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DPPI Tables of Contents: 03071113

Proceedings of the 2011 Conference Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces
Editors:Alessandro Deserti; Francesco Zurlo; Francesca Rizzo
Location:Milano, Italy
Dates:2011-Jun-22 to 2011-Jun-25
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1280-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: DPPI11
Links:Conference Website
Summary:DPPI is an International Conference that was started, at the beginning of the 2000 by a group of researchers active in establishing "the beyond usability" movement, with the aim to move away from a purely functional approach to usability and focus on a more experiential approach to human-product interaction. DPPI has clearly expressed, from its beginning, the need for the community to discuss the logics and the frame of the usability research, as it has been developed especially during the 1990s, questioning the idea of products' functionality and starting the reflection about how to design products and interfaces that are pleasurable to use and, at best, exciting. In many ways, the evolution of the concept of usability towards the one of users' experience has been the macro topic of DPPI along all the five previous editions. How to augment products' functionality with emotional meaning? How to design users' experiences involving users' capabilities and mind frames? How to include emotions in the interactions with artifacts and services?
    After the 1990s, researches from the beyond usability movement have produced contributions in the area of emotional and experience design, producing tools and methods to design and measure users' emotions and experiences, providing guidelines for designers and practitioners that face difficulties to become applicable into industrial contexts where the practices of considering design as an external and creative expertise to be enrolled to define the shape of products still prevails.
  1. Innovative ways to explore UCD
  2. Industries engaging users in design
  3. Aesthetics of interaction models
  4. Design culture and thinking in industry
  5. Organizing design in industry
  6. Service design and interactions
  7. Workshops

Innovative ways to explore UCD

Towards design-driven innovation: designing for points of view using intuition through skills BIBAFull-Text 1
  Ambra Trotto; Caroline Hummels; Michael Cruz Restrepo
Design-driven innovation aims to release the business potential of a new type of innovation, based on a radical shift of meaning. In order to do that, it is essential to achieve a deep understanding of what meaning is, how it is possible to create (new) meaning and develop transferable methods that empower designers to transfer meaning and to design radical shifts in meaning to leap innovation-wise. In a one-week Master's class, we have approached this exploration from a phenomenological perspective, where meaning is created in interaction. The class trains students to deeply scrutinize the design of meaning. Respecting the phenomenological approach, it implements the integration of different points of view and supports the use of intuition, enabled by designing from one's own (bodily) skills. We explain by means of an example -- the skill of snowboarding -- how these different elements concur to enrich a design process and build the basis for a richer result in terms of meaning and therefore innovation. Starting from the design knowledge created during the class, we designed two concepts of design interaction, a knife and a dial mechanism for phones, to show how our method can lead to disruptive shifts in meaning. We illustrate the different ways that the class' results can be translated into design, to give insight on how to achieve radical innovation, both short term and long term. We conclude by explaining the practical impact of our method for industry.
Bees: new creative agents BIBAFull-Text 2
  Raul Pereira Pinto; Teresa Franqueira; Ana Afonso; Rui Mendonça; Inês Laranjeira
This article brings to the forefront the possibility for cross-referencing between the investigation in design at service of creative industries and the world-wide phenomenon of the disappearance of bees with the consequential imbalance of eco systems and in particular of the farming economy.
   Potential can found in the honeycomb making process within which we have given the name of 'natural extrusion' in this project. Hives are seen as natural factories not only in the production of honey but also of various other products which have been under-valued until now and which we intend to explore, such as bee wax for instance. To give a greater sense of awareness concerning the disappearance of this species and to emphasize bee wax's value, this project proposes the control of the matrix of the honeycombs construction. Through this control, and without a significant investment and specialized schooling, this natural technology will enable the materialization of complex three-dimensional forms, which in this case, may act as molds. These three-dimensional molds facilitate the detection of concepts and ideas, therefore being able to transit from a model in bee wax to the final object in other materials such as brass, silver, latex or caramel.
Design for sustainable consumption behaviour: systematising the use of behavioural intervention strategies BIBAFull-Text 3
  Anneli Selvefors; Karin Blindh Pedersen; Ulrike Rahe
It has been well debated if user centred design, UCD, can actually lead to innovation. This paper discusses the case of sustainable innovation, specifically addressing the development of solutions to influence users' resource consumption behaviour. The approach presented, suggests how knowledge on user actions and habits in a resource consumption situation can be used in the product development process in combination with systematised behavioural intervention strategies to facilitate the creation of innovative solutions aiming to motivate resource efficient everyday actions.
   The Design for Sustainable Consumption Behaviour-approach, defined through a combination of UCD-methodology, studies of user consumption behaviour and categorised behavioural intervention strategies, explores how systematised knowledge within the domains can be applicable in an industry context to stimulate innovative solutions supporting actions for a decreased consumption of resources. The DSCB-approach can be regarded as an exploratory tool, which has the potential to help companies to integrate a behavioural perspective within their existing product development processes by providing guidance and an overview of available intervention strategies. To illustrate the use of the approach and conduct a first evaluation of the applicability, this paper reports on an explanatory case study carried out at IKEA of Sweden. The innovative results and outcomes of the case study suggest that the approach has potential to bring forth sustainable innovations. However, the presented approach should be developed further and tested through additional research before further conclusions can be drawn.
Co-design tools in 'place' development projects: an ongoing research case BIBAFull-Text 4
  Giulia Simeone; Marta Corubolo
This paper presents a glimpse of an ongoing research project on sustainable "place" development. It focuses on the importance of using a co-design approach with the community, and on some experimental tools used in the design process.
   It will introduce the notion of design for "place" development applied in a research case called Feeding Milan, a framework project about sustainable periurban agriculture. It will describe the case's regional context, its underlying motives and the drivers of the adopted strategy. Then the paper will investigate the design communities involved and will provide a description of the co-design approach and of the tools used. The aim is to point out how Service Design may improve the quality of life in so called rururban areas, by involving local communities in targeted steps of the solution development process so that they are part of it, as well as of the context, in order to support agricultural activities and shorten up the food chain.
Designing wearable technologies through a user centered approach BIBAFull-Text 5
  Venere Ferraro; Secil Ugur
In the last few years the interest towards the study of solutions centred on the human has been growing greatly especially thanks to huge development of technologies in the field of wearable devices. This class of products requires to use designer's sensibility to address issues by meeting not only technological requirements, but also user needs with a human-centred approach.
   Through the understanding and the use of technological innovations coming from the research in progress on microtechnologies, designers should catch the opportunity, supported by an approach able to interpret correctly the requests, and develop design solutions in accordance to current changes.
   The paper describes an experimental design method that is the result of a combination between different approaches. The effectiveness of such an approach is shown through an educational experience held at Politecnico di Milano during the international post-master course New Tech style Design. The text goes through technology changes, the role of human body, the ergonomics, the wearability issue for a better approach in designing wearable devices, a succession of inspirations for new products and services that can be interesting for designers because it brings people and their experiences together at the core point of an innovative approach.
Design analysis: understanding e-waste recycling by Generation Y BIBAFull-Text 6
  Xiao Zhang; Ron Wakkary
This paper aims to understand e-waste recycling behavior of Generation Y. It presents a pilot study that explores this generation's e-waste recycling practices, their attitudes towards e-waste recycling, and the barriers to e-waste recycling. The findings reveal the complexity of the actual e-waste recycling behavior, many participants in this study hold a positive attitude towards e-waste recycling, yet there is a shortage of convenient recycling options and e-waste recycling information. Based on the Motivation-Opportunity-Abilities model, this paper also uncovers the decision-making process involved in each recycling action. We use these findings to present a preliminary analysis of design implications to provoke design ideas and services that support e-waste recycling, and discuss our further research direction.
Sensory evolution: sensory and sustainable design strategies BIBAFull-Text 7
  Claudia De Giorgi; Beatrice Lerma; Cristina Allione; Eleonora Buiatti
Today, design implies not only compliance with product technical-functional requirements but also with increasingly broader cultural demands for correct life cycle performance with regard to man and the environment: sensory attributes and sustainability respectively.
   The various disciplines involved have made considerable progress recently, developing tools and methods that, interconnected and also with the development of neuro-sciences, are able to furnish ever more realistic, scientific and objective explanations of how we perceive the world.
   Sensory Evolution, Spin-off of Politecnico di Torino now being set up, places sensory and sustainability analysis of products/services at different stages of development (from concept to the meta-project, to the project, to the existing product) at the core of the offer.
   Sensory Evolution proposes new, original tools and methods, also patented by the same team, and have transformed theoretical and scientific innovations into strategic instruments dedicated to both large, small and medium enterprises, such as the ICS (Innovation, Comprehension Sustainability) methodology. This methodological approach is a unique, innovative reality that may entail major advantages for clients. The approach adopted neither precludes nor underestimates the major theoretical weight underlying this offer model. In this way Sensory Evolution addresses companies that produce something perceptible, such as product or service.
