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CHI Tables of Contents: 07-208-108-209-109-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Extended Abstracts of ACM CHI'12 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of the 2012 ACM Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Joseph A. Konstan; Ed H. Chi; Kristina Höök
Location:Austin, Texas
Dates:2012-May-05 to 2012-May-10
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1016-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CHI12-2
Links:Conference Website
  1. CHI 2012-05-05 Volume 2
    1. alt.chi
    2. Case studies
    3. Doctoral
    4. Interactivity presentations
    5. Panels
    6. SIGs
    7. Student design
    8. Student games
    9. Student research
    10. Video presentations
    11. Work-in-progress
    12. Workshop summaries

CHI 2012-05-05 Volume 2


UCD: critique via parody and a sequel BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Gilbert Cockton
User-Centred Design (UCD) can't and doesn't design on its own. Parasitic on software design, and appropriating participatory design, UCD is legitimated by what other design traditions allegedly do not do, rather than what UCD actually does make happen. Much Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research doesn't design, proudly rejecting any need for implications for design. UCD is strong on problems, but weak on solutions. Such weaknesses have become masked by orthodoxy and disciplinary ideology. Direct challenges to UCD are not welcome within HCI research. As a step towards finding something new and better to believe in, this alt.chi paper parodies UCD as a basis for a critique of HCI values that identifies one possible way forward.
Massively distributed authorship of academic papers BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Bill Tomlinson; Joel Ross; Paul Andre; Eric Baumer; Donald Patterson; Joseph Corneli; Martin Mahaux; Syavash Nobarany; Marco Lazzari; Birgit Penzenstadler; Andrew Torrance; David Callele; Gary Olson; Six Silberman; Marcus Stünder; Fabio Romancini Palamedi; Albert Ali Salah; Eric Morrill; Xavier Franch; Florian Floyd Mueller; Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Rebecca W. Black; Marisa L. Cohn; Patrick C. Shih; Johanna Brewer; Nitesh Goyal; Pirjo Näkki; Jeff Huang; Nilufar Baghaei; Craig Saper
Wiki-like or crowdsourcing models of collaboration can provide a number of benefits to academic work. These techniques may engage expertise from different disciplines, and potentially increase productivity. This paper presents a model of massively distributed collaborative authorship of academic papers. This model, developed by a collective of thirty authors, identifies key tools and techniques that would be necessary or useful to the writing process. The process of collaboratively writing this paper was used to discover, negotiate, and document issues in massively authored scholarship. Our work provides the first extensive discussion of the experiential aspects of large-scale collaborative research.
What is the object of design? BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Thomas Binder; Giorgio De Michelis; Pelle Ehn; Giulio Jacucci; Per Linde; Ina Wagner
In this paper we reflect upon design at a conceptual level, discussing how creativity can be coupled with participation and experience, dialoguing with philosophers and social theorists, and looking for the experiential grounds of our understanding of the very nature of design. Three words: 'drawing', 'thing' and 'together', are at the center of our discourse. We propose a view of design as accessing, aligning, and navigating among the 'constituents' of the object of design. People interact with the object of design through its constituents. The object of design is to draw things together.
Designing collaborative media: a challenge for CHI? BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Jonas Löwgren; Bo Reimer
Collaborative media refers to digital media where people outside the traditional media industries participate in production as well as infrastructural design. We argue that (1) people's use of computers today increasingly comprise communicating in collaborative media, and that (2) designing collaborative media implies fundamental changes to design processes and designer roles, which in turn (3) forms a challenge to the proactive position of the CHI community in shaping future computer use.
Ethics and dilemmas of online ethnography BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Jessica Lingel
Using the example of research conducted in the body modification community, this paper considers some of the methodological issues of researching online communities, especially when those communities are marginalized or non-dominant. Drawing on texts that address ethical ethnographies of subcultures, I focus on boundaries between insiders and outsiders issues of recruitment, and measures of validity.
