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DHM Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415-115-2

DHM 2014: 4th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management

Fullname:DHM 2014: 5th International Conference on Digital Human Modeling. Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics and Risk Management
Note:Volume 20 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Vincent G. Duffy
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8529
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07725-3 hcibib: DHM14; ISBN: 978-3-319-07724-6 (print), 978-3-319-07725-3 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Modelling Posture and Motion
  2. Anthropometry, Design and Ergonomics
  3. Ergonomics and Human Modelling in Work and Everyday Life Environments
  4. Advances in Healthcare
  5. Rehabilitation Applications
  6. Risk, Safety and Emergency

Modelling Posture and Motion

Human Energy Expenditure Models: Beyond State-of-the-Art Commercialized Embedded Algorithms BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Ricard Delgado-Gonzalo; Philippe Renevey; Enric M. Calvo; Josep Solá; Cees Lanting; Mattia Bertschi; Mathieu Lemay
In the present study, we propose three new energy expenditure (EE) methods and evaluate their accuracy against state-of-the-art EE estimation commercialized devices. To this end, we used several sensors on 8 subjects to simultaneously record acceleration forces from wrist-located sensors and bio-potentials estimated from chest-located ECG devices. These subjects followed a protocol that included a wide range of intensities in a given set of activities, ranging from sedentary to vigorous. The results of the proposed human EE models were compared to indirect calorimetry EE estimated values (kcal/kg/h). The speed-based, heart rate-based and hybrid-based models are characterized by an RMSE of 1.22 ± 0.34 kcal/min, 1.53 ± 0.48 kcal/min and 1.03 ± 0.35 kcal/min, respectively. Based on the presented results, the proposed models provide a significant improvement over the state-of-the-art.
Keywords: energy expenditure; walking/running speed; human model; physical activity monitoring
Human Skeleton Extraction of Depth Images Using the Polygon Evolution BIBAKFull-Text 15-23
  Huan Du; Jian Wang; Xue-xia Zhong; Ying He; Lin Mei
This paper proposes a novel skeleton extraction approach in the depth image based on the polygon evolution. The external contour of person is firstly extracted from the depth image and evolved to a external polygon using a polygon evolution method. Subsequently, the depth histogram is used to extract internal self-occlusion body parts, and contours of these parts are evolved to internal polygons. In external and internal polygons, skeleton points are extracted under different criteria respectively. Finally, all skeleton points are linked to a complete skeleton. Experimental results on a variety of postures demonstrate the robustness and reasonability of our skeleton extraction approach.
Keywords: skeleton extraction; depth image; polygon evolution; external polygon; internal polygon
Biomechanics Investigation of Skillful Technician in Spray-up Fabrication Method BIBAKFull-Text 24-34
  Tetsuo Kikuchi; Yuichiro Tani; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
Spray up fabrication has been used for forming composite structures since ancient times as it can be performed as long as the mold, skills, and materials are available. Hence highly specialized control technique and the tradition of skill are required to ensure the consistent stability of product quality. In this study, the authors thus conducted a motion analysis experiment using hand lay-up fabrication experts as subjects. The experiment, seemingly a new and only attempt in Japan, quantified techniques that are not visibly apparent and considered to be tacit knowledge. The dimension stability of samples was measured, and their relationships with the motions of experts were also evaluated. It was also suggested that highly specialized control techniques, the appropriate training of non-experts, and technical tradition are possible.
Keywords: Spray up fabrication; Dimension stability; Motion analysis; Composites; Explicit knowledge
Study on Three Dimensions Body Reconstruction and Measurement by Using Kinect BIBAFull-Text 35-42
  Qi Luo
A point cloud is a set of data points in some coordinate system. Point clouds may be created by Three Dimensions scanners. These devices measure in an automatic way a large number of points on the surface of an object, and often output a point cloud as a data file. The point cloud represents the set of points that the device has measured. Using Microsoft Kinect to obtain the depth body data and get the depth image. In this paper, the function and the depth scanning principle of the Microsoft Kinect has been researched. The concept of Point cloud has been also introduced. Point cloud data processing has been proposed in the paper. First, the depth data obtained by Kinect are transformed into the form of Three Dimensions point cloud to store and visualize. And then, make rejections, filtering, and simplification for point cloud. Finally In the process of simplification, we take the advantage of the minimum distance method and the angular deviation method, an improved self-adapting method of simplification was introduced in the paper.
Comparison of Gait Analysis by the Way of Semi-structured Interviews BIBAKFull-Text 43-54
  Masaru Ohgiri; Katsuma Yamada; Hisanori Yuminaga; Noriyuki Kida; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this study, we showed a video with five samples of patients walking to three practicing Physical Therapists. We used a one-on-one semi-structured interview to investigate how the Physical Therapists would predict problems and plan treatment programs based on what they observed in the video, and then we analyzed the results. We obtained qualitative data from interviews and charted them as quantitative data for analysis, which is a new approach for motion observation.
Keywords: Posture Prediction and Analysis; semi-structured interview; gait analysis; physical therapy
Motion Analysis of the Pounding Technique Used for the Second Lining in the Fabrication of Traditional Japanese Hanging Scrolls BIBAKFull-Text 55-65
  Yasuhiro Oka; Akihiko Goto; Yuka Takai; Chieko Narita; Hiroyuki Hamada
This study focuses on the technique used to adhere the second lining in the fabrication of traditional Japanese hanging scrolls, or kakejiku. We analyzed the motions of both expert and non-expert artisans during the adhesion process, using optical and infrared motion captures. We then conducted a peel test from both samples, and used the results of this test to correlate the motion of the artisan with the adhesive strength of the second lining.
Keywords: scrolls; secondary lining; pounding brush; motion analysis
Analysis of Expert Skills on Handheld Grinding Work for Metallographic Sample BIBAKFull-Text 66-77
  Takuya Sugimoto; Hisanori Yuminaga; Akihiko Goto
Most common heat treatment process for hardening ferrous alloy is known as carburizing. The quality assurance of carburizing process requires metallographic analysis of case depth, retained austenite, intergranular oxidation, and carbide network by means of metallographic sample. Metallographic preparation consists of sectioning, mounting, plane grinding, polishing to mirror surface, and etching. It is difficult for non-expert to prepare metallographic sample with global mirror surface because preparation skill needs long time experience in this field. There is no study on expert skills in preparation of metallographic samples. In this study, the difference of handheld plane grinding motion of metallographic specimen between expert and non-expert execution was analyzed. For this clarification, an electromyogram (EMG) of the muscle activities between expert and non-expert were investigated. As a result of investigation, we found the clear difference in the muscle activities of triceps, flexor digitorum superficialis, and abductor pollicis brevis between expert and other subjects.
Keywords: grinding; polishing; emg; metallographic preparation
Caregiver's Gaze and Field of View Presumption Method During Bath Care in the Elderly Facility BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Akiyoshi Yamamoto; Noriyuki Kida; Akihiko Goto; Tomoko Ota; Tatsunori Azuma; Syuji Yamamoto; Henry, Jr. Barrameda
Reduced mental fatigue and ease of mind on caregivers are crucial in order to deliver safe bath care assistance in the elderly facility. In this paper, we present an experiment quantifying the eye gaze and field of view of the caregiver while performing bath care assistance. First, we used optical motion analyzing apparatus, head mounted gaze measuring apparatus, motion sensor (applied to 5 points: wrist, waist, neck, head and ankle in sequence) and compared data. Subjects imitated the motions of bathing assistance in a laboratory. Second, we clarified the validity of data by studying simultaneously recorded multiple people's data taken under role play settings (caregiver role and care receiver role) in an actual bathroom setting. The findings of the study are highly relevant in outlining a safe and secure bathing assistance related to reducing the mental burden on caregivers as well as giving them "ease of mind" while performing bath care.
Keywords: caregiver; elderly facility; bath care assistance; presumption method; blind spot; motion capture

Anthropometry, Design and Ergonomics

Research on the Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) Operational Error of Pilot Base on Cloud Model and Uncertainty Theory BIBAKFull-Text 91-100
  Yang Gao; Yanchen Hou
Through the Cloud model and uncertainty theory research on Continuous Descent Approach (CDA) procedures is a simple and rapid method. This paper analyzed aircraft's required time of arrival (RTA) in CDA process with the Cloud model, meanwhile the six operational errors of pilot were defined. From uncertainty theory, the probability distribution of the CDA operational error of pilot will be faintly determined. Although data for CDA operating experience are sparse in China, further research will continue.
