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DPPI Tables of Contents: 03071113

Proceedings of the 2003 Conference Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces
Editors:Bruce Hanington; Jodi Forlizzi
Location:Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Dates:2003-Jun-23 to 2003-Jun-26
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-58113-652-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DPPI03
Papers:35
Pages:154
  1. Understanding what to design through empathy and emotion
  2. Stigma and the sensorial experience of objects
  3. Building blocks for effective education
  4. Objects of attention, desire, and fulfillment
  5. Reflection on pleasure
  6. Recording experience through images
  7. Methods for empathic design
  8. Posters

Understanding what to design through empathy and emotion

User information for designers: a visual research package BIBAKFull-Text 1-5
  Anu Antikainen; Mirja Kälviäinen; Hugh Miller
In this paper, we describe the development of a flexible, visually-based on-line package, based on free sorting and multi-dimensional scaling to help designers research users' emotional and social responses to designed objects.
Keywords: design and emotion, multidimensional scaling, on-line methods, visual research
Measuring the emotions elicited by office chairs BIBAKFull-Text 6-10
  Karen Reijneveld; Michiel de Looze; Frank Krause; Pieter Desmet
Office chair designers have traditionally focused their design efforts on optimizing the so-called 'ergonomic fit.' Although the effort to design chairs that support physical comfort is commendable, the focus on ergonomics neglects the possible impact of emotional responses on the general experience of comfort. The general experience of comfort experienced when using a chair is not only influenced by the ergonomic fit but also by the 'emotional fit,' i.e. an emotional response that is desired by the user. In this paper, a study is reported that was designed to measure emotional responses evoked by office chair appearance. The study was part of a bigger project concerning attractive and comfortable office chairs. The emotional responses evoked by 15 chairs were measured with the Emocard method, a non-verbal self-report instrument. Some differences were found in the results obtained with the Emocards and those obtained with a standard verbal evaluation method. Although discriminative to some extent, the non-verbal method was found to be less discriminative than the verbal method. In the discussion section, some recommendations for the development of the Emocard method are reported. It is discussed that, given these feasible recommendations, the Emocard method can be a useful tool for office chair designers that want to 'design for an emotional fit'.
Keywords: emotions, non-verbal measurements, office chairs
Affective product shapes through image morphing BIBAKFull-Text 11-16
  Lin-Lin Chen; G. F. Wang; Kun-An Hsiao; Joseph Liang
In this paper, we propose a framework for understanding how product shapes evoke affective responses. For a set of representative product shapes, we first conduct a survey to evaluate the affective characteristics of each product shape. We then compute a spatial configuration that summarizes the affective responses toward the set of shapes, by applying perceptual mapping techniques to the survey data. A series of new product shapes that smoothly interpolate among product shapes are then generated by using image morphing techniques. With data from a followup survey, we inserted the new shapes into the spatial configuration. The trajectory or distribution of the interpolated shapes provides visualization of how affective characteristics change in response to varying shapes. We found the relationship between the shapes and the affective characteristic to be nonlinear and non-uniform.
Keywords: affective design, image morphing, perceptual mapping, product design

