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DPPI Tables of Contents: 03071113

Proceedings of the 2013 Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces

Fullname:Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces
Location:Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Dates:2013-Sep-03 to 2013-Sep-05
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2192-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: DPPI13
Links:Conference Website
  1. Design principles
  2. Empirical studies
  3. Tools and methods
  4. User experience
  5. Materiality and the senses
  6. Theories and frameworks
  7. Design poetics

Design principles

Kidkit guides children into alarming atmospheres: designing for embodied habituation in hospital wards BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Sofie Kinch; Marie Koldkjær Højlund
This paper presents the concept of Embodied Habituation as an architectural approach to designing contextualized technologies. It does so by identifying Middle Ground Experiences acknowledging how spaces are inhabited with ambiguous qualities that affect people emotionally. The research is based on the development and evaluation of Kidkit, which is interactive furniture designed for young children who are going to visit a hospitalized relative with fatal injuries for the first time. Kidkit empowers the child to engage and be present by shaping Middle Ground Experiences in the hospital ward environment that is full of intimidating medical equipment and alarms. The evaluation results indicate collective rewards gained when children succeed in Embodied Habituation. Finally, the paper discusses how Middle Ground Experiences inevitably establish grounds for how we design for spatial experiences within the interaction design community.
Design principles of hand gesture interfaces for microinteractions BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Ivan Golod; Felix Heidrich; Christian Möllering; Martina Ziefle
We experience a drastic increase in post-desktop input devices and interaction techniques but still lack in specific and applicable design principles for these systems. This paper presents a set of design principles for hand gesture based microinteractions. The main concepts from related work are fused together in order to build a clear structure that allows heuristic evaluation. Moreover, a visualization of a gesture phrase helps understanding the relationship of crucial concepts such as feedforward/feedback and a gesture's tension. The applicability of the proposed design principles is then exemplarily shown by the development of a truly ubiquitous interactive system for hand gesture based microinteractions.
Designing for sociability: a relational aesthetic approach to service encounter BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Eun Ji Cho
The significant role of interpersonal interaction during service production has been pointed out by various scholars. This paper starts with an overview of existing design approaches (scripting, contextual, and meta-design approach) dealing with interpersonal dimension of services, and then examines the applicability of these approaches to the design of collaborative services, the focal area of this study.
   Compared to standard services, collaborative services are characterized by the high degree of user participation in the production of services, and the blurred boundary between a service provider and recipient. Thus, this paper argues that there is a need for a new approach to design for interactive quality of collaborative services.
   Different from existing approaches, this paper pays attention on sociability as an essential quality for collaborative services, and proposes a Relational Aesthetic approach, based on Relational Aesthetics as a theoretical foundation. The critical role of sociability in the production of collaborative service is discussed with a case study of a service design project 'Scarsellini -- vicini più vicini', which aimed to foster collaborative ways of living among neighbors in an apartment building.
Designing for anticipation, confidence, and inspiration BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Juan Carlos Ortíz Nicolás; Marco Aurisicchio; Pieter M. A. Desmet
In this paper we introduce two tools and describe a process to design for distinct positive emotions. The tools offer detailed knowledge of three emotions: anticipation, confidence, and inspiration. Eighteen product and interaction designers participated in a design workshop in which they applied the proposed tools and process. Participants evaluated the tools and process with a questionnaire and in a group discussion. They reported that the tools helped them to structure their process when designing for positive emotions: the tools and process had an impact on the way in which they generated ideas, their understanding of the emotions, the way in which they reasoned their design decisions, and how they saw the user.

