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DHM Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415-115-2

DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management, Part II: Ergonomics and Health

Fullname:DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management, Part II: Ergonomics and Health
Note:Volume 17 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Vincent G. Duffy
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9185
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21070-4 hcibib: DHM15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-21069-8 (print), 978-3-319-21070-4 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Anthropometry and Ergonomics
    2. Motion Modeling and Tracking
    3. Human Modeling in Transport and Aviation
    4. Human Modeling in Medicine and Surgery
    5. Quality in Healthcare

DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Anthropometry and Ergonomics

Estimation of Arbitrary Human Models from Anthropometric Dimensions BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Yui Endo; Mitsunori Tada; Masaaki Mochimaru
In this paper, we describe a novel approach for reconstructing arbitrary whole-body human models from an arbitrary sparse subset of anthropometric dimensions. Firstly, a comprehensive set of dimensions is estimated from the subset via the principal component space for the dimensions. Then, a skin surface model with the obtained comprehensive set of dimensions is constructed by deforming a whole-body human model template. The result is validated based on the error distribution of the dimensions of the obtained surface mesh for the target.
Keywords: Human modeling; Anthropometry
Optimisation of Product's Hand-Handle Interface Material Parameters for Improved Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 15-25
  Gregor Harih; Matej Borovinšek; Zoran Ren
Most authors have focused on the sizes and the shapes of the product handles, but neglected those interface materials of the handles, which could further improve the ergonomics of the product. Therefore we utilized optimisation method to determine optimal interface material properties of a product for optimal mechanical response of the system using numerical simulations of a fingertip model grasping a product's handle. Objective function was set to find material parameters in such way that the interface material of the product stays firm during low grasping forces to provide stability of the product in hands and deforms when a critical contact pressure is reached to provide higher contact area. This increases comfort and lowers the contact pressure on the hand and thereby the risk of injury development.
Keywords: Tool handle; Material design; Optimisation; Ergonomics; Finite element analysis; Contact pressure; Grasp simulation; Hyper-elastic foams
An Approach for Intuitive Visualization of Ergonomic Issues BIBAKFull-Text 26-36
  Walentin Heft; Michael Spitzhirn; Angelika C. Bullinger; Paul Rosenthal
Ergonomics is the science of human work. One goal is the adaption of work to the human, thus to create better working conditions and to avoid health risks. Increasingly often, digital human models and corresponding evaluation methods are used. Due to the mass of data and the variety of possible analyses which come along with a simulation, the interpretation of the outcomes can take a long time. We introduce a new concept, which enables a quick and understandable visualization and navigation of critical ergonomic situations and their causes. There are filter mechanisms available for changing the level of detail. These enable a representation for specific target groups. Prior to the development of the concept, expert interviews were conducted to specify the user requirements. Each iteration step of the design process was evaluated in cooperation with ergonomics experts.
Keywords: Overview and glyph-based visualization; Ergonomics; Concept study
Correlation Analysis on the Main and Basic Body Dimension for Chinese Adults BIBAKFull-Text 37-43
  Hui-min Hu; Chao-yi Zhao; Xin Zhang; Ling-hua Ran; Tai-jie Liu
In this paper, the correlations between the basic and five main body dimensions are studied based on the latest anthropometric data for the Chinese adults. Then the linear regression equations are established, which can provide technical support for optimizing anthropometric measurements. Application of this research finding in anthropometry can effectively reduce the working difficulty, shorten the working hours and cut capital investment. It can help expediting the update of the anthropometric data.
Keywords: Body dimension; Anthropometric data; Correlation; Regression equation
The Experimental Research of the Thumb's Comfortable Control Area BIBAKFull-Text 44-52
  Hui-min Hu; Junmin Du; Chaoyi Zhao; Fan Yang; Ling-hua Ran
Thumb control area is a significant concern for manipulating handheld controllers. In order to obtain the thumb's comfortable control area of Chinese people, experimental measurements were designed and carried out. The measuring parameters included right thumb size, comfortable control area and comfortable control angle range. The data showed that with the increase of control angle (from 0° to 90°), the thumb's comfortable control far-end limit and the near-end limit presented a monotonic increasing tendency. The thumb's comfortable control far-end limit equaled to the thumb length when control angle was about 60°. Combined with the Chinese people hand size database, typical percentiles of thumb sizes were calculated. The results can provide references for handheld controller interface design, especially those for single-handed operations.
Keywords: Thumb control area; Handheld controller; Interface design; Experimental measurement
Study on the Body Shape of Middle-Aged and Old Women for Garment Design BIBAKFull-Text 53-61
  Xiaoping Hu; Yan Zhao
The purpose of this paper is to study and determine the body shape parameters of middle-aged and old women for garment design to satisfy their needs of garment fitness. The body shape of middle-aged and old women who have been more than 50 years of age in North China, were measured by garment specialty students. The measure covered height, shoulder width, bust, waist and hip circumference. The body shape data was collected from 108 different middle-aged and old women fem. And SPSS was used for statistical analysis to reveal the change of body shape about middle-age and old women then find out the issue of size designation and the body shape of middle-age and old women. Under this premise, the difference between chest circumference and abdominal circumference as the research focus. Not only can the study provide data for the costume design of middle-aged and old women, but also provide reference data for tessellate garment size.
Keywords: Middle-aged and old; Female; Physical characteristic; Garment size
Estimating Ergonomic Comfort During the Process of Mechanism Design by Interaction with a Haptic Feedback-System BIBAKFull-Text 62-73
  Thomas Kölling; Michael Krees; Mathias Hüsing; Burkhard Corves
The use of a Haptic Feedback-System (HFS) in the mechanism design process is very promising. The RePlaLink HFS developed at the IGM -- RWTH Aachen University is presented exemplarily. It is a hybrid solution combining a parallel kinematic structure with a small serial actuator in the tool-center. Therefore it is quiet powerful and still agile. Several scenarios of implementation of hand-activated motion are shown. Moreover the way of estimating the operator's ergonomic comfort and particularly, the advantage of human posture scoring techniques are discussed in detail. Finally, it is illustrated how this HFS can be used as a process driven tool for the superior design process. The simulation capabilities and the haptic real-time display in combination with special knowledge databases concerning the mechanism design and testing are a powerful enhancement for novel as well as senior design engineers. The common work flow can basically be changed, newly arranged and improved.
Keywords: Mechanism design; Ergonomics/human factor; Haptic feedback; Virtual prototyping; Simultaneous engineering
The Role of Virtual Ergonomic Simulation to Develop Innovative Human Centered Products BIBAKFull-Text 74-83
  Daniele Regazzoni; Caterina Rizzi; Giorgio Colombo
The paper concerns the use of integrated methodologies and tools to perform innovative human centered development of products. Digital simulation of ergonomics by means of DHM is shown together with advanced tools for design, taking into account Knowledge-based systems, Design Automation and design of highly customized goods. Two different applications of the proposed approach are described, the first refers to an industrial product, the second to the medical domain. Both applications, even if belonging to completely different fields benefit from putting the human at the center of the developing paradigm from the very first step of product development. Some results and discussion highlight benefits and limitation of the approach and of the adopted tools.