Keywords: Continuous Descent Approach; Cloud model; required time of arrival; operational error; uncertainty theory
Study on the Evaluation of Automotive Seat Comfort during Prolonged Simulated Driving BIBAKFull-Text 101-111
  Xianxue Li; Li Ding; Qianxiang Zhou; Huimin Hu; Chaoyi Zhao
Prolonged driving can affect driver's lumbar and neck such as low back pain and cervical spondylosis. The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between drivers' comfort and their physiological parameters, the seat pressure distribution during prolonged driving in order to evaluate the comfort of different automotive seats. The experiment was performed on two actual automobiles. Six male drivers, aged 20 to 24 years participated in the simulated driving experiment in which the drivers sat in the car and simulated the driving movements in 2 hours. Electromyography (EMG), seat pressure distribution and oxygen saturation were measured during the experiment with subjective questionnaire. According to the results, MPF, MF, Pm and longitudinal pressure integral (PL) are high significant with the subjective comfort, otherwise the oxygen saturation was almost constant during the whole experiment which has little significance. Therefore from the study we can see the most sensitive part to feel discomfort during prolonged driving and the relationship between discomfort and physiological parameters was also clarified which can be used to find which automotive seat is more comfortable.
Keywords: automotive; seat comfort; electromyography; pressure distribution
Simulation on Thermal Control System of the Extravehicular Spacesuit BIBAKFull-Text 112-123
  Tanqiu Li; Jing Zhang; Xiugan Yuan; Li Ding
The extravehicular (EVA) spacesuit is the life support system for astronauts in the extravehicular activity and help the astronauts perform the assembling of large space vehicle and maintenance. The thermal control system is one of the most important functions for extravehicular spacesuit, and it's directly related to the thermal protection structure and active temperature control, especially to the human body heat load. In this study, a human-suit thermal control model was built and the effect of human heat load, outside thermal environment and their composition effect to the thermal control system was analyzed. The extravehicular spacesuit prototyping system was used to validate the model. The results show as the follows.(1) It's reasonable to set 3 percent of the chiller flow as the lowest gear of thermal control system which can maintain the inside suit thermal comfort during low temperature and low metabolism situation. (2) The thermal control system's response will be faster if the temperature gear is higher. (3) It is not significantly affected to the temperature response of cooling input if the human metabolism rate is below 500W. (4) Thermal control model's validation and evaluation by dry thermal manikin is receivable. Overall, the human-suit thermal control model can be used to improve the design of extravehicular spacesuit's thermal protection system.
Keywords: spacesuit; thermal control; human body heat load
Calibration of Online Situation Awareness Assessment Systems Using Virtual Reality BIBAKFull-Text 124-135
  Sebastien Mamessier; Daniel Dreyer; Matthias Oberhauser
In an attempt to predict and prevent accident situations in complex socio-technical systems, one needs to be able to model and simulate concepts such as situation awareness (SA) and processes responsible for maintaining it. This is particularly true in the case of online support systems and adaptive displays which cannot rely on SA measurement techniques based on freeze probe techniques. This work investigates the state of the art in computational models of situation awareness and proposes a method to calibrate and evaluate such models using virtual reality human-in-the-loop experiments. This work introduces a new methodology to evaluate and calibrate online SA assessment systems taking advantage of the flexibility and reconfigurable power of virtual reality environments. This technology provides the experimenter with full control on the scenarios, cockpit types and interfaces. It also allows testing of off-nominal situations such as the loss of an instrument and more severe failures. Moreover, eye tracking capabilities provide an accurate way of registering monitoring events and feed SA assessment models with realistic data.
Keywords: situation awareness; mental models; virtual reality
A Digital Human Model for Performance-Based Design BIBAKFull-Text 136-147
  Tim Marler; Steve Beck; Uday Verma; Ross Johnson; Victoria Roemig; Behzad Dariush
Real-time optimization-based posture prediction has fostered the development of zone differentiation, whereby performance-measure values resulting from a predicted posture are evaluated and displayed for large volumes of target points surrounding an avatar. To date, this tool was limited with respect to computational speed and practical applications. This paper presents a series of improvements and new features, including new algorithms for sphere filling and collision avoidance, significant increases to computational speed, incorporation of whole-body posture prediction, new methods for visualizing results, and multi-dimensional zone differentiation, which is the ability to automatically calculate multiple zones for various sets of problem parameters. These new tools collectively advance human systems integration. They are successfully applied to three example problems and demonstrate the ability to direct product design virtually, based on human performance.
Keywords: human-machine interface; comfort evaluation; dynamic pilot posture; cockpit
Context-Aware Posture Analysis in a Workstation-Oriented Office Environment BIBAKFull-Text 148-159
  Konlakorn Wongpatikaseree; Hideaki Kanai; Yasuo Tan
Among current research trends, correction of the sitting posture is attracting growing attention. Most office workers suffer several health problems during their work. The two greatest causes of health problems in the office environment are simple things. The first is poor sitting posture. Sitting with poor posture in front of a computer for hours causes cumulative damage. The second is an inappropriate workstation environment. The workstation environment is related to good sitting posture. For example, if the desk is too low, the user has to lean forward to look at the display. To address this problem, we propose a sitting posture recognition system that can recognize both human posture and the context of the workstation environment. The proposed system has three components. First, skeleton tracking is used to create a sideways view of the human skeleton. The skeleton model in this research is used to measure the joint angles of the human body. Second, we detect information on objects using a proposed workstation environment tracking system. Three types of features are used to filter the objects from the depth image. Finally, we compare the overall information with a standard sitting posture in a model-matching component. Experimental studies showed that the system can provide the necessary information for analyzing the human posture. A physician or user can apply this information to achieve correct sitting posture or prevent health problems in the office using the provided results.
Keywords: Sitting posture recognition; skeleton model; workstation environment tracking
Comfort Evaluation of Cockpit Based on Dynamic Pilot Posture BIBAKFull-Text 160-166
  Hongjun Xue; Xiaoyan Zhang; Yingchun Chen; Lin Zhou
Comfortable dynamic pilot posture is the principle for steer design and layout of cockpit design, and is used to study on how to improve the manipulation efficiency. This paper has built a comfort evaluation method considering the consecutive of pilot manipulation based on the static pilot posture, which using the comfort of the dynamic pilot posture to evaluate the comfort of cockpit. The dynamic posture data has be captured by the Measurand@ motion capture system in the cockpit. Then the comfortable evaluation is executed for the pilot postures by fuzzy evaluation method. Form the results, the comfortable evaluation conclusions of cockpit design can be deduced. The better comfortable the pilots have the better design the cockpit is. The result has been validated through the evaluation by JACK software. The conclusion is: the two has the same opinion on the key manipulation equipments, but the new method can analyze the consecutive change of pilot comfort and can discover the interference between pilot and cockpit equipments during the whole manipulation. The evaluation results can instruct the optimization of the cockpit design and improve the control efficiency and flight safety.
Keywords: human-machine interface; comfort evaluation; dynamic pilot posture; cockpit
Based on Upper Extremity Comfort ROM of Ergonomic Methods for Household Products Design BIBAKFull-Text 167-173
  Fan Yang; Qianxiang Zhou; Aiping Yang; Huimin Hu; Xin Zhang; Zhongqi Liu
The structure of product demands a higher level of user performance and involves risk that may possibly negatively impact the user's safety and health. For this reason, the evaluation or design of new products requires extensive knowledge of human interaction, including the operation and comfort of motion. This paper presents a technique for assessment of the upper extremity comfortable ROM. The method is based on new experimental data from perceived discomfort of subjects, and uses digital human modeling (DHM) systems to verify the perceived discomfort rank. 55 participants participated in this experiment. They were required to extract and insert pegs from different panels. We get the comfort ROM of subjects according to subjective comfortable ratings and use digital DHM systems to verify the perceived discomfort rank. In this paper, comfortable motion range of the 50th percentile was shown only. Using DHM systems, we can supply upper limb comfortable motion range of different percentile Chinese people for household products ergonomics design.