I just made love: the system and the subject of experience BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Gopinaath Kannabiran; Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell
Experience has become increasingly relevant to the field of HCI in recent decades and a number of approaches have been drawn from multiple disciplines to engage this rich and elusive topic. In this work, we provide a critical interpretative account of the experience of using a sexually oriented social media website called I Just Made Love. We do this by critically interpreting the traces of interaction, user data populating the site, to understand the role of the systemic structures that shape the subject of interaction and in turn the experience. We approach this experience from the perspective of the subject of interaction as opposed to the user and introduce some benefits of such a strategy. Through our insights and discussion, we explore how design choices at IJML contribute to certain types of sexual performances and intimate experiences.
"It's in love with you": communicating status and preference with simple product movements BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Ditte Hvas Mortensen; Sam Hepworth; Kirstine Berg; Marianne Graves Petersen
In some situations users perceive product movements as an indication of agency. This makes it relevant to gain an understanding of how and why movements communicate attributes related to agency and what impact it has on users. This paper describes an experiment in which users, alone or in pairs, interact with a TV designed to move in way that communicates the agency related attributes social status or likeability. Results show that the TV movements are perceived differently when one versus two users are present. While most single users evaluate the TV positively, most users in pairs find the differential treatment problematic.
Black-boxing the user: internet protocol over xylophone players (IPoXP) BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  R. Stuart Geiger; Yoon Jung Jeong; Emily Manders
We introduce IP over Xylophone Players (IPoXP), a novel Internet protocol between two computers using xylophone-based Arduino interfaces. In our implementation, human operators are situated within the lowest layer of the network, transmitting data between computers by striking designated keys. We discuss how IPoXP inverts the traditional mode of human-computer interaction, with a computer using the human as an interface to communicate with another computer.
Design for X?: distribution choices and ethical design BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Elizabeth Goodman; Janet Vertesi
This paper investigates an especially value-laden product category: sex-oriented technologies. Reviewing four systems encountered through qualitative fieldwork at an adult entertainment trade show, we examine how designers make claims for distribution of agency in their systems, and the consequent technical choices. In the face of diverse configurations of systems, users, and designers, we suggest that designers treat their practice less as an expression of enduring or user-specific 'values,' and more as a series of decisions about the ethical distribution of control and responsibility within systems.
The machine in the ghost: augmenting broadcasting with biodata BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Paul Tennent; Stuart Reeves; Steve Benford; Brendan Walker; Joe Marshall; Patrick Brundell; Rupert Meese; Paul Harter
This paper examines how biodata' physiological information captured from the human body -- might enhance television shows by giving viewers access to actors' physiological data. We broach this challenge through a prototype-show called The Experiment Live, in which four paranormal investigators were outfitted with sensors as they explored a haunted' basement. This experience has enabled us to probe the challenges of using biodata as part of broadcasting and formulate an agenda for future research that includes: exploring whether/how biodata can be acted and/or simulated; and developing techniques that treat biodata visualisations in similar ways to existing camera-based production processes.
Knowing, not doing: modalities of gameplay expertise in world of warcraft addons BIBAFull-Text 101-110
  Victoria McArthur; Tamara Peyton; Jennifer Jenson; Nicholas Taylor; Suzanne de Castell
In this paper, we consider the impacts of game addons on conventional notions of game-based expertise in World of Warcraft, through the analysis of 37 travelogues -- a data collection tool designed for use in MMOG research. We adopt a multi-faceted definition of gaming expertise as described by Taylor, Jenson, De Castell and Humphrey [33] and we apply their categorization of expertise modalities to the addons named by our study participants. We find that the most commonly understood expressions of expertise in games (time investment and skill) are less represented in the addons reported by our participants.
hipDisk: understanding the value of ungainly, embodied, performative, fun BIBAFull-Text 111-120
  Danielle Wilde
hipDisk is a wearable interface that extends the hips and torso horizontally to give the moving body musical capabilities. The device prompts wearers to move in strange ways, bypassing norms of self-constraint, to actuate sound. As the wearer bends and twists their torso, causing the disks to touch, a single tone may be triggered through the integrated speakers. The result is sonically and physically ungainly, yet strangely compelling, and often prompts spontaneous laughter. hipDisk emerged from an embodied, performative research approach. It began as a single user device, and evolved to support social interaction and co-creation, as well as creatively engaged, embodied discovery and learning. The focus in this paper is on the third, participatory, phase of the project, and the value of emergent, performative research.
