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DHM Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415-115-2

DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management, Part I: Human Modeling

Fullname:DHM 2015: 6th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management, Part I: Human Modeling
Note:Volume 16 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Vincent G. Duffy
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9184
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21073-5 hcibib: DHM15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-21072-8 (print), 978-3-319-21073-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. Modeling Human Skills and Expertise
    2. Modeling Human Work and Activities

DHM 2015-08-02 Volume 1

Modeling Human Skills and Expertise

Comparison Knitting Skills Between Experts and Non-experts by Measurement of the Arm Movement BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Kontawat Chottikampon; Shunyu Tang; Suchalinee Mathurosemontri; Porakoch Sirisuwan; Miyako Inoda; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
This research focused on the developing the capacity of knitting skill. The comparison of skill between the experts with non-expert was study. The movement of arms was measure to investigate the effect of arm movement on quality of knitting fabric. The experiment was carried out on a video camera to record and analyze the differences of the knitting speed and manner in knitting. The quality of the fabric is measured by a loop of fabric to see the consistency of the loop fabric is important and beautiful fabrics. The result is a procedure used to crochet knitting machines are very different in appearance, knitting and speed. The quality of the fabric is beautiful, similar to the use of a knitting machine knitting. The main difference between them is only part of the seams.
Keywords: Knitting; Arm movement measurement; Knitting skill; Plain pattern
Comparison of Braiding Skills Between Expert and Non-experts by Eye's Movement Measurement BIBAKFull-Text 14-23
  Kontawat Chottikampon; Suchalinee Mathurosemontri; Hitoshi Marui; Porakoch Sirisuwan; Akihiko Goto; Tadashi Uozumi; Miyako Inoda; Makiko Tada; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
A braiding rope is the Japanese traditional rope that a quality and beauty of them have depended on the skill and experience of a braider. In this research, the skill of a expert and two non-experts who practice the braiding everyday and every week, respectively were measured and compared through the eye's movement measurement and observed the braiding rope quality. The measurement was carried out every month for three times. It was found that the expert show the constant of eye's focus at the center of marudai plate and reveled a complete pattern of braiding rope. For two non-experts, their eye's movement wobbled around marudai plate for all trials. However, the braiding speed and quality were developed by the regular training. There are no the defects in the ropes in the trial 2 and 3.
Keywords: Braiding; Kumihimo; Eye's movement measurement; Braiding skill
Effect of Skill Level Difference in the Polishing Process of the Maki-e Making Technique BIBAKFull-Text 24-34
  Atsushi Endo; Hisanori Yuminaga; Chihiro Akatsuka; Takuya Sugimoto; Yutaro Shimode; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this research, "Maki-e" technique was focused. Maki-e technique is a decoration technique of Urushi crafts technique. There is a polishing process in the Maki-e making process. Maki-e surface is polished by a charcoal and whetstone in the polishing process. Time-served technique is needed for this process. Because this process affects a finish of Urushi crafts work, this research aimed to clarify a relationship between a skill level difference of craftspeople and a finish of Urushi crafts work in the polishing process by using charcoal. Characteristics of the finish Urushi crafts work and how to use a body of craftspeople was analyzed. As the results of this research, it was confirmed that; 1. The expert's Maki-e specimen was more brightness and yellow than the non-expert. 2. There was not much difference about the gloss and surface roughness between the expert and the non-expert. 3. The expert took the rhythmic activity in each muscle. Therefore it seemed that the finish of the work became more beautiful. These results suggest that how to use the body affects the finish of the Urushi crafts work in the polishing process. The non-expert can improve the finish of the work and the level of polishing skill by training the body position and motion like the expert.
Keywords: Urushi crafts; Maki-e; Polishing; Color; Gloss; Surface roughness; Electromyogram
Study on Method of Observing Maki-e Crafts Work in Urushi Craftspeople BIBAKFull-Text 35-45
  Atsushi Endo; Noriyuki Kida; Yutaro Shimode; Isao Oda; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Urushi crafts is a representative traditional crafts in Japan. Good Urushi crafts work had made in various periods in history in Japan, and it has been kept by the policymaker, shrine, temple and a person on the street. Urushi crafts work is damaged and Urushi comes off over a course of a long period of time. Urushi craftspeople need to identify the characteristics and conditions of the work when it is repaired because they can't repair the work appropriately. When the craftspeople identify the characteristics and conditions of the work, they observe the work by the naked eye. This observation technique is called "Mitate". This research aimed to know difference of a motion of the Urushi crafts work between the expert Urushi craftspeople and the non-expert Urushi craftspeople when they conduct the Mitate. The motion of the specimen and subject's head were measured when the expert and non-expert Urushi craftspeople conducted the Mitate of the Maki-e specimen. As the results, it is found that the expert can identify the change in appearance of Maki-e surface by moving the specimen up and down a little. Furthermore, he can skip the up-and-down motion and shorten the observation time by comparing one specimen with the other specimen in the case of the different number of the gold powder.