Empirical studies

Meditations on YouTube BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Elizabeth Buie; Mark Blythe
This paper reports findings from a study of meditation videos posted on YouTube. It reports on both the features they offer and the kinds of comments posted. The most-viewed one hundred videos referenced faith-based traditions, "new age" spirituality, and entirely secular meditation practices. A convenience sample of comments was taken as a snapshot of responses. Comments were sorted into three main groups: remarks about the video, reports of subjective experience and responses to other comments. The paper presents examples and discussion of the comments and relates them to Seligman's theory of well-being, in particular the difference between pleasure and gratification. It argues that although the value of "found data" is limited, these data indicate some of the ways that YouTube is being used to create gratifying and meaningful as well as pleasurable experiences.
The whisper pillow: a study of technology-mediated emotional expression in close relationships BIBAFull-Text 51-59
  Wei-Chi Chien; Sarah Diefenbach; Marc Hassenzahl
Emotional expression is crucial to feeling close to each other. However, current lifestyles and working situations often reduce the opportunities for "relatedness experiences". The present paper presents the Whisper Pillow, an interactive artifact for mediating emotional expression among couples with different daily routines (e.g., due to shift work). We provide a detailed reflection about how form of and interaction with the pillow create and shape the desired experience. In addition, we present an empirical exploration of the practices and experiences which emerge when using the pillow in daily life. The study showed that experiences can be successfully inscribed into the material. At the same time, it reminds us of the fact that users still need to embark on the experience and always find alternative practices and experiences through appropriation.
Become a member of the last gentlemen: designing for prosocial driving BIBAFull-Text 60-66
  Martin Knobel; Marc Hassenzahl; Simon Männlein; Melanie Lamara; Josef Schumann; Kai Eckoldt; Matthias Laschke; Andreas Butz
We present Last Gentlemen a simple interactive in-car system designed to foster considerate driving. Based on interviews about considerate driving and general psychological research on prosocial behavior, we designed a concept revolving around the activation of according norms (i.e., to take responsibility for the "weaker") and their internalization through subtle positive feedback. An in-situ exploration of an experiential prototype showed that participants actually enjoyed considerate driving and felt positively, but unobtrusively supported by Last Gentlemen in identifying potential situations and implementing appropriate behavior.
User experience and usage scenarios of audio-tactile interaction with virtual objects in a physical environment BIBAFull-Text 67-76
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Katja Suhonen; Jari Laaksonen; Johan Kildal; Koray Tahiro&gbrev;lu
Augmented reality (AR) systems enable new user experiences while the user is interacting with virtual objects in the physical space. The virtual objects have mostly been presented visually, overlaid on the physical world. In this paper, we present an explorative user study of a prototype system AHNE with the aim to understand the user experience and usage potential of non-visual audio-tactile augmented reality interactions. The qualitative results reveal that non-visual interaction was experienced confusing at first, but also fun, playful, and exciting. Even though audio feedback clearly dominates the spatial interaction experience, tactile feedback makes the virtual objects feel more concrete. The ideated and evaluated set of 23 usage scenarios includes both game-like and pragmatic application ideas for individual and social usage. The results can be used to inform the design of novel AR applications that utilise human senses beyond vision.
Overcoming procrastination with ReMind BIBAFull-Text 77-85
  Matthias Laschke; Marc Hassenzahl; Jan Brechmann; Eva Lenz; Marion Digel
"Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today!" is easier said than done. Actually doing something we intend to do is often hampered by procrastination. This paper presents ReMind, a calendar/to-do-list-like object to overcome procrastination. An empirical case study of a functional prototype using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) showed that ReMind instilled reflection about procrastination and behavioral change in everyday life.