Stigma and the sensorial experience of objects

Positive user experience and medical adherence BIBAKFull-Text 17-21
  Daniel M. Gloyd
Nonadherence with medical regimens is a life-threatening problem. This paper discusses how designing positive user experiences can lead to increased patient adherence to medical regimens.
   The importance of positive affect in relationship to medical adherence is well documented within the discipline of Health Psychology. Therefore, when designers are called on to positively shape a user's experience with technology-based medical devices, principles from this body of knowledge can provide a framework for designing products that increase the user's adherence to medical recommendations. From the Health Psychology discipline, Howard Leventhal's Dual Process Model provides a framework for understanding a patient's cognitive and emotional responses to medical advice. From the Design discipline Patrick Jordan's definition of product pleasure contains practical and emotional components. Parallels of these two approaches are discussed as examples of links between the Health Psychology and Design disciplines. Considering these commonalities in approach can help product designers create medical tools that lead to greater adherence.
Keywords: affect, experience design, industrial design, information design, interaction design, medical adherence, medical regimens
A wheelchair can be fun: a case of emotion-driven design BIBAKFull-Text 22-27
  Pieter Desmet; Eva Dijkhuis
In this paper an approach to emotion-driven design is introduced and demonstrated with a children's wheelchair design case. First, emotional responses towards existing wheelchairs have been assessed with a non-verbal self-report instrument. The results of this assessment were transformed to starting points for a new design with the use of a theoretical model of product emotions. With these starting points a new design was created and detailed into a working prototype. In a second study, the emotional impact of the new design was evaluated. It was found that, with respect to the emotional impact, this new design differentiates in a positive way from existing models. In the light of these findings, it is discussed how theoretical and empirical knowledge can assist designers in their attempts to manipulate the emotional impact of their designs.
Keywords: emotion-driven design, non-verbal measurement, wheelchair
The fabric of society: a proposal to investigate the emotional and sensory experience of wearing denim clothing BIBAKFull-Text 28-33
  Fiona Jane Candy
This paper introduces a project that intends to utilise research methods derived from experience within Art and Design, to investigate the sensory and emotional experience of wearing denim clothing in public. The researcher will provide an explanation of context and identify the range of research methods under consideration. The project is based on the premise that as a 21st century mass-produced product, denim typifies the processes inherent within design and commercial culture. Although culturally complex, its current ubiquity and 'ordinariness' make it particularly significant to be used as a model for inquiry into affective qualities in relation to the design of products in general. At the time of writing the project is at the planning stage, but first outcomes are planned for June 2003.
Keywords: denim, design, identity, jeans, material culture, society
People are doing it for themselves BIBAKFull-Text 34-39
  David Weightman; Deana McDonagh
To date, the objective of creating pleasurable products has concentrated on designers articulating and interpreting user needs as part of the product creation process. This paper explores approaches to enable users to adapt, modify, specify or create products to match their needs directly. Using the potential of new technologies, active consumers can now become product creators, paralleling developments in graphics, music and digital media production. Empowered users, self-builders, recreational manufacturers, web-connected silver surfers (retired individuals using the web) and punk manufacturers [1] all exemplify this new relationship between users and products, and the evolving role of designers [2].
Keywords: customisation, democratisation of design, supra-functional needs, user participation

Building blocks for effective education

Archetypal icon and delightful design BIBAKFull-Text 40-44
  Ming-Huang Lin
An archetype is considered to be a recurring image, symbol, or a motif in art, literature, Culture and religion that appeals to instinct, emotion and creative inspiration. This research borrows the view of C. G. Jung in analytical psychology, and Northrop Frye in literary criticism to classify the concept of archetype and practices in design. Besides building up the collection of archetypal designs, it initially divides them into three groups- 'reconstructive archetypes', 'borrowing archetypes' and 'breaking archetypes'. The learning was then applied to education in order to guide student projects, and their outcomes certainly achieved joyful effects and entertained users in varying manners.
Keywords: archetype, delightful, icon, industrial design
Exploring user's emotional relationships with IT products: a structural equation model BIBAKFull-Text 45-50
  Poh Wah Khong; Jing Pu Song
Decades of ergonomics research change the consumers' criteria by which they value and choose an IT product. Compared with the emphasis placed on new functions, reliability, and good after-service in past, emotional response to products has become an important user requirement to improve the customer acceptance in the market. This study develops a model and validates two specific antecedent variables-computer experience and capability-which are hypothesized to be fundamental determinants of users' emotional response to IT products usage. Adding four more variables-such as attitude, belief, end user satisfaction and impact-test the parsimony of the model further. The research data were derived from a questionnaire survey circulated to 618 people in the worldwide and LISREL, a technique for modeling structural equation systems, was used to analyze the responses.
Keywords: IT product, emotional response, structure equation model
When negative emotions effect positive change BIBAKFull-Text 51-54
  Audrey Bennett
This paper introduces emotive aesthetics as visual language that expresses and/or evokes an emotion or a series of emotions from the target audience for a rhetorical purpose. (e.g. persuading them to make a positive change in a life-threatening behaviorial pattern). Historically, political graphics have been popular examples of products that use emotive aesthetics to promote positive social change. However, there's a problem today with the lack of time graphic designers have to devote their skills to the continued development of polemical products. A solution lies in broadening the scope of graphic design into a research discipline by demystifying the graphic design process with a methodological view of its components.
Keywords: emotive aesthetics, graphic design pedagogy, graphic design process, political graphics, social change