Keywords: Urushi crafts; Maki-e; Mitate; Expert; Non-expert; Motion analysis
Comparison of Description Skill on Characteristics of the Urushi Crafts Work Between Expert Craftspeople and Non-expert Craftspeople BIBAKFull-Text 46-57
  Atsushi Endo; Mari Shimode; Yutaro Shimode; Seishi Namiki; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
Many of Urushi crafts works have been collected as an art in the museum and art museum. They have been treasured, but some of them spent several hundred years being made, and need to be repaired. Urushi crafts people can repair these works. Before they repair them, they need to observe the condition of the work by the naked eye. This observation is called "Mitate". Expert Urushi craftspeople can identify many characteristics by conducting the Mitate, and they can plan to repair the Urushi crafts work. This research aimed to examine how to understand the characteristics of the making process in the Urushi craftspeople. Urushi craftspeople conducted the Mitate, and they described the making process, material and so on. As the result, it is found that the Urushi craftspeople with long year of experience can identify the detail characteristics like the number of metallic powder in the Maki-e making process.
Keywords: Urushi crafts; Maki-e; Craftspeople; Expert; Non-expert; Mitate
Analysis of Eye Movement of Caregiver Concerning on Transfer Operation BIBAKFull-Text 58-65
  Akihiko Goto; Mengyuan Liao; Yuka Takai; Takashi Yoshikawa; Hiroyuki Hamada
As well known, nowadays Japan is one of the several "super-ageing societies" all around the world. The aging of Japan is thought to outweigh all other nations, as the country is purported to have the highest proportion of elderly citizens; 33.0% are above age 60, 25.9% are aged 65 or above, 12.5% aged 75 or above, as of Sep 2014. The increasing proportion of elderly people also had a major impact on increased burden for caregivers. Due to a shortage of expert nursing staff, training caregivers for long-term care facilities has also become a growing concern. Therefore, in order to help speed up training process, one of the popular care processes "transfer operation" between bed and wheelchair was examined. In this study, elder staff's eye movements during transfer was measured and compared between expert, non-expert and beginner caregiver. Comparing with beginner without experience, caregivers with occupational experience were found to pay more attention on elder's body with longer eyes rested duration according to eye movement track. Especially, expert caregiver's skillful care process was also clarified, during which he put less time than non-expert to focus the objects such as bed, wheelchair and so on. Eye moving characteristic and difference between expert and non-expert suggested that transfer care assistance could be improved by instructing the caregivers to focus on specific parts of elder's body effectively.
Keywords: Caregiver; Eye movement; Transfer operation
Analysis of the Skills to Acupuncture BIBAKFull-Text 66-73
  Yoshio Ikai; Masakazu Migaki; Noriyuki Kida; Hidehisa Iwamoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In Japan, health care has been carried out by Western medicine, but acupuncture has been handled in a different form from the health care system of Western medicine. Not only doctors and dental doctors, but also acupuncturists have rights to practice. Therefore, Japanese acupuncture is responsible for the treatment of disease and the health maintenance and promote. Japanese acupuncture has been widely used in a variety of diseases and symptoms in the medical field. In addition, since acupuncture be performed using a simple means, it is possible also performed in an area that does not meet the medical institutions. For acupuncture, in order to play a role in the medicine, it is necessary to academic support, and it is required the achievements and steady research. Although it has been accumulated research results with respect to the reaction of the body caused by acupuncture, there is not research relating to the operation of acupuncturists to acupuncture. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to target acupuncture with advanced technology, and it was performed motion analysis. As a result, we clarified the acupuncture motion skill of high-skilled acupuncturist.
Keywords: Acupuncture; Motion analysis; DLT method; z component; z coordinate
Differences in How Long an Ikebana Work Lasts Depending on the Skill Used in Cutting Floral Materials BIBAKFull-Text 74-82
  Yuki Ikenobo; Zelong Wang; Yusuke Shiraishi; Akihiko Goto
Ikebana (Japanese flower arrangement), one of the Japanese traditional arts, requires the use of a pair of special steel scissors to compose an arrangement. Although to cut materials with the special type of scissors plays a crucial role in the composition of arrangements, the analyses of the cutting motion have not been taken so far. Comparing the cutting motion between non-experts and experts, it is found that non-experts cut in a slow speed, and on the contrary, experts cut rapidly in a short time. Normally, it is considered that the cutting strength has an effect on the duct of the material and influences the condition of the water absorption. However, there are no specific differences of the material's cut surface between non-experts and experts' cutting. The degradation of the material after cutting was not observed as well. It is assumed to be the reason that the original condition of the material was good and the material was preserved well after cutting. Therefore, we hope to analyze the original condition of the material, researching more about the different usage of the scissors and the influence brought by the usage hereafter.
Keywords: Scissor; Process analysis; Water potential; Cutting speed
Study of Caregivers' Skills for Monitoring Senior Residents BIBAKFull-Text 83-94
  Mikako Ito; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Noriaki Kuwahara
As of September, 2015, the Japanese population over 65-years old was found to be aging at a rate of 25.0%. The results determined that the rate of aging for this sector of the Japanese population makes Japan one of the most aged societies in the world. As the aging population continues to increase in size, we anticipate that more nursing will be necessary to accommodate the future needs of seniors. Due to the complex nature and challenging field of senior care, nursing homes experience high employee turnover rates. The shortage of skillful employees is problematic, so the option of training employees without a nursing background may be an integral part of the solution. The least favorite part of nursing care among nursing-home workers is monitoring or keeping an eye on the senior residents. Caregivers are required to keep the care receivers safe, engage them in conversation, help them maintain a healthy state of mind -- all while carrying out their designated routine. They have to constantly stay alert so that the elderly don't make sudden movements that make them lose their balance and fall, choke on their meals, fight with other elderly residents, or wander out of the caregivers' field of vision. There is no manual on how to best monitor the elderly. There are no pointers that come with photos -- as in transfer techniques -- when it comes to taking care of the elderly. Because one does not have access to visual or audio demonstrations during classes on nursing care, students who specialize in nursing care have to learn on the job. The comfort level of the elderly is largely determined by the quality of the caregivers' monitoring skill, how they use their voices and how they relate to their care receivers. The difference in experience between a skilled and a unskilled caregiver can mean the difference in the number of accidents.