Keywords: Digital human modeling; Ergonomics; Human centered design; Design Automation; Knowledge-based systems; Lower limb prosthesis
Anthropometric Casualty Estimation Methodologies BIBAKFull-Text 84-91
  Daniel Rice; Medhat Korna
The design of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for force protection is critical to soldier survivability and effectiveness for a range of combat operations. This ongoing research project will support US Army technology priorities for force protection through the research and development of new approaches for analyzing fit and form of PPE, specifically body armor systems, to better account for a range of individual body shape differences and enhance protection. By leveraging high-resolution digital 3D scans and building on existing models, this project will provide improved analysis capabilities to scientists engaged in the design of current and future PPE systems. This paper describes the ongoing research and development process for the creation of a methodology to study PPE fit and form and describes potential technological solutions and integration into existing systems.
Keywords: Anthropometry; Body armor; Personal protective equipment; Casualty estimation; Force protection
Experimental Study on Grip Ergonomics of Manual Handling BIBAKFull-Text 92-99
  Ai-ping Yang; Guang Cheng; Wen-yu Fu; Hui-min Hu; Xin Zhang; Chau-Kuang Chen
Improper design for the grip structure will lead to inefficient operation or work injuries. The study purpose was to simulate the shape, size, and position of a gripping structure by using a 30 kg rectangular box as a heavy object, to enhance the health and comfort for an operator. Ergonomic evaluation experiments for grip structural factors were performed by samples testing and virtual simulation methods for operational tasks. Research methods and results in this study have some reference meanings and guidance for the man-machine adaptation design regarding the shape, size, and location of manual handling gripping structure of products, supplies and equipment.
Keywords: Grip ergonomics; Samples testing; Virtual simulation; Manual handling; Man-Machine adaptation
Moment Analysis of Virtual Human Joint Based on JACK BIBAKFull-Text 100-109
  Qianxiang Zhou; Qingsong Yin; Zhongqi Liu; Fang Xie; Shihua Zhou
The purpose of this study is to explore the torque size of the joints of the ankle, knee, and hip under the static posture of car driving when an external force is exerted to the low limb joint. Twenty five anthropometric parameters of ten participants were sampled. The personalized digital model of ten participants was set up with sampled anthropometric data in the senior digital modeling of JACK. By simulating the driving posture and using the static strength prediction module of JACK, external force was imposed on front foot to calculate moment of low limb joint when the degree of ankle joint and knee joint was changed. The results indicated that the moment of knee joint and ankle joint produced by external force gradually decrease with the increase of ankle joint angle and the rate of decrease was faster and faster. The moment of hip joint gradually decreased with the increase of ankle joint angle and the decrease amplitude was uniform and linear trend. The moment of ankle joint monotonously increase with the increase of knee joint angle and the increase rate was slower and slower. The moment of knee joint first decreased and then increased with the increase of knee joint angle and the moment of knee was minimum when the angle of knee joint is 110°. The moment of hip joint gradually increased and made a linear increase with the increase of knee joint angle. The results calculated by JACK were compared to the data measured by Primus RS system and their results were consistent. Conclusions can be made from the result: the drivers can properly increase their ankle joint angle or decrease their knee joint angle, so as to reduce the low limb joints torque produced by external force imposed on foot because of braking; it is suggested that 108° to 113°of knee joint angle is the best.
Keywords: Human digital model; Lower limb joint moment; Driving posture; Computer simulation

Motion Modeling and Tracking

Parameter Estimation from Motion Tracking Data BIBAKFull-Text 113-121
  Csaba Antonya; Silviu Butnariu; Horia Beles
User tracking for gesture recognition, object manipulation and finger-based interaction within an immersive virtual environment represents challenging problems. The motion capture system is providing the data for the user's motion recognition, but the uncertainty remains in obtaining the exact motion of the user due to the deformations, especially when the markers are attached to the clothes or to the skin. This paper address the question how can this uncertainty be solved, how can be obtained the geometrical parameters of the users based on tracking data. The tracking data obtained from markers cannot be independent and had to satisfy the physical constraint between the different body parts, represented by the joints of the human skeleton. The Bayesian filtering technique provides an efficient way to obtain the distributional estimate of the unknown parameters. The obtained algorithm is well-suited to identifying parameters of articulated models in the presence of noisy data.
Keywords: Parameter estimation; Uncertainty; Tracking
Body Tracking as a Generative Tool for Experience Design BIBAKFull-Text 122-133
  Monica Bordegoni; Serena Camere; Giandomenico Caruso; Umberto Cugini
Beyond ergonomic measurements, the study of human movements can help designers in exploring the rich, non-verbal communication of users' perception of products. This paper explores the ability of human gestures to express subjective experiences and therefore, to inform the design process at its early stages. We will investigate the traditional techniques used in the Experience Design domain to observe human gestures, and propose a method to couple Experience-driven design approach with Motion Capture technique. This will allow integrating qualitative user observations with quantitative and measurable data. However, the richness of information that Motion Capture can retrieve is usually inaccessible for designers. This paper presents a method to visualize human motion data so that designers can make sense of them, and use them as the starting point for concept generation.
Keywords: Motion Capture; Body Tracking; Concept design; User experience; Data visualization
Modeling and Simulating Lifting Task of Below-Knee Amputees BIBAKFull-Text 134-143
  Yan Fu; Shiqi Li; Qian Chen; Wei Zhou
Lifting is a common activity to below-knee amputees (BKA) in occupational and living occasions. Appropriate lifting posture is crucial to physical safety and health to those BKAs. Often healthy parts of BKAs might be hurt due to extra and asymmetric force exertion compensating for deficiency of disabled body parts. To prevent further hurt, a validated biomechanical model describing lifting is essential to analyze lifting behavior of those handicapped. In this study, twelve BKAs were recruited to lift 45 N weights from the floor. Subjects are asked to lift three levels of weights (0 N, 30 N, 60 N) by two postures: squat lifting and stoop lifting. Twelve non-BKAs were recruited as comparison group to study the variance caused by disability. Calculated forces based on Anybody were compared with EMG signals of body parts on spine and thigh. A framework of three-level constraints models were applied to adjust the difference between calculated forces and EMGs and the results validate the model.