Objects of attention, desire, and fulfillment

Interacting with an embodied emotional character BIBAKFull-Text 55-60
  Christoph Bartneck
A salient feature of the ambient intelligent home of the future will be the natural interaction between the home and its inhabitants through speech. An embodied home character is necessary to ensure a natural dialogue by continuously providing intuitive feedback in the form of conversational and emotional body language. This study experimentally investigates the influence of the character's embodiment (screen character and robotic character) and its emotional expressiveness on the enjoyability of the interaction. The presence of emotional expressions significantly increased the enjoyability of the interaction with the robotic character. The embodiment had no significant influence on the enjoyability. However, in the robotic character condition a social facilitation effect and a high forgiveness for speech recognition errors was observed.
Keywords: ambient intelligent home, character, embodied, emotion, enjoyability, robot
Umm and the matchbox: 'the object of desire and the desired object' BIBAKFull-Text 61-66
  Michael R. Dickinson
When Hans Christian Andersen wrote 'The Little Match Girl' [1] he was not writing a product endorsement. Far from it. But we have been left with a glowing example of a product that was affective. The experience may have been fleeting, but the euphoric pleasure experienced by the girl was real. As we explore the notion of pleasure in the designed object we must not forget how much pleasure is context-driven. As designers, we must understand that context is not always in our control; that our designs, like our children, will live their own lives. Pleasure is found when the moment is right, when events align.
   This happens despite our planning and skill, or our analysis and rigour. The message of this paper, wrapped in the style of an Andersen story, looks at the relationship between two objects. One is desired, enjoyed, treasured, and the other an ordinary matchbox. Unwrap at your pleasure.
Keywords: affective, context, design, enjoyment, product design
From seduction to fulfillment: the use of anthropomorphic form in design BIBAKFull-Text 67-72
  Carl DiSalvo; Francine Gemperle
In this paper, we discuss the use of anthropomorphic form in the design of products. We assert that anthropomorphic form is not merely an embellishment but that it can be used as a means of solving design problems. Through a series of examples we illustrate the various uses of anthropomorphic form in the design of products. Our distinctions provide designers and researchers a way to classify and understand the use of anthropomorphic form in design and in doing so, increase the potential that anthropomorphic form be used in an appropriate and compelling manner.
Keywords: anthropomorphism, design, design research, interaction design, product design, robots
XM SKYFi: searching for extreme usability BIBAKFull-Text 73-76
  Clay Burns; Daniel Formosa
The Delphi XM SKYFi satellite radio is the first receiver and radio system of its kind, enabling users to navigate through XM's line-up of 101 digitally beamed channels. Introduced in October 2002, the system is the result of an aggressive nine month development effort between XM Satellite Radio, Smart Design, and Delphi Consumer Electronics. This paper discusses the design process, not in the traditional phase-by-phase sense, but in terms of the fundamental stages and focal points that guided how the project actually happened. Four fundamental stages -- Approach, Vision, Solution, Realization -- further defined by key focal points -- Diverse-Minded Team, Innovate on Access, Primary Elements, and Details, Details -- became the essence of the project, and resulted in substantial innovation for XM and its customers.
Keywords: interface, methodology, usability