Exploring mischief and mayhem in social computing or: how we learned to stop worrying and love the trolls BIBAFull-Text 121-130
  Ben Kirman; Conor Lineham; Shaun Lawson
In this paper, we explore the role of mischief as borderline socially acceptable behaviour within social computing applications. Mischievous activity pushes the boundaries of the implicit social contract present in all online social systems, and, we argue, is of vital importance understanding online social interactions. Using examples from games and other applications, we explore mischief as an act of appropriation, which reinterprets mechanics defined by developers in unexpected and sometimes upsetting ways. Although frequently interpreted as negative and anti-social behaviour, we argue that mischief serves a vital social role, and find surprising richness in the chaos.
Virtual postcards: multimodal stories of online play BIBAFull-Text 131-140
  Nicholas Taylor; Victoria McArthur; Jennifer Jenson
This paper documents the use of a multimodal data collection tool developed for research on Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs). Addressing a central problem of qualitative research on MMOGs -- how to document the activities of players' domestic, everyday/everynight play practices -- we describe how the virtual 'travelogue' allows participants to share, and annotate, screenshots of their MMOG play. Based on our preliminary analysis of 69 travelogues, we explore how these texts function similar to travel postcards, as generic images of in-game events and environments that are personalized and narrativized through players' annotations. We also discuss two themes across the travelogues, (in)authenticity and individualization, that illuminate the ways players negotiate the standardizing effect of many MMOG play experiences.
Interaction design patterns for multi-touch tabletop collaborative games BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Wooi-Boon Goh; Wei Shou; Jacquelyn Tan; G. T. Jackson Lum
Characteristics of multi-touch tabletops, such as a large interactive surface and simultaneous multiple user inputs can be exploited in the design of interactions that facilitate positive social interaction among children during collaborative activities. Designs that facilitate behaviors like positive interdependence, group processing and social skills such as turn taking are discussed. We report qualitative observations regarding the effectiveness of the proposed interaction designs in trials involving two groups of children with contrasting psychological safety levels and formulated several generalizable design patterns that were observed to be effective in soliciting collaborative play on interactive tabletops.
Representing our information structures for research and for everyday use BIBAFull-Text 151-160
  William Jones; Kenneth M. Anderson; Steve Whittaker
We argue for a methodology and supporting infrastructure that promotes a cross-study investigation of information structure to advance the science of personal information management. Moreover, we observe that the infrastructure to support a methodology of scientific inquiry may have direct application to users as they struggle to manage their information. Research on information structure reaches towards a new age in information management wherein organizing information structures grow and change over time based on the internal needs of their owners and not the external demands of tools.
User-driven collaborative intelligence: social networks as crowdsourcing ecosystems BIBAFull-Text 161-170
  Zann Gill
Vernor Vinge proposed, ""In network and interface research there is something as profound (and potentially wild) as Artificial Intelligence."" How, in this 2012 Centenary of Alan Turing, can we explore that wild CHI opportunity to create futures of intelligence? User experience data can co-evolve synergies across computer data processing and human capacity for pattern recognition, developing collaborative intelligence applications that engage distributed creativity, processing crowd-sourced analytics to plan and track projects, so that data gathered, bottom-up, can improve decision-making.
Thin slices of interaction: predicting users' task difficulty within 60 sec BIBAFull-Text 171-180
  João Pedro Ferreira; Marta Noronha e Sousa; Nuno Branco; Manuel João Ferreira; Nuno Otero; Nelson Zagalo; Pedro Branco
We report on an exploratory study where the first 60 seconds of the video recording of a user interaction are used to predict the user's experienced task difficulty. This approach builds on previous work on ""thin slices"" of human-human behavior, and applies it to human-computer interaction. In the scenario of interacting with a photocopy machine, automated video coding showed that the Activity and Emphasis predicted 46.6% of the variance of task difficulty. This result closely follows reported results on predicting negotiation outcomes from conversational dynamics using similar variables on the speech signal.
Citeology: visualizing paper genealogy BIBAFull-Text 181-190
  Justin Matejka; Tovi Grossman; George Fitzmaurice
Citeology is an interactive visualization that looks at the relationships between research publications through their use of citations. The sample corpus uses all 3,502 papers published at ACM CHI and UIST between 1982 and 2010, and the 11,699 citations between them. A connection is drawn between each paper and all papers which it referenced from the collection. For an individual paper, the resulting visualization represents a "family tree" of sorts, showing multiple generations of referenced papers which the target paper built upon, and all descendant generations of future papers.