Keywords: Comfort ROM; DHM; Product design; Ergonomics
Measurement and Analysis of Anthropometric Parameters of Young Male Vehicle Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 174-181
  Qianxiang Zhou; Zhongqi Liu; Fang Xie; Sijuan Zheng; Shihua Zhou
In this study, anthropometric data of 1243 vehicle drivers were sampled and the their age was from 17 to 34 years and averaged 21.85±2.82years. 76 anthropometric static parameters and 11 functional parameters were studied. The 76 static parameters were measured with the Non-contact 3d human boy scanners of VITUS SMART XXL systems while the 11 functional parameters were measured manually with Martin measuring scale. The correlation and fitting formulas of body height, sitting height and other parameters were measured and obtained. We also contrasted measured data with data form GJB 1835-1993. The present analysis showed that the correlation between sizes of body length and sitting height was significant. Sizes of body length and enclosing size and width direction were all increased compared to those in the 1980s. The present results were consistent with other researchers' current research results. The measured data could be an important basis for the data of young male anthropometric parameters and edition of relative standard and design of specific equipment.
Keywords: Anthropometric parameters; Anthropometry; Correlation analysis; Ergonomics

Ergonomics and Human Modelling in Work and Everyday Life Environments

Future Applied Conventional Technology Engineering New Academic Fields from Manufacturing Country JAPAN BIBAKFull-Text 185-196
  Tomoko Ota; Atsushi Endo; Hiroyuki Hamada
There are various traditional crafts in Japan. They have a long history, and their techniques and cultures have been inherited by many craftspeople. There are various wisdoms in many traditional crafts. In order to create new things, these wisdoms have to be studied by the science technology. Therefore, "Future Applied Conventional Technology Engineering" is defined as becoming the implicit knowledge of traditional manufacturing into formal knowledge by using science technology, and opening up new future for manufacturing by applying them to current manufacturing.
Keywords: Future Applied Conventional Technology Engineering; Traditional Crafts; Manufacturing Country; Implicit Knowledge; Formal Knowledge
Comparison of Different Tea Whisk Influence on Bubble Form in Processes of "The Way of Tea" BIBAKFull-Text 197-203
  Tomoko Ota; Wang Zelong; Soutatsu Kanazawa; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Hiroyuki Hamada
In this paper, three kinds of Japanese tea whisks' influence on bubble form in "the way of tea" process were investigated. The bubble form and distribution state by each whisk after 100%, 80%, 50% and 30% of tea making finishing time were recorded and analyzed through numerical processing. In order to verify the quality of tea whisk, three kinds of tea whisks' performance were evaluated and compared during the whole tea making process. Consequently, it can be concluded that "Yabunochi" was the most efficient tea whisk for making a perfect Japanese tea.
Keywords: The way of tea; Tea whisk; bubble form; Japanese tea
Bedroom Temperature and Sleeping Quality BIBAKFull-Text 204-211
  Hui-Chun Chen; Ching-Chung Chen; Fang-Ling Lin; Chih-Lin Chang
Poor sleeping quality will affect the concentration, reaction and memory ability, and decrease the cognitive abilities such as memory, learning, the ability of expressing complex language, and the capability to make decision firmly. There are some possible causes such as concern about wakefulness, temporary, anxiety or depression, sleep apnea, other illnesses, illuminant, noises and other stimulants etc. Experts agree the temperature of sleeping area and how comfortable people feels in it affect how well and how long they snooze. Many researchers suggest body temperature has connection with the amount of deep sleep an individual gets during the night. However, most of the studies discussed temperature and sleeping quality are conducted in American or European area, however, the situation at tropical area (such as Taiwan) has not been discussed. Therefore, this study set up an experiment performed by Actigraphy to explore the relationships between sleeping quality and bedroom temperature in Taiwan.
Keywords: sleeping quality; bedroom temperature; sleeping disorder
Comparison of Characteristics Recognition in the "Mitate" of Urushi Crafts BIBAKFull-Text 212-223
  Atsushi Endo; Chieko Narita; Koji Kuroda; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Yutaro Shimode; Hiroyuki Hamada
Urushi crafts is one of the Japanese traditional crafts. Urushi painting and "Maki-e" decoration of these Urushi crafts works were removed by usage for many years. Experts of Urushi crafts have repaired and restored them correctly by gain an insight into their conditions, materials and techniques. They can understand the contained information by watching the works. This observation method is called "Mitate". In this study, it was aimed to examine how to conduct Mitate when Urushi craftspeople look at the works. As a result, it is considered that expert craftspeople could ensure the characteristics recognition by gaining and combining more information from the work than the other subject.
Keywords: Mitate; Text mining; Maki-e; Urushi crafts; Craftspeople; Expert and Non-expert
Evaluation of Kyo-Yuzen-Zome Fabrics with Different Pastes BIBAKFull-Text 224-235
  Takashi Furukawa; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Noriaki Kuwahara; Noriyuki Kida
"Yuzen-zome" is a traditional but still popular method of dyeing fabrics in Japan. The products using the Yuzen-zome method and manufactured in Kyoto city are called "Kyo-Yuzen-zome." The dyeing method of Yuzen-zome can be dividing into 10 procedures. A specialized craftsman is in charge of each procedure. During the paste application (Nori-oki) procedure, the expert applies a starch paste or a rubber paste to a fabric. The two pastes create different effect on the dyed fabric. At market, the fabric with a starch paste application is perceived to have a higher value than that with a rubber paste. In this study, the difference of the viscosity between two materials was clarified, and specimens which craftsman dyed were observed. Then how two materials put on fabrics, and the structures of them were measured.
Keywords: Paste; Fabric; Dyeing; Starch; Rubber
A Task Analytic Process to Define Future Concepts in Aviation BIBAKFull-Text 236-246
  Brian F. Gore; Cynthia Wolter
A necessary step when developing next generation systems is to understand the tasks that operators will perform. One NextGen concept under evaluation termed Single Pilot Operations (SPO) is designed to improve the efficiency of airline operations. This SPO concept includes a Pilot on Board (PoB), a Ground Station Operator (GSO), and automation. A number of procedural changes are likely to result when such changes in roles and responsibilities are undertaken. Automation is expected to relieve the PoB and GSO of some tasks (e.g. radio frequency changes, loading expected arrival information). A major difference in the SPO environment is the shift to communication-cued crosschecks (verbal / automated) rather than movement-cued crosschecks that occur in a shared cockpit. The current article highlights a task analytic process of the roles and responsibilities between a PoB, an approach-phase GSO, and automation.
Keywords: Task analysis; concept evaluation; single pilot operations
Application of E-learning System Reality in Kyoto-style Earthen Wall Training BIBAKFull-Text 247-253
  Akihiko Goto; Hirofumi Yoshida; Yuka Takai; Wang Zelong; Hiroyuki Sato
In this paper, application of e-learning system in Kyoto-style earthen wall training was introduced and investigated. Simultaneously, a new design of e-learning (on-line) "Kyokabe" coating teaching system was put forward and established focusing on the analysis of motion, electromyography and eye movement. Consequently it was verified to provide a platform to publish the latest quantitative researches and coasting technical skills for assisting beginners to understand the key points in process technique from expert.
Keywords: E-learning system; Kyoto-style earthen wall; clay wall; training; painting
The Influence of Shift Workers Sleeping Quality upon Job Performance BIBAKFull-Text 254-262
  Yu-Ching Huang; Fang-Ling Lin; Hui-Chun Chen; Ching-Chung Chen; Chih-Lin Chang
In the past few decades shift workers are highly needed to meet the demands of globalization and the 24-hour society worldwide. There are about 20% of labors doing shift jobs in America and European. In Taiwan, there are almost 35.5% of labors work shift jobs. Shift and night shift workers usually sleep 15-20% less than the regular workers, and, the sleeping quality during the day time is not as good as during the night. This study discusses the relationships between sleeping quality and job performance of shift workers on various shifting working hours by reviewing the previous literatures and researches. On the other hand, the study further compares the two methods of measuring sleeping quality and discusses the advantages and weakness of different testing methods. The results could provide more useful references to researchers who are interesting in the issues of sleeping quality and shift works while choosing instrument of testing sleeping quality.