Keywords: Below-knee; Amputees; Lifting; Modeling
Real-Time Static Gesture Recognition for Upper Extremity Rehabilitation Using the Leap Motion BIBAKFull-Text 144-154
  Shawn N. Gieser; Angie Boisselle; Fillia Makedon
Cerebral Palsy is a motor disability that occurs in early childhood. Conventional therapy methods have proven useful for upper extremity rehabilitation, but can lead to non-compliance due to children getting bored with the repetition of exercises. Virtual reality and game-like simulations of conventional methods have proven to lead to higher rates of compliance, the patient being more engaged during exercising, and yield better performance during exercises. Most games are good at keeping players engaged, but does not focus on exercising fine motor control functions. In this paper, we present an analysis of classification techniques for static hand gestures. We also present a prototype of a game-like simulation of matching static hand gestures in order to increase motor control of the hand.
Keywords: Gesture recognition; Leap motion; Upper extremity rehabilitation; Gamification; Cerebral palsy
Experience Factors Influence on Motion Technique of "The Way of Tea" by Motion Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 155-163
  Soutatsu Kanazawa; Tomoko Ota; Zelong Wang; Thodsaratpreeyakul Wiranpaht; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, the difference technique of motion and process for "The way of tea" on were investigated. The expert and beginner's motion and trace were captured by High-speed camera system. In order to verify the correct motion technique, a tea master and three people were employed as expert and beginner, and two kinds of motion techniques and moving tracks were summarized and compared during the whole tea making process. The expert' motion can be considered as a good reference.
Keywords: The way of tea; Tea whisk; Bubble form; Japanese tea
Study of Caregiver's Waist Movement Comparison Between Expert and Non-expert During Transfer Care BIBAKFull-Text 164-173
  Mengyuan Liao; Takashi Yoshikawa; Akihiko Goto; Yoshihiro Mizutani; Tomoko Ota; Hiroyuki Hamada
As well know that caregivers employed in elderly nursing home suffer from low-back injuries/pain at a terrible rate worldwide, however there is little studies focusing on visual analysis of care works difference conducted by expert and non-expert caregivers. In current study, a 'hypothesis' elder was employed in both expert and non-expert caregiver's handling tasks. And two caregivers with different experience years were selected as subjects named as expert and non-expert, which were required to perform transfer care process for the same elder object. With three-dimensional motion analysis, non-expert's back pain cause was explained by waist up-down and horizontal plane movement, waist roundness, lower back bend angle and waist joint angle comparison to expert performance quantitatively. As a result, it could be concluded that expert kept straight upper body and stable waist motion in a smaller range during transfer care process which was considered as effective waist movement for back pain prevention in intensive heavy care works.
Keywords: Caregiver; Waist movement; Transfer care; Nursing home
Effect of Care Gesture on Transfer Care Behavior in Elderly Nursing Home in Japan BIBAKFull-Text 174-183
  Mengyuan Liao; Takashi Yoshikawa; Akihiko Goto; Tomoko Ota; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, care gesture effect on elder transfer care behavior between bed and wheelchair was investigated. A 'hypothesis' elder (a 80 kg co-operative female with 15 years of care occupation experience, assumed that the lower half body is paralyzed) was employed in both expert and non-expert caregiver's handling tasks. Both expert and non-expert's care gestures during transfer care process (hold up, turning, lower down) were recorded by three-dimensional motion capture system. In order to extract expert and non-expert care gesture's feature difference, motion analysis of caregiver's body exertions was also summarized by body gravity movement track, knee's flexion/extension, low-back bending situation. As a result, it could be concluded that expert master optimal care gesture to accomplish the transfer care work with reduced body loading and limited energy by taking full advantage of lower half body exertion.
Keywords: Care gesture; Transfer care; Nursing home
Balancing Power Consumption and Data Analysis Accuracy Through Adjusting Sampling Rates: Seeking for the Optimal Configuration of Inertial Sensors for Power Wheelchair Users BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Tao Liu; Chuanwei Chen; Melicent King; Gang Qian; Jicheng Fu
Smartphones have already been used to capture wheelchair maneuvering data to analyze a wheelchair user's activity level, which is directly related to his/her quality of life. Typically, the inertial sensors (e.g., accelerometer and gyroscope) in a smartphone are used for data collection. However, the limited battery life of the smartphone has become a major barrier to effective data collection. The sampling rate, as a primary configurable parameter of an inertial sensor, may have important impact on power consumption. Presumably, a lower sampling rate would consume less battery power. However, it may compromise the accuracy of data analysis. In this study, we investigate how the sampling rate of inertial sensors impacts the battery power consumption as well as the accuracy of data analysis. The four pre-defined sampling rate settings of the Android OS were evaluated for their impact on the smartphone's power consumption. Additionally, we also measured the accuracy differences of the four sampling settings by comparing the sensor data-derived wheelchair maneuvering distances with the actual distances. The experimental results showed that it is possible and practical to balance the power consumption and data analysis accuracy by switching between appropriate sampling rate settings.
Keywords: Smartphone; Inertial sensors; Power wheelchair; Power consumption; Sampling rate
MoCap-Based Adaptive Human-Like Walking Simulation in Laser-Scanned Large-Scale as-Built Environments BIBAKFull-Text 193-204
  Tsubasa Maruyama; Satoshi Kanai; Hiroaki Date
Accessibility evaluation to enhance accessibility and safety for the elderly and disabled is increasing in importance. Accessibility must be assessed not only from the general standard aspect but also in terms of physical and cognitive friendliness for users of different ages, genders, and abilities. Human behavior simulation has been progressing in crowd behavior analysis and emergency evacuation planning. This research aims to develop a virtual accessibility evaluation by combining realistic human behavior simulation using a digital human model (DHM) with as-built environmental models. To achieve this goal, we developed a new algorithm for generating human-like DHM walking motions, adapting its strides and turning angles to laser-scanned as-built environments using motion-capture (MoCap) data of flat walking. Our implementation quickly constructed as-built three-dimensional environmental models and produced a walking simulation speed sufficient for real-time applications. The difference in joint angles between the DHM and MoCap data was sufficiently small. Demonstrations of our environmental modeling and walking simulation in an indoor environment are illustrated.
Keywords: Walking simulation; Laser-scanning; Accessibility evaluation; Motion capture
Electromyography Measurement of Workers at the Second Lining Pounding Process for Hanging Scrolls BIBAKFull-Text 205-215
  Yasuhiro Oka; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hisanori Yuminaga; Kozo Oka
Hanging scrolls are a traditional Japanese form of binding and displaying artwork or calligraphy. The scrolls are rolled up from the bottom up and stored in a box, or hung on a wall for display. It is important for the scroll to be able to roll up smoothly without causing any creases when on display. Several layers of Japanese washi paper attached to the back of the scroll make these two functions possible. Wheat starch glue, a weak form of adhesive used to fortify the back, is combined with a technique called "pounding" with the use of a pounding brush, to promote adhesion. In this research, we attached an electromyograph on two subjects -- an expert and non-expert binder -- to study the movement of their muscles in 9 locations when pounding. Results of this study are expected to help contribute to the acquisition of the binding technique.