Reflection on pleasure

Choreographing obsolescence -- ecodesign: the pleasure/dissatisfaction cycle BIBAKFull-Text 77-81
  Martin Woolley
The paper is an exploration of the concepts of pleasure and dissatisfaction over time, with regard to the design of products. The case is made for a greater understanding of their interrelationships on the part of designers and producers and for analysts and theorists to develop more informed and affective research models and design methods. Shortcomings in the way that products are time-proofed are identified and it is proposed that 'pleasure-over-time' should be extended to parallel and assist in extending the life of products, which should result in more affective design. The primary purpose being to reduce the environmentally destructive effect brought about by the short pleasure/dissatisfaction cycles associated with contemporary, unsustainable patterns of consumption.
Keywords: design methods, life-cycle analysis, product design, sustainability, user centered design, user research
Field of play: sensual interface BIBAKFull-Text 82-86
  Liz C. Throop
Focusing on intuitive, non-expert users as audience yields an interface that maximizes the sensuous features of the desktop environment, including sound, color, and pattern. It fits into a category that is not computer games or graphics software per se, but a kind of art that makes art. Digital activities of this sort can act as a bridge to more analytical aspects of computers.
Keywords: art and technology, computer games -- social aspects, computer graphics -- case studies, interactivity
Competitive advantage through pleasurable products BIBAKFull-Text 87-91
  Wilson Oh; Poh Wah Khong
Firms have realised that establishing competitive advantage is critical to their survival. With Customer requirements having evolved from merely meeting functional requirements and expecting quality, to the present demand for pleasurable features as well, the design of pleasurable products is beginning to take centre stage as firms try to gain competitive advantage through the establishment of strong product demand. While the result of this is very visible, it is important to realise that the application of pleasurable products actually contributes more significantly to a firm's competitive advantage when introduced to the work environment. This is due to improved performance which in turn leads to the development of intellectual products of higher quality, hence sustaining the established competitive advantage.
Keywords: competitive advantage, intellectual capital, intellectual products, intellectual resources, pleasurable products
From perception to experience, from affordances to irresistibles BIBAKFull-Text 92-97
  Kees C. J. Overbeeke; Stephan S. A. G. Wensveen
What is design doing at universities, and organizing conferences on pleasurable products?
Keywords: author's kit, conference publications, guides, instructions

Recording experience through images

Only when miss universe snatches me: teasing in MMS messaging BIBAKFull-Text 98-102
  Esko Kurvinen
When new technology is adopted to everyday life, existing patterns of behavior relevant to the application are transferred to this new media. In this process, some things will also change and evolve.
   This paper takes an empirical look at mobile multimedia messaging. Within this new technological environment I focus on teasing, an established form of social control prevalent also in MMS (Multimedia Messaging Services) Messaging.
   I draw from conversation analysis [15] and ethnomethodology [5]. My analysis describes the sequential structures of teases in MMS messages. I will conclude with discussion on the effects images have on mundane social conduct.
Keywords: 3G, MMS, mobile imaging, multimedia messaging, visual communication
Perceptive sorting: a method for understanding responses to products BIBAKFull-Text 103-108
  Jodi Forlizzi; Francine Gemperle; Carl DiSalvo
Products engender complex experiences that go far beyond aesthetics and ease of use. We believe that by better understanding people's functional and emotional relationships to existing products, we might better understand how to design future products. This paper presents the Perceptive Sorting exercise (PS), a method inspired by the field of visual research to gain responses to product familiarity, product function, and aesthetic considerations. We report on a study using the PS with coffeemakers, watches, and consumer robotic products. The results provided information about how participants assess product attributes, assign value, and tell stories of product use.
Keywords: design research methods, elders, interaction design, product design, robots
Defining co-experience BIBAKFull-Text 109-113
  Katja Battarbee
In the context of design for experience this paper presents a review of existing models of user experience. In response to a prevalent view of experience as something individual, this paper suggests how these models should grow to include social use as well. Examples from a multimedia messaging study are discussed to this end and the concept of co-experience is introduced to take into account the social aspects of user experience and the experiences that users create for themselves with designed artefacts.
Keywords: co-experience, interaction design, user experience

Methods for empathic design

Dancing with a machine: a case of experience-driven design BIBAKFull-Text 114-119
  Paul Hekkert; Marc Mostert; Guido Stompff
For experience-driven design to become an influential design strategy, much effort should be put into method development and elaborate case studies. In the present paper, we present the design of an experiential copier on the basis of an interaction-centred design approach, called ViP. The approach supported us to pre-define the interaction with the machine, in the form of a multi-faceted experience. This experience was translated into a concept design of a copier. The result is a design that affords the intended, rich experience in every design feature: it 'invites you for a dance'.
Keywords: emotion, experience design, interaction, product design
When you can't talk to customers: using storyboards and narratives to elicit empathy for users BIBAKFull-Text 120-125
  Heather L. McQuaid; Aradhana Goel; Mickey McManus
Although an essential part of customer-centered design is the customers themselves, in some circumstances, talking with them is not always an option. What can designers do in such situations to better understand peoples' physical, cognitive, and emotional needs? In this paper, we discuss our attempts to elicit customers' needs and emotions without talking with them. We discuss how we: 1) used customer surrogates (in the form of direct-experience storyboarding, personas and narratives) to understand customers' frustrating and pleasurable experiences with a national, public library; 2) communicated the customer experience to stakeholders and helped them empathize with customers; and 3) relied on the personas and narratives to develop design recommendations.
Keywords: contextual inquiry, direct-experience story-boarding, ethnographic research, human-centered design, information architecture, interdisciplinary, interviews, library, narratives, personas, scenarios, storyboards, task analysis, tiger teams, user-centered design
Observing and probing BIBAKFull-Text 126-131
  Vesa Jääskö; Tuuli Mattelmäki
In this paper, we discuss and compare two user centred methods applied in concept design: observation and probes. The comparison is based on findings from two case studies. In these studies, user data was first inquired and then interpreted by a multidisciplinary design team, in order to support early user centered concept creation phase. The gathered user data and the current understanding of user experience served as a base for this reflection. In order to compare the findings, a framework of user experience qualities was generated from the point of view of concept design.
Keywords: concept design, contextual design, cultural probes, empathic design, observation, user experience, user-centered design