Keywords: sleeping quality; shift workers; sleeping disorder
The Classification Tendency and Common Denomination of the Points Paid Attention in Ikebana Instruction BIBAKFull-Text 263-272
  Yuki Ikenobo; Noriaki Kuwahara; Noriyuki Kida; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto
"Ikebana" is one of the representative aspects of Japanese Culture. However Ikebana arranging skill has been passed down as an oral tradition from master to disciple, rather than in a systematic educational system. This research examines the words used by a teacher with regard to ikebana arrangements created by a beginner and an experienced arranger, examines what parts of the arrangements are focused on and evaluated, and looks at the points ikebana teacher pay attention to in correcting arrangements. It is possible that clarifying the criteria for evaluation and correction of arrangements will contribute to establishing a logical and scientific method of teaching ikebana in the future.
   With respect to the arrangement created by a beginner, there were many comments about the "tai" portion rather than evaluation of the overall form of the arrangement. So "tai" is supposed to be a difficult part of Ikebana arrangement for beginner. Regarding the arrangement created by the experienced arranger, it is possible that overall balance of the arrangement made the viewer have a positive impression of the whole work. However, a few positive comments were also made about the overall arrangement created by the beginner. Although the beginner's arrangement was not as accomplished as the work by an experienced arranger, it appears that viewers don't always look negatively at an arrangement created by a beginner. Next concerning correction of the arrangement, Comments for correction of Ikebana arrangement occurred both for beginner and for experienced arranger, though experienced arrangers followed the standard method. These results indicate that comments made during the correction of an arrangement can be categorized into two types: "comments made because of discrepancy with the one standard arranging method," and "comments made because of disagreement with the aesthetics of the viewer." The former type of comment occurs only for the arrangement made by a beginner, as opposed to many positive comments for the arrangement made by an experienced arranger. The latter type of comment seems to be made for arrangements both by an experienced arranger and a beginner.
Keywords: Correction; arrangements; comments; aesthetic; evaluation; standard method
Analysis and Comparison of Ergonomics in Laparoscopic and Open Surgery -- A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 273-281
  Kristian Karlovic; Stefan Pfeffer; Thomas Maier; Karl-Dietrich Sievert; Ralf Rothmund; Monika A. Rieger; Benjamin Steinhilber
This pilot study systematically analyses and compares ergonomics of laparoscopic and open surgery in gynecology and urology. The results will help to identify and describe elements for ergonomic optimization in these professions. Further a supporting technical system to reduce physical demands shall be developed on the basis of assessment. A multiple measurement approach including subjective and objective methods was used with regard to the complex setting in surgery units. Subjective and objective methods indicate musculoskeletal strain for both types of surgery. Several indications for low ergonomics and static work have been found.
Keywords: Ergonomics; healthcare; supporting system; workload
Effect of Wall Material of a Room on Performance in Long Monotonous Work BIBAKFull-Text 282-291
  Hiroki Nishimura; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Atsushi Endo; Noriaki Kuwahara
A decline in concentration and physical/mental fatigue induce the occurrence of errors in monotonous work, or a decline in work efficiency. The efficiency of monotonous work is closely related to the environment of a room. Historically, Japan incorporates natural materials, such as clay, grass, bamboo charcoal in the interior construction of rooms. Natural materials used for interiors characteristically have properties which adjust to moisture levels and absorb contaminants in a house. We thus, expect the possibility of utilizing these specific effects to improve work efficiency while performing tedious work. The purpose of this study is to clarify how materials, such as wallpaper, clay wall and bamboo charcoal board, used in the construction of an interior, influence work efficiency and fatigue during long monotonous work. In this study, subjects sorted literature to represent the monotonous work used in the research. The status of work was recorded via video camera and the brain waves of the participants were measured. Fatigue levels, before and after the experiment, were also recorded.
Keywords: long monotonous work; interior environment; clay wall; bamboo charcoal; fatigue
Comparative Study on the Feature of Kitchen Knife Sharpening Skill between Expert and Non-Expert BIBAKFull-Text 292-300
  Yuka Takai; Masahiko Yamada; Akihiko Goto; Wang Zelong; Akira Ii
Sharpening is one of basic culinary for a cook. In this study, 10 experts and 10 non-experts from Kyoto culinary art college were employed to investigate the gesture of sharpening. The feature of processing was recorded and summarized by a force plate and two cameras. All participants' main movement elements were counted and summarized. The most representative subjects of expert and non-expert in each type were observed and analyzed by Digital Microscopy. The movement gesture performing with right hand deeply holding the knife was the recommended knife position.
Keywords: Sharpening; Expert; Non-Expert; Gesture
Visual Behavior in a Japanese Drum Performance of Gion Festival Music BIBAKFull-Text 301-310
  Katsuma Yamada; Masaru Ohgiri; Takashi Furukawa; Hisanori Yuminaga; Akihiko Goto; Noriyuki Kida; Hiroyuki Hamada
The purpose of this study was to focus on the gaze shift in a coordinated musical performance and experimentally clarify its role in the matched timing of the players. To summarize the results obtained in the present study, (1) the number of gaze shifts for the expert was less than that for the non-expert; (2) the expert's gaze shifts decreased significantly at the moment of a beat; (3) the expert did not turn his gaze on the drum surface, but turned his gaze between his drum and the opposite person's drum; and (4) the percentages of gaze location on the drum surface of the self and the drum surface of the opposite person were higher in the case of the non-expert.
Keywords: Gaze; percentages of gaze location areas; Expert; Non-expert

Advances in Healthcare

Understanding and Facilitating the Communication Process among Healthcare Professionals BIBAKFull-Text 313-324
  Janaina Cintra Abib; André Bueno; Junia Anacleto
We present a system for e-health considering natural user interactions for mobile through analysis of healthcare professionals' activities. The healthcare professionals have to manager patients' care and their activities, take notes of all of them and share information. Communication between healthcare professionals is carried out through notations on paper, verbally and sometimes through messages by mobile. These procedures make the communication process inefficient and slow. We studied the relation between healthcare professionals, how they interacting and how they communicate in a hospital to propose a better way of communication, supported by technology. The analysis of activities ensured that the needs of the healthcare professionals were hit and the routine of these professionals was maintained, making this interaction more natural. This experiments show us how the healthcare professionals communicate themselves, to do regular activities related to their work, to exchange experience and to talk about trivial matters. The use of technological accelerated the communication, and the tasks disseminated through big screen TV, allowed that everyone could share the tasks and resolve them quickly by the team.
Keywords: Natural user interface; communication process and information
PEGASO: Towards a Life Companion BIBAKFull-Text 325-331
  Stefano Carrino; Maurizio Caon; Omar Abou Khaled; Giuseppe Andreoni; Elena Mugellini
In the frame of the PEGASO European project, we aim at promoting healthier lifestyles focusing on the alimentary education and physical activity. This paper presents the concept of health companion as the main tool to inform and push the user towards a healthier lifestyle. This companion is an advanced interface that assists and entertains the user, providing him an adequate knowledge about alimentary and physical education. The companion is based on a knowledge model of the user and its behavior; it is composed of three main facets: is tailored to the user, is based on affective design and is designed to be a life companion.
Keywords: smartphone; health; obesity
Biomechanical Study of Foot Force Pattern in Hallux Valgus (HV) Patients BIBAKFull-Text 332-339
  Saba Eshraghi; Ibrahim Esat
Background: Hallux valgus is the angulation of the big toe of more than 15 degrees. Many people during their lives are challenged with this condition. The occurrence is 3 times more in women to men. However one of the causes of the condition is congenital but the other important factor is wearing narrow toe box and high heel shoes. There are some devices measuring the foot kinematic or sole pressure for identifying such condition but as there are lots of variations in foot kinematics and pressure the identification of the disease becomes more challenging. Many previous works are published regarding to foot sole pressure pattern but still early recognition of the condition is needed.
