as smart solutions for blind or low vision persons, physically disabled persons (PDP), deaf or mute persons, and mostly with home or building places. This paper present the models of interaction and control of a universal interface solution for PWD, called SMARTUNIVERS. The SMARTUNIVERS is currently being developed within the of SMARTDISABLE's research project activities implemented at the Riyadh Techno Valley, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. IT includes two smart interface modules: Smart Help (SMARTHELP) and Smart editor (SMARTEDIT). The SMARTHELP module provides personalized smart help and communication services for the PWD at workplace. The SMARTEDIT module is a multimodal editor interface that provides the capability for wide spectra of PWD groups (11 groups with various combination of disabilities) to edit documents using multi-model ways of interactions and commanding through use of speech recognition engine, text-to-speech, Mic, virtual mouse/keyboard and Braille keyboard. We shall present in this paper the high level design of the SMARTUNIVERS and the two smart component modules, together with the interaction models and scenarios for some typically covered PWD groups. The SMARTUNIVERS provides a flexible dynamic interface that adjusts itself according to the impairment conditions associated with the eleven supported groups of PWD.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living (AAL); Smart workplace; Persons With Disability (PWD); Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
Signing Off: Predicting Discontinued ICT Usage Among Older Adults in Assisted and Independent Living BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  Ronald W. Berkowsky; R. V. Rikard; Shelia R. Cotten
While previous research examining digital inequality among older adults has exposed factors that prevent older adults from using information and communication technologies (ICTs), less has been done focusing on factors that may contribute to ICT discontinuation. This investigation uses data from a randomized controlled intervention study to examine possible predictors of discontinued ICT usage among older adults in assisted and independent living communities. Survival analysis shows that participating in a non-technology activities intervention can increase the odds of stopping the use of ICTs over time. In addition, an increase in the number of instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) an individual needs assistance with was associated with increased odds of discontinuing ICT use. Results suggest that those promoting continued usage of ICTs among older adults in assisted and independent living need to address the social activities that may prevent use and account for the increasing frailty of residents over time.
Keywords: ICTs; Aging; Assisted living; Independent living; Digital divide
Understanding the Socio-Domestic Activity: A Challenge for the Ambient Technologies Acceptance in the Case of Homecare Assistance BIBAKFull-Text 399-411
  Salima Body-Bekkadja; Marc-Eric Bobillier-Chaumon; Bruno Cuvillier; Florence Cros
Due to the global aging of population, fatal domestic accidents increase. In this paper we describe a user-centered design process of a new pervasive technology (CIRDO). The aim of this technology is to empower the elderly people by the detection of their physical falls and to alert family or caregivers. Two different studies were performed. First, we analyzed the actual risk situations. Second, social acceptance was investigated for the different stakeholders involved. Altogether 63 older adults and 38 other stakeholders were subjected to interviews, focus groups, and were observed in user tests. Falls are mostly due to environments, internal factors, external resources, and social factors. Falling scenarios were identified to configure the future device. All stakeholders proved to have different views as to the acceptability of CIRDO, depending on previous experience, trajectory, needs and objective (support, assistance, care, prevention...) Therefore they have specific expectations and fears with regard to the system.
Keywords: Pervasive technology; Social acceptance; Domestic activity; Elderly people; Risk situations
The Wearable Multimodal Monitoring System: A Platform to Study Falls and Near-Falls in the Real-World BIBAKFull-Text 412-422
  Tracy Jill Doty; Bret Kellihan; Tzyy-Ping Jung; John K. Zao; Irene Litvan
Falls are particularly detrimental and prevalent in the aging population. To diagnose the cause of a fall current medical practice relies on expensive hospital admissions with many bulky devices that only provide limited diagnostic information. By utilizing the latest wearable technology, the Wearable Multimodal Monitoring System (WMMS) presented here offers a better solution to the problem of fall diagnostics and has the potential to predict these falls in real-time in order to prevent falls or, at least, mitigate their severity. This highly integrated system has been designed for real-life long-term monitoring of movement disorder patients. It contains multiple wearable and wireless biosensors that simultaneously and continuously monitor cardiovascular, autonomic, motor, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, in addition to receiving critical patient feedback about symptoms. Initial pilot data show that the system is comfortable and easy to use, and provides high quality data streams capable of detecting near-falls and other motor disturbances.