Mining whining in support forums with frictionary BIBAFull-Text 191-200
  Andrew Ko
Millions of people request help with software in support forums, creating a massive repository of user experiences ripe for mining. We present Frictionary, a tool for automatically extracting, aggregating, and organizing problem described in support forums, enabling timely problem frequency and prevalence metrics. We applied it to 89,760 Firefox support requests from 4 sources gathered over 10 months. Interviews with the Firefox principal designer and support lead suggest that Frictionary could be a useful tool for prioritizing engineering efforts, but that the extraction would need to be more precise to be useful.
"I had a dream and i built it": power and self-staging in ubiquitous high-end homes BIBAFull-Text 201-210
  Aviaja Borup Lynggaard; Marianne Graves Petersen; Sam Hepworth
Research on smart homes and ubiquitous homes is often highly focused on the challenges and obstacles for establishing and living in smart homes. Few have studied peoples' motivations for establishing smart homes as well as the real life experiences living in such homes. We have had the chance to study 27 homes of very wealthy people around the world, living in homes containing the smartness and intelligence money can buy today. We report on the passions and experiences motivating people to live in smart environments. In particular we describe how people use technologies for staging themselves and for exposing their power.
Pet video chat: monitoring and interacting with dogs over distance BIBAFull-Text 211-220
  Jennifer Golbeck; Carman Neustaedter
Companies are now making video-communication systems that allow pet owners to see, and, in some cases, even interact with their pets when they are separated by distance. Such 'doggie cams' show promise, yet it is not clear how pet video chat systems should be designed (if at all) in order to meet the real needs of pet owners. To investigate the potential of interactive dog cams, we then designed our own pet video chat system that augments a Skype audio-video connection with remote interaction features and evaluated it with pet owners to understand its usage. Our results show promise for pet video chat systems that allow owners to see and interact with their pets while away.
Vehicular lifelogging: new contexts and methodologies for human-car interaction BIBAFull-Text 221-230
  Joshua McVeigh-Schultz; Jennifer Stein; Jacob Boyle; Emily Duff; Jeff Watson; Avimaan Syam; Amanda Tasse; Simon Wiscombe; Scott Fisher
This paper presents an automotive lifelogging system that uses in-car sensors to engage drivers in ongoing discoveries about their vehicle, driving environment, and social context throughout the lifecycle of their car. A goal of the design is to extend the typical contexts of automotive user-interface design by (1) looking inward to the imagined character of the car and (2) looking outward to the larger social context that surrounds driving. We deploy storytelling and theatrical strategies as a way of moving our thinking outside the familiar constraints of automotive design. These methods help us to extend the concept of a lifelog to consider the lives of objects and the relationship between humans and non-humans as fruitful areas of design research.
Crowdsourcing an emotional wardrobe BIBAFull-Text 231-240
  Lucy Hughes; Douglas Atkinson; Nadia Berthouze; Sharon Baurley
Selecting clothing online requires decision-making about sensorial experiences, but online environments provide only limited sensorial information. Inferences are therefore made on the basis of product pictures and their textual description. This is often unreliable as it is either based on the designer's understanding of the product or deprived of perceptual content due to the difficulty of expressing such experiences. Using a purpose built website that combines and cross references multi-modal descriptive media, this study aims at investigating the possibility of using crowdsourcing mechanisms and multi-modal language to engage consumers in providing enriched descriptions of their tactile experiences of garments.
TravelThrough: a participatory-based guidance system for traveling through disaster areas BIBAFull-Text 241-250
  Lucy T. Gunawan; Siska Fitrianie; Zhenke Yang; Willem-Paul Brinkman; Mark Neerincx
This paper focuses on decentralized individual self-help in the aftermath of a disaster, instead of the traditionally adopted model of centralized disaster response management. It presents the results of a controlled field experiment that compares a new disaster response model involving civilians participating with smartphones with the traditional centralized model. In the new system, the affected people lead themselves to safety, and at the same time serving as distributed active sensors that share observations of the disaster area. The results show that the proposed system is more effective, preferred, and reduces the workload in guiding affected people safely to their destinations.