   Method: To see the existence of force pattern out of gait experiments, Rs-Scan device used to take the kinematic data of the one complete foot contact. 10 trials were conducted of each volunteer with the full right foot contact with the pressure mat. 3 valid trials have been chosen for final analyses. With this method the load/pressure measurement under the 10 anatomical regions of the foot have been recorded and used to recognise people with and without deformity. Furthermore, Motion Capture cameras were used to capture the first and the second metatarsal movements in HV and Non HV volunteers to see whether there is a joint laxity of the metatarsals in HV patients.
   Results: It was observed that the load pattern in forefoot in people with HV was significantly different compared to non HV volunteers. So independent sample T-Test done and the statistical difference less than 0.05 observed in Toe 1, Metatarsal 1, Metatarsal 2, Metatarsal 3, Metatarsal 4 and Metatarsal 5. So just there was no difference load pattern on the Toe 2-5. Hence, the maximum load was on the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal heads in people with HV which is already published by previous authors but the walking speed showed a significant effect on the force variations in both group. The relative movements captured by 7 cameras in Motion Capture laboratory were monitored and it has shown the greater movement of first and second metatarsal heads in patients with HV.
   Conclusion: The observed force pattern was changing trial to trial in each individual to have a consistent reading they asked to walk 10 times over the pressure mat. After getting this, it was discovered that there is a relationship between walking speed and maximum load applied to the forefoot. Also there was rising load on the 2nd and 3rd metatarsal heads in HV patients. Hence, the 6 regions on the forefoot including Toe1, Meta1, Meta 2, Meta 3, Meta 4, Meta 5 were statistically different while comparing HV and control group. It should be indicated that HV group also had more lateral movement of the first metatarsal head comparing to control group.
Keywords: Hallux valgus; Foot force pattern
An Environment for Domestic Supervised Amblyopia Treatment BIBAFull-Text 340-350
  Giancarlo Facoetti; Angelo Gargantini; Andrea Vitali
Amblyopia (also called lazy eye) is a condition in which the eye and the brain do not work properly together; this condition causes poor vision in the lazy eye. It involves around 4% of the children. We have devised a system for the diagnosis and treatment of amblyopia by using 3D technology. To be successful, the proposed treatment must be enjoyable and suitable for domestic use (for instance by watching TV) and carried out with a constant supervision by the doctors. We present a system in which patients and doctors exchange information about the prescribed activities.
Active Prevention by Motivating and Engaging Teenagers in Adopting Healthier Lifestyles: BIBAKFull-Text 351-360
  Renata Guarneri; Giuseppe Andreoni
Prevention in Healthcare is a mandatory strategy for the next future. Health system sustainability together with lifestyle quality improvement are strictly related to this strategy. PEGASO is a EU funded research project addressing these goals in young people through an integrated approach and system dealing with: human modeling 2.0, wearable technology, and social serious gaming for promoting the adoption of a healthier and happy lifestyle. Such an approach related to social and happiness factors rather than to constraints and limitations is fundamental to ensure long term compliance and efficacy for prevention. User requirements will be addressed by the project including a vision that integrates a lifestyle of healthy habits with an environment that promotes healthy living by encouraging exercise and making healthy food affordable and pleasurable.
Keywords: prevention; social serious gaming; human modeling 2.0; teenagers
Robot Patient for Nursing Self-training in Transferring Patient from Bed to Wheel Chair BIBAKFull-Text 361-368
  Zhifeng Huang; Ayanori Nagata; Masako Kanai-Pak; Jukai Maeda; Yasuko Kitajima; Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Kyoko Aida; Noriaki Kuwahara; Taiki Ogata; Jun Ota
In this paper, we proposed a robot patient for the nursing training in patient transfer. The robot patient was developed to reproduce the performance of the patients who are suffering from mobility problems. We targeted on the reproduction of movement of the patient's limbs (arms and legs) with the consideration of physical and voice interaction between the patient and nurse. The robot patient had 15 joints including 2 active joints installed with motors, 4 passive joints installed with electric brakes and 9 passive joints without any actuators. To realize the physical interaction, potentiometer type angle sensors was utilized to detect the rotation angle of the joints of shoulders, elbows and knees. In addition, follow-up control approach was applied to the shoulder joint. By this way the robot could react accordingly when the trainees moved its limbs. A voice recognition module was applied to enable the robot to interact with the trainee by voice. An experiment was performed by a nursing teacher for examine the robot's performance. The robot patient successfully reproduced the patient's movement with physical and voice interaction, including embracing, keeping embracing, standing up, keeping standing and sitting down.
Keywords: nursing skills training; robot patient; patient transfer
Evaluating the Healthcare Management System by Usability Testing BIBAKFull-Text 369-376
  Po-Hsin Huang; Ming-Chuan Chiu
To maintain and enhance good health status, many health management products have been developed. However, most of these products are lack of friendliness and usability. This study proposed a new process to evaluate the usability with an aim to improve the user experience. An experiment was conducted that participants played a Kinect sport game based healthcare management system. Results showed that the heart rates of participants were increased while using this product and led to effective exercise. According to the questionnaire results, this study also proposed some suggestions from the participants to improve the healthcare management system usability. The contributions of this study are both on the academic and practical aspects. In the academia, this study created a usability testing process to evaluate and verify a product/system. Practically, the result in this study could enhance the healthcare management system in a more friendly and useful manner.
Keywords: usability testing; user experience; healthcare management system; kinect
Building a Telemedicine Framework to Improve the Interactions between Cancer Patients and Oncology Triage Nurses BIBAKFull-Text 377-384
  Saif Khairat; Venkatesh Rudrapatna
As healthcare becomes more complex and data driven, the need and use of telemedicine continues to grow. Cancer patients require substantial amount of assistance and guidance through the chemotherapy process. The traditional telephone interaction between patients and providers shows major limitations such as inaccurate assessments and patient dissatisfaction. For that reason, his paper investigates a novel informatics intervention, which is the utilization of telemedicine to improve patient-provider interaction through videoconferencing technologies. The anticipated outcomes include higher accuracy in triage nursing decisions, higher patient and provider satisfaction rates. The ultimate goal of this research is to provide a study design of a telemedicine framework that aims at improving cancer patient management.
Keywords: Telemedicine; Oncology; Cancer; Patient; Provider; Communication; Management
Usability Challenges and Barriers in EHR Training of Primary Care Resident Physicians BIBAFull-Text 385-391
  Min Soon Kim; Martina A. Clarke; Jeffery L. Belden; Elaine Hinton
Current EHRs require a large investment of resources for a user to reach a certain level of proficiency, which is a significant obstacle for new physicians who are not sufficiently trained by their medical schools. Beginning residents in primary care cope with a steep learning curve on EHR use due to EHRs with poor usability, which may lead to medical errors, and decreased quality of patient care. Identifying and addressing early barriers in the learning environment of residents while using an EHR can help improve overall capacity of the new physicians, and save costs for the organization. The goal of this study is to assess current usability challenges and barriers in EHR education and training program at the University of Missouri Health Care (UMHC).
Robotics as a Tool in Fundamental Nursing Education BIBAKFull-Text 392-402
  Yasuko Kitajima; Mitsuhiro Nakamura; Jukai Maeda; Masako Kanai-Pak; Kyoko Aida; Zhifeng Huang; Ayanori Nagata; Taiki Ogata; Noriaki Kuwahara; Jun Ota
The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether the use of robotics can contribute to nursing education, using the training for wheelchair transfers. The most common and extensively used method for practical learning is role playing. However the nursing student cannot turn into a patient thoroughly. To solve this problem, we proposed the creation of a robot patient for wheelchair transfer techniques training.
   The experiment was performed by a nurse. The nurse attempted to assist the robot patient by helping it to stand up from the wheelchair, utilizing the basic techniques and checklist found in the fundamental nursing education textbook. As a result of this study, we have determined that the utilization of a robot could contribute to the teaching material for nursing education, and created an opportunity to reconsider what is accepted as basics or fundamental techniques.