Keywords: Nursing home; Skill to watch; Skill to plan
Research on the Performance of Three Tea Whisks of "The Way of Tea" with Different Experience BIBAKFull-Text 95-103
  Soutatsu Kanazawa; Tomoko Ota; Zelong Wang; Akihiro Tada; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, three kinds of Japanese tea whisks' influence on bubble form in "the way of tea" process were investigated. The bubble form and distribution state by each whisk after 30%, 50%, 80% and 100% of tea making finishing time were recorded and analyzed through numerical processing. In order to verify the quality of tea whisk, two tea masters were employed as expert and non-expert, and three kinds of tea whisks' performance were evaluated and compared during the whole tea making process. The expert can controlled three tea whisks very well.
Keywords: The way of tea; Tea whisk; Bubble form; Japanese tea
Effects of Quantified Instructional Tool on Spray-up Fabrication Method BIBAKFull-Text 104-113
  Tetsuo Kikuchi; Erika Suzuki; Yiyi Zhang; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Spray up fabrication has been used for forming composite structures since ancient times as it can be performed as long as the mold, skills, and materials are available. Hence highly specialized control technique and the tradition of skill are required to ensure the consistent stability of product quality. In this study, the authors thus conducted a motion analysis experiment using spray-up fabrication experts as subjects. The experiment, seemingly a new and only attempt in Japan, quantified techniques that are not visibly apparent and considered to be tacit knowledge. The dimension stability of samples was measured, and their relationships with the motions of experts were also evaluated. It was also suggested that highly specialized control techniques, the appropriate training of non-experts, and technical tradition are possible.
Keywords: Spray up fabrication; Dimension stability; Motion analysis; Composites; Explicit knowledge
An Investigation on Conversion from Tacit Knowledge to Explicit Knowledge in Hand Lay-Up Fabrication Method BIBAKFull-Text 114-123
  Tetsuo Kikuchi; Erika Suzuki; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Hand lay-up fabrication has been used for forming composite structures since ancient times as it can be performed as long as the mold, skills, and materials are available. Hence highly specialized control technique and the tradition of skill are required to ensure the consistent stability of product quality. In this study, the authors thus conducted a motion analysis experiment using hand lay-up fabrication experts as subjects. The experiment, seemingly a new and only attempt in Japan, quantified techniques that are not visibly apparent and considered to be tacit knowledge. The mechanical properties and dimension stability of samples were measured, and their relationships with the motions of experts were also evaluated. It was also suggested that highly specialized control techniques, the appropriate training of non-experts, and technical tradition are possible.
Keywords: Hand lay-up; Dimension stability; Motion analysis; Composites; Explicit knowledge
Process Analysis of Manufacturing of Sewing Scissors by All Forging Process and Understanding of Its Sharpness BIBAKFull-Text 124-132
  Yasuko Kitajima; Kazuki Kito; Masakazu Migaki; Kanji Matsumuro; Yasuhiko Murata; Hiroyuki Hamada
In Japan there are several types of scissors such as pruning scissors, flower scissors, U-shaped scissors, and sewing scissors and so on. Among them sewing scissors was introduced when the black ships of Commodore Perry came from the United States in the last Edo period almost 160 years ago. The shape and size of sewing scissors have been changed to fit Japanese people. Yakichi Yoshida started Japanese sewing scissors by his own manufacturing process; all a forging process. His technique was distributed to many persons who learned his process through implicit knowledge base. According to the family tree starting with Yakichi, there has been a spread to the manufacturing family of 23. However at present only one person is remained. He is still making the cutlery which has very good reputation among high ranking wear making persons and other high quality manufacturing persons. In order to preserve this manufacturing technique the process analysis was performed through video recording and the records were put in this paper. The process was divided into 9 steps such as Preparation, Making the ring, Making part of the blade, Making the neck part, Grinding, Finishing machinery, Quenching, Finish grinding, Post finishing, Normally the expert needs dozens of years for the whole process, therefore the number of products per day is very small. In the case of cutting some materials two blades contact each other at very small part. Small as possible makes sharp cutting because of stress concentration at the cutting point. In order to create this phenomenon the inside of the blade should not be a flat surface; instead the surface is required to be dented. This dented surface was made at the third step, and particularly only one sub process can make it. Our further study will be made for more accurate time analysis and also the bending process will be focused to understanding the secret of sharp cutting.
Keywords: Sewing scissors; Process analysis; Skill succession
Expert vs. Elementary Skill Comparison and Process Analysis in VaRTM-Manufactured Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composites BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Yasunari Kuratani; Kentaro Hase; Takahiro Hosomi; Tomoe Kawazu; Tadashi Uozumi; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
VaRTM requires a preform to be manufactured before molding. However, it is often said that the accuracy of the preform affects the mechanical properties of the mold. Despite the progression of investigations into the automization of this process in recent years, preforms manufactured by hand still make up the majority, and the accuracy of these preforms lies in the ability of the worker. In this study, we have instructed three subjects with varying amount of years of experience working with composite materials, and manufactured VaRTM moldings. By analyzing the time taken, attitude and posture, and use of tools within the work process when layering, and by conducting an interlaminar shear strength test, we have acquired good results within the product quality of the mold, working time, and interlaminar shear strength in order of the number of years of experience. In the future, we will continue to research this subject so that we can focus on the creating a setup that has the same, consistent accuracy, regardless of the worker manufacturing the preform.