Keywords: Electromyograph; Hanging scroll; Pounding brush; Aged glue
EMG Activity of Arms Muscles and Body Movement During Chucking in Lathebetween Expert and Non-expert BIBAKFull-Text 216-226
  Porakoch Sirisuwan; Hisanori Yuminaga; Takashi Yoshikawa; Hiroyuki Hamada
The subjects were three men differential experience of lathe processing such as 87,500 h, 6,300 h and 384 h on 87, 32 and 40 years old respectively. The attendees were affixed fourteen reflective markers for motion analysis and ten surface electrodes on the muscles of arms. The chucking movement did not leaned the body and used the center of the body to be a center of movement characterized the muscle contraction of expert on bilateral muscle of Flexor carpi radialis and Triceps bracii and then they still used the right Extensor carpi radialis longus, right Biceps brachii and left Deltoid. The abnormal twisting movement by bending the body to the left side and leaned the left knee down indicated the experts still contracted the muscle as like the first movement. The muscle energy usages of the experts had higher than the non-expert whom took a muscle continuously contraction along time.
Keywords: Arms muscles contraction; Center of gravity movement; Body twisting movement; Chucking movement
Process Analysis of the Hand Lay-Up Method Using CFRP Prepreg Sheets BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
  Toshikazu Uchida; Hiroyuki Hamada; Koji Kuroda; Atsushi Endo; Masakazu Migaki; Junpei Ochiai; Tadashi Uozumi; Akihiko Goto
The autoclave molding method is performed by stacking CFRP prepreg sheets in a mold; this method is widely used in airplanes and by the automobile industry. Most three-dimensional-shaped parts are manually produced by the hand lay-up stacking sequence method. Because of this, mechanical properties such as shape accuracy and strength vary depending on the worker's skill. This is the major issue when tackling the difficulty of quality control in hand lay-up molded products. In order to alleviate these quality management difficulties, ideally, all workers are provided operation manuals and obtain the sufficient skills to prevent individual differences from occurring in the hand lay-up process. In this study, we aim to establish qualification criteria and standardize the work process of this method. We discuss how the differences in the hand lay-up work process influence the mechanical performance of molded products, based on the workers' skill.
Keywords: Hand Lay-Up; CFRP; Modulus; Tensile strength; Process analysis; Mechanical performance

Human Modeling in Transport and Aviation

Hybrid BFO-PSO and Kernel FCM for the Recognition of Pilot Performance Influenced by Simulator Movement Using Diffusion Maps BIBAKFull-Text 239-247
  Jia Bo; Yin-Bo Zhang; Lu Ding; Bi-Ting Yu; Qi Wu; Shan Fu
This paper proposed a novel data reduction and classification method to analyze high-dimensional and complicated flight data. This method integrated diffusion maps and kernel fuzzy c-means algorithm (KFCM) to recognize two types of simulator modes at different tasks. To optimize the unknown parameters of the KFCM, a hybrid bacterial foraging oriented (BFO) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm was also presented in this paper. This algorithm increased the possibility of finding the optimal values within a short computational time and avoided to be trapped in the local minima. By using the proposed approach, this paper obtained meaningful clusters respecting the intrinsic geometry of the standard data set, and illustrated the phenomenon that the pilots vestibular influenced pilot performance and control system under the Manual departure task.
Keywords: Flight simulator; Vestibular; Diffusion maps; Bacterial foraging oriented; Particle swarm optimization; Kernel fuzzy c-means algorithm
A Bi-level Optimization Approach to Get an Optimal Combination of Cost Functions for Pilot's Arm Movement: The Case of Helicopter's Flying Aid Functions with Haptic Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 248-257
  Sami Cheffi; Thomas Rakotomamonjy; Laurent Binet; Philippe Bidaud; Jean Christophe Sarrazin
Force cueing and active control technology hold great opportunities in the next generation of helicopters. The overall goal would be to reduce the pilot workload and increase the situational awareness In this paper we present an approach to help in designing such forces through the understanding of human motor control and the relation that could be established with piloting an aircraft precisely pilot's arm movement. This method is based on the comprehension of the optimality criteria (cost functions and their weightings) within inverse optimal control combined with Fitt's experiment using an active side stick.
Keywords: Cost functions; Inverse optimal control; Pilot's arm movement; Fitt's law
Development of a 3D Finite Element Model of the Chinese 50th Male for the Analysis of Automotive Impact BIBAKFull-Text 258-265
  Hui-min Hu; Li Ding; Xianxue Li; Chaoyi Zhao; Yan Yin
Occupant thoracic and abdominal injury during automotive crashes accounts for the biggest portion of all automotive injuries which is about 45 percent. So it's important to improve the vehicle's protective performance which leads to the high demand for crash test dummy. At present, crash test dummies are used in automotive impact in order to design and assess new vehicle safety performance. Hybird III I is widely used in the world and it's same in China. However Hybird III doesn't meet the Chinese anthropology which the Hybird III is bigger than Chinese. So it's in urgent need to establish the crash test dummy for Chinese. In this study, a finite element dummy with thorax and abdomen which is consistent with the 50th percentile Chinese male in order to predict the mechanism response of Chinese occupant during automotive impact and improve the impact automotive safety specifically for Chinese is developed.
Keywords: Finite element; Chest; Abdomen; Impact; Automobile
Biomechanical Analysis of Human Thorax and Abdomen During Automotive Impact BIBAKFull-Text 266-273
  Hui-min Hu; Li Ding; Xianxue Li; Chaoyi Zhao; Yan Yin
Injuries incurred to occupant during automotive frontal crashes range from every part of the human body, and especially for the thorax and abdomen. It's indeed to learn more about the impact biomechanical mechanism of human body in order to improve the impact safety of vehicles to protect the occupant. In this study, a previously developed finite model of Chinese 50th percentile male thorax and abdomen is used to study the biomechanical response under frontal impact. The stress-time, strain-time characteristics are analyzed. Quantitative results such deflection curve are obtained and indicate that the 6.7 m/s frontal impact leads to large deflection and stress which will damage the ribs, lungs and other organs. Since the experimental study with human cadavers is difficult to proceed, this finite element model based on the anthropometric data from Chinese 50th percentile male can be used to analyze the biomechanical response during automotive impact in order to improve the automotive impact safety.
Keywords: Biomechanical response; Automobile; Impact; Finite element
Toward a Model for Effective Human-Automation Interaction: The Mediated Agency BIBAFull-Text 274-283
  Kevin Le Goff; Arnaud Rey; Bruno Berberian
In our increasingly technological world, automation largely improved some aspects of our life. Nonetheless, automation can also have negative consequences. Indeed, operators seem often helpless to takeover an automated system in case of failure. This "out-of-the-loop" problem occurs when operator is unable to understand the intentions and to predict the outcome of actions of the system, causing a decrease of control. The following article illustrates how the psychological approach of agency can help (1) to better understand this OOTL performance problem and (2) to propose design principles to improve human machine interaction in case of system automation.