Keywords: Wireless electroencephalography; Skin conductance response; Electrodermal activation; Heart-rate variability; Blood pressure; Wearability; Fall prediction
Smart Textiles as Intuitive and Ubiquitous User Interfaces for Smart Homes BIBAKFull-Text 423-434
  Julian Hildebrandt; Philipp Brauner; Martina Ziefle
Textile user interfaces for smart homes offer novel intuitive input gestures and may lower acceptance barrier for technophobic or elderly people. To understand the users' requirements of smart textile input devices, an Adaptive Conjoint Analysis with the attributes wearability, functionality, haptic, location, and components was carried out with 100 participants. The attributes were rated with different importances. Users request non-wearable textile input devices with no noticeable electronics for the living room. Gender, but no age effects were identified, as women prefer health applications, whereas men prefer media control. In summary, the device needs to be individually tailored to the user's requirements to achieve high acceptance.
Keywords: Smart textiles; Technology acceptance; Design space; User centered design; Conjoint; Smart home
Designing an Indoor Navigation System for Elderly People's Capabilities BIBAKFull-Text 435-445
  Mathias Källström; Sondre Berdal; Suhas Govind Joshi
The elderly population is increasing and the need of smart home technology and customized health-care solutions is growing rapidly. A common symptom of old age is cognitive impairment, which can in some cases lead to the inability of self-navigation. Numerous indoor navigation systems have proposed to solve such problems. However, previous developers have only to a minor extent included elderly in the design process, despite the user group's complex needs. The solution presented in this paper is based on using recognizable aids and abstractions to ensure that the new proposed system is something elderly users can relate to and feel comfortable with. Other solutions often require wearable modules, or constant interaction, whereas this system does not require any of the two. In addition to our solution we present five implications when designing an indoor navigation system for elderly people.
Keywords: Indoor navigation; Cognitive impairment; Elderly people; Assisted living; Positioning
Exploring Use Cases of Smart Presence for Retirement Communities BIBAKFull-Text 446-455
  Karina R. Liles; Rachel E. Stuck; Allison A. Kacmar; Jenay M. Beer
The goal of this study was to understand what employees of continuing care retirement communities (CCRC) think about the smart presence technology. To better understand their perceptions of the benefits, concerns, and adoption criteria for smart presence systems we have conducted a needs assessment with CCRC employees (N=23) who were given first-hand experience operating the smart presence system, BEAM, as a local and a pilot user. From the interview data, the most commonly mentioned use case was interaction with others such as doctors, staff, and patients, family, friends, and guests and conduct/attend meetings. From the questionnaire data, the highest uses cases were entertainment (e.g. playing games), interaction for CCRC group activities, and receive remote visits and tours. Findings from this study can guide designers in identifying ways in which smart presence can be integrated into a CCRC environment and used by the employees. Future directions are also considered.
Keywords: Performance; Design; Human factors
A Meta User Interface for Understandable and Predictable Interaction in AAL BIBAKFull-Text 456-464
  Aida Mostafazadeh; Ali Asghar Nazari Shirehjini; Sara Daraei
The aim of this paper is the design and development of a novel user interface to interact with a meta system. Our focus is rather on interacting with Ambient Intelligence as a whole, which would for example enable users to influence the overall behavior and attributes of dynamic device compositions. We call such interfaces Meta User Interfaces. The design details of a proposed user interface as well as a cognitive walkthrough evaluation are presented in this paper.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; System image; Transparency; Predictability; Overriding default behavior; Human-environment interaction
Giving Elderly Access to Smart Environments BIBAKFull-Text 465-475
  Lukas Smirek; Alexander Henka; Gottfried Zimmermann
An increasing number of devices and applications from the Smart Home and Ambient Assisted Living domain are leaving the experimental state and are reaching commercial viability. These developments come with great opportunities, but also with challenges for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose a holistic approach, using concepts of the Global Public Infrastructure (GPII), the Universal Remote Console (URC) and the upcoming technology of Web Components, to build personalized and adaptive user interfaces for people with special needs. The goal is to provide for everyone the interface fitting best his or her needs. In this paper we present the preliminary result of our approach and discuss its impact on the design of adaptive user interfaces.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Accessibility; Elderly users; GPII; URC; AAL; Smart home; Web components; Adaptive user interfaces

Communication, Games and Entertainment

Baby Boomers and Gaze Enabled Gaming BIBAKFull-Text 479-487
  Soussan Djamasbi; Siavash Mortazavi; Mina Shojaeizadeh
Despite common belief, Baby Boomers form a sizable population of gamers. Paying attention to how this generation experiences a game can help companies that target this group of users increase their market share. To address this need, this study examines Baby Boomers' reaction to a new way of manipulating objects in a game, namely with their eyes. In particular, the study focuses on testing the impact of two different gaze activation strategies on Baby Boomers' interaction experience of a game. We tested two gaze enabled games that provided different levels of flexibility in their respective gaze activation strategies. Our results showed that Baby Boomers had a significantly better interaction experience with the game that had a more flexible gaze activation strategy.