Keywords: CFRP; Vartm; Process analysis; Year of experience; Working posture
The Relationship Between Mechanical Properties and the Method Technique of GFRP Plate by Hand Lay-up Method: Effect of the Workers Experience BIBAKFull-Text 143-153
  Masakazu Migaki; Keisuke Ono; Ryo Takematsu; Yusaku Mochizuki; Eijutsu Ko; Daiki Ichikawa; Hiroyuki Hamada
The aim of this research was focused on the relationship between the skill of an operator in the hand lay-up molding method and the mechanical properties of the molding composites. Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) plates were prepared using the hand lay-up method by five inexperience operators. The materials of GFRP included unsaturated polyester resin and chopped glass fiber mat. The working procedure of all operators was recorded by a video camera. Mechanical properties of the GFRP plates were carried out by tensile testing. The load-displacement curve was illustrated, which was used for characterizing the molding technique of various operators. The relationship of working times and mechanical strength of the GFRP was characterized, which impacted on the mechanical properties of the specimens. From the results, the relationship was considered separately in the first half and the second half of the working times. From the results, the step of degassing squeeze out air was significantly influenced the mechanical strength of the GFRP products. Therefore, the degassing step with the iron bar was the most affected on the mechanical properties of the GFRP plate making by the inexperience operator. It can be noted that the fully degassing out of the molding product strongly suggested for the hand lay-up method in order to maintain the high strength of the GFRP products.
Keywords: Hand lay-up; Glass cloth; Polyester; Impregnation; Composite
Researching Sounds Generated During the Second Lining Pounding Process BIBAKFull-Text 154-164
  Yasuhiro Oka; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Keisuke Ono; Kozo Oka
Japanese calligraphy and works of art, which are written and painted on paper and silk, are often lined with Japanese washi paper and strengthened from the reverse side. They are then treated with various binding methods based on the purpose of the item and how it is intended to be viewed. The hanging scroll, which is a perfect example of a binding format, is only displayed when it is meant to be viewed and is hung on an alcove or beam. When it is finished being used, it is rolled up tightly from the bottom and stored in a box. In order to repeatedly roll up and open a hanging scroll smoothly, the hanging scroll is lined with several layers of Japanese washi paper, which are pasted onto the reverse side of the scroll. A paste with a low adhesive strength which has been further diluted is used to prevent the adhesive from hardening after it has dried. The joined surfaces are then pounded with a brush to enhance the adhesion. The level of expertise of this technique is determined by the sound that is generated when pounded using the traditional method. This research measures the sound generated when the joined surfaces are pounded by an expert and a non-expert with the purpose of evaluating the specific features of both sets of sounds.
Keywords: Amplitude; Hanging scroll; Pounding brush
EMG Activity Analysis of Expert Skills on Handheld Grinding Work for Metallographic Sample BIBAKFull-Text 165-173
  Takuya Sugimoto; Hisanori Yuminaga; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Akihiko Goto
Carburizing is the most common heat treatment process for hardening ferrous alloy. The quality assurance of carburizing process requires metallographic analysis of case depth, retained austenite, intergranular oxidation, and carbide network by means of metallographic sample. Metallographic preparation consists of sectioning, mounting, plane grinding, polishing to mirror surface. It is difficult for non-expert to prepare metallographic sample with global mirror surface because preparation skill needs long time experience in this field. In this study, the difference of EMG activity during handheld grinding motion for metallographic specimen between expert and nonexpert execution was analyzed. The expert's abductor pollicis brevis, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and triceps brachii were working activity than the other muscles. We considered that these muscle activity balance by the expert contribute to the stable grinding conditions and good surface finish.
Keywords: Grinding; Expert; Metallographic preparation; EMG
Difference in Polishing Process of FRP Between Expert and Non-expert BIBAKFull-Text 174-181
  Takuya Sugimoto; Daiki Ichikawa; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Yoshiaki Yamato; Akihiko Goto
One of the quality assurance methods for steel and composite materials is to verify material constitutes and structures of polished specimens by microscope. We prepared a sample used for microscope analysis in the following method: first, cut a sample from the cross-section, and mount with the epoxy resin, and then grind it. This process requires long craftsmen's experience to grind a sample properly for microscope test. In this research, we comparably evaluated the differences in grinding sound and comprehension skills between the expert and the non-expert. As a result, we found that the expert was more sensitive to the difference in the sounds generated during grinding process. He comprehended the state of a grinding sample by the sound generated during grinding and adjusted his grinding force in a wider range.
Keywords: Polish; CFRP; Expert; Microscopic analysis
An Investigation on Skillful Gel-Coat Techniques and its Application to Beginner's Application BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
  Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Gel Coating has been used for forming composite structures since ancient times. On the other hand, gel coating work itself relies on human skills, which means that the finish differs according to the operator carrying out the work, the quality of the product differs among parts depending on the ease of forming. Hence highly specialized control technique and the tradition of skill are required to ensure the consistent stability of product quality. Therefore, in this study, motion analysis experiment of gel coating experts by MAC 3D System was conducted to obtain objective data on an expert applier's skills (the default value) with compared to the non-expert one. Furthermore, dimensional stability measurements were made, and an investigation of the correlation to an expert's application techniques was conducted in order to pass the suitable training and communicating technical skills to advanced management engineering and inexperienced appliers.