Keywords: Robot patient; Simulated patient; Nursing skill; Nursing Education; Checklist
Integrated Architecture for Next-Generation m-Health Services (Education, Monitoring and Prevention) in Teenagers BIBAKFull-Text 403-414
  Marco Mazzola; Pelin Arslan; Gabriela Cândea; Ciprian Radu; Massimiliano Azzolini; Cristiana Degano; Giuseppe Andreoni
Obesity and other lifestyle-related illness are among the top healthcare challenges in Europe. The rapid development of the ICT, and in particular mobile technologies offers an important opportunity for introducing the possibility of a new technological framework. In this paper, the PEGASO system is presented. It will be based on a mobile, social and networked gaming platform, considered as a powerful tool to actively engage the younger population in activities that will stimulate healthier choices in their daily lives. The PEGASO project will implement the User Centred Design approach by considering our target population (i.e. teenagers) at the centre of the system in a palingenetic process. Smartphone is the first and key sensor system. The mobile device also acts as communication gateway towards the other sensors. Basic services, such as those related to location and basic motion sensors to detect physical activity, are provided through sensors embedded within the smartphone.
Keywords: Teenagers Obesity Prevention; Mobile Based Platform; System Architecture
The Semantics of Refinement Chart BIBAKFull-Text 415-426
  Dominique Méry; Neeraj Kumar Singh
Refinement techniques play a major role to build a complex system incrementally. Refinement is supported by several modelling techniques in the area of system designing. These modelling techniques are either in textual notation or in graphical notation. This paper focuses on refinement chart (RC) that is based on graphical notations. The refinement chart is a graphical representation of a complex system using layering approach, where functional blocks are divided into multiple simpler blocks in a new refinement level, without changing the original behaviour of the system. The main contribution is to provide a formal semantical description of the refinement chart. The refinement chart offers a clear view of assistance in "system" integration that models complex critical medical systems. Moreover, it also sketches a clear view of different operating modes and their associated components. To realize the effectiveness of this approach, we apply this refinement based graphical modelling technique to model the grand challenge: cardiac pacemaker.
Keywords: Refinement; modelling; semantics; verification
Pegaso: A Serious Game to Prevent Obesity BIBAKFull-Text 427-435
  Lucia Pannese; Dalia Morosini; Petros Lameras; Sylvester Arnab; Ian Dunwell; Till Becker
The problem of obesity in the world has grown considerably in recent years. Between 16% and 33% of children and adolescents are obese. Even if obesity is among one of the easiest medical conditions to recognize, it is one of the most difficult to treat. The issue of individuals' motivation to change is the most significant obstacle in promoting positive health behaviours. Games' ability to reach and engage large number of players for long periods of time provides an opportunity for them to be used as a pedagogical tool. This paper describes how serious games and 'gamified' daily life processes appear to be a suitable means for supporting persuasion towards healthful behaviour within the frame of the Pegaso project that aims to develop a multi-dimensional cross-disciplinary ICT system to prevent overweight and obesity in the younger population.
Keywords: serious games; obesity; adolescents; healthy nutrition; game based learning
Virtual Knee Arthroscopy Using Haptic Devices and Real Surgical Images BIBAKFull-Text 436-447
  Shahzad Rasool; Alexei Sourin; Vladimir Pestrikov; Fareed Kagda
Knee arthroscopic surgery is performed on the knee joint by making small incisions on the skin through which an endoscopic camera (arthroscope) is inserted along with miniature surgical instruments. It demands from the surgeons to acquire special motor-skills. A few commercial simulators are available for arthroscopic surgery training however the area is still very open for research and development. In contrast to the common fully-3D way of simulation of knee arthroscopy, we propose a hybrid image-based approach where real arthroscopic videos are converted to panoramic images which are augmented with 3D deformable models of the tissues as well as 3D models of surgical instruments. The motions of the virtual arthroscope and the instruments are controlled by two desktop haptic devices. The hybrid virtual scene is visualized through a moving circular window, which follows the motion of the virtual arthroscope.
Keywords: virtual arthroscopy; haptics; image-based
Using Ontologies and Semantic Web Technology on a Clinical Pedigree Information System BIBAKFull-Text 448-459
  João Miguel Santos; Beatriz Sousa Santos; Leonor Teixeira
Clinical family histories, in the form of clinical pedigrees, are recognized as valuable tools in the diagnostic, risk assessment and treatment of patients and their family members. The lack of adequate tools in present health information systems (HIS) is one of the factors that currently deter practitioners from making full use of these tools. In this paper we present OntoFam, an ontology-based clinical pedigree information system that can be integrated with existing HIS. We focus on the usage of ontologies and semantic web technology in the context of this information system and present a practical scenario of integration with hemo@care, a HIS designed for hemophilia care.
Keywords: ontology-based information system; clinical family history; clinical pedigree; semantic web technology
Formalizing the Glucose Homeostasis Mechanism BIBAKFull-Text 460-471
  Neeraj Kumar Singh; Hao Wang; Mark Lawford; Thomas S. E. Maibaum; Alan Wassyng
The failure of hardware or software in the medical domain can lead to injuries and loss of life. Design errors are a major source of the defects that are introduced during the system development process. Traditional validation and verification techniques such as simulation and testing are effective methods for detecting these defects, but are seriously limited in that they cannot guarantee to find all existing defects. Formal methods provide a complementary alternative to testing and simulation, and, although we do not yet have a 'theory of coverage' when combining formal validation and verification techniques with testing and simulation, the combination provides better coverage than any one of them on its own. The insulin infusion pump (IIP) is a critical system that is used by millions of people around the world. IIP failures are responsible for a large number of serious illnesses and deaths. This paper presents the formalization of the glucose homeostasis mechanism that provides an environmental model for the IIP. We can then use this model to validate the appropriateness and correctness of system behaviours at an early stage of development.
Keywords: Homeostasis; Diabetes; Event-B; Formal methods; Proof-based development; Refinement
ENT Disease Diagnosis Using an Expert System BIBAKFull-Text 472-483
  Duwaraka Yoganathan; Sangaralingam Kajanan
The field of medicine has witnessed a dramatic growth. However, the accurate and timely diagnosis of disease continues to be a serious clinical problem. This is particularly important for Otolaryngology/Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) disease because ENT disorders can affect hearing, speaking, learning and many other important activities. Further, certain untreated ENT diseases can be fatal. Therefore, early diagnose of ENT diseases is vital. While ENT specialist's service is not always readily accessible, computer aided smart technologies that can assist general physicians or junior medical officers in diagnosing ENT diseases and subsequently refer complicated cases to senior ENT experts can enhance the efficacy of healthcare system. Despite the significance of computer aided ENT disease diagnosis systems, the research related this subspecialty is limited. Therefore, in this paper, we describe the research project about an ENT diagnosis expert system that can assist physicians in diagnosing ENT diseases. In particular, we will discuss in detail the development, evaluation and potential benefits of an ENT disease diagnosis expert system.
Keywords: ENT Expert System; Otolaryngology Disease Diagnosis; Expert System; Inferencing
Application of Bayesian Networks in Consumer Service Industry and Healthcare BIBAKFull-Text 484-495
  Le Zhang; Yuan Gao; Balmatee Bidassie; Vincent G. Duffy
Bayesian networks are powerful in data mining and analyzing causal relationships of an uncertain-reasoning problem. The implementation of Bayesian networks in industry and healthcare diagnosis can facilitate the process of locating causations in complex issues. This study conducted two case studies by BayesiaLab in consumer service and healthcare domain. Case Study One used unsupervised learning and supervised learning on the individual data set of county road traffic volume in Indiana State and concluded that road type has the most significant impact on daily vehicle miles traveled. In Case Study Two, only supervised learning was used to observe the aggregated data of adverse mental health effect on civilians, deployed veterans and nondeployed veterans of different genders. Both types of veterans showed higher probability to have adverse mental health compared to civilians. In conclusion, Bayesian networks provided valid results to support prior research. Further research is needed to investigate the differences between using individual data and aggregated data, and to apply Bayesian networks in meta-analysis.
Keywords: Bayesian Networks; BayesiaLab; Traffic Volume; Mental Health

Rehabilitation Applications

Design and Ergonomics of Monitoring System for Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 499-507
  Giuseppe Andreoni; Fiammetta Costa; Alberto Attanasio; Giuseppe Baroni; Sabrina Muschiato; Paola Nonini; Andrea Pagni; Roberto Biraghi; Roberto Pozzi; Maximiliano Romero; Paolo Perego
This paper presents the study and the development of a tele-monitoring system with the aim to support elderly people living alone. The intent of our new system is to permanently connect the elderly with their relative and caregivers. The tele-monitoring system allows to continuously monitoring the subjects as they were in a hospital and, in case of anomalies in the health state, automatically share and alarm to caregivers and relatives. The continuous monitoring is done using two different sub-systems: wearable sensors for biomedical data collection and infrared video cameras for fall detection. The main goal of this study is to develop and test the system prototype not only from a functional point of view, but also from the user acceptability and usability point of view. For this reason this studies was based on a parallel development of acceptability and technical issues; this allows to create an ad-hoc tele-monitoring system for elderly.