Tools and methods

Capturing prolonged interactive experiences: a review of visual approaches in user research BIBAFull-Text 86-95
  Chung-Ching Huang; Erik Stolterman
Each user of interactive systems experiences prolonged engagement with applications, products and systems. Because of limitations of contemporary long-term user research methods and imperfection in human memory, approaches for longitudinal user experience are still under-explored. In this paper, we review a recent methodological shift in user research aimed at applying visual approaches to the capturing of prolonged interactive use. We analyze and discuss selected examples of existing visual approaches that support the examination of longitudinal use and represent and visualize changes in interactions. We discuss potential merits of visual approaches for user experience longitudinal research. We also discuss the drawbacks of these approaches. Overall, we argue that visual approaches have the potential to support certain aspects of user experience research, especially in relation to issues concerning temporality.
Exploring usage scenarios on social devices: balancing between surprise and user control BIBAFull-Text 96-105
  Jarmo Palviainen; Katja Suhonen; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Timo Aaltonen; Tapani Leppänen
Mobile devices and social media are designed primarily to support communication between remote people. However, the sensors in modern smart phones allow also proxemic interactions between the devices and their co-located users. In such interactions, mobile devices can act as smart, social objects -- or Social Devices -- proactively triggering interpersonal interactions. We present the results of our explorative user study about usage scenarios and user perceptions of Social Devices. We conducted three bodystorming sessions and eight laboratory sessions to expose altogether 39 participants to the concept of Social Devices. The bodystorming sessions resulted in a set of novel usage scenarios for Social Devices. The evaluations of the scenarios and prototypes show that participants valued Social Devices offering surprising social effects, such as discovering mutual interest between users. However, participants strongly expressed the need to control the device-initiated interactions. Based on the findings, we suggest five design implications for further development of related concepts.
Towards understanding the potential of sketching animated visualizations in generative workshops BIBAFull-Text 106-115
  Javier Quevedo-Fernández; Derya Ozcelik Buskermolen; J. B. O. S. Martens
The research presented in this paper aims at increasing our understanding of how tools to rapidly create and manipulate animations can influence the design process in a positive way. We are especially interested in creative activities that are conducted in groups. We present a case study where a tool for sketching animations was introduced in a game-concept-generation workshop that was conducted by an existing design team at a multinational company. The results show that animations can indeed be used productively for real-time exploration, communication and discussion of a wide variety of ideas. Animations are especially beneficial when the concepts under discussion are highly dynamic. The observations also suggest that working with animations contributes to the group dynamics, as the design collaboration becomes more playful, expressive and fun, in comparison to when people are working only with conventional sketches.
Blending the repertory grid technique with focus groups to reveal rich design relevant insight BIBAFull-Text 116-125
  Trevor Hogan; Eva Hornecker
In the context of better understanding and describing the role of modality in data representations, this paper proposes the blending of the Repertory Grid Technique, a proven and tested elicitation method, with focus group methods, thereby offering researchers an efficient method of obtaining subjective perceptions on a defined area of interest. We demonstrate the potential of this blended approach by conducting two empirical studies that investigate the same artifacts, using two different approaches. The first study follows the classic Repertory Grid approach, while the second adapts this by utilizing the RepGrid in a focus group session. In comparing these, we will illustrate how using a blended approach can validate and reveal further meaning about the data collected. Furthermore, we will demonstrate that this can be achieved in a more natural manner than that of a typical RepGrid study, which can be extremely demanding for both the participant and the researcher while the study is being conducted.
Exploring relationships between interaction attributes and experience BIBAFull-Text 126-135
  Eva Lenz; Sarah Diefenbach; Marc Hassenzahl
Not long ago, interaction was predominantly determined by technology itself or adhered to simple principles of efficiency (e.g., only three clicks away). Today interaction has to "feel good" and has to be "beautiful". This poses the question of how to conceptualize this emerging "aesthetics of interaction". In the present paper, we discuss existing approaches and present an own perspective. In our approach, the conscious differentiation between interaction attributes (e.g., slow, mediated, delayed) and the emerging experience (e.g., experiencing a positive and meaningful moment) is a crucial, conceptual step. Creating a particular experience (the Why) requires awareness and the purposeful combination of attributes on the interaction level (the How). To support this, we developed an Interaction Vocabulary, i.e., a systematically derived set of interaction attributes to describe interaction in a modality- and technology-free way. We then present a study, which explored the relationship between interaction attributes and emerging experience (i.e., feelings, thoughts, meaning). The found relationships serve as first heuristics for the more conscious design of interaction in line with desired experiences.

User experience

Engage me, do!: engagement catalysers to ignite a (design) conversation BIBAFull-Text 136-145
  Ambra Trotto; Caroline Hummels
This paper reflects on the possibilities of embodiment and skilful coping to connect people and to catalyse a constructive (design) "conversation" among people with different backgrounds, during transformative collaboration. We do this by illustrating the process and results of a two-weeks design class with Master students at the Department of Industrial Design at the Eindhoven University of Technology. The resulting Engagement Catalyser is a creative tool to engaging people in a (design) discussion more concrete and effective than a discussion or brainstorm session held around a table. The six developed Engagement Catalysers have been used and evaluated in two workshops, in which participants from very different cultural and professional background have used them as a means to engage quickly and ignite the design process. The results show that the Catalysers stimulate engagement, help people to get familiar and connected in a short period of time, and seem to inspire and boost the design process.
Designing interactive systems for the experience of time BIBAFull-Text 146-155
  Lassi A. Liikkanen; Paula Gómez Gómez
User experience (UX) has become a central theme in user-centered design. It draws attention to the experiential side of use and sets new requirements for software design. Waiting and interruptions can be a source of negative experiences with interactive systems. This review paper discusses the subjective experience of time as a part of UX. It also provides advice on how to influence UX through time-considerate design. We start from the psychological theory of time perception and expand this cognitivist model to a direction compatible with affective computing. The outcome describes the interplay between cognition and affect through a concept of subjectively experienced time. We introduce six design guidelines for time-considerate design of everyday applications. Our design implications concern dialogues, progress indicators, and cost-effective system optimization relevant for UX. We point out the need for empirical research to fill in the gaps in the literature, particularly regarding user adjustment and its implications.
Alternatives: exploring the car's design space from an experience-oriented perspective BIBAFull-Text 156-164
  Kai Eckoldt; Marc Hassenzahl; Matthias Laschke; Martin Knobel
Cars play an important role in many individual and social practices, often resulting in positive experiences, such as the freedom of the daily commute, the joys of intensive conversations, or the excitement of a discovered place. In this paper, we use the lens of Experience Design, -- particularly the notion that meaning and positivity is related to the fulfillment of universal psychological needs -- to explore the potential of an experience-oriented approach to design for interactivity in and through cars. Examples of designing for competence, autonomy, relatedness, security, stimulation, and popularity open up a space for novel articulations of cars. We show how each need is already apparent in car-related practices and explore how focusing on a particular need will become apparent in specific conceptual sketches.
Reflections on experience-driven design: a case study on designing for playful experiences BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Thomas Olsson; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Timo Saari; Andrés Lucero; Juha Arrasvuori
User experience (UX) has been recognized as an important quality factor of interactive products and services. Current design practices aim at ensuring a generally pleasurable or satisfying UX. However, approaches and methods for designing for specific experiences are still scarce. This paper addresses experience-driven design (EDD) by reflecting upon a study where playful experiences (PLEX) were utilized as design targets in a practical design assignment of a post-graduate seminar. The outcomes and learning experiences imply that utilizing PLEX as target experiences in the EDD approach is a sound way to provide design inspiration and guidance, and help refining early design ideas. The pre-defined playful experiences were considered as fruitful starting points for brainstorming as well as constant reminders of the rationale of the design. The paper concludes with reflections on applying EDD and four roles in which it was found beneficial: guiding & framing, inspiring, evaluating and communicating.