User centred e-learning platform design BIBAFull-Text 8
  Kristina Shin; Kevin Downing
Adobe Illustrator is one of the most popular computer graphic programmes used in the fashion industry worldwide due to its excellent quality, and consequently more and more Hong Kong fashion industrialists expect to see graduates with Adobe Illustrator skills as a career entry level requirement. In line with the increasing demand from industry and students, a learner-centred/user-centred design approach was adopted for a project entitled 'Development of technical sketch instructional videos Adobe Illustrator for fashion designers'. An initial website with 15 instructional video clips was created and uploaded onto the Hong Kong Polytechnic University's intranet website. Then, 5 female and 5 male second year students in the fashion and textiles design programme, with no prior Adobe Illustrator training or experience, were invited to participate in a pilot study in order to test the level of learner/user engagement with the e-learning platform. The observations of participants were made by the 'Think aloud method' which has proved effective in detecting design issues for a wider variety of students (Johnston et al. 2006). Upon completion of the observation and data analysis, the e-learning platform was revised twice and then disseminated to more than 2,000 students and staff at the Institute of Textiles and Clothing at the Hong Kong Polytechnic University.
Altruistic interaction design: a new interaction design approach for making people care more about others BIBAFull-Text 9
  Yeoreum Lee; Youn-kyung Lim; Hyeon-Jeong Suk
The importance of design ethics in HCI has gained increasing attention the last several years. In this research, we propose a new concept of interaction that restructures its conventional notion. It is expected that this new concept will increase social empathy among people, which will eventually result in more positive ethical behaviors. This new structure of interaction breaks the current closed interaction cycle that focuses on a complete input-output feedback loop. Instead, it makes the cycle imperfect so that people cannot experience it without seeking help from others or being helped by the same. We call this concept altruistic interaction design and designed a case, the Altruistic Fan, as an applied product example. This paper explains the concept of altruistic interaction design and its application process to a real product. The study closes with the results of an exploratory user study utilizing an altruistic interaction design product (Altruistic Fan).
Re-scripting interactive artefacts with feminine values BIBAFull-Text 10
  Majken Kirkegaard Rasmussen; Marianne Graves Petersen
This paper takes up the challenge, of developing value-centred interaction design as an approach to avoiding stereotypic presumptions about femininity when designing artefacts. We suggest that utilizing a feminine value perspective to design artefacts can create a richer profusion of ways to view technological artefacts and how they relate to our lives and our underlying assumptions about what is important and not and what is perceived as life quality. We present two examples of rescripting existing products to feminine values.

Industries engaging users in design

Good to see you again: engaging users in design BIBAFull-Text 11
  Andrés Lucero; Tuuli Mattelmäki
Designers and researchers have been involving users as part of their design processes for some time now. However, there are limited examples of user-driven innovation processes that are conducted and studied in an industrial context. In this paper we present and provide a detailed account of the design process for the Social and Spatial Interactions (SSI) platform. This research project was conducted by systematically involving end users from the very start of and throughout the design process. Some activities conducted as part of this project include a probes study, co-design workshops, and evaluations of prototypes. We describe and illustrate the individual steps of the process, as well as reflect on the overall impact and challenges of introducing and applying user-driven innovation in an industrial research context. In particular, we discuss aspects such as shifting attitudes in different phases of the user engagement, overcoming skepticism in a multidisciplinary research team, and the role and the competence of the facilitator.
Board game brainstorm: pleasurable design solutions originate from pleasurable design process BIBAFull-Text 12
  Daniel Alenquer; Huitse Gan
Developing strategies to create products that can offer recognizable benefits for consumers has always been the core of the consumer electronics industry -- if not the core of most businesses in modern economies. When markets are saturated with similar technically undifferentiated products, competitive advantage comes from the ability to design pleasurable experiences around products and services.
   If the Design Research community is aiming at designing more pleasurable products and interfaces, isn't it true that the process of designing such solutions should be more enjoyable too?
   With that question in mind our Design Research teams started exploring alternative ways of engaging participants into more pleasurable design methodologies. During these activities we engaged internal Product and Interaction Designers, as well as external participants that who have no affiliation with the Personal Computer industry.
   What we found out is that one particular tool engaged equally internal and external participants, and made the process more enjoyable. We also realized that the results obtained from these sessions were more focused on participants' ability to imagine and propose pleasurable design solutions.
Engaging users in the early phases of the design process: attitudes, concerns and challenges from industrial practice BIBAFull-Text 13
  Derya Ozcelik; Javier Quevedo-Fernandez; Jos Thalen; Jacques Terken
Product design is no longer solely driven by functionality. Usability and pleasure increasingly determine the success of a product. To address these emerging consumer needs, design literature offers various tools and methods for engaging end-users in the early phases of the design process. The study presented in this paper compares the state of the art in literature to design practice, represented by four different companies. During four separate studies the authors conducted extensive interviews throughout the companies to identify various user engagement methods, related challenges and pitfalls. The methods have been categorised according to the medium through which users provide information, namely what users say, what users do and what users make.
   The result of this categorisation shows that companies primarily involve users by finding out what users say, using interviews and surveys. Only few occurrences of the other two categories were found. We identified the company culture as one of the limiting factors for engaging users in the design process. Companies prefer to rely on experience rather than end-user input, or in some cases simply do not acknowledge the importance of user engagement. Another limiting factor is the lack of awareness and knowledge regarding user engagement; companies do not know when to use which method or how to integrate the generated output in their design process. External factors, such as concerns about confidentiality of the new ideas and client-company relation are other factors that hinder the engagement of users in the early phases of the design process. The paper concludes with a set of opportunities that can be addressed to improve user engagement in the early stages of the design process.
A proposed information systems framework for effective delivery of user research findings BIBAFull-Text 14
  Gülsen Töre Yargin; Çigdem Erbug
Integration of user research findings into product design process is a well-received issue. There is a tremendous research on how to conduct user research and methodologies for generating user data. However delivering that information effectively is as important as the quality of data generated through user research, since if it is not delivered effectively the impact that is demanded by the product developers would not be achieved. Therefore the requirements for the deliverables should be conceptualized before designing them, in order to have an effective integration. Thus the aim of this paper is to propose an information systems framework for effective delivery of user research findings to the product development team members. In this paper, a preliminary effort to construct this framework is made by retrieving the framework's constructs from the literature.
Applying the heuristic evaluation method in the evaluation of social aspects of an exercise community BIBAFull-Text 15
  Sanna Malinen; Jarno Ojala
Social interaction plays an important role in the use of modern websites. Because the practical ways to improve social interaction through community design often remain unknown, this study aims to provide guidelines for designing and developing social features for websites. In this paper, we introduce the results of a three-week-long qualitative field study with an internet service prototype intended for people who exercise. We aim to provide knowledge of factors that improve the social design of websites by introducing a set of heuristics for evaluating sociability. In order to validate the heuristics, the findings from heuristic expert evaluations were compared with data collected from ten test users of the internet service prototype. We suggest that the Heuristic Evaluation Method with sociability heuristics helps to identify the most fundamental problems concerning sociability and thus serves as a practical tool, particularly in the early stages of the design process of social internet sites.
Attributing intended character to products through their formal features BIBAFull-Text 16
  Roberta Gorno; Sara Colombo
This paper introduces the definition of a model aimed at finding connections between products character and products formal properties, starting from the analysis of users' responses. The model returns guidelines which can be used by designers during the generation of product shape. The suggested guidelines could be valuable for companies if used as input at the beginning of the Product Development Process for the development of new concepts addressed at conveying a specific character.
   The present research focuses on the analysis of product shape as influential element in determining a product character.
   Eight selected characters were investigated, in relation to a specific product category. Users' responses were collected through the use of verbal methods and visual questionnaires. Connections between formal features and perceived character were then derived and validated through their implementation in a design process. Results demonstrate that the use of formal guidelines obtained from the analysis of users' response can lead to an improvement of the design under the character attribution point of view.
   The results of the study and the effects of guidelines application, together with limits and possible developments, are thoroughly discussed in the present paper.
Identifying hedonic factors in long-term user experience BIBAFull-Text 17
  Sari Kujala; Virpi Roto; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Arto Sinnelä
User experience (UX) arises from the user's interaction with a product and its pragmatic and hedonic (pleasure) qualities. Until recently, UX evaluation has focused mainly on examining short-term experiences. However, as the user-product relationship evolves over time, the hedonic aspects of UX eventually seem to gain more weight over the pragmatic aspects. To this end, we have developed a UX Curve method for evaluating long-term user experience, particularly the hedonic quality. In this paper, we present a study in which the UX Curve was used to retrospectively evaluate the UX of Facebook and mobile phones. The results show that compared to a questionnaire, the UX Curve method is more effective for identifying the hedonic aspects of UX. This method can be used by practitioners and researchers who want to understand evolving UX and to design better products. This straightforward method is especially suited for industrial contexts where resources are limited.