Semantically Integrated Human Factors Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 284-294
  Sebastien Mamessier; Daniel Dreyer; Matthias Oberhauser
This work presents a modern approach to Human Factors Engineering enabling integrated simulation and human evaluation of early prototypes of flight deck systems in a immersive environment. The presented approach introduces pragmatic considerations regarding cognitive engineering frameworks such as Cognitive Work Analysis and Hierarchical Analysis for practical use with computational system simulations, laying down the foundation for efficient, quantitative Human Factors analysis in early product design phases. This principle is further demonstrated through a decentralized implementation leveraging the advantages of semantically connecting an immersive Virtual Reality environment with system simulations and semi-automated human factor analysis modules.
Keywords: Human factors; Cognitive engineering; Virtual reality; Semantics
Single-Variable Scenario Analysis of Vehicle-Pedestrian Potential Crash Based on Video Analysis Results of Large-Scale Naturalistic Driving Data BIBAKFull-Text 295-304
  Renran Tian; Lingxi Li; Kai Yang; Feng Jiang; Yaobin Chen; Rini Sherony
Vehicle-pedestrian crashes are big concerns in transportation safety, and it is important to study the vehicle-pedestrian crash scenarios in order to facilitate the development and evaluation of pedestrian crash mitigation systems. Many researchers have tried to investigate the pedestrian crash scenarios relying on crash databases or pedestrian behavior prediction models, both of which have some limitations like limited generalizability of the results, missing of important information, biased results. In this study, we propose to study the potential crash scenarios as one surrogate targets of the actual pedestrian crash scenarios. Extended from several previous studies, one single-variable scenario analysis is completed based on the video analysis results of one large-scale naturalistic driving data collection focusing on recording pedestrian behaviors in all kinds of situations. Through calculating potential conflict rates and applying chi-square tests for around 40 attributes from 12 scenario variables individually, this study has found out that number of pedestrians, pedestrian moving speed, pedestrian moving direction, vehicle moving direction, road type, road location, and existence of road separator/median are all important scenario variables for potential pedestrian-vehicle crashes.
Keywords: Naturalistic driving data collection; Pedestrian crash; Potential crash scenarios; Video analysis; Pedestrian behavior modeling
Driving-Behavior Monitoring Using an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) BIBAKFull-Text 305-312
  Calvin Zheng; Andreina Breton; Wajeeh Iqbal; Ibaad Sadiq; Elsayed Elsayed; Kang Li
Abnormal driving behaviors have been used as cues to identify Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) drivers and prevent DWI-related accidents. Currently law enforcement officials rely on visual observation for detecting such behaviors and identify potentially DWI drivers. This approach however, is subject to human error and limited to vehicles in a very small region. To overcome these limitations, we propose to use an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) for driving-behavior monitoring to prevent accidents and promote highway safety. A high-resolution optical camera on the UAS is used to capture the movement of vehicles on the road. The vehicle trajectories are tracked from the captured videos to identify the misbehaviors. This allows for a quicker response time from law enforcement. A risk model is also developed for analyzing the severity of misbehaviors while providing a basis to take appropriate action to reduce dangerous activity. We developed a UAS prototype to showcase the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed system. It was demonstrated that dangerous driving activity on highways can be effectively and timely detected and analyzed.
Keywords: Driving behavior monitoring; Unmanned aircraft system; Driving safety

Human Modeling in Medicine and Surgery

A Mobile Application for the Stereoacuity Test BIBAFull-Text 315-326
  Silvia Bonfanti; Angelo Gargantini; Andrea Vitali
The research paper concerns the development of a new mobile application emulating measurements of stereoacuity using Google Cardboard. Stereoacuity test is based on binocular vision that is the skill of human beings and most animals to recreate depth sense in visual scene. Google Cardboard is a very low cost device permitting to recreate depth sense of images showed on the screen of a smartphone. Proposed solution exploits Google Cardboard to recreate and manage depth sense through our mobile application that has been developed for Android devices. First, we describe the research context as well as the aim of our research project. Then, we introduce the concept of stereopsis and technology used for emulating stereoacuity test. Finally, we portray preliminary tests made so far and achieved results are discussed.
Automatic Identification of Below-Knee Residuum Anatomical Zones BIBAKFull-Text 327-335
  Giorgio Colombo; Giancarlo Facoetti; Caterina Rizzi; Andrea Vitali
The research work presented in this paper is part of an innovative framework that deals with the design process of lower limb prostheses. The quality of the whole prosthesis depends on the comfort of the socket, which realizes the interface between the patient body and the mechanical parts. We developed a CAD system, named Socket Modelling Assistant that guides the user during the design of the socket, exploiting domain knowledge and design rules. In this work we present a preliminary study that describes the implementation of a software module able to automatically identify the critical areas of the residuum to adequately modify the socket model and reach the optimal shape. Once the critical areas have been identified, the Socket Modelling Assistant can apply proper geometry modifications, in order to create the load and off-load zones for a good pressure distribution over the residual limb.
Keywords: Lower limb prosthesis; Neural network; Prostheses socket; CAD
Visual Comparison of 3D Medical Image Segmentation Algorithms Based on Statistical Shape Models BIBAKFull-Text 336-344
  Alexander Geurts; Georgios Sakas; Arjan Kuijper; Meike Becker; Tatiana von Landesberger
3D medical image segmentation is needed for diagnosis and treatment. As manual segmentation is very costly, automatic segmentation algorithms are needed. For finding best algorithms, several algorithms need to be evaluated on a set of organ instances. This is currently difficult due to dataset size and complexity.
   In this paper, we present a novel method for comparison and evaluation of several algorithms that automatically segment 3D medical images. It combines algorithmic data analysis with interactive data visualization. A clustering algorithm identifies regions of common quality across the segmented data set for each algorithm. The comparison identifies best algorithms per region. Interactive views show the algorithm quality.
   We applied our approach to a real-world cochlea dataset, which was segmented with several algorithms. Our approach allowed segmentation experts to compare algorithms on regional level and to identify best algorithms per region.