Posters

Modeling the socio-cultural context BIBAKFull-Text 132-133
  Pertti Aula; Janne Pekkala; Jenni Romppainen
It's been noticed that recognizing the end user's needs and expectations are increasingly important factors for creating successful products. In the Mode-project we are studying the socio-cultural context of users and products and developing methods to model it for the use of industrial design and product development. The functionality or usefulness of products is not our main interest, instead we are keen to know what kind of meanings people give to products and what kind of role they have in the social interaction. The starting point for the method development is scenario building. Design scenarios make the context understandable and they can be used as a communication tool during the product development process.
Keywords: context, design method, industrial design, scenario, user-centered design
The impact of affective design of product packaging upon consumer purchase decisions BIBAKFull-Text 134-135
  Cathy Barnes; Christian Southee; Brian Henson
Affective design aims to create a product that has expected levels of functionality and usability but, additionally offers the user a positive emotional experience. Some success has been achieved by using the Kansei engineering approach but this has not been explicitly applied to packaging design.
   This paper reports on the first stages of an Affective Packaging Design research programme and presents the result of experiments that explore the relationships between consumer selection and packaging shape using a combination of questionnaires, focus groups and the semantic differential technique. The stimuli for the experiment were examples of confectionery packaging.
   Results will be presented which indicate relationships between confectionery packaging shape and recipient demographic profile. It is concluded that to inform the design process the study it is important to consider the whole purchase experience, for example, product purchaser, product user and purchase reasons.
Keywords: affective design, packaging design
Understanding affective design in a late-modernity perspective BIBAKFull-Text 136-137
  Mads Bødker; Martin S. Christensen; Anker Helms Jørgensen
This poster discusses the advent of emotional/affective interfaces and key areas of late modernity, and it proposes that there could be said to exist some parallels between the development of computer interface design and the development of society as a whole. The poster suggests that research into social and cultural aspects of design may be conducive to understanding the user in a contemporary societal setting. Consequently, the poster explores why and how theories of modernity matter in understanding the practice of designing affective interfaces.
Keywords: affective design, late-modernity theory
www.a.site.for.things-that.bring.back.memories BIBAKFull-Text 138-139
  Vera Damazio; Pablo Dias
This poster provides an overview of an ongoing dissertation research on the relationship between people and things that bring back memories. Its intention is to present "affective memory" as a promising field of research for affective design and for the questions such as: How can we measure emotional response to products? What theories can be applied to affective design?
Keywords: affective design, emotional response, material culture, social memory
Use of characters and scenarios in gear shift design BIBAKFull-Text 140-141
  Dan Högberg
The employment of the design methods of characters and scenarios in the conceptual design of a gearshift system for future automobiles is presented. The main objective for the project was to provide design suggestions for a gearshift system that people will appreciate in future cars in view of market trends, technology developments and environmental demands. The methods were tested for concept evaluation at a Swedish car component manufacturer. The methods gave rough, but important, indications of possible appreciation and acceptance of design proposals, and assisted consideration of user diversity. This low-cost approach is sufficient for evaluation purposes at early design stages, but may be complemented with more thorough studies if time and money permits.
Keywords: characters, gear shift, product design methods, scenarios
Why we choose the more attractive looking objects: somatic markers and somaesthetics in user experience BIBAKFull-Text 142-143
  Titti Kallio
There is a general growing emphasis on aesthetics in the human-computer interaction field (HCI). I suggest Antonio Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis to be taken as a starting point when we consider how pleasant interfaces do get users to use a service. Damasio describes an automated mechanism where previous experiences leave marks about choices we have made, and how these marks affect our decision-making. I also suggest applying Richard Shusterman's concept of Somaesthetics in the discussions about aesthetic experiences. I suggest that these two disciplines could be included in the further work on aesthetics in the human-computer interactions area.