Materiality and the senses

Glitch, please: datamoshing as a medium-specific application of digital material BIBAFull-Text 175-184
  Shad Gross
Digital material, the computation and information that makes digital devices function, can be ethereal and difficult to conceptualize in terms of its material properties. In terms of experience design, this can make it difficult to tap into the expressive capabilities of this unique medium. We investigate the properties of computational material by looking at glitches, errors in functioning, through the lens of medium-specificity. As a specific type of glitch art, we look at datamoshing -- a technique where the compression of digital video is altered for creative purposes. By examining the ways that the digital material is revealed by datamoshing, we seek insight into the unique expressive capabilities of digital devices.
Exploration into lighting dynamics for the design of more pleasurable luminaires BIBAFull-Text 185-192
  Jettie Hoonhout; Lillian Jumpertz; Jon Mason; Tom Bergman
In this paper a study is described that shows how user perception studies can potentially provide designers with guidance into how to design pleasurable lighting effects using dynamic lighting. The advent of the LED within the lighting industry has been the driving force behind this study since the lighting designer is now faced with many new and often unexplored parameters that this lamp type can offer. One aspect of this complexity is the simple means of including dynamics within a single luminaire. To explore this topic, a luminaire was specially constructed to test with users different lighting dynamics that would represent different moods.
   The key conclusion from the study is that there are certain lighting dynamics that were perceived as being significantly different from one another and were categorized by the participants as being of a similar mood in the high to low arousal spectrum. These findings showed that there is potential for lighting designers to apply such sequence types and be more confident that their end users will perceive the luminaire as they originally intended.