TV reinvented: designing pleasurable interfaces for the living room BIBAFull-Text 18
  Daria Loi
This paper illustrates a user centered process used to lead the TV industry toward new ways of looking at content consumption, navigation and sharing. The paper adopts a chronographic approach, to describe key milestones (from ethnographic research to design and customer impact) through a specific case study. The case study is grounded in the context of a large silicon manufacturer, where notions of change-through-design, innovation and customer impact have distinct connotations and set boundaries, especially when compared with medium sized firms, original equipment manufacturers or academic contexts.
Expressive driver-vehicle interface design BIBAFull-Text 19
  Jee Yeon Hwang; Kent Larson; Ryan Chin; Henry Holtzman
In this paper, we introduce a new design approach for interactions between drivers, cars, and pedestrians. The new approach to the vehicle interface design provides users with all the assistive information and expressive communication channels. It aims to support driver-to-car, driver-to-pedestrian, and driver-to-other-driver interactions. If automobile companies apply the driver-driven interaction approach that we suggest, they can improve their vehicle interfaces, not only for increasing safety in and around the vehicle, but also for unobtrusively capturing and presenting user intentions.
Design of package artworks for pleasurable food experience by a user centric approach BIBAFull-Text 20
  David Labbe; Nathalie Martin
Several studies demonstrated that written communication on package related to food quality (claim, ingredients, etc) modifies sensory and liking expectations of the content (Deliza et al., 2003; Meillon et al., 2010). However, the specific role of package artworks on expected pleasurable food experience has been rarely investigated. Using a user centric approach we explored the impact of food package artworks on expected food liking and expected food naturalness. Through a factorial design, eight artworks combining three pictures (vegetable, prepared food in a plate, background) modified according to two levels were designed. 400 French and German consumers rated the expected liking and the expected naturalness for the food induced by each artwork presented on a computer monitor. The results show that: 1) expected pleasurable food experience was significantly impacted by package artworks; 2) the impact of each artwork on expected liking and naturalness can be modeled; and 3) key visual drivers of the pleasurable experience differed between consumers but were not impacted by the country origin. The role of differences in food experience on consumer expectation is discussed.
   Deliza, R., Macfie, H., and Hedderley, D. Use of computer-generated artworks and conjoint analysis to investigate sensory expectations. Journal of Sensory Studies 18, 465-486. 2003
   Meillon, S., Urbano, C., Guillot, G., and Schlich, P. Acceptability of partially dealcoholized wines -- Measuring the impact of sensory and information cues on overall liking in reallife settings. Food Quality and Preference 21, 763-773. 2010.
Design children's products with industries and users BIBAFull-Text 21
  Sabrina Muschiato; Maximiliano Romero; Pelin Arlsan
The paper describes the integration of user-centered research methods focused on steps to create ideas for developing innovative and interactive environments for children. The research project called Babylandia is a project co-financed by the Lombardy region in which they have actively participated in the five companies with the aim of producing new products for children through the use of user-centered methodologies.
User-centered design in video games: investigating gestural interfaces appropriation BIBAFull-Text 22
  Nicolas Nova; Timothée Jobert
In this paper, we report on the exploration of video game usage in the context of a user-centered design project. In order to design compelling user experiences with gestural interfaces, we undertook a small-scale qualitative study. This exploration addressed players' experience and perception of realism when using gestural interfaces. We compared the user experience of these two styles of interaction depending on the level of expertise and the physical skills of the players. The paper discusses how such results have been turned into tangible insights and guidelines used to the design innovative game prototypes.
Affective engineering: towards a consumer culture theory approach to kansei engineering BIBAFull-Text 23
  Skandalis Alexandros; Papantonopoulos Sotirios; Koulouriotis Dimitrios
In recent days, companies find it extremely difficult to predict consumers' needs and requirements (Pickton and Broderick, 2005). While mass marketing arguably belongs to the past, it is now a less viable strategy to satisfy consumers by a single offer (Smith, 1956). Thus, the adoption of innovative and cross -- disciplinary techniques might be a key factor in order to understand consumers and define their needs and requirements towards the design of new products. Affective engineering is a field of product design that deals with the translation of consumers' feelings for a product into design elements (Jordan 2000; Henson et al. 2006). Kansei engineering is an affective engineering methodology, in which tools and techniques from a wide variety of fields, such as psychology, ergonomics, information systems, sociology and marketing, are implemented, in order to link consumers' feelings and emotions with product properties and translate them into design elements (Nagamachi 1995; Schutte et al. 2004). The aim of this paper is to explore the kansei engineering field, from a consumer culture research perspective. Consumer Culture Theory 'refers to a family of theoretical perspectives that address the dynamic relationships between consumer actions, the marketplace, and cultural meanings' (Arnould and Thompson, 2005: p. 868). In order to achieve this, an introduction of a variety of qualitative tools and techniques currently utilized in consumer culture theory is made and an attempt to incorporate many of these methods within the kansei engineering field is conducted through the proposition of a theoretical framework.

Aesthetics of interaction models

Applying the PLEX framework in designing for playfulness BIBAFull-Text 24
  Juha Arrasvuori; Marion Boberg; Jussi Holopainen; Hannu Korhonen; Andrés Lucero; Markus Montola
In addition to functionality and usability, interactive products are increasingly expected to provide pleasurable experiences to their users. Playfulness is a part of these experiences. However, playfulness can manifest in many different ways as humans are inherently playful by nature. This poses challenges for designing for playfulness. To tackle this broad field, we have developed the Playful Experiences (PLEX) framework. The two-fold purpose of the PLEX framework is to be a conceptual tool for understanding the playful aspects of user experience (UX), and be a practical tool for designing for such experiences through established user-centered design (UCD) methods. In this paper we present an overview of our work during 2008-2010 on designing for playful experiences. After introducing and summarizing previous studies, we motivate the reasons for designing for playfulness by framing PLEX within the domains of user experience and emotional experience. Then, we briefly discuss the creation and evaluation of the PLEX Cards and its associated techniques as practical design tools based on the PLEX framework, followed by a concrete design case where these tools have been used. We also present the development of the PLEX Design Patterns for actual design solutions for playfulness. Based on this work, we propose the PLEX framework as a powerful tool for understanding playful experiences, and for providing inspiration to design interactive products that elicit playfulness.
Can your pet rabbit read your email?: a critical analysis of the Nabaztag rabbit BIBAFull-Text 25
  Chung-Ching Huang; Jeffrey Bardzell; Jennifer Terrell
The Nabaztag rabbit is an ambient digital device with customized functions. It was advertised as an ambient display, using strong product images suggesting that it is a pet alternative. However, after early interest, the popularity of this product did not last long. In this paper, we demonstrate interaction criticism as an approach to design research, exploring and proposing reasons for the product's decline. Specifically, we argue that the rabbit is difficult to connect with emotionally and explore several reasons this might be true. Our approach is phenomenological and hermeneutic in nature: we engaged in product usage for over twelve months, and practice a theoretically informed interpretive analysis. Using a combination of critical theories and affect research from robotics, we argue the Nabaztag product identity is confusing, which might be related to the manufactures' multiple intentions, and the gap between ideal and real users. We continue with an account of two genres of functions in the Nabaztag, revealing how they polarize of interpretation; moments when Nabaztag acted in unexpected ways; and the increased, rather than decreased, difficulty in interpreting Nabaztag the longer we used it. Interpretively understanding Nabaztag's experiential failures helps cultivate relevant design sensitivities and even implications for future designs.
Perceived qualities of smart wearables: determinants of user acceptance BIBAFull-Text 26
  Armagan Karahanoglu; Çigdem Erbug
Wearable computers are one of the new technologies that are expected to be a part of users' lives extensively in near future. While some of the users have positive attitudes towards these new products, some users may reject to use them due to different reasons. User experience is subjective, and effected by various parameters. Among these the first impression, namely the perceived qualities has an important impact on product acceptance. This paper aims to explore the perceived qualities of wearables and define the relations between them. An empirical study is conducted, to find out the hierarchy and meaningful relationships between the perceived qualities of smart wearables. The study is based on personal construct theory and data is presented by Cross-Impact Analysis. The patterns behind affection and affected qualities are explored to understand the design requirements for the best integration of wearables into daily lives.
FizzyVis: designing for playful information browsing on a multitouch public display BIBAFull-Text 27
  Céline Coutrix; Kai Kuikkaniemi; Esko Kurvinen; Giulio Jacucci; Ivan Avdouevski; Riikka Mäkelä
Multitouch screens are being increasingly deployed in public settings. In order to provide useful information to users in an attractive way, playfulness of the interaction is a relevant characteristic. In this paper, our contribution is FizzyVis, a walk-up-and-use interface that displays information through bubbles reacting to touches, and its design goals. The interface following a "ball pool" metaphor presents three types of bubbles animated and linked to each other by gravitation and magnetism: content bubbles, browsing bubbles and map bubbles. FizzyVis supports playful use through catching curiosity, projecting users in a playful state of mind, enabling easy and explorative information browsing, enticing playful gesturing and collective play, and rewarding finish. FizzyVis is evaluated regarding these design goals in a field study at a music festival over several days. The UI was useful to find information and playful. We detail the use of the installation to uncover generic lessons to be learned and explore further potential of FizzyVis.