Keywords: Dimension stability; Motion analysis; Explicit knowledge
Numerical Analysis on "Kana-Ami" Structure Between Expert and Non-expert BIBAKFull-Text 192-200
  Zelong Wang; Ken-ichi Tsuji; Toru Tsuji; Koji Ishizaki; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
"Kana-ami" is a kind of metal wire network in Japan, which was once prevailed many years ago in the old Japan and has been decreased in the development of social industrialization. In previous research, the characteristics of the "Kana-ami" hexagonal structure were clarified, the metal wire net of "Kana-ami" made by expert presented the convex shape in vertical direction so that helps buffer the fall. The results confirmed the superiority of the product made by expert. In this research, the actual structure of "Kana-ami" was clarified by X-Ray. And the advantage of the expert's product was confirmed. The three-dimensional analysis method was applied to present the different actual structure.
Keywords: Kana-ami; Three-dimensional scanning; X-Ray; Expert; Non-expert
Motion Analysis of Interval Time During "Kana-ami" Making Process BIBAKFull-Text 201-211
  Zelong Wang; Ken-ichi Tsuji; Toru Tsuji; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, the motion making technique of Japanese traditional handicraft was analyzed by motion analysis system. Two experts were employed as expert and non-expert for comparison. The feature of interval time for each main work process was paid attention. The subjects' interval timing during the weaving process was clarified to investigate the proficiency of weaving technique quantitatively. It is found that expert was able to go into working state easily.
Keywords: Kana-ami; Interval timing; Motion analysis; Expert; Non-expert
Brain Activity Analysis on "Kana-Ami" Making Process BIBAKFull-Text 212-219
  Zelong Wang; Ken-ichi Tsuji; Toru Tsuji; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, the brain wave activity and saliva α-armylase for expert and non-expert was measured during five test of "Kana-ami" fatigue. Two experts were employed as expert and non-expert for comparison. The feature of subjects' working state and physical condition for each trial test was paid attention. It is found that expert was able to keep charging and concentrate working state even the body under the fatigue condition.
Keywords: Kana-ami; Brain wave; Saliva α-armylase; Expert; Non-expert

Modeling Human Work and Activities

Human Performance Modeling for Dynamic Human Reliability Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 223-234
  Ronald Laurids Boring; Jeffrey Clark Joe; Diego Mandelli
Part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway develops approaches to estimating and managing safety margins. RISMC simulations pair deterministic plant physics models with probabilistic risk models. As human interactions are an essential element of plant risk, it is necessary to integrate human actions into the RISMC risk framework. In this paper, we review simulation based and non simulation based human reliability analysis (HRA) methods. This paper summarizes the foundational information needed to develop a feasible approach to modeling human interactions in RISMC simulations.
Keywords: Human reliability analysis; Probabilistic risk assessment; Simulation; Modeling
Improvement of Needle Bar in Textile Machine by Hitting Process BIBAKFull-Text 235-244
  Kontawat Chottikampon; Suchalinee Mathurosemontri; Hitoshi Marui; Ryo Marui; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Hiroyuki Hamada
The research conducted was to study the hitting process of a needle bar used within textile machinery and how to improve its efficiency and performance. A needle bar consists of a brass bar attached with a number of small pins. The primary focus was learning technique while straightening the needle bar. In order to join pins and brass bar together, the soldering is applied. The result from the heat transfer during soldering process can cause the brass pins to bend, which is undesirable for finished product. A soldering expertise uses hitting movement technique to modify and straighten the brass bar. Even though soldering process is the only step in making the brass bar; however, its method is considered very complicated and requires refinement and specialization from the maker.
Keywords: Needle bar; Hitting process; Linking machine
Towards a Theory for Bio-Cyber Physical Systems Modelling BIBAKFull-Text 245-255
  Didier Fass; Franck Gechter
Currently, Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) represents a great challenge for automatic control and smart systems engineering on both theoretical and practical levels. Designing CPS requires approaches involving multi-disciplinary competences. However they are designed to be autonomous, the CPS present a part of uncertainty, which requires interaction with human for engineering, monitoring, controlling, performing operational maintenance, etc. This human-CPS interaction led naturally to the human in-the-loop (HITL) concept. Nevertheless, this HITL concept, which stems from a reductionist point of view, exhibits limitations due to the different natures of the systems involved. As opposed to this classical approach, we propose, in this paper, a model of Bio-CPS (i.e. systems based on an integration of computational elements within biological systems) grounded on theoretical biology, physics and computer sciences and based on the key concept of human systems integration.
Keywords: Bio-CPS; Human system integration
Colorimetry and Impression Evaluation of Insert Molded GFRP Plate with Black Silk Fabrics BIBAKFull-Text 256-266
  Kiyoshi Fujiwara; Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Takashi Furukawa; Takahiro Suzuki; Atsushi Endo; Yutaro Shimode; Yuka Takai; Yuqiu Yang
Black silk fabric, a traditional craft produced using the Kyo-Yuzen dyeing technique, is another luxury product. The intention behind the present report is to mold Urushi-like glass fiber-reinforced plastic, using black silk fabric. We first manufactured a glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) molded plate consisting of various laminate layers, and compared the surface color with Urushi products. Subsequently, we used an impression evaluation to reveal how the glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP) molded plate using black silk fabric was rated. As the results of this study, it was confirmed that; L* and a* value of FRP sample was similar to the Urushi sample, FRP sample was bluer than the Urushi sample according to b* value, and C* value of FRP sample was higher than the Urushi sample. About half of the subject regarded GFRP using black silk fabric with the lightness similar to the Urushi product as Urushi product in the impression evaluation. The sample regarded as the Urushi product makes subject more feel "Beauty", "Sense of luxury and high quality", "Gloss" and "Depth of blackness" than the sample not regarded as the Urushi product. Evaluation point of the subject regarded the FRP sample as the Urushi product showed a strong association between "Beauty" and "Sense of luxury and high quality", between "Beauty" and "Gloss", between "Sense of luxury and high quality" and "Gloss".