Keywords: Activation strategy; Gaze interaction; User experience; Game play; Baby boomers; Human technology interaction; HCI
Assessing Older Adults' Usability Challenges Using Kinect-Based Exergames BIBAKFull-Text 488-499
  Christina N. Harrington; Jordan Q. Hartley; Tracy L. Mitzner; Wendy A. Rogers
Exergames have been growing in popularity as a means to get physical exercise. Although these systems have many potential benefits both physically and cognitively, there may be barriers to their use by older adults due to a lack of design consideration for age-related changes in motor and perceptual capabilities. In this paper we evaluate the usability challenges of Kinect-based exergames for older adults. Older adults rated their interaction with the exergames system based on their perceived usefulness and ease-of-use of these systems. Although many of the participants felt that these systems could be potentially beneficial, particularly for exercise, there were several challenges experienced. We discuss the implications for design guidelines based on the usability challenges assessed.
Keywords: Older adults; Exergames; Usability; Interface evaluation
Play for the Elderly -- Effect Studies of Playful Technology BIBAKFull-Text 500-511
  Henrik Hautop Lund
This paper addresses play for the elderly, and how playware can act as a play force that pushes people into a play dynamics. Play is a free and voluntary activity that we do for no other purpose than the play and enjoyment. Nevertheless, we may observe collateral effects of play amongst the elderly, e.g. in terms of health effects. The paper presents both qualitative and quantitative studies of the effect of play amongst elderly. For instance, it is shown how playful training on modular interactive tiles show statistical significant effects on all the test measures of elderly functional abilities (e.g. balancing, strength, mobility, agility, endurance) after merely 13 group training sessions during which each elderly play (exercise) for just 12-13 min. Hence, the statistical significant effects are obtained after just 2-3 h of total playing time with such playful technology. In play, the elderly seem to forget about time and place (e.g. forget about their possible fear of falling and physical limitations), and thereby achieve the remarkable collateral effect on their health.
Keywords: Play; Playware; Elderly; Effect; Modular technology
TwitterIDo: What if My Shopping Bag Could Tell My Friends I'm Out Shopping BIBAFull-Text 512-523
  Elena Nazzi; Tomas Sokoler
In this paper, we explore the use of augmented everyday artefacts to make seniors' everyday activities more visible in local communities to strengthen existing face-to-face social interactions or open new ones. We ground the twitterIDo idea in a three-year research project. We involved seniors as co-designers and we explored twitterIDo in a living lab with a community of senior citizens. Through a set of interactive prototypes of augmented everyday artefacts and dedicated displays, we engaged senior co-designers in in-situ enactments and workshops. Experiencing the possibilities of our idea, the seniors envisioned the use of the interactive prototypes to support their collaboration in shopping activities. We reflect on how promoting social interaction by making everyday activities more visible became instrumental to support collaboration, offering the seniors a clear purpose to make their shopping activities more visible.
Designing Cross-Age Interaction Toys for Older Adults and Children BIBAKFull-Text 524-532
  Wang-Chin Tsai; Chi-Hsien Hsu; Kung-Chih Lo
This paper describes the process of using a co-participatory design method to produce a toy prototype for children and adults. Based on suggestions from both groups, co-participatory design activities were organized around a single guiding principle: to construct an interesting and creative toy to help both generations interact with each other. Our findings support the usefulness and necessity of this design method and illustrate how designers could implement them in future work. Two industrial designers, six older adults (three male and three female, aged 65-75), and six children (3 male and 3 female, aged 6-10) were involved in the co-participatory design process, which was conducted via daily dialogue, scenario creation, and semi-structured interviews. This research described a co-participatory design process that included designers, children, and older adults. Data gathered from the process revealed that children had creative design ideas that considerably improved the interactive toy. This enabled the designer team to achieve a better empathic understanding of older and younger users, and to work on a project that was grounded in the interests of both target groups.
Keywords: Co-participatory design; Older adults; Children; Toy
A Slow Game Design for Elderly with Their Family and Friends BIBAKFull-Text 533-540
  Yi-Sin Wu; Teng-Wen Chang
After preliminary studies, based on horticultural activities, to propose amendments. Through interviews with elderly people, exploring the life and discuss the literature review, and found that the most affect elderly living alone is the quality of interaction with the community, rather than quantity. The concept of community nurseries, proposed to the original game, the family cannot help activities, through interaction with neighborhood friends, let elderly care by being converted into active share.
Keywords: Elderly platform; Community nursery; Neighborhood and friends