Enactment of inter-subjectivity in phenomenological bodily interaction: a conceptual framework BIBAFull-Text 28
  Hyewon Kim
How can design teams constitute human bodily attributions as the locus of productive forces, the site in which an interaction language links up with phenomenological practices of human users? I propose that the salient characteristic of this matter is inter-subjective in that bodily interaction should not exclude either sustenance of different phenomenological bodies or intervention with them. Acknowledging the design challenge of the matter, I discuss a comprehensive survey of bodily attributions as generative design materials, consisting of sensory, grounded cognition, and socio-cultural levels. The framework is intended to help design teams systematically establish prioritized relationships among these bodily attributions as discovered in behavioural sequences. The framework is justified with the example of the bodily interactions of the Ocarina application of the iPhone. Ultimately, this paper emphasizes inter-subjective description that not only is inclusive of phenomenological bodies, but also establishes consistency of what they might afford.
Bringing aesthetically-minded design to devices for disabilities BIBAFull-Text 29
  Patrizia Marti; Leonardo Giusti
Can therapeutic and rehabilitation aids be engaging and pleasurable to use? Can disability be seen in terms of aesthetically-minded design rather than only in terms of accessibility legislation? The paper explores the role that design could play in reducing the stigma associated with the use of rehabilitation aids that inherently manifest impairment and the inconvenience of the disability condition. The design case described in the paper shows that rehabilitation aids can be engaging, useful and pleasurable to use.
From simple pleasure to pleasurable skin: an interactive architectural screen BIBAFull-Text 30
  Nadia Mounajjed; Imran A. Zualkernan
This paper explores the notion of simple pleasures that may be derived from interacting with architectural surfaces, and how this could generally inform design, and more particularly, architectural design. This paper presents a pleasure-based methodology for designing interactive architectural surfaces. The methodology employs elements from temporal pleasure processes and augments these with pleasure play scenarios. A key dimension of the methodology is to use children's play as the seed of the design process. A case study using the methodology to create an interactive architecture skins for exploring the relationship between inside and outside spaces is presented. The architectural skin is installed in the window of a Café and is technologically enabled by low-power microcontrollers, Zigbee wireless devices, force and motion sensors and servomotors. Outdoor elements like the motion of tree leaves as well as movement of individuals is projected to the inside space. Post-reflection reveals that the methodology worked well in enhancing, enriching and guiding the design process.
Sensory importance and emotions at early stage of product experiences: a qualitative study of juice squeezer BIBAFull-Text 31
  Nai-Feng Chen; Chun-Heng Ho; Min-Yuan Ma
Users build up their product experiences through all senses. To understand how these senses work together, how their importance change through time, and how senses evoke positive and negative emotions would be very helpful for designers to create more pleasant user experiences and improve user's evaluation about the product.
   In the study, we base on Fenko et al.'s study (2010) and use three qualitative methods (observations, interviews, and diaries) to gather more detailed information from a female participant about the early stage of product usage, which is the key period for a user to evaluate a product. We ask participant to squeeze juice with an electric juicer for a month. We then discuss the multisensory experiences, the sensory dominance, and emotions evoked by senses at six different usage stages during the month.
   The results suggest that vision is the most important sense when participant getting familiar with the product. However, the importance of each sense changes right at the first time of operation. Later from the first week to the fourth week of usage, touch becomes the most important sense, which is related to the main function of the product. Also, emotions evoked by senses are very likely to affect the importance of each sense. In this case, we find the emotional feelings of touch are unsatisfied and neglected. This reminds us most of the designers today still focus most on vision but little on other senses. Designers should pay more attention to which sense plays the most important role at different stages and try to bring users more positive emotions and experiences.
An experimental research project: wearable technology for embodiment of emotions BIBAFull-Text 32
  Seçil Ugur; Raffaella Mangiarotti; Monica Bordegoni; Marina Carulli; S. A. G. Wensveen; I. Laura Duncker
Clothing is the most intimate artefact that interacts with both body and society. Over the past quarter century, with the introduction of new technologies, people are experiencing unprevented changes in their behaviours and way of living. Technology is becoming a large part of daily life and its unchecked influence has many emotional consequences, many of which are overlooked. The aim of this research is integrating textiles with new technologies to create garments that provide new social interactions and avenues for emotional expression. The experimental project has been done to explore new possible interaction scenarios through wearable technologies by turning an intangible phenomenon, emotion, to a tangible artefact. The paper refers to the research question: 'How can an intangible fact, which is known as existing but doesn't have a physical matter, emotion, be embodied and transmitted through technology?' by means of a theoretical study on wearable technologies and its role in emotional communication, following with an experimental project carried out as both virtual and real prototypes. This paper not only focuses on the prototyping process, but also addresses the user experience during the interaction by various user perception tests.
The aesthetic of interaction with materials for design: the bioplastics' identity BIBAFull-Text 33
  Valentina Rognoli; Giuseppe Salvia; Marinella Levi
Today, thinking on sustainable artifacts become an obligation for companies oriented to sensitive and cultured market. Particular attention should be addressed towards the selection of materials compatible with natural cycle in order to accomplish also the necessity for "cradle to cradle" strategies. The material selection involves the definition of the raw material (natural or synthetic) and the resulting environmental impact when it returns to nature. In this view, bio-plastics appear particularly interesting for the environmental compatibility. Despite the reliable conditions, bio-plastics still struggling to be used in place of synthetic polymers on the commodities market, likely for problem of acceptance related to their lack of awareness and identity on which the people have small experience. The research aims at contributing to the investigation of bioplastics in order to allowing them in acquiring their own recognizable identity. In other words, we contribute to the affirmation of intangible features of matter defining the interaction between user and materials. Hence, industry can afford the whole potential of the studied bioplastics, well beyond the mere environmental advantage. The method is founded on the critical analysis on both aesthetic and processing point of view, to grasp the peculiar characteristics to design and to enhance. The configuration of its own identity is no more something defined a priori respect to design work, but it is the result of a dynamic relationship among three polarities: its own technical-aesthetic area, its own communication potential, and its own potential applications. To the purpose, a particular biopolymer has been considered, Arboform®, as a case study and as an occasion for considerations potentially useful for other biopolymers. The creative part accomplished the realization of both performances and sensorial profiles of the studied material. Finally we propose potential scenarios for both the substitutive and novel applications with the aim of assess the likeness of applying such advantageous materials in common applications.
From function to pleasure: touch, interaction, and the interspace BIBAFull-Text 34
  Carola Moujan
Tactile and haptic interaction is everywhere these days, and meant to become even more present in the years to come. Haptic devices are intuitive and have considerably increased the level of pleasure for users. However, some recent articles [Norman, 2010] underline their lack of reliability in terms of function. Weaving from phenomenology, architectural theory and the works of James J. Gibson [1966] and David Katz [1925] on tactile perception, this essay argues that in tactile devices as they are designed today, the sense of touch is used mostly as a replacement of artificial tools, and restricted to the hand only -- a mechanical approach which overrides the most powerful affordances of haptics. It claims that electronic products struggle to unveil the full potential of tactile interaction because, albeit touch being used, the design strategy remains a visual one, and suggests that if we develop a tactile strategy instead, we will create deeper aesthetic experiences and increase pleasure for the users.
Interactive interiors: preliminary study of integrating textile embellishment techniques and polymeric photonic fibers for interior textiles BIBAFull-Text 35
  Tan Jeanne; Bai Zi-qian; Tao Xiao-ming
Interactive interiors which are customizable to the design preferences and functional purposes of individual users can help create flexible interiors within fixed spaces. They are particularly relevant to densely populated cities where most people live in compact spaces. This proposed research explores interactive interior textile surfaces as an adaptive media which can transform interiors via the change of colors, luminescence and surface design. This is done by investigating the integration of textile base material via embellishment techniques, such as embroidery and felting, with polymeric photonic fibers (POF) which enhance tactile quality without compromising on the technological functionality. Their flexible application methods mean that, it is adaptable to the rigid nature of polymeric photonic fibers. In addition, embroidery has the unique ability to arrange and combine threads together with various materials in non-rigid formations and multiple directions to create stable two-dimensional and three-dimensional forms [1]. Different materials can be combined to explore aesthetically pleasing surface designs, textures and achieve positive tactile quality.
Natural fibre composites in product design: an investigation into material perception and acceptance BIBAFull-Text 36
  Valentina Rognoli; Elvin Karana; Owain Pedgley
Natural fibres and their composites have significant untapped potential for product designers and are widely recognized as having good sustainability credentials. Nevertheless, applications for these materials are stifled because of low esteem and a generally low perceived quality compared with conventional materials such as plastics and metals. Current impressions of this material class are therefore not favourable, and their future acceptance in mainstream product design will depend on understanding how, particularly, the sensorial qualities of the materials may be modified to contribute positively to user experiences. This position paper outlines the motivations and methods for a planned research project into the perception and future acceptance of natural fibre materials for industrial product design.