Keywords: GFRP; Kyo-Yuzen dyeing; Silk fabric; Urushi; Black; Colorimetry; Impression evaluation
Light Transmission Properties of Insert Molded GFRPs with Different Crape Structure of Silk Fabrics BIBAKFull-Text 267-276
  Kiyoshi Fujiwara; Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Takashi Furukawa; Atsushi Endo; Yuka Takai; Yuqiu Yang
In this research, the hand lay-up method was focused as one of the decoration molding techniques for the GFRP lighting materials. The hand lay-up method can be more developed in the market of the GFRP lighting material because type of form and reinforced material are free to be selected in this method. Therefore, this research aimed to clearly the light transmission property of the GFRP inserted the Kyo Yu-zen fabric with crape. The cross section structure, light transmission property and luminance distribution of the GFRP samples were analyzed. As the results of this research, it was confirmed that the structure of the GFRP inserted the silk fabric with crape was different in each sample according to a laid direction of the yarn and use of the laid yarn, the GFRP inserted the silk fabric with crape had more profound effect on a dispersion of the light with the luminous intensity and the luminance than the GFRP with only glass mat, and a degree of the dispersion of the light was changed by the structure of the crape, and it was the highest in the Silk4 showed the highest Ra value.
Keywords: GFRP; Hand lay-up; Silk fabric; Crape structure; Light transmission property; Luminance distribution
Evaluation of Kimono Clothes in Kyo-Yuzen-Zome using Image BIBAKFull-Text 277-288
  Takashi Furukawa; Yuka Takai; Noriaki Kuwahara; Akihiko Goto
"Yuzen" is a traditional but still popular method of dyeing fabrics in Japan. The products using the Yuzen method and manufactured in Kyoto city are called "Kyo-Yuzen." The dyeing method of Yuzen can be dividing into 10 procedures. A specialized craftsman is in charge of each procedure. During the paste application (Nori-oki) procedure, the expert applies a starch paste or a rubber paste to a fabric in order to resist dyeing. The two resist pastes create different effect on the dyed fabric. At market, the fabric with a starch paste application is perceived to have a higher value than that with a rubber paste. In this study, the difference of the viscosity between two materials was clarified, and specimens which craftsman dyed were observed. Then how two materials put on fabrics, and the structures of them were measured. As a result of this research, it was clarified that rubber paste penetrated into fabrics rather than starch paste.
Keywords: Fabric; Resist; Dyeing; Paste; Starch; Rubber
Effects of Spray Gun Handling of Automobile Repair on Carrier of Car Mechanic BIBAKFull-Text 289-298
  Shigeru Ikemoto; Kenta Morimoto; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
The goal of this research is development of learning system for automobile repair. In this study, the purpose is characteristics of spray gun handling of automobile repair painting expert. Spray gun movements of 55 craftsmen's were measured by using motion capture system. The spray gun movements of expert were longer length, longer time, higher speed, and narrower swing range, compared to that of non-expert. As a result, spray gun handling of expert is longer running length, longer time, higher speed, narrower spray gun swing range compare with non-expert.
Keywords: Automobile repair; Paint; Spray gun handling; Motion capture
Visual Evaluation of "The Way of Tea" Based on Questionnaire Survey Between Chinese and Japanese BIBAKFull-Text 299-306
  Soutatsu Kanazawa; Tomoko Ota; Zelong Wang; Rutchaneekorn Wongpajan; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, "The way of tea" process conducted by expert, non-expert and beginner was investigated. Firstly, final tea made by expert, non-expert and beginner applying three kinds of tea whisks were taken into photos. Afterwards, random ranked tea photos were employed as visual evaluation questionnaire and subjective ranking material. In order to compare and characterize "The way of tea" process difference, 10 Japanese and 10 Chinese participates were chosen as evaluation subjects. Consequently, it can be concluded that both Japanese and Chinese are able to distinguish expert's tea as top rank easily because of sufficient small bubble size on the tea surface.
Keywords: The way of tea; Visual evaluation; Japanese tea; Questionnaire survey; Chinese and Japanese
A Study of the Tacit Knowledge on the Design of Kimono Patterns from Japanese Painting BIBAKFull-Text 307-315
  Masashi Kano; Hiroyuki Akaji; Noriaki Kuwahara; Hiroyuki Hamada
One of the most important characteristics of the Nishijin obi (a traditional Japanese textile product) has been to express unique aesthetics in Japanese paintings by making full use of weaving techniques for imparting a three-dimensional effect. However, weaving today tries to distinguish itself merely through colors and patterns, losing the true depth inherent in weaving. An obi can emphasize the beauty of a kimono through its simple design, and a kimono can bring out the personality of the person dressed in it. The types of weaving that enable such design are the three main weaving styles of Nishijin-weaving. We will present the basics of these techniques, and how they are applied in order to realize the obi design that expresses unique aesthetic in Japanese paintings.