Keywords: Medical image segmentation; Visual comparison; Visual analytics; Segmentation evaluation
Analyzing Requirements Using Environment Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 345-357
  Dominique Méry; Neeraj Kumar Singh
Analysing requirements is a major challenge in the area of safety-critical software, where requirements quality is an important issue to build a dependable critical system. Most of the time, any project fails due to lack of understanding of user needs, missing functional and non-functional system requirements, inadequate methods and tools, and inconsistent system specification. This often results from the poor quality of system requirements. Based on our experience and knowledge, an environment model has been recognized to be a promising approach to support requirements engineering to validate a system specification. It is crucial to get an approval and feedback in early stage of system development to ensure completeness and correctness of requirements specification. In this paper, we propose a method for analysing system requirements using a closed-loop modelling technique. A closed-loop model is an integration of system model and environment model, where both the system and environment models are formalized using formal techniques. Formal verification of the closed-loop model helps to identify missing system requirements or new emergent behaviours, which are not covered earlier during the requirements elicitation process. Moreover, an environment model assists in the construction, clarification, and validation of the given system requirements.
Keywords: Environment modelling; Closed-loop modelling; Analysing requirements; Verification
Modeling of a Virtual Open Platform for Human Cranium Simulation BIBAKFull-Text 358-366
  Pedro Perestrelo; Maurício Torres; Pedro Noritomi; Jorge Silva
To prevent, detect and treat trauma brain injuries (TBI) one must understand them and know how they occur. With the integration of biomechanical and clinical theories, as well as research cases, a new era of cooperation must be initiated. For that reason, our proposal of developing a virtual platform based on the BioCAD protocol through computed tomography (CT) software, computer aided design (CAD) software and finite element method (FEM) analysis software, represents a joined effort in that direction. Results obtained with the resultant model were in line with maxillary expansion results from the literature, thus validating it. This model must be adaptable to the user and/or patient, leading to an innovative tool for research, prevention and treatment of TBI.
Keywords: BioCAD; Brain; Finite element method; Simulation; Trauma
Influence of Proficiency on Eye Movement of the Surgeon for Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy BIBAKFull-Text 367-373
  Hisanori Shiomi; Masamori Notsu; Tomoko Ota; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this study, a training system of laparoscopic cholecystectomy combined surgical instrument simulation and eye movement analysis was established. The surgical tool usage also was recorded by video cameras during the whole training process. The eye track information and utilization information of surgical tool were provided to interns as a study reference. The expert's information also was showed to interns in order to make a comparison after practice. The system had been shown to be effective in a variety of practices.
Keywords: Eye movement; Laparoscopic cholecystectomy; Surgeon; Expert; Non-expert
Formalizing the Cardiac Pacemaker Resynchronization Therapy BIBAKFull-Text 374-386
  Neeraj Kumar Singh; Mark Lawford; Thomas S. E. Maibaum; Alan Wassyng
For many years, formal methods have been used to design and develop critical systems in order to guarantee safety and security and the correctness of desired behaviours, through formal verification and validation techniques and tools. The development of high confidence medical devices such as the cardiac pacemaker, is one of the grand challenges in the area of verified software that need formal reasoning and proof-based development. This paper presents an example of how we used previous experience in developing a cardiac pacemaker using Event-B, to build an incremental proof-based development of a new pacemaker that uses Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT), also known as biventricular pacing or multisite pacing. In this work, we formalized the required behaviours of CRT including timing constraints and safety properties. We formalized the system using Event-B, and made use of the included Rodin tools to check the internal consistency with respect to safety properties, invariants and events. The system behaviours of the proven model were validated through the use of the ProB model checker.
Keywords: Pacemaker resynchronization therapy; Event-B; Refinement; Formal methods; Verification; Validation
Stepwise Formal Modelling and Reasoning of Insulin Infusion Pump Requirements BIBAKFull-Text 387-398
  Neeraj Kumar Singh; Hao Wang; Mark Lawford; Thomas S. E. Maibaum; Alan Wassyng
An insulin infusion pump (IIP) is a critical software-intensive medical device that infuses insulin satisfying patient needs under safety and timing constraints that are appropriate for the treatment of diabetes. This device is used by millions of people around the world. The USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reported several recalls in which IIP failures were responsible for a large number of serious illnesses and deaths. The failures responsible for this harm to people who are dependent on external insulin were caused by the introduction of hardware or software design errors during the system development process. This paper presents an incremental proof-based development of an IIP. We use the Event-B modelling language to formalize the given system requirements. Further, the Rodin proof tools are used to verify the correctness of functional behaviour, internal consistency checking with respect to safety properties, invariants and events.
Keywords: Insulin Infusion Pump (IIP); Event-B; Refinement; Formal methods; Verification; Validation

Quality in Healthcare

Later Life: Living Alone, Social Connectedness and ICT BIBAKFull-Text 401-412
  Alma L. Culén
The paper presents a qualitative, interview-based study that seeks to describe participants' perceptions and experiences with information and communication technology. The participants in the study were active people, aged 67 and over, who live alone in an urban setting. Interactionist theory of loneliness was used to guide the inquiry, in particular regarding the perception of the relation between the quality and quantity of connections, loneliness, and technology. A set of visual tools such as communication maps and cards were made to aid reflections and associations during interviews.
Keywords: Loneliness; Social connectedness; Communication technology; Elderly
Effective Design of Traditional Japanese Tea Ceremony in a Group Home for the Elderly with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 413-422
  Teruko Doi; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
Our group home is based on the following concept: "With the collaboration of medical treatment and nursing care, we make it our goal to have everyone smile every day and live life in accordance with their true selves." There are many ways of inducing smiles, and one of them is providing recreation rooted in Japanese traditional culture. We arrange events according to the season. In this way we seek to arrange the environment and offer an individualized care plan for the care of elderly persons with dementia whom we make every effort to support every day. As dementia progresses, it becomes impossible to maintain relationships or to remember one's past. Vexation and antagonistic attitudes become prominent due to anxiety, and communicating becomes problematic. But we have discovered that elderly persons with dementia change through participation in a traditional Japanese tea ceremony, recovering their smiles and their dignity. The tea ceremony is a tool enabling them to concentrate and share information with staff. This record shows the gradual introduction of tea ceremony at our group home.
Keywords: Japanese traditional culture; Dementia care
A Collaborative Change Experiment: Diagnostic Evaluation of Telecare for Elderly Home Dwellers BIBAKFull-Text 423-434
  Suhas Govind Joshi; Anita Woll
This paper presents the diagnostic evaluation of a longitudinal collaborative change experiment that introduces telecare as a means for delivery of home care service to elderly home dwellers. The television is used as platform for delivery of care services from the home care nurses office to the private homes of the elderly home dwellers. We have included 34 participants in three sessions with evaluation and we use the results from the diagnostic evaluation to discuss how we can optimize the design of remote care in real environment. Our main findings concentrate on contextual factors that made impact on experienced usability issues, including timing and unstable network connection, complexity, and privacy and trust. In our study, we found that telecare is not for every elderly home dweller as it requires a high degree of functional capability in order to be experienced as appropriate and useful for the elderly users.