Co-designing (with) organizations: human-centeredness, participation and embodiment in organizational development BIBAFull-Text 37
  Juha Kronqvist; Anna Salmi
In this paper we study a design approach as a method for conducting organizational development in innovation process management. We have utilized personas, metaphorical design, scenarios and paper prototyping as ways of going beyond mere problem-solving. These methods have been used to create solutions that allow the organization to reflect on their activities from a wider perspective. We analyse the methods from the point of view of three important aspects of design work: human-centeredness, participation and embodiment. The research is based in an industry context in which a globally operating company is in the process of renewing their innovation processes. Building on these methods the participants in the three co-design workshops were able to generate a shared understanding of the motivations of their employees, plan new innovation practices and create future scenarios of digital tools and features that support the work in the R&D units. Based on our analysis we give recommendations for design methods in organizational development and suggestions for further research.

Design culture and thinking in industry

Unpleasurable products and interfaces: provocative design communication for sustainable society BIBAFull-Text 38
  Tatu Marttila
Sustainable design can be perceived as a sort of activism, and as such the emphasis is on communicating certain messages with design. Designers can be seen as trained facilitators for societal discourse, as they are educated to negotiate between several stakeholders in a context-driven problem solving setting. They can also combine aesthetic and functional thinking. These skills should be used to question the over-consumptive consumer behavior.
   This short position paper explores the ways, how design can be used to bring matters to a head in our society. It is looking into strategies, such as provocative critical design, as explorative design activity that seek to raise societal issues into public debate. It also suggests the posthuman factors to user-interface design, and proposes provocation as one the attribute for design to draw more attention to the contemporary challenges of sustainability.
Digitalization of paper sketches integration of the non digital draft BIBAFull-Text 39
  Sabine Roth-Koch
How can design research serve industry? In order to benefit from the new flexible production technologies (e.g. additive fabrication), efficient design strategies need to be developed -- from the first draft right up to the manufactured, quality-tested product. These strategies must also be able to use all of today's typical methods and tools in virtual environments. Therefore, there is now a changed approach to and way of thinking which combines technical feasibility with nature and traditional-real aids. Conceptual designers work on fuzzy product data applied to creative problem solving. First ideas are depicted in line drawings (non digital paper drafts) for the creative search for shapes which must be digitalised however in addition to be used in computer-aided (CAx) virtual environments. The digitalisation comprises the interpretation of geometrical data and its application-oriented formalisation. The paper discusses new methods and the related R&D work to interpret creative non digital drafts and to generate ideal digital geometrical models. The drafts are interpreted to be vague, blurred images. The prototype software package SKIZZERK is based on appropriate image processing techniques for the interpretation of inherent shape information. Functions for transferring fuzzy non digital 2D shape depictions to fuzzy digital 2D sketches and for developing non digital 2D shapes into 3D digital shape elements are developed. The generated free-formed 3D elements can be used for design, shaping evaluation and the discussion with design engineers. Future work deals with the adaption of these digital models to 3D CAD data models.
Soft systems networking in design thinking for a sustainable society BIBAFull-Text 40
  Fahrettin Ersin Alaca
Sustainability is a complex and dynamic term which can only be understood through the rigorous consideration of the ever-changing necessities of humankind and their resonance across the globe. The recognition of sustainability has faced dramatic alterations with new aspects in recent decades, various methodologies, tools, organizations, and initiatives emerged in order to catch the change and take steps toward a sustainable future. However, the world-wide pervasive environmental degradation and rising social equity problems reveal clearly that these efforts lack the sufficient power to stimulate the social, economic, and political commitment.
   This study proposes a methodological tool for constructing a network which provides coordination and increased strength among the agents of sustainable development. With a focus on design-related research and education, academic institutions are suggested as the operators that host and catalyze the interaction between the various layers of producers and consumers. In other words, the main purpose of this study can be seen as the integration and collaboration of the academic, industrial, and user channels which perform innovative design responses as well as generating social conventions.
   Embracing the mindset of Soft Systems Methods (SSMs), the paper establishes a theoretical structure adapted from the front-end innovation model 'New Concept Development (NCD)' and the societal repertoire of co-design.
Design and territory: laser cutting/engraving applied in the manufacture of products for the promotion of the "Pedra Grande" archeological site, RS, Brazil BIBAFull-Text 41
  Mariana Pohlmann; Cristine Raseira; Lauren Duarte; Wilson, Jr. Kindlein
The pursuit for knowing the peculiarities of each country or region takes millions of people to embark on journeys to various destinations. The curiosity about other cultures makes the tourism activity a means of learning the history of a place, including the knowledge of its monuments and archaeological sites. Museums have an important role regarding the disclosure of information on the human history legacy in different places and at different times. And their shops, by providing products, extend the visitor's relationship with the place. São Pedro do Sul, located in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, holds the Pedra Grande Archeological Site, a monument of great historical and ethnographic importance of human occupation in the area. For the promotion of this heritage it becomes interesting to create strategies aimed at the dissemination and development of the museums that make up the cultural center of this city as tourist attractions. As a proposal to support these institutions, this study employs the technique of laser engraving for making objects that can be sold in their stores, diffusing the local culture and generating incomes for these establishments.
Design and SMEs: the trigger of creative ecosystems BIBAFull-Text 42
  Marzia Mortati; Leon Cruickshank
In this paper we present key issues that contribute to enhancing the debate on the relationship between design and SMEs. We compare the situation in Italy and the UK both considering an historical background and by understanding how governments are currently supporting companies in using design -- especially focusing on SMEs, that is the main industrial population in both countries.
   We underline the importance of developing a trusted relationship between designer/entrepreneur. This collaboration is in fact historically based on a strong element of reciprocity and interdependence and it results in a successful action often because of the personal characteristics of both the designer and the entrepreneur, it being a mechanism highly based on trust and cultural matters. This relationship and the qualitative advantages it has brought to businesses is a very difficult one to measure and support for governments, although these are increasingly looking at creativity as one of the main triggers of innovation. More importantly, the profound changes underway are calling for the need to give new meaning to what a company is; only consequently looking for viable ways of growth.
   We highlight the network dimension in the connection between design and business, as a viable new way to answer to the profound changes (cultural, civic, environmental, economical, and social) underway. We conclude by defining such collaborative systems "creative ecosystems", in that they trigger knowledge exchange mechanisms, creativity and innovation by generating an adaptive environment that resembles a biological ecosystem.
Automobile design: a co-relation technique to assessment of human emotion, visual expression and product form BIBAFull-Text 43
  Mohsen Jaafarnia; Ravi Mokashi Punekar
Today, body designs of vehicles such as personal cars differ from brand to brand. The challenges of globalization have led to situations wherein manufacturers are prone to introduce an already existing model into new markets, especially emerging ones in developing countries. When such new markets get crowded with competition, manufacturers start customizing the designs developed elsewhere, to suit local preferences.
   Designers involved in conceptualizing car forms are increasingly being inspired by a close study of human emotions including facial expression in the generation of product form. In this paper an attempt has been made to assess users response to automobile design based on drawing a co-relation between human emotion vis-a-vis the product expression and visual form of the front facia of the car. Respondents were involved in assessing the front facia of a set of 35 cars of reputed global car brands vis-a-vis two selected human bi-polar emotions chosen from amongst a set of 14 human facial expressions to state if they felt the product expression was 'in correspondence with'; 'in contrast with' or 'nether of the above' against a set expression. The responses were summarized and the results matched between respondents from India with those of the Iranian respondents. This resulted in drawing a cross cultural comparison of results of form expression and emotion associations for the two cultures.
   The paper reports the findings from the above study. The results give leading directions to designers in mapping 'glocal' preference patterns of responses from two diverse cultures one Indian and the other Iranian.
Design research applicability on Portuguese industry: Recipor S.A. company BIBAFull-Text 44
  Jacinta Costa; Sara Bento Botelho; Rui Mendonça; João Martins; Pedro Bandeira Maia; Ricardo Gonçalves; Teresa Franqueira
The present paper works on the potential applicability of design The present paper works on the potential applicability of design research based on a practical experience with the Portuguese company Recipor -- Recuperação e Valorização de Resíduos (residues recovery and valuation), S. A., who's mission is to collect, treat and valuate in a profitable way plastic residues e non iron metals, with domestic or industrial origins. The ecological appeal, the economical recovery process and the innovation investment justified the choice and the decision of taking this company as a subject to study design's influence on building and confirming it's corporate identity and in the implementation of design culture and thinking. The empirical search on collecting processes, treatment and application of residues took place at the company's premises. From the direct contact with raw materials, equipment and finished products we developed a quality based methodology study. The results denoted a strong relation between the company's vision, the organizational strategy and the market's affection for recycled products. This triangulation allowed a favourable environment for a temporary inclusion of a design investigating team, and leads to the understanding that, as the high-level project orientations were exposed, the expectation increased and acquired a more instrumental format with strategic effects. Grounded on data from field literature we draw the path of thermoplastics in general and of PVC specifically. We must highlight the growth of the investment made in collecting and recycling; the birth of a European network of certified recycling companies and the enormous applicability of this material on artefact production. This project's boundaries were established by practical challenges introduced by the company's direction; namely the optimization of the plastic reel products. The team's proposals were the result of the adopted design process.