Theories and frameworks

Digitally complemented zoomorphism: a theoretical foundation for human-animal interaction design BIBAFull-Text 193-200
  Michelle Westerlaken; Stefano Gualeni
From an interspecies perspective, we advocate for a theoretical foundation aimed at facilitating further research towards digitally mediated human-animal interaction. The proposed framework follows an approach we call 'digitally complemented zoomorphism' and recognizes 'play' as a free and voluntary activity that is shared by both animals and humans. As a result, three initial design guidelines will emerge. Our work is pursued in order to provide animals with stimulations which stem from a closer understanding of their perceptions and are not solely designed around human subjectivity.
Narratives in design: a study of the types, applications and functions of narratives in design practice BIBAFull-Text 201-210
  Silvia Grimaldi; Steven Fokkinga; Ioana Ocnarescu
Several design studies have looked at the potential of using narratives to enrich the design process or to create more engaging experiences with designed objects. However, the concept of narrative is still fuzzy and open to interpretations, due to its use and meaning in different disciplines and approaches. In order to deepen the knowledge of narrative use in design, this paper presents three categorizations that survey the what, where and why of narratives in design, respectively. First, it discusses five definitions of narratives based on narrative theory. Secondly, it proposes a typology that classifies the occurrences of narratives in design. Thirdly, it analyses the roles and functions of narratives in designed products and the design process. Finally, using the proposed categorizations, it shows strategies for a narrative approach to design richer experiences for products and discusses techniques for the design process. To conclude, future developments of the project are described, including a call for design projects that involve narratives to be included in a database.
Information embodiment: how products communicate through dynamic sensory features BIBAFull-Text 211-220
  Sara Colombo; Lucia Rampino
Products are more and more required to communicate messages to users, as ICT is invading the realm of everyday objects. This paper explores the possibility to communicate bits of information to the user through dynamic changes in the product sensory features, as an alternative to digital interfaces. The aim is both to propose a descriptive framework for the analysis of this emerging category of dynamic products, and to investigate the role each sensory modality may assume in the transmission of different kinds of messages. The study was performed through a case study methodology, by collecting products, prototypes and concepts which show dynamic sensory features. Through the analysis of the selected samples, hypotheses about the role of different senses and stimuli in conveying different kinds of information have been extracted. These are going to be used as starting points for further research in this field.
The playful experiences (PLEX) framework as a guide for expert evaluation BIBAFull-Text 221-230
  Andrés Lucero; Jussi Holopainen; Elina Ollila; Riku Suomela; Evangelos Karapanos
The Playful Experiences (PLEX) framework is a categorization of playful experiences based on previous theoretical work on pleasurable experiences, game experiences, emotions, elements of play, and reasons why people play. While the framework has been successfully employed in design-related activities, its potential as an evaluation tool has not yet been studied. In this paper, we apply the PLEX framework in the evaluation of two game prototypes that explored novel physical interactions between mobile devices using Near-Field Communication, by means of three separate studies. Our results suggest that the PLEX framework provides anchor points for evaluators to reflect during heuristic evaluations. More broadly, the framework categories can be used as a checklist to assess different attributes of playfulness of a product or service.

Design poetics

The poetics of design fiction BIBAFull-Text 231-240
  Thomas Markussen; Eva Knutz
Design fiction is an emergent field within HCI and interaction design the understanding of which ultimately relies, so we argue, of an integrative account of poetics and design praxis. In this paper we give such an account. Initially, a precise definition of design fiction is given by drawing on the theory of possible worlds found within poetics. Further, we offer a method of practicing design fiction, which relies on the equal integration of literary practice with design practice. The use of this method is demonstrated by 4 design projects from a workshop set up in collaboration with a Danish author. All of this substantiates our notion of a poetics of practicing design fiction, and through our critical examination of related work we conclude on how our approach contribute to HCI and interaction design.
Hypnotist framing: hypnotic practice as a resource for poetic interaction design BIBAFull-Text 241-250
  Rung-Huei Liang; Huang-Ming Chang
Interaction design has noticed that different notions of users reflect different underlying paradigms, ranging from task-oriented operators, cognitive users, to phenomenological individuals. When exploring non-task-oriented interaction such as poetic interaction design, it would be problematic to reduce a person into a specific type of user, as well as to regard an individual as always in a fixed mental state. Hypnosis is a practice known as its ability to make suggestions and to guide imagery by deliberately changing the mental state of a subject. An apprenticeship-based activity was conducted to reveal the perspective and techniques of a hypnotist, aiming to provide a lens through which interaction designers can reframe the relation between users and artifacts. This study sensitizes poetic interaction with Chinese poetry, collects accounts in the field, draws implications, and critically reflects on poetic imagery and guided imagery in a constructive way to enrich the body of knowledge in HCI.
Exploring the design space of shape-changing objects: imagined physics BIBAFull-Text 251-260
  Mie Nørgaard; Tim Merritt; Majken Kirkegaard Rasmussen; Marianne Graves Petersen
In this paper we describe the outcomes from a design exercise in which eight groups of designers designed and built hardware sketches in the form of playful shape-changing prototypes, generatively working with Rasmussen et al's [31] eight unique types of shape change. Seeing that shape-changing interfaces is a growing area in HCI design research and that authors often shy away from articulating the special qualities brought to a design by using changing shape to communicate information, we set out to explore shape changing interfaces through a series of sketching experiments through the support of Danish toy company. Eight design groups redesigned existing tumbling objects for children using electronic sensors and actuators guided only by the request to adhere to the client's design goal to inspire imagination and movement in users. The main contributions of the paper include indications for the further expansion of the design space of shape changing interfaces relating to the perception and understanding of behaviour, causality and the mechanics involved in shape change events, which we call "Imagined Physics." This concept is described along with additional insights into the qualities of shape changing interfaces coined in recent research in the field.