Keywords: Kimono; Nishijin obi; Nishijin-weaving; Weaving structure; Three-dimensional effect; Japanese painting
Comparison of KEMOMI Technique Between Master Craftsman and Unskilled Worker BIBAKFull-Text 316-323
  Shinichiro Kawabata; Zhilan Xu; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
The Nara FUDE, made of several kinds of fibers with different properties, can achieve quality. However, the insufficiency of the mix process of the fibers may lead to the unstable quality of the final product. Fiber bundle of about 400 pieces of brush were mixed by hand at one time, which was called 'KEMOMI'. In this study, subjects with three different experiences were chosen (Master worker with 17 years of experience, Intermediate worker with 8 years of experience, Unskilled worker with 8 month of experience.). Refer to the method of the analysis of 'KEMOMI', three colours were in the rested fiber bundle, two kinds of filaments painted red and blue on the opposite of the taper side as well as the non-painted white colour. In order to analyse the progress degree of KEMOMI, binary coded processing was carried out on the picture taken every elapsed time during 'KEMOMI'.
Keywords: Nara FUDE; KEMOMI; Traditional handicraft; High quality brush; Master work
Inside the User's Mind -- Perception of Risks and Benefits of Unknown Technologies, Exemplified by Geothermal Energy BIBAKFull-Text 324-334
  Johanna Kluge; Sylvia Kowalewski; Martina Ziefle
In the context of large scale projects public acceptance is indispensable for a sustainable roll out and broad implementation of technology. Especially when those projects deal with the implementation of relatively unknown technologies like geothermal energy. To find out what communication need the general public has, knowledge about the underlying cognitive attitudes toward the technology as well as the mental representation is important. In this context especially uncertainties about the consequences and risks are of importance. In this study we get a deeper understanding of the mental representation of geothermal energy by uncovering acceptance-relevant cognitions which were assessed by interviews with open answer format. Results show, that especially the communication about risks and possible disadvantages should be integrated in an adequate information strategy.
Keywords: Technology acceptance; Geothermal energy; Communication strategy; Information strategy
Factor of Feeling "Hannari" from Kimono Images BIBAKFull-Text 335-344
  Kumiko Komizo; Noriaki Kuwahara; Kazunari Morimoto
A separation from the kimono in Japanese society has an effect which has serious implications not only for the clothing industry, but for the continuation of traditional Japanese culture. However, for clothing, the lure of the kimono's beauty only remains in a modern age as "attire for special occasions." This paper attempts to define and classify one part of the kimono's appeal, the Japanese expression, "hannari-kan," or "feelings of elegance." Considering online shopping, we used a display device to show many kimonos for consideration and ratings, to collect data and quantify "hannari". We also assessed brightness and color in relation to "hannari" ratings.
Keywords: Kimono; Obi; Aesthetics; Brightness; Color
Human Machine Epistemology Survey BIBAFull-Text 345-356
  Rémi Nazin; Didier Fass
Pluridisciplinar convergence is a major problem that had emerged with human-artefact Systems and so-called "Augmented Humanity" as academical fields and even more as technical fields. Problems come mainly from the juxtaposition of two very different types of system, a biological one and an artificial one. Thus, conceiving and designing the multiple couplings between them has become a major difficulty. Some came with reductionnist solutions to answer these problems but since we know that a biological system and a technical system are different, this approach is limited from its beginning.
   Using a specifically designed questionnaire and statistical analysis we determined how specialists (medical practitioners, ergonomists and engineers) in the domain conceive themselves what is a human-artifact System and how they relate to existent traditions and we showed that some of them relate to the integrativist views.
A Study on Learning Effects of Marking with Highlighter Pen BIBAKFull-Text 357-367
  Hiroki Nishimura; Noriaki Kuwahara
For learning students including elementary, junior high school and high school students, improvement of academic performance is one of the most important learning objectives. Types of problems in every subject are versatile and it is essential to find key points and keywords in sentences as well as questions under any situation. In order to find these key points and keywords, information on sentences as well as questions should be organized which can lead to increased attentional capacity as well as cognitive capacity. Various kinds of writing materials are used by the learners, and especially highlighter pens which are used by many learners for marking, when they are used for marking as means of organizing information, can have effects on the improvement of academic performance by the visual effects as well as through marking works.
   Therefore, the purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of marking with a highlighter pen as a means to recognize necessary information. The Japanese language word problems, arithmetic computation problems and English problems were used and the amount of memory and the number of correct answers were measured to verify the effects.
Keywords: Highlighter pen; Memory; Attentional capacity; Academic performance
Process Analysis of Kyo Karakami Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 368-378
  Seiji Senda; Erika Suzuki; Tetsuo Kikuchi; Mitsunori Suda; Yuka Takai
This study is to clarify technique of expert in Kyo Karakami manufacturing by using process analysis and the eye motion analysis. Kyo Karakami manufacturing consists of "Some" process and "Kata-oshi" process. "Some" process and "Kata-oshi" process divided by 4 and 5 phases, respectively. From interview to expert, "Some" process divided by 3 steps. In "Some" process, expert worked almost same time at each steps. In "Kata-oshi" process, expert gave time "phase a" which provide total working time shortening.