The design of a knowledge exchange network between university and SMEs: the DEA experience BIBAFull-Text 45
  Venanzio Arquilla; Davide Genco; Marzia Mortati
This paper aims at showing how design can become a strategic lever to help a productive context grow (SMEs, practitioners, corporate policy, and research system). In particular, it focuses on the ability of design to enable social and economic connections among the actors involved in a project, to find new ways for developing innovation within SMEs, and to make young designers face the entrepreneurial reality.
   The projects developed at the INDACO department of Politecnico di Milano show how creativity can add value to the professional relationship between young designers and micro, small and medium companies. These projects use action-research as methodology and aim at promoting design culture in the Italian local productive realities. Specifically, the case studies presented in this paper use mechanisms of design knowledge and technology transfer [19], that is the physical transfer of innovation agents (newly graduate designers) into companies. With the researchers' support, these mechanisms have led to develop product, service and communication projects in collaboration with SMEs. The approach followed is based on the concept of "human capital growth" [16] that adds expertise to the company aiming at action-taking.
   Moreover the pilot-cases were developed through a practical process of learning by doing and learning by interacting, with a double benefit for participants: companies previously unfamiliar with design had the chance to experience the potentials of design, and young designers experienced real working situations, applying their technical knowledge on product development and production processes [4].
   The paper focuses mainly on the latest of these pilot cases, that is the project DEA -- Design E Artigianato per il Trentino, looking at the collaborative experiences developed with small manufacturing companies in the province of Trento. It also tries to sum up ten years of research and experimentation on the topic. The aim of the paper is to try and consolidate a model of knowledge exchange [15] for developing innovative projects with the aid of design, supported by both University and Entrepreneurial Associations as trust generators [10,13].
The value of imperfection in industrial product BIBAFull-Text 46
  Francesca Ostuzzi; Giuseppe Salvia; Valentina Rognoli
This paper explores the defects during the production seen as a gain in usability and an economic opportunity for the industry; the strategy proposed here is to exploit the flaws as generator of unique products and inspiration for the mass customization. These defects, connected to each process, usually entail the removal of the product from the production chain, up to its elimination. Yet even EU directives on guarantees for consumer goods have focused on the lack of conformity of products [Directive 1999/44/EC] or ISO regulations, the usefulness to support Quality Management System [ISO 9001:2008] and authorize and propose strategies for enhancement of the defective products. Therefore this research suggests the involvement of industrial design in the optimization of defects in design and construction in the categories proposed by D. M. Bryce, in order to extend the life of the product from the production stage "This is what we want to do with design: discover and show opportunities" [22], acting primarily on the aesthetic and functional aspect. The method used begins with the identification of possible defects, examining the injection moulding process as a case study. The defects (coming from the state-of-art analysis, interviewing experts and visiting companies) were mainly analyzed critically and creatively interpreted: how do they look aesthetically, what are the causes of their defects, the implication on the moulded part, possible new uses and purposes, etc. This stage has allowed the comparison between typical defects in the injection moulding process and products (already commercialized and considered of high commercial and/or creative value) characterized by a similar morphology. For each defect some parameters were considered such as the possibility of intervention by the designer, the level and the type of this intervention. In conclusion, the research has investigated potential strategies for process innovation through the creative role of design, highlighting flaws and imperfections that can be recruited by the market, becoming a presumption for uniqueness on the inside of serial production.
Landing design thinking in industry: "making software for bookkeeping, but not in a bookkeeping way" BIBAFull-Text 47
  Gert Pasman; Edgar Wieringa
Following the currently popular gospel of design-driven innovation, many companies are attempting to implement some form of design thinking into their business process and company culture. What issues are they facing when trying to bring this into an organization, mindset and culture, that is not very receptive to design thinking? And how can they get access to and make use of the large number of user-centered design methods, tools and techniques that has been mainly developed in academia?
   In this paper these questions are addressed by reflecting on the case of an ongoing collaboration between a software company and a design school/research institute, aimed at supporting the software company making a move from a technology-driven to a market-driven, user-centered development process. The situation at the start of the collaboration is sketched, describing the challenges of how to introduce, apply and implement the design thinking approach into a business organization, that has by tradition a different perspective on how to innovate, a different set of methods, tools and techniques for developing products and a different culture of logics and values for assessment and evaluation.
   The approach taken was to gradually introduce this new way of thinking through a series of participatory activities, in which both parties involved actively contributed from their own perspective, yet with a shared goal. These activities are described in detail, followed by a discussion of their effects in both institutions. Although it is a long-term transformation, some clear changes that are already noticeable on various levels, are presented and discussed.
The Pillar ATM: NCR and community centered innovation BIBAFull-Text 48
  Steven Birnie; Jon Rogers; Charlie Rohan
The Pillar ATM (automated teller machine) is an internal NCR concept that originated out of an investigation into low cost emerging markets. NCR is a leading self-service solutions provider manufacturing devices such as ATM's, kiosks and airline check-in terminals. As a corporation NCR have been active in this area for some time, building relationships with financial institutions, investors and universities. This has allowed NCR to develop various financial self-service devices that cater for the specific needs of this market. The Pillar ATM is a low cost device designed for a harsh exterior environment by all user groups including inexperienced and potentially illiterate users.
   In this paper we will show the lessons learned from how a multinational corporation can use design methods to gain insights from individual communities providing a solution that has the potential to influence global self-service markets. We will present the methods as they were used and the outcome that emerged, alongside evidence of impact and viability for gaining local knowledge that has global reach. The design for the Pillar ATM evolved through a series of projects that involved extensive field research in the Jari Mari and Tunga Goan slums of Mumbai, community workshops, user observation, digital ethnography and user testing.
Authenticity in digital printing BIBAFull-Text 49
  Susan Carden
For those presently undertaking research and practice within the field of digitally printed textiles, inadequately defined boundaries can potentially lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This paper aims to clarify what is meant by the term digital print and locate authenticity within it, by drawing comparisons with photography in order to better explain some of the contextual issues that currently surround the digital printing of textiles.
   The scope ranges from an initial idea formed as a digital file that is stored on a computer, to the act of depositing droplets of dye through the print heads of a digital printer as an image, which is subsequently steamed and fixed onto the fabric substrate. There are, however, many processes and techniques involved in digital printing, none of which are unique to the digital printing of textiles; each individual technique, according to Cambridge University's Andy Hopper, 'can also be used to manufacture high-value, high precision products such as flat-panel displays, printed electronics, and photovoltaic cells for power generators' (2010). Also, as author Sarah Braddock Clarke states, the computer is only a tool, so it is not the computer, but rather the artist or designer, who makes the 'aesthetic decisions' (2007: 178). Nonetheless, increasingly these technologies are providing complex, rewarding and aesthetically challenging opportunities for contemporary textile artists, designers and craftspersons.

Organizing design in industry

Improvement of the industrial design process by the creation and usage of intermediate representations of technology, "TechCards" BIBAFull-Text 50
  Ioana Ocnarescu; Frédérique Pain; Carole Bouchard; Améziane Aoussat; Dominique Sciamma
This paper describes a design method that was created and used in an international telecommunication company for the design of new technological applications. The value of this design method is its adaptation, as a research design method to an industrial context and the creation of a visual and tangible tool that optimizes the collaboration between the members of multidisciplinary teams.
   As designers working with technical specialists in the research laboratory of this company, we had to respond and combine two requirements that came from different perspectives: the Technology Push factors and the cultural and social users' behaviors and needs, the Pull factors. We had to understand the technological bricks that the project wanted to promote and use them in the design scenarios of a technical demonstrator. For this purpose and for the amelioration of the communication between designers, human centered specialists and technical specialists, we proposed an easy-to-understand illustration of the technology, the TechCards.
   These cards are intermediate representations that help a multidisciplinary team share a common knowledge of technology. Besides their role in the technology comprehension, the card format, its layout and its image, have proven to introduce a playful and engagement effect among the members of the project team. The TechCards were also used to stimulate the creative process and to validate the design scenarios. In the case of an international project, they have confirmed to be a useful tool for working with other teams from abroad.
Design strategy: towards an understanding of different methods and perspectives BIBAFull-Text 51
  Natalie Ebenreuter; Marjan Geerts
The focus of this study is to better understand the variety of methods employed in the planning and production of practice-based research projects. Gaining a clearer understanding of the circumstances surrounding the approaches and objectives of various design methods emphasizes the subtle, underlying strategies employed in design research and practice. We begin by illustrating four design processes utilized by designers at Bell Labs. We continue by developing an understanding of the way in which philosophic methods can assist in the analysis of different design methods and processes. In doing so, we discuss the varying perspectives in which four archetype design models illustrate different ways of thinking and working, and suggest how an understanding of these differences can shape the development of open-ended practice-based research projects. It is envisaged that the findings of this research will contribute to the strategic development of both industrial and research based design projects.