Keywords: Diagnostic evaluation; Usability issues; Elderly; Home telecare; Collaborative change experiment
A Mobile Visual Diary for Personal Pain Management BIBAKFull-Text 435-440
  Tor-Morten Grønli; Gheorghita Ghinea; Fotis Spyridonis
Back-pain is one of the most prolific health problems within the population and costs industry lost revenue due to the amount of days people have to take off in order to recover. In this paper, we have targeted this problem and suggested a mobile app for visually diarizing the pain experience of patients. The Android platform is utilized and its technology stack forms the basis for this 3D centric application. Positive evaluations obtained provide evidence of the promising nature of the approach and indicate several future directions of research within mobile pain management.
Keywords: Pain management; Pain diary; Interface; Mobile application; Android; 3D
Usefulness of Ikebana a Nursing Care Environment BIBAKFull-Text 441-447
  Yuki Ikenobo; Yusaku Mochizuki; Akinori Kuwahara
Japanese society is aging rapidly and currently one in four people of the population are the elderly. Due to the increasing number of the elderly who need nursing care, improvement of their QOL is required. As a recreation activity of the nursing care for the elderly, I implemented Ikebana, an aspect of Japanese traditional culture of life. There was no change in the test subject's NPI score, but in the GBS scale, which measures an immediate change, improvement in emotional state of the subject was found. Compared to popular recreation activities such as karaoke or viewing of DVD video, the subject's mental state was maintained in good condition for a long period of time even after making ikebana. The result suggested that ikebana has a healing effect, especially for reducing the anxiety or for recovering calmness. Enjoying a sense of season through flower materials, use of five senses by touching or seeing, thinking for oneself, hand working with tools such as scissors and having a dialogue with people are possible contributing factors. It is likely that ikebana gives the elderly mental stability and that it is useful for keeping them stay in good mental health, making a great contribution for the QOL in aging society in the future.
Keywords: Nursing care; Health; Recreation activity; Dementia
Usability of Mobile Applications Supporting Training in Diagnostic Decision-Making by Radiologists BIBAKFull-Text 448-454
  Min Soon Kim; Awatef A. Ben Ramadan; Martina A. Clarke; Mia K. Markey; Kraig J. Lage; Michael R. Aro; Kevin L. Ingalls; Vivek Sindhwani
The objective of this study is to systematically review the usability of mobile applications currently available in radiology to support training in diagnostic decision-making. Two online stores with major market share (Google Play and iTunes) were searched. A multi-step review process was utilized by three usability investigators and five radiology experts to identify eligible applications and extract usability reviews. From 381 applications that were initially identified, user reviews of final 52 applications revealed 79 usability issues. Usability issues were categorized according to Nielsen's heuristic usability evaluation principles (HE). The top three most frequent types of usability issues were: Naturalness (43), Simplicity (43), and Efficient Interactions (21). Examples of the most frequent usability issues were: lack of information, lack of labeling, and details about images. This study demonstrates the urgent need of usability test to provide evidence-based guidelines to help choose mobile applications that will yield educational and clinical benefits.
Keywords: Education; Mobile application; Radiology; Training; Usability
An Investigation of Caregiver's Fatigue During Nursing Work in China BIBAKFull-Text 455-464
  Mengyuan Liao; Yuqiu Yang; Yuka Takai; Takashi Yoshikawa; Akihiko Goto; Ting Yang; Tomoko Ota; Hiroyuki Hamada
In order to evaluate caregiver's fatigue during daily care work, an investigation was carried out in Chinese nursing house. 100 employees from four different nursing houses including day and night working shift were selected in random for sampling survey. And the fatigue situation was evaluated applying Japanese "subjective fatigue symptoms" (new edition of 2002) and "Tired body parts" questionnaires in field question-answer form. Collecting "subjective fatigue symptoms" questionnaire results were analyzed, which showed that caregiver's fatigue degree at the end of working day is more serious with larger scores than that of the beginning, especially caregiver in night shift displayed more fatigue in blurry vision and languidness. The aim of this work is to get a good knowledge of caregiver's fatigue situation basically and put forward some effective measures and necessary assisted device to adjust to Chinese nursing house development.
Keywords: Caregiver; Fatigue investigation; Nursing work
Mobile Application to Aid in the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers BIBAKFull-Text 465-473
  Alvaro G. Lima; Lara Araújo; Isabel Italiano; Luciano V. Araujo
Pressure Ulcer (PU) is a wound in the skin and underlying tissues caused by the lack of patient's movement leading to prolonged pressure exposure on certain body part. The PU's may cause complications to the patient's treatment, since it becomes a route of infection. Consequently, it can extend the length of hospital stay and treatment costs. This paper presents the development of a smartphone app to assist healthcare professionals in the prevention of Pus in bedridden patients. The developed app aims to collect and analyze data for estimating the severity of a health episode regarding suffering from patients. In addition, a prototype was developed for testing using the Wearable platform, based on temperature and humidity sensors together with ZigBee modules for data acquisition and communication between architecture components. This approach simplifies the interaction between sensors, applications, and medical staff with a focus on improved patient care.
Keywords: Pressure ulcer; Temperature sensor; Humidity sensor; Bedridden patient monitoring; Pressure ulcer prevention; M-Health application
Development of a Self-learning System for Chest Auscultation Skills Using an RFID Reader for Nursing Students BIBAKFull-Text 474-481
  Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Kyohei Koyama; Yasuko Kitajima; Jukai Maeda; Masako Kanai-Pak
The purposes of this study are (1) To develop a chest auscultation self-learning system for nursing students with which both a self-learning tool and an evaluation tool are integrated, and (2) To evaluate the system whether nursing students are able to acquire the chest ausculation skills. We have developed a system using RFID tags and RFID reader (TECCO). Six nursing students used this system for 15 min, and received feedback after each performance from this system. The students' performance was evaluated. The highest score was 85, and the lowest score was 10. The range of practice time was between 5 and 13. The differences between highest score and lowest score for each examinee ranged from 63 to 25. The results indicated that nursing students can learn the chest auscultation skills using this system even they spend a limited time for practice if they use repeatedly.
Keywords: Chest auscultation skill; Nursing education; Nursing skill; Nursing student; RFID reader; Simulation
The Digital Reminiscence Method: Effect on Dementia in Japanese Day Care Centers BIBAKFull-Text 482-489
  Masayuki Nakamura; Takashi Yoshikawa; Kayo Tanaka; Mengyuan Liao; Noriaki Kuwahara
When considering working with dementia patients in communities or welfare facilities, manpower problems and the existing caregiver's support system must be considered. It is a modern reality that many facilities often struggle while coping with dementia patients. However, as recent studies have reported, depending on the way dementia patients are cared for, it is possible to suppress problematic behavior such as violence, screeching, and/or wandering.
   In order to assist dementia patients while using the "digital reminiscence" method, students, facility staff members, dementia patients and their families worked together in this study.