Keywords: aesthetics, somaesthetics, somatic marker hypothesis, user experience
The visual information load as a parameter for designing pleasurable environment BIBAKFull-Text 144-145
  Marin Katov; Noriaki Nomura; Kuniaki Ito
This paper reports a study on the relation between the informational content of an artificially built environment and the emotional response to this environment. It presents the hypothesis that human response to a visual scene is influenced by the information of the scene and there is a uniform relationship between informational load of an architectural scene and the affective response. The paper defines an estimation function for entropy in a visual scene, then describes an experiment in which observers were asked to indicate their affective response to a computer generated renderings of an architectural interior, manipulated to have varying information on content by addition of textures and furnishing. The computer measured informational load was compared with the subjective evaluations of the respondents, for important interior characteristics like comfort, relaxation and attractiveness. The paper presents proofs that the measurement of the informational load of the scene is a unique characteristic of the given architectural interior.
Keywords: behavior models, design, informational load
The lack of usability in design icons: an affective case Study about Juicy Salif BIBAKFull-Text 146-147
  Beatriz Russo; Anamaria de Moraes
This poster is the first part of a research project about the lack of usability in products with a strong aesthetic appeal. The hypothesis of this research is that products -- Icons, influenced by marketing and admired by consumers for aesthetic priority, have a disabled usability because of the absence of ergonomics approach during the design phase. Here, a short history about the arise of industrial aesthetic is presented, together with a study about product's pleasurability. This research begins with a case study about the lemon squeezer JUICY SALIF, a design icon considered product. Usability tests were applied and analyzed, as questionnaires and comments suggested by admirers through an internet forum.
Keywords: emotions, industrial aesthetic, product design, usability
Sensual surfaces: engaging consumers through surface textures BIBAKFull-Text 148-149
  John Sedgwick; Brian Henson; Cathy Barnes
Research is being carried out at the University of Leeds in collaboration with the Faraday Packaging Partnership that aims to enhance consumers' enjoyment of products by carefully designing the surfaces and textures of the packaging. The aim of the research reported in the poster is to develop a service for the members of the Faraday Packaging Partnership that could inform them of the physical characteristics of the surfaces of their packaging that would enhance the consumers' emotional engagement with their product. The methodology is to characterize the surface textures of the packaging of personal care products and to correlate properties of the surfaces to the emotions evoked from consumers recorded through the use of focus groups and the semantic differential technique. Initial results give us confidence that the semiotic techniques give consistent and valid results for the tactile domain.
Keywords: affective design, kansei engineering, product packaging
A semantic differential study of the influence of aesthetic properties on product pleasure BIBAKFull-Text 150-151
  Zeynep Sevener
In this paper, the influence of the aesthetic properties of products on inducing the feeling of product pleasure on consumers is investigated. In the context of this study, aesthetic properties are considered as a synonym for visual aspects of the products. It is essential to solicit the perspective of a consumer, as different perspectives lead to different perceptions of the same product. The perception about a product is the determining factor for the emotions evoked in the consumer, which will evidently affect the extent of the pleasure. Semantic Differential (SD) method is used in order to examine the evaluation of table-clock samples with dissimilar aesthetic properties. In the SD questionnaire, 14 image-word pairs are employed for the evaluation of 8 table-clock designs, which are presented to 40 subjects. The results indicate that the property 'form' is utterly effective in consumers' perception. The effects of the other aesthetic properties are discussed as well as the classification of the products with respect to the adjectives.
Keywords: aesthetic properties, pleasure, semantic differential method
Exploring the role of emotion in the interaction design of digital music players BIBAKFull-Text 152-153
  John Zimmerman
This paper documents students' interaction designs for digital music players that consider both the emotional quality of interaction as well as usability.
Keywords: affective design, interaction design, music interface