Synthetic space: inhabiting binaries BIBAFull-Text 251-260
  Yuichiro Takeuchi
In this paper we propose the concept of Synthetic Space -- architectural space fused with the properties of digital bits. Past efforts at integrating digital technology into architectural space have generally assumed architecture to be a stable, invariant background onto which layers of digital information/devices/services can be overlaid. In Synthetic Space, however, this stability is instead superseded by the capricious plasticity of digital data. For future inhabitants of Synthetic Space, transforming the makeup of the surrounding built environment will be a trivial, effortless task, equivalent to changing the wallpaper image on a modern-day PC or smartphone.
I, the device: observing human aversion from an HCI perspective BIBAFull-Text 261-270
  Ricardo Jota; Pedro Lopes; Joaquim Jorge
We describe our experience in designing a system that would render a human operators job obsolete. In the course of a three year research project, we devised a 3D interactive system for the automotive design industry. Currently, automotive designers demonstrate prototype designs with the help of a showroom operator. With the addition of a new input device, the operator is no longer required; thus, this device which generated concern and opposition from the operator. In this report, we discuss how an awareness of user aversion toward new HCI developments can benefit practitioners by helping them to understand users and thereby enable design improvements.
When mobile phones expand into handheld tabletops BIBAFull-Text 271-280
  Jürgen Steimle; Simon Olberding
Future mobile devices that feature a rollout display will be able to act as a relatively large interactive surface on-the-go. This will allow for novel collaborative usages in mobile settings. In this paper, we explore several dimensions of the design space of such "handheld tabletop" devices. We will illustrate our thoughts by means of a first prototype. Early evaluation results indicate that it effectively supports mobile social encounters.
A candor in reporting: designing dexterously for fire preparedness BIBAFull-Text 281-290
  Yoko Akama; Ann Light
This paper challenges the domination of repeatable methods in HCI discourse and, instead, offers a design case study that details ad-hoc, contextually-driven decisions as to how processes can unfold in a community-based project, taking on fire awareness in Australia. The paper draws out details which enable us to understand why and how methods were modified or abandoned to overcome obstacles, and what was made a priority in arriving at greater understanding of communicating risk. This reporting differs from an established research accounting, but offers complexity and richness in human-centered research as we seek to develop our epistemologies of design research practice.
The iron man phenomenon, participatory culture, & future augmented reality technologies BIBAFull-Text 291-300
  Isabel Pedersen; Luke Simcoe
The Iron Man media franchise glorifies futuristic interfaces and devices like holographic screens, powerful mobile devices, and heads-up displays. Consequently, a mainstream audience has come to know about and discursively relate to Augmented Reality (AR) technology through fan participation. This paper identifies how Iron Man fans reveal the belief that technology sensationalized in the films and comics may actually become real. Using humanities theories and methods, it argues for a new way to explore potential users' expectations for augmented reality. HCI as a field needs to broaden its focus and attend to fans in terms of their future as consumers and users.

Case studies

Observational study on teaching artifacts created using tablet PC BIBAFull-Text 301-316
  Manoj Prasad; Tracy Hammond
Teaching typically involves communication of knowledge in multiple modalities. The ubiquity of pen-enabled technologies in teaching has made the accurate capture of user ink data possible, alongside technologies to recognize voice data. When annotating on a white board or other presentation surface, teachers often have a specific style of structuring contents taught in a lecture. The availability of sketch data and voice data can enable researchers to analyze trends followed by teachers in writing and annotating notes. Using ethnographic methods, we have observed the structure that teachers use while presenting lectures on mathematics. We have observed the practices followed by teachers in writing and speaking the lecture content, and have derived models that would help computer scientists identify the structure of the content. This observational study motivates the idea that we can use speech and color change events to distinguish between strokes meant for drawing versus those meant for attention marks.
Employing virtual worlds for HCI education: a problem-based learning approach BIBAFull-Text 317-326
  Panagiotis Zaharias; Marios Belk; George Samaras
In this paper we describe our experience focused on teaching an introductory course in HCI by employing a 3D virtual world. Our main pedagogical philosophy is presented which claims that problem-based learning activities are necessary for HCI education. To this end, appropriate new interactive media such as virtual worlds that can support these activities must be embedded in the educational procedure. The learning activities and the interactive tools that were used are presented. Key findings and educational implications are discussed.