Prototyping design and business BIBAFull-Text 52
  Jørgen Rasmussen; Gunnar Kramp; Bo Schiønning Mortensen
It is increasingly common that design firms go from working with their client's development department on specific products, to discussing strategic issues directly with the company's management [1]. In this new territory designers face a number of challenges. Designers are traditionally trained to 'look into the future,' to find unidentified opportunities through an open process and to validate their decisions through repeated prototyping. Management, on the other hand, is traditionally trained to 'look into to the past' and make decisions based on thoroughly analyzing existing information [9]. This paper suggests a model, 'The Strategic Design Matrix,' to bridge the gap between the design approach and the management approach to strategic development processes. Through common references, a common language and a common basis understanding, the model aims to create a communicative platform for collaboration and interdisciplinary development. Based on the thinking behind a prototype presentation [10] the paper describes a specific case where the model is used in collaboration between a team of designers and the management of a medium-sized company.
Designing disruption: linking participatory design and design thinking in technology orientated industries BIBAFull-Text 53
  Carl Behrendorff; Sam Bucolo; Evonne Miller
A vast proportion of companies nowadays are looking to design and are focusing on the end users as a means of driving new projects. However still many companies are drawn to technological improvements which drive innovation within their industry context. The Australian livestock industry is no different. To date the adoption of new products and services within the livestock industry has been documented as being quite slow. This paper investigates how disruptive innovation should be a priority for these technologically focused companies and demonstrates how the use of design led innovation can bring about a higher quality engagement between end user and company alike. A case study linking participatory design and design thinking is presented. Within this, a conceptual model of presenting future scenarios to internal and external stakeholders is applied to the livestock industry; assisting companies to apply strategy, culture and advancement in meaningful product offerings to consumers.
Opening "open" innovation BIBAFull-Text 54
  Haakon Faste
This investigation examines recent literature from management science, social computing and design to develop a framework for understanding the mechanisms that would enable open innovation platforms to more effectively address the most pressing areas of human need reported and reportable by such systems. The many challenges that must be overcome to solve the creative, ethical, and strategic focus problems implicit in existing open innovation systems are described. The paper concludes with specific recommendations for research on such systems, including how highly contextual end-user needs can be satisfied to encourage entrepreneurship and market success. This will only be possible if participants contributing to open innovation systems are enabled to leverage the power of the system for themselves, leading to increasingly open innovation environments.
Design and industry: lessons from the Italian design system BIBAFull-Text 55
  Alessandro Deserti; Francesco Zurlo
The paper describes the relation between design and Local Productive Systems (LPS) as one of the key elements of competitiveness of the Italian SMEs in the sectors of the so-called "made in Italy". The paper is based on a comprehensive study, resulting from the combination of different research programs carried on by the authors during the last 10 years, including a wide collection of cases, and direct experiences in applied research with Italian companies.
   In the paper, authors discuss the role of design research assuming a mainly practical perspective, focusing on the kind of research that is carried on by designers and design research institutions in relation with companies operating in the Italian LPS. According to this perspective, the peculiarities of the Italian design system are the distributed nature of the research process; the non-structured and unaware observation of local and global contexts of use; the visionary approach led by design.
   Authors point out that designers, in their close and almost "familiar" relation with companies, do not look at them as stakeholders, but as subjects of an interactive process driving to innovation, where designers are at the same time able to bring in companies visions and trajectories for innovation, and to deal with the technical issues related to the development of new products.
How to measure design contribution to the competitiveness of companies: models for analysis tool BIBAFull-Text 56
  António Gomes; Vasco Branco
The research presented here, is aimed to design a tool to evaluate the degree of maturity of design intervention, and the investment return from applying design in production companies in the north of Portugal. A theoretical frame is set to support the use and relevance of this kind of tools as a means to generate a set of guide lines on how companies may use design as a strategic tool. Several tools from different countries are evaluated, and a generic model is set to become the base of a support tool development for future researches. This model focuses on the results and on an inter company experience sharing. In the final part of this article, some aspects of the studied models are discussed, namely the results relevance and diffusion for other companies. Issues are raised on ongoing investigations.
Oscillating between extremes: a framework for mapping differing views on User eXperience BIBAFull-Text 57
  Lutz Gegner; Mikael Runonen; Turkka Keinonen
As User eXperience (UX) has grown to be a very popular term widely used by practitioners and academics alike in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI), it has also diverged in definition and purpose. Currently, there are only a few publications that consider UX in the context of product development in larger organizations. This paper illustrates this issue with the help of a literature review and a case study conducted in a multinational ICT company. The purpose of this study was to investigate the understanding of UX across different units within the organization and the different meanings associated with the concept. The case study consisted of interviews across the organization and had a split agenda between finding out the organization of UX work and also the meaning of UX for the employees. Based on the interviews and literature, a framework is presented for organizing UX work in a product development environment. The framework suggests an inter-organizational approach that takes into consideration not only product development as such, but also other functions of the company, including brand strategy.
Pushing firm boundaries through research and open innovation BIBAFull-Text 58
  Aviaja Borup Lynggaard
In this paper we will exemplify open innovation through a university-industry collaboration called Mobile Home Center (MHC). We will demonstrate how the model by Chesbrough can be used as a tool for mapping out a research process and furthermore illustrate what kind of outcast such project can provide into the company and bring forward the effect it has inside a company when performing open innovation together with research partners. We seek to bring forward how performing university-research collaboration can also change the practices inside a company and thus push the firm boundaries in new directions. Rather than looking at the firm as something static we will demonstrate how Chesbrough's model on Open Innovation can be used to illustrate the dynamics of a company's boundaries through Open Innovation.
Integrating end-users to the design process through design competitions BIBAFull-Text 59
  Onur Mustak Cobanli
Design competitions has been one of the major tools for institutions and companies to procure design for more than a millennia, however with the arrival of internet and with the rapid development of information and communication technologies today, much more can be done. This paper discusses how, and in which way design competitions could be utilized for integrating end-users to the design process.

Service design and interactions

Design adventures in public sector BIBAFull-Text 60
  Kirsi Hakio; Tuuli Mattelmäki
Public organizations are slowly awakening for applying service design and design thinking. There is a huge potential but there are also challenges ahead. The aim of this paper is to discuss the benefits and challenges that occurred when design researchers coming from outside the organization applied and tested co-design methods as well as visual thinking and communication tools in two case experiments that were conducted in a context of a City of Helsinki. These activities were part of internal and external development projects of the organization. The paper also contributes to the discussion around the topic of organizations' design readiness in practical level, by reflecting some conditions and capabilities that are needed from both organization's as well as design professional's side, when designerly approaches are introduced and applied for the first time.
Adapt-a-ride: understanding the dynamics of commuting preferences through an experience design framework BIBAFull-Text 61
  Fatih Kursat Ozenc; Lorrie F. Cranor; James H. Morris
Solo driving is the number one commuting choice for a majority of the people in the United States despite its high costs, stressful traffic congestions, and impact on environment. Existing industry attempting to bring alternative transportation choices, fall short reaching critical mass to survive. In this work, we focus both on the issues of solo driving and why industry might be falling short understanding the dynamics of commuting preferences. We followed an innovative experience design framework to shape our user centered design processes and identified the underlying dynamics of flexibility, cost and personal preference as three driving themes affecting people's commuting choices. We have then designed and evaluated a concept design for an interactive system that manifested these themes, and reported our findings and design implications on how to facilitate behavioral change through design. Our primary finding is that people's flexibility preferences change when a system offers them concrete scenarios.
Temporality in interaction design BIBAFull-Text 62
  Chung-Ching Huang; Erik Stolterman
In this paper we argue that temporal aspects of interactions have not yet received enough attention in interaction design research. We find this lack of concern to negatively influence both interaction design practice as well as research. This paper is therefore a first attempt to explore and examine potential techniques that might be usable to describe and analyze temporality in interactions. We first discuss some existing research when it comes to temporal issues in interaction design research. Then we explore and propose some alternative ways to examine and describe temporal patterns of interaction. We propose two forms of descriptions that feature both visual and verbal components. We present a small study where these tools are used. Based on these studies we discuss in more detail the benefits of the proposed approach and how the approach con be developed and refined. We end with a brief discussion on the potential benefits of developing a greater awareness of and tools for studying temporality in the field.