Keywords: Tele-medicine; Tele-monitoring; Elderly; Wearable devices; Optical monitoring devices
A Low Cost Haptic Mouse for Prosthetic Socket Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 508-515
  Giancarlo Facoetti; Andrea Vitali; Giorgio Colombo; Caterina Rizzi
This paper refers to the design of prosthetic socket adopting a computer-aided approach. The main goal is to make available a modeling tool, named SMA-Socket Modeling Assistant, which permits to replicate/emulate manual operations usually performed by the prosthetist. Typically, s/he also relies on the sense of touch; therefore the underlying idea has been to develop and experiment haptic devices. The paper presents a haptic mouse at low-cost to make it affordable also by small orthopedic labs. It is essentially a traditional mouse device enhanced with a servomotor and a pressure sensor pad integrated with Arduino board and SMA. The application within SMA is described as well as the haptic interaction with physically-based model of the residual limb. Finally preliminary tests are illustrated.
Keywords: prosthesis socket modelling; haptic devices; low cost haptic mouse; Arduino
Evaluating Work Disability of Lower Limb Handicapped within a Human Modeling Framework BIBAKFull-Text 516-526
  Yan Fu; Xingsheng Chen; Shiqi Li; Jacob Gwenguo Chen; Bohe Zhou
An accurate disability evaluation provides good basis for job placement of the handicapped and corresponding accommodations. In this study a work disability analysis model is firstly developed to predict human performance in certain task scenarios and the disability index is finally correlated to DOF of joints, the inner joint moments, the muscle pressure around the stump. The model is made of three levels. The outcome of the third level algorithm will be reflected in digital human in simulated task scenarios. To simulate handicapped behavior, the study further presents a simulation framework to realize the above three-level model, which integrate the two kinds of constraints: task constraints and physical function constraints, reflecting on posture and motion of the digital man. To validate the modeling framework, the study used material handling task as an ex-ample. Ten male BKAs were recruited in Chinese electronic manufacturing companies. The model calculated the optimization angles and moments of knee, hip, elbow joints of healthy and unhealthy parts. The calculated results are put to biomechanical-disability spectrum to generate a weighted disability index, compared to evaluation results by an occupational therapist. Meanwhile, results were put in Jack environment and a manikin was created and compared to another manikin created by motion capture data. The matching results will validate the applicability of the proposed framework to modeling handicapped behavior.
Keywords: Limb handicapped; work disability; human modeling; evaluation
Development of a Tendon-Driven Dexterous Hand for Fine Manipulation BIBAKFull-Text 527-534
  Jamie Galiastro; Hao Zhang; David Ribeiro; Anthony Mele; William Craelius; Kang Li
This paper presents a tendon-driven dexterous hand capable of object manipulation. This dexterous hand is anatomically sound and mimics the musculoskeletal structure of human fingers including the passive mechanism, bone geometry, tendon network. One of the key features of this prosthetic hand is the ability to perform fine finger manipulation motions such as holding a pen with two fingers and rotating the pen. With this feature the user of the prosthesis will be potentially capable of performing a wider range of motions and tasks, which is the key feature missing from current commercially prosthetic hand available today. Some of these tasks can include holding utensils, performing fine manipulation movements in manufacturing settings, as well as many other tasks to greatly assist the user of the prosthesis.
Keywords: Tendon-Driven; Fine Manipulation; Dexterous Hand
Mobile Navigation for Limited Mobility Users BIBAKFull-Text 535-545
  Bettina Harriehausen-Muhlabauter
Modern information technology can improve life in many places and situations in our society. This includes the improvement and simplification of life for people with special needs. We have developed a mobile navigation tool called Wheel Scout, which combines modern mobile information technology, such as smartphones and their programming, with existing navigational technology, meeting the goal to serve specific needs for people with special needs. In comparison to existing tools, we concentrate on barrier-free routes rather than barrier-free buildings and our enhancements include: (a) the marking of barriers on a chosen route, (b) an intelligent computation of a detour in case the chosen route contains barriers, (c) the customization of the app by defining your personal profile(s), (d) the opportunity to include both static as well as temporary barriers, and (e) a high degree of interactivity which enhances the app steadily.
Keywords: Mobile navigation; Calculation of barrier-free walkways; Customization based on degree of impairment; Mobile insertion of static and temporary barriers; Enhancement through interactivity
Analysis of Luria Memory Tests for Development on Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 546-557
  J. A. Hijar Miranda; Erika Hernández Rubio; Amilcar Meneses Viveros
Specialist in mental health and neuropsychology apply tests to patients to evaluate impairment level of people cortical functions. Luria tests are designed to treat defects caused by local lesions that may affect the higher functions of the man. In particular, Luria test study the memory and intellectual processes. An application of Luria test is determinate the level of memory impairment. An example of suffers of memory impairment are older adults. The application efficiency of Luria memory tests in older adults decreases owing to biological factor such as inability moving to place of performance testing. In addition, there are a great demand for health services compared with the number specialist capable of addressing mental deterioration. This increases the complexity of control and monitoring patients. A solution for the problem of application efficiency of Luria tests is a digital implementation of the Luria tests on mobile devices, taking advantages of the characteristic of mobile computing. This solution requires an analysis of the Luria memory tests considerate the HCI factors, the different mobile interfaces, the elements of interaction of mobile devices and in the case study of older adults, the special considerations for this kind of people.
Keywords: Luria memory test; mobile devices; older adults; mobile interfaces; HCI factors; collaborative systems
Research on Senior Response to Transfer Assistance between Wheelchair and Bed BIBAKFull-Text 558-566
  Mikako Ito; Yuka Takai; Akihiko Goto; Noriaki Kuwahara
As of October, 2012, the Japanese population was found to be aging at a rate of 24.1%. The results determined that the rate of aging for this sector of the Japanese population makes Japan one of the most aged societies in the world.
   As the aging population continues to increase in size, we anticipate that more nursing will be necessary to accommodate the future needs of seniors.
   Due to the complex nature and challenging field of senior care, nursing homes experience high employee turnover rates. The shortage of skillful employees is problematic, so the option of training employees without a nursing background may be an integral part of the solution.
   Proper "transfer assistance between wheelchair and bed" is a fundamental element of senior care. However, large gaps in how to perform a safe transfer are noticeable amongst skilled and non-skilled caregivers. To analyze and provide seniors a safe and comfortable transfer, we measured seniors' brain waves and facial expressions as transfers were performed by skilled and non-skilled caregivers. The experiment was not limited to the analysis of transfer techniques. Differences in brain waves, facial expressions, voice, tone and the requests of skilled and non-skilled caregivers were measured as well.
Keywords: patient safety; transfer assistance between wheelchair and bed; brain waves
Effectiveness of Paper Coloring Recreation in an Elderly Persons Care Home BIBAKFull-Text 567-574
  Shinichiro Kawabata
Aging poses a problem all over the world, and the numbers of dementias patients are increasing. In connection, number of elderly nursing home is also increasing. Accordingly, health care sector is facing a serious labor shortage. There are needs to create an recreational activity which can expect improvement of elderly people's dementia prevention and easing a care worker's burden. In this study picture colouring was carried out, as a result behavior problems of elderly people decreased dramatically and burden of care worker has also decreased.