Eustressed or distressed?: combining physiology with observation in user studies BIBAFull-Text 327-330
  Avinash Wesley; Peggy Lindner; Ioannis Pavlidis
In this article the authors describe a novel way to conduct user studies via the combination of a physiological and an observational information channel. The method enables not only the quantification of arousing emotional states but also their disambiguation into positive or negative instances. The physiological channel targets sympathetic responses and is materialized as a perspiratory signal extracted from thermal imagery of the perinasal area. The observational channel is materialized via decoding of facial expressions. However, while such decoding is usually performed in the visible spectrum, the authors have developed an algorithm to carry this out in thermal imagery instead. Thus, thermal imaging is used for both physiological and observational analysis. The potential of this dual unobtrusive methodology is demonstrated with some examples from a stress study, where users (surgeons in this case) interact with laparoscopic training boxes.
Designing experiential prototypes for the future workplace BIBAFull-Text 331-334
  Tong Sun; Nancy Doubleday; Adam Smith
In this paper, we describe a successful Xerox-sponsored open innovation project that generated innovative designs and prototypes for the future of the workplace by the future workers of tomorrow -- 42 undergraduate students with a unique combination of skills in creative media design and interactive development at Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). During the course of 20 weeks, through close collaborations between the Xerox research team and RIT faculty and students, we developed an experience-centric methodology for designing and developing rapid experiential prototypes. As a result, seven interactive and futuristic prototypes were created, demonstrated and also well-received at both Xerox and community events.
Does the iPad add value to business environments? BIBAFull-Text 335-350
  Steffen Hess; Jessica Jung
Mobile tablets like the iPad recently had a huge success in the consumer market. This generates the demand to use them productively in business environments. The underlying case study evaluates the introduction of iPads at an applied research company. The study gives evidence that the iPad adds value to this particular business environment especially in terms of productivity and joy of use. A detailed composition of benefits and drawbacks shows major factors that have to be considered when thinking about introducing and integrating iPads to a business environment.
How does telenoid affect the communication between children in classroom setting? BIBAFull-Text 351-366
  Ryuji Yamazaki; Shuichi Nishio; Kohei Ogawa; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Kohei Matsumura; Kensuke Koda; Tsutomu Fujinami
It needs to be investigated how humanoid robots may affect people in the real world when they are employed to express the presence, a feel of being there, in tele-communication. We brought Telenoid, a tele-operated humanoid robot, into a classroom at an elementary school to see how schoolchildren respond to it. Our study is exploratory and we focused on the social aspects that might facilitate communication between schoolchildren. We found that Telenoid affected the way children work as group. They participated in the group work more positively, became more spontaneous, and differentiated their roles. We observed that Telenoid's limited capability led them to change their attitudes so that they could work together. The result suggests that the limited functionality may facilitate cooperation among participants in classroom setting.
Taking micro-enterprise online: the case of kenyan businesses BIBAFull-Text 367-382
  Mokeira Masita-Mwangi; Nancy Mwakaba; Jussi Impio
In this paper we describe the findings of a research study recently carried out amongst micro-entrepreneurs and freelance web developers in Kenya. The objective was to understand the level of need for website creation by such entrepreneurs for their businesses and further, the challenges associated with website design and maintenance. The study was inspired by the phenomenal uptake of Internet use in the country coupled with a need to explore how micro-entrepreneurs are faring in this space, what potential exists, and how it could be realized. The findings of the study show that the Internet can be the new frontier for many micro-entrepreneurs who want to take their businesses to the next level. The study also provides critical insights into the realities of micro-enterprise, and hence relevant issues to take into consideration in seeking to take micro-enterprise online. The insights therein cover such issues as affordability of solutions, quick return on investment, convergence of current business methods and practices with those presented by an online environment for greater impact, and need for very simple, intuitive web design tools and platforms. Innovation may be required so as to come up with more website options that are better suited to the needs of micro-entrepreneurs and that are cost-effective. Alternatively other internet-based tools or platforms could be developed to help micro-entrepreneurs conduct business online. This is because the typical websites of today are not necessarily suitable for their needs.