Keywords: Effects on one's lifestyle; Movie production; Good staff coordination; Families and students
Verbal and Nonverbal Skills in Open Communication: Comparing Experienced and Inexperienced Radio Duos BIBAKFull-Text 490-499
  Noriko Suzuki; Yu Oshima; Haruka Shoda; Mamiko Sakata; Noriko Ito
This paper examines how the difference in talk skill for open communication affects the orientation of the verbal and nonverbal behaviors of the talk partner or audience. An experiment was carried out using multiple radio duos having different levels of talk skill, i.e., experienced and inexperienced. The experiment's task was conducted in a pseudo-radio setting under three conditions: audience-present talk, audience-absent talk, and audience-absent/post-talk sessions. The speech and body gestures of all participants were video-recorded and analyzed. The results suggest that the different levels of experience in radio talk are expressed in different speech and gesture orientations. These findings seem applicable to the speech- and gesture-expression model for conversational robots, especially for nursing-care robots designed to talk with other robots or cohabitants.
Keywords: Open communication; Radio talk skill; Orientation of verbal and nonverbal behaviors; Experienced and inexperienced radio duos
The Transfer of Expertise in Conducting a Participatory Music Therapy During a Combined Rehabilitation-Recreational Program in an Elderly Care Facility BIBAKFull-Text 500-511
  Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Henry Cereno, Jr. Barrameda; Tatsunori Azuma; Hideaki Kasasaku; Kayoko Hirota; Momo Jinno; Maki Sumiyama; Tomoko Ota; Akihiko Goto; Noriyuki Kida; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
Not so long ago, in Japan, much emphasis were given to elderly's basic life's needs like eating, sleeping, excretion and bathing, however support for other problems of aging like mental and emotional health, muscle tone weakness, and life satisfaction are much left out. Just until recently, new concepts like QOL (Quality of Life) were seriously considered. This signaled the start of not just focusing on giving support on the material needs but also giving equal importance on issues pertaining to mental and emotional health, as well as life satisfaction of the residents in the elderly care facility. Recreation for improvement of mind and body functions of residents, as well as improvement of daily quality of life are now being carried out. Jurisprudence, administrative measures on recreational activities were also created. It has since been a standard for the elderly welfare care facilities of to provide recreational events appropriate to the number of residents. Different kinds of rehabilitation and recreational activities were introduced, one of them is Music Therapy. Activation of the brain, strengthening of the muscles for swallowing, and emotional and mental stability are just few of the most common beneficial effects of the said therapy. In this study, the setting for the music therapy is a paid elderly care facility.
Keywords: Caregiver; Paid elderly facility; Recreation; Participatory music therapy
Research of Work Climate at Nursing Home -- From Job Separation and Management Capability Point BIBAFull-Text 512-523
  Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Tomoko Ota; Akihiko Goto; Noriyuki Kida; Hiroyuki Hamada; Henry Cereno, Jr. Barrameda; Tatsunori Azuma
Nursing care insurance system, which was introduced 14 years ago in Japan, helps our life. However, there are some problems such as job separation rate and excess and deficiency of employees at nursing home. "Care Work Foundation (CWF)" investigates about state of care work under name of the investigation "Actual Condition of Care Work" every year. According to the investigation in 2013, Staff Turnover Rate for one year (October 1st, 2012 -- September 30th, 2013) was 16.6% in all. And 56.5% of the nursing care staff felt that the employee's number was insufficient. (Insufficient = "greatly insufficient" + "insufficient" + "somewhat insufficient") In this research, the work climate at nursing home regarding Staff Turnover Rate and the management capability, which was not analyzed by "Actual Condition of Care Work", was carried out on 44 nursing homes in my company. Specially, analyzed the employee satisfaction, and examined the correlation of the reason and the timing of leaving their job. In addition, there are 6 points as management capability of nursing home; "management principle" "performance capability" "nursing ability" "expressing gratitude to others" "employee satisfaction" "customer satisfaction". Moreover the correlation of Staff Turnover Rate and the management capability on each nursing home was examined as well. These 6 points are based on the screening criterion of a management quality grand-prix. These 6 points are large categories, and there are 20 medium categories inside large category. "Management principle" has a medium category "empathy degree to management principle". "Performance capability" has 5 categories; (1) operating ratio, (2) admission rate, (3) Staff Turnover Rate, (4) labor cost rate, (5) number of nonconformity to ISO. "Nursing ability" has 3 categories; (1) Achievement rate of short-term target, (2) Number of accidents during the care, (3) Number of incident reports. "Expressing gratitude to others"; (1) number of "Thanks" Card, (2) number of "Voice for Super Court Staff" Card. "Employee satisfaction" has 4 categories; (1) satisfaction and fairness to the personnel evaluation, (2) number of interview, (3) Independent and caring personality, (4) employee satisfaction. In the "customer satisfaction", there are 5 categories; (1) service satisfaction, (2) meal satisfaction, (3) cleaning satisfaction in community area, (4) cleaning satisfaction in the room, (5) total customer satisfaction. The research showed the trend that the lower Staff Turnover Rate at each nursing home becomes, the higher the "operating ratio of nursing home". And the higher Staff Turnover Rate at each nursing home, the higher the "accident frequency rate during nursing care". However, there is no correlation between Staff Turnover Rate and "degree of empathy to management principle", "employee satisfaction" and "total customer satisfaction". The results shows that the nursing home with the maximum number of thanks cards in the 44 nursing home is the least in Staff Turnover Rate.
Caregiver's Eye Gaze and Field of View Presumption Method During Bathing Care in Elderly Facility BIBAKFull-Text 524-532
  Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Tatsunori Azuma; Henry Cereno, Jr. Barrameda; Noriyuki Kida; Akihiko Goto; Tomoko Ota
Japan faces a critical need for nursing care as its elderly population continues to grow along with a rise in dementia, the number of elderly people who are bedridden and require extended care. Bathing is one of the most important aspects of daily life in which provision of better quality care can improve quality of life. However, in many elderly facilities, bathing is fraught with dangers, such as falling and drowning in a big bath. Bathroom floors can be slippery and cause residents to fall, and the constant vigilance required can cause caregivers significant mental stress. Advancement in biomechanics along with the development of nursing care devices had reduced the physical stress on the caregivers. However, the efforts to relieve mental burdens are still insufficient, especially when caring with elderly people or those suffering from dementia, whose actions are rather unpredictable. By measuring the caregiver's eye gaze and field of view, we believe we would be able to locate the blind spots during bathing care. With the use of the data gathered we aim to develop a system to improve bathing as a good experience to the customer and a less stressful task to the caregiver. While measurement by video camera was considered optimal, we conducted the experiment using motion sensors due to privacy concerns. We performed four experiments to progress towards our final result set. This paper focuses on the second of these experiments.
Keywords: Caregiver; Elderly facility; Bath care assistance; Presumption method; Blind spot; Motion capture