Keywords: Kyo karakami; Traditional hand crafts; Process analysis; Eye motion analysis
Exploring How People Collaborate with a Stranger: BIBAKFull-Text 379-388
  Haruka Shoda; Tomoki Yao; Noriko Suzuki; Mamiko Sakata
We explored human-to-human communication when two people collaboratively attempt to reproduce an abstract painting. We examined the effects of friendship (i.e., stranger versus friend) and the task's three phases (i.e., first, second, versus third) on verbal and nonverbal behaviors. In our experiment, pairs of strangers (n=24, 12 pairs) and friends (n=24, 12 pairs) reproduced three abstract paintings. We measured the duration of their conversations, gestures, and painting behaviors, and the behaviors were labeled based on Traum (1994). The results showed that the amount and the functions of painting differed as a function of friendship. Since friends seemed more likely to focus on the efficient completion of the task, painting functions as a means of communicating images to partners. On the other hand, since strangers attempt to minimize conflicts with their partners, they start painting after discussing what to paint next.
Keywords: Collaboration; Friendship; Time-series change; Nonverbal behaviors; Abstract art reproduction
Process Analysis of Expert and Non-expert Engineers in Quartz Glass Joint Process BIBAKFull-Text 389-398
  Masamichi Suda; Toru Takahashi; Akio Hattori; Yuqiu Yang; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Quartz glass is a special glass material known as "King of Glass". The silicon purity of the quartz glass is very high, therefore it is excellent in heat resistance, chemical resistance and optical transparency as compared to other glasses, such as borosilicate glass. In this study, the differences in the working process between engineers with different years of experience during the "joint-process" of quartz glass material were analyzed. "Joint-process" is one of "fire-process" and is of heating and jointing glass cylinders during rotating using a dedicated glass lathe machine. It is found that these differences in the process of heating joint of glass cylinder have effects on the accuracy of finial production and the manufacturing efficiency.
Keywords: Ergonomics and sustainability; Quartz glass; Process analysis; Fire process; Mechanical property evaluation
Comparison of Eye Movement During the Polishing Process of Metallographic Sample Between Expert and Nonexpert BIBAKFull-Text 399-410
  Takuya Sugimoto; Yuka Takai; Hiroyuki Nishimoto; Akihiko Goto
The carburizing process requires metallurgical inspection by means of polished metallurgical mounts. Metallographic preparation for a metallurgical mount is an important process for the quality assurance of the carburizing process. The purpose of this study is to clarify the expert's characteristics of polishing process based on the eye movement analysis. Two inspectors with 20 (hereinafter referred to as "expert") and 0.5 years (hereinafter referred to as "nonexpert") of experience in metallographic preparation were interviewed and their eye movement analyzed. As a result, the expert made pressure adjustments and cleaning the surface and supplying alumina as needed while performing the polish.
Keywords: Polish; Metallographic preparation; Eye movement analysis
Omotenashi in the Japanese Bridal Market BIBAKFull-Text 411-418
  Shigeyuki Takami; Aya Takai; Takuya Sugimoto; Masamichi Suda; Hiroyuki Hamada
Omotenashi is the Japanese approach to exceptional hospitality. In particular, the Takami Style of Omotenashi strives for the continuous improvement of customer satisfaction in the bridal market. While the price of weddings and bridal services are equivalent to purchasing luxury cars or other high end items, bridal clients are willing to pay large amounts of money for services that are not tangible items. Questionnaires were provided to brides and grooms with the purpose of discovering ways to increase customer satisfaction for bridal services.
Keywords: Omotenashi; Customer satisfaction; Bridal market; Bridal industry; Takami style
A Study on Characteristic of Calligraphy Characters Part 1 Analytical Method with Computer Technology BIBAKFull-Text 419-428
  Zelong Wang; Issei Harima; Zenichiro Maekawa
The letter develops as the means that a human being takes the communication and becomes the important element characterizing the racial culture. A variety of letters exist in the world, but it becomes two big flows of a phonogram and the ideograph at the present. The kanji is a representative of the ideographs.
Keywords: Calligraphy character; Characteristic; Analytical method
A Study on Characteristic of Calligraphy Characters Part 2 Case of One Character of Calligraphy Letter "Kanji" and "Hiragana" BIBAKFull-Text 429-436
  Zelong Wang; Mengyuan Liao; Kayo Yokota; Riichi Hagihara; Zenichiro Maekawa
During long history of Kanji in china, "Kaisho" (Regular script), "Gyosho" (Semi-cursive script), "Sousho" (Cursive script) were born from 3rd century to 5th century. The Japanese improved a kanji and devised a Hiragana originally. "Kaisho" letter is form not to transform. "Gyosho" letter is the form transformed a little than it. "Sousho" letter is the form transformed more. Hiragana letter has thin, long and smooth form. 4 kinds of calligraphy letters are analyzed by using proposed system and characteristic of calligraphy letters were thrown into relief from three viewpoints. The technique to evaluate the characteristic of the shape of the writing brush style quantitatively is proposed in this study. This study is classified into three parts. Part-2 treats one character of calligraphy Letter "Kanji" and "Hiragana". 188 characters are analyzed by using the proposed technique in part-1.
Keywords: Kanji; Hiragana; Iroha poem; One calligraphy character
A Study on Characteristic of Calligraphy Characters Part 3 Case of the Writing Paper with Calligraphy Letter Works BIBAKFull-Text 437-444
  Zelong Wang; Riichi Hagihara; Zenichiro Maekawa
The technique to evaluate the characteristic of the shape of the writing brush style quantitatively is proposed in this study. This study is classified into three parts. Part3 treats the writing paper with calligraphy letter works. 8 kinds of calligraphy letter works from songbook "Hyaku ninn isshu" are used in the part3 of this study.
Keywords: Calligraphy character works; Stability index; Songbook of hyaku ninn isshu