User perceptions of Wow experiences and design implications for Cloud services BIBAFull-Text 63
  Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Jarmo Palviainen; Santtu Pakarinen; Else Lagerstam; Eeva Kangas
Wow! as outstandingly positive user experience has often been cited as an important design target in industrial product development contexts. Wow is assumed to be more than acceptable user experience, it is something that exceeds users' expectations. There is relatively little research on the specific concept of Wow and how it can be achieved. In our multi-year Cloud software project with over 20 industrial partners we have found a strong interest in establishing basic understanding of this concept and further, design implications for bringing Wow to Cloud services. To this end, we first conducted two small online surveys to understand the general user perceptions of Wow. We then explored two specific Cloud application domains -- personal contact management and information security services -- in more detail by conducting two rounds of user interviews on how Wow is perceived in these domains. In this paper we present the results of these user studies and draw design implications for Wow in Cloud services. The main design implications include providing positive surprises to the users by pushing dynamic service features through the Cloud, supporting automated data integration of and universal access to user's personal data, and moderating the level and types of Wow for "serious" application domains.
Designing formal attributes and user experience in public services BIBAFull-Text 64
  Marco Maiocchi; Margherita Pillan
This paper is about service design: the focus is on formal attributes of services view as interactive events involving users and a service supplier; we mainly refer to traditional and innovative services provided by private and public institutions, such as health care centers and public transportation services. In this paper the authors present a conceptual representation of structural factors shared by all services, that has been employed as theoretical framework in projects and didactical activities during the last few years; the proposed model supports the design of services both from the functional and formal points of view, outlining the complex correlation between organization and aesthetic factors in services, highlighting some significant elements that influence the emotional experience of users, and investigating the role of the different contribution provided by the different discipline that concur in service design processes. User experience is mainly analyzed in terms of emotional and cognitive processes and it is related to perception studies. Furthermore, the paper presents a methodological approach to the project of formal attributes of services and some results obtained applying the presented theoretical principles to practical contexts, significantly in the field of public health care; the project activities were mainly performed in cooperation with the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori of Milan. Following the authors, the core element of user experience relies in the perspective adopted by a patient toward himself and toward the physical and mental challenges posed by the course of illness and the corresponding service fruition; to this purpose, aesthetic design interventions should be designed to support patients in the adoption of a positive and convenient attitude toward their temporary or chronic state of life, reducing feeling of discouragement, danger, uncertainty often associated to physical diseases.
Super Dots: making social media tangible for senior citizens BIBAFull-Text 65
  Maria Foverskov; Thomas Binder
Social media offers many possibilities for new ways of networking. Senior citizens are not the most common users of social media today, but they are nevertheless citizens that have a need for entering new social connections, networks and communities. In a recent project we looked closer at how to make use of co-design and prototyping in relation to service design for social networking among senior citizens. The municipality we work with has recognized the potentials of involving and engaging citizens in service design and co-creation but they lack experience on how to establish productive dialogues. A major issue is how to make the dialogue concrete and tangible for all participants involved.
   In this article we will discus an example of how to make new possibilities of networking through social media tangible through the design concept of Super Dots. Super Dots is not a classical prototype, but a delicately crafted set of props aimed at facilitating dialogue on community building among senior citizens at a co-design workshop.
   We will open the paper by discussing the relevance of new service concepts and infrastructures facilitating self-organized community building among seniors. Then we will introduce the particular way we have worked with co-design methodologies particularly the design concept Super Dots in service design, in the project Senior:Interaction. We present examples of the dialogues performed around Super Dots and based on these examples we end the paper by unfolding some of the benefits of working with tangible scaffolding materials as props in service design involving social media.
Families and services: understanding opportunities for co-production of value in service design BIBAFull-Text 66
  Jodi Forlizzi; John Zimmerman; Steven Dow
Services comprise the backbone of most economies. As the design community increasingly conceives of and communicates about service relationships, we need a theoretical understanding of how such relationships originate, evolve, and co-create value over time. The home provides a resource for studying service dynamics. How are services purchased and perceived within the home? What do people value about domestic services, and how is value collectively produced between service providers and consumers? How do examples of service co-production in domestic settings extend to other service domains?
   To answer these questions, we undertook a nationwide survey of US households, followed by a number of in-depth interviews, in order to understand opportunities for service co-creation. Our findings reveal how customers and providers co-create services in the home. Domestic services rarely are performed autonomously; instead, there is an active, adaptive dialogue between customer and service provider. This intensely personalized interaction provides a basis for studying successful service co-production between customers, domestic service providers, and other organizations. We found service consumers and providers perceive the service experience with different cultural framings. Moreover, customers report more satisfying experiences when stakeholders co-produce the service through open dialogue and identifying mutual value. We describe the opportunities and breakdowns of service co-production, and discuss the design implications that follow.
Tech-care: designing remote-controlled interfaces for communication and interaction within Chinese family BIBAFull-Text 67
  Xin Li; Xia Zhang; Zhiyong Fu
In this paper, we design a remote-controlled interface of a cross-platform system, called Tech-care, for enhancing the communication and interaction, which is to express tangible care remotely, within Chinese family by combining available products. With the rapid expansion of modern technologies, such as social network, mobile phone and other cyber communication tools, there is less human touch in the daily life, especially when people are in different places. Focused on the Chinese family structure, we design the system to create communication and interaction between the children, elders at home and adults outside with tangible interface. The system combines several software and hardware accessible products, which are gotten easily in market as well as our design applied broadly, as user requirement dynamically and individually. We should design the interface, in both visual and functional levels, to connect the software and hardware products, and integrate them into a new cross-platform product, Tech-care, which is shown as a household avatar of the outside user. The adults can place the avatar, which is able to move and hold, at home beforehand. When they are being on the way for and back from work or in the break time, the avatar can be remote-controlled through the interface to create care expression, such as delivering a mobile internet device for video chat, a gift for surprise or medicine on time. The system enhances the communication and interaction out of the limit of distance, and maintains intimacy. The process of the care expression is not intelligent, but controlled by the user far away directly, which is to show the human touch. The care is not from an electrical machine icily, but from the human being who loves you warmly.
Interpersonal interaction for pleasurable service experience BIBAFull-Text 68
  Eun-Ji Cho
The importance of the quality of user experience in service encounter has been acknowledged in different disciplines, including Service Management, Marketing, and Design. However, the focus has been on tangible elements of a service, such as touchpoints, service evidence [21], servicescapes [4]. This paper argues that interpersonal interaction in service encounter plays a significant role in the quality of user experience, therefore should be taken into account into service design process. In particular, this paper pays attention on collaborative services where final users are actively involved, and assume the role of service co-producers.
   To examine elements that facilitate interpersonal interaction in service, case studies on carpooling service were carried out. Based on a framework for sociability developed in interaction design discipline, 12 carpooling services in Europe and United States were analyzed. As opposed to managerial perspective, this paper suggests that the heterogeneity in the service performance, caused by the interaction between participants, is not a threat to the quality of user experience, but an opportunity to make the experience more unique, and special.


Human centered design framework to generate novel ambient intelligence interface solutions BIBAFull-Text 69
  Massimo Botta; Nadia Catenazzi; Lorenzo Sommaruga
The emergent application area of Ambient Intelligence provides new opportunities in the field of social interaction, and new means to conceive and design novel interface solutions for accessing social technologies. The maturity of technologies such as motion tracking, gesture recognition, facial expression and emotion recognition facilitate natural interactions with intelligent environments by providing technology newbies with more inclusive and universal interaction modalities. The workshop proposes the application of a Human Centered Design framework useful to conceive and design novel interface solutions for human activity sharing. Through an iterative process, participants will practice HCD methodologies and techniques and will define visions and concepts for our future life environment. From this workshop, participants will acquire multidisciplinary knowledge related to the Ambient Intelligence area, experiment an iterative process that can be adapted to other research topics, and structure concepts useful to start new investigations and developments.
The elements in design that result in fun products BIBAFull-Text 70
  Irene Kamp; Peter Vink
Human centered design (HCD) is now a familiar concept to most design researchers and practitioners. In recent years the focus has shifted from ease of use to more emotional design; pleasurable experiences (1) and fun products. In 2005 Hancock (2) introduced the term hedonomics building on several scientific researches on pleasure and fun (3, 4).
   Because HCD was mainly focused on usability, a new framework (which includes hedonomics) is proposed. In this interactive workshop, a first draft of the framework is explained. A concise overview of the literature related to the model. The goal is to discuss this model with design researchers and practitioners and to extent it into a usable and complete version. The main focus of the workshop will be on elements in the design process and in products itself, that create fun.
Life 2.0: geographical positioning services to support independent living and social interaction of elderly people BIBAFull-Text 71
  Daria Cantù; Fiammetta Costa; Francesca Rizzo
The workshop proposed aims at reflecting on the practice of co-designing scenarios to develop digital services. The contents providing the basis to the foreseen activities regards the on-going European project Life 2.0 on the topic of the development of geographical positioning services to support independent living and social interaction of elderly people. Moving from the on field and ethnographic research results and analysis in the four partners countries, the activities of the workshop focus on creating a unique articulated scenario merging the pilots specific contributions. During the first day the participants deal with the theme of creating the project scenario with the project stakeholders participation, moving from the involvement of the users since the first phases of the design process. In the second day the business framework of the scenario is collectively defined and discussed using the business model canvas tool [4]. The workshop will elicit specific results in terms of requirements for the digital platform development and knowledge related to the role of design in processes of co-creation.