Keywords: Recreation; Elderly care home; colour brush pen; picture coloring

Risk, Safety and Emergency

Non-financial Factors of Job Satisfaction in the Development of a Safety Culture Based on Examples from Poland and Romania BIBAKFull-Text 577-587
  Marcin Butlewski; Agnieszka Misztal; Ruxandra Ciulu
Job satisfaction is a very important criterion which cannot be overstated, and it is, therefore, the subject of a number of studies. Satisfied employees often determine that a success of an organization depends on the level of employees' perception in relation to which the workplace affects the attitude to the performed tasks. This model is the subject of an ongoing research by the authors of non-financial factors of job satisfaction in Polish and Romanian manufacturing (industry) companies. Among the studied factors affecting job satisfaction, there are issues related to occupational safety and ergonomics, and these in turn are main aspects of building a safety culture. The article describes the relationships between: ergonomic level and workplace safety perceived by the employee, safety culture, and the overall level of job satisfaction. The paper discusses the pilot studies carried out so far to verify research tools of questionnaires assessing the non-financial factors of job satisfaction. As a consequence of the interpretation of the results, the article presents the elements comprising safety culture in enterprises in Poland and Romania.
Keywords: job satisfaction; safety culture; ergonomics
Reclaiming Human Machine Nature BIBAKFull-Text 588-599
  Didier Fass
Extending and modifying his domain of life by artifact production is one of the main characteristics of humankind. From the first hominid, who used a wood stick or a stone for extending his upper limbs and augmenting his gesture strength, to current systems engineers who used technologies for augmenting human cognition, perception and action, extending human body capabilities remains a big issue. From more than fifty years cybernetics, computer and cognitive sciences have imposed only one reductionist model of human machine systems: cognitive systems. Inspired by philosophy, behaviorist psychology and the information treatment metaphor, the cognitive system paradigm requires a function view and a functional analysis in human systems design process. According that design approach, human have been reduced to his metaphysical and functional properties in a new dualism. Human body requirements have been left to physical ergonomics or "physiology". With multidisciplinary convergence, the issues of "human-machine" systems and "human artifacts" evolve. The loss of biological and social boundaries between human organisms and interactive and informational physical artifact questions the current engineering methods and ergonomic design of cognitive systems. New development of human machine systems for intensive care, human space activities or bio-engineering systems requires grounding human systems design on a renewed epistemological framework for future human systems model and evidence based "bio-engineering". In that context, reclaiming human factors, augmented human and human machine nature is a necessity.
Keywords: Augmented human; human machine nature; human systems integration; functional parameters; human factors; non-functional parameters; organism
Evacuation Support System for Everyday Use in the Aftermath of a Natural Disaster BIBAKFull-Text 600-611
  Akari Hamamura; Taku Fukushima; Takashi Yoshino; Nobuyuki Egusa
Numerous natural disasters occur in Japan, such as earthquakes, typhoons, and volcanic eruptions. Information technology is expected to facilitate evacuation support when a disaster strikes, but networks cannot be used in many cases. Moreover, if a disaster occurs in a town that people do not frequent often, they may find it difficult to cope initially. It is difficult to access software online immediately at the time of a disaster. Thus, we have developed an evacuation support system called AkariMap, which can be used offline in the aftermath of a disaster. AkariMap is also a system that is suitable for everyday use. AkariMap has two functions: a function that notifies a user about evacuation support information each day and a disaster mode function that users can access at times of emergency. Based on the results of our experiments, we report the following findings. (1) Subjects increasingly accessed local evacuation support information for about 10 days. (2) Even if people did not use the notification function in the long-term, they were still accustomed to using the system. (3) If people need to find a shelter using AkariMap, they can identify a safer shelter by displaying the flooded areas.
Keywords: disaster system; evacuation support; everyday use; offline support system
Safe Walker -- Shoes That Alert the Wearer to a Danger BIBAKFull-Text 612-619
  Motoki Ishida; Hisashi Sato; Takayuki Kosaka
We propose new device that gives the user a warning against walking in a dangerous area. This device provides the warning to avoid crashing an automobile into a user.
Keywords: Shoes Device; Pedestrian; Warning System
Using the Critical Path Method in Analyzing the Interdependencies of Critical Services -- Feasibility Study BIBAKFull-Text 620-629
  Andro Kull
Everyday life is more and more dependent on critical services and no one can argue that interruptions in transportation, electricity, etc. cause big problems in everyday lives. The interdependencies inside of certain sector services are growing, for example financial services are interrupted in losing internet banking system. Also, the interdependencies between critical infrastructure (CI) services are growing -- in case of the power failure, the financial services are not usable etc. The aim of this paper is to propose another approach to describe the interdependencies between critical services. There is a lot of research done in analyzing and modelling the interdependencies between critical services, for example a survey performed by Idaho National Lab under the sponsorship of U.S. Technical Support Working Group identified 30 tools for critical infrastructure interdependency modeling [1]. Our research is adding some specialties in modelling CI interdependencies.
Keywords: critical infrastructure; critical path method; interdependency analysis; recovery objectives
COMPAss: A Space Cognitive Behavior Modeling and Performance Assessment Platform BIBAKFull-Text 630-636
  Yanfei Liu; Zhiqiang Tian; Yu Zhang; Qi Sun; Junsong Li; Jing Sun; Feng Fu
Based on cognitive architecture, COMPAss (Cognitive behaviOr Modeling and Performance Assessment) -- an integrated research & development platform oriented space manual control task is proposed. MRvD (Manual rendezvous and docking) control task is selected for cognitive modeling and human performance assessment. The MRvD cognitive behavior model is built on the platform by extract model declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge and model parameters on the basis of experimental data, and the model's validation is verified by comparing the process and results between model's run and actual control. The verification result shows that the model is effective and model's specific parameter can map human certain cognitive characteristic. Finally by comparing model performance with adjusting model's parameter the human performance is evaluated. As an example how skillful degree influence on human performance for MRvD task is evaluated and a report for skillful degree vs. MRvD performance is produced on COMPAss platform.
Keywords: Cognitive architecture; Manual rendezvous and docking; Cognitive behavior modeling; Performance assessment
HCI Challenges for Community-Based Disaster Recovery BIBAKFull-Text 637-648
  Jan Willem Streefkerk; Martijn Neef; Kenny Meesters; Reinout Pieneman; Kees van Dongen
In disaster recovery, responding professional organizations traditionally assess the needs of communities following a disaster. Recent disasters have shown that volunteer capacities within the community are not yet integrated in recovery activities. To improve the efficiency of responding professionals and utilize the potential capacity from within the community, a platform is needed that identifies needs and capacities and provides situational overviews of recovery activities for different stakeholders. The proposed COBACORE platform aims to 1) bring community needs and capacities directly together, 2) allow professionals to better maintain awareness of recovery activities and to better deploy their capacities and 3) facilitate collaboration between professionals and responding communities. For each function and feature, the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) challenges are outlined. In ongoing work, a first prototype of this platform is implemented and evaluated with stakeholders in simulated disaster recovery activities.
Keywords: disaster recovery; collaboration; information exchange; conceptual design; community engagement; training; coordination
Service-Oriented Emergency Management Collaboration System Design BIBAKFull-Text 649-660
  Fang You; Ri-Peng Zhang; Ping-Ting Li; Jian-Min Wang
Nowadays, the fast development of mobile devices and web technologies has greatly changed every aspect of the society. But in terms of emergency management, most of the existing collaboration systems are implemented on desktop platforms, so a collaboration system designed for mobile environment will be of great value. This paper presented an emergency management collaboration system CoSpace, which is designed base on Service-oriented Architecture. We analyzed user behaviors in emergency management and extract reusable atomic services. After that we define data exchange format and pack these atomic services as web service. Finally we designed UI interaction for CoSpace and realize the whole system.
Keywords: Mobile Collaboration System; Emergency Management; SOA; CBM
Modeling Human Control Strategies in Simulated RVD Tasks through the Time-Fuel Optimal Control Model BIBAKFull-Text 661-670
  Shaoyao Zhang; Yu Tian; Chunhui Wang; Shoupeng Huang; Yan Fu; Shanguang Chen
Human performance modeling has become more and more popular in cognitive science recently. This paper applies a time-fuel optimal control model to model the human control strategies in a simplified RVD task. Preliminary comparisons had been made between the model performance and the performance of human operators. Results show that the model can model the performance of human operators and individual differences. Discussion reveals that the human control strategies in the simplified RVD task depend on a ratio of two time estimates. This finding can provide useful guide for the further cognitive modeling of the RVD tasks.
Keywords: Human Performance Modeling; RVD; Time-Fuel Optimal Control model