Experiences with bulk SMS for health financing in Uganda BIBAFull-Text 383-398
  Melissa Densmore
Short message service (SMS, aka text messaging) is a low-cost and effective means of communication for organizations attempting to maintain contact with many people. In this paper we look at the deployment and of a bulk mobile text-messaging platform (Bulk SMS), conceived and commissioned by a health non-governmental organization (NGO) for use in communicating with the 100+ private health facilities. We show how the platform emerged from existing practices, the features and expectations of the system, and the ways in which it was used. Common failure points include infrastructural limitations, human error, and unexpected use cases. We find that 1) the use of SMS as a media enables new types of communication, and 2) SMS alone is not sufficient for maintaining relationships within the NGO program.
Design re-thinking for the bottom of the pyramid: a case study based on designing business software for SMEs in India BIBAFull-Text 399-408
  Visvapriya Sathiyam; Muktha Hiremath
Breaking out of the traditional notion that affordability and mass consumption are the most important prerequisites for entering a large and developing market like India, we elicit alternate and equally critical factors to design products that can provide instant and long-term value to Indian consumers. These factors from a design thinking perspective are: a) sustainability cost for business viability, b) micro-localization needs for human desirability and c) infrastructure considerations for technical feasibility. Our research insights are based on experiences from designing business analytics software for small and midsized enterprises in India. However, our findings are broadly applicable to design thinkers, researchers and designers creating technology solutions for any developing market.
Martian boneyards: can a community of players be a community of practice? BIBAFull-Text 409-418
  Jodi Asbell-Clarke; Elisabeth Sylvan
Martian Boneyards is a prototype game run in a massively-multiplayer online environment designed to entice gamers to partake in collaborative scientific inquiry. This case study examines the steps designers took to foster a community of inquiry within the game. Designers played characters in the game, allowing them to be responsive to players' activities and accumulating knowledge. Players were drawn to the narrative and close relationships they developed with the designers' characters and other players. An informal and communal reward system was used to further nurture collaboration among the community. Findings suggest games like this one show promise for fostering science identity and scientific inquiry.
Designing for a billion users: a case study of Facebook BIBAFull-Text 419-432
  Parmit Chilana; Christina Holsberry; Flavio Oliveira; Andrew Ko
Facebook is the world's largest social network, connecting over 800 million users worldwide. The type of phenomenal growth experienced by Facebook in a short time is rare for any technology company. As the Facebook user base approaches the 1 billion mark, a number of exciting opportunities await the world of social networking and the future of the web. We present a case study of what it is like to design for a billion users at Facebook from the perspective of designers, engineers, managers, user experience researchers, and other stakeholders at the company. Our case study illustrates various complexities and tradeoffs in design through a Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) lens and highlights implications for tackling the challenges through research and practice.
Designing virtual instruments with touch-enabled interface BIBAFull-Text 433-436
  Zhimin Ren; Ravish Mehra; Jason Coposky; Ming Lin
We present and discuss the design of a virtual musical instrument system that can be used by a collaborative group of users to emulate playing percussive music. An optical multi-touch tabletop serves as the input device for multiple users, and an algorithmic pipeline interprets users' interactions with this touch-sensing table and provides control signals to activate the coupled physics-based sound simulation system. The musical tunes can be modulated by our numerical acoustic simulator to create believable acoustic effects generated due to cavity in instruments such as drums. It further allows the users to change the materials, shapes, and sizes of the instruments, thereby offering the capability for both rapid prototyping and active exploration of sound effects by altering various physical parameters. We discuss some of key design principles and what such a system can offer.
Experiences with collaborative, distributed predictive human performance modeling BIBAFull-Text 437-452
  Bonnie John; Sonal Starr; Brian Utesch
Although predictive human performance modeling has been researched for 30 years in HCI, to our knowledge modeling has been conducted as a solitary task of one modeler or, occasionally, two modelers working in tight face-to-face collaboration. In contrast, we used predictive human performance modeling in a collaborative, distributed mode and reflect on that experience. We discovered that our tool for modeling, CogTool, while sufficiently functional and expressive to perform the modeling task, did not support collaborative, distributed modeling as well as we would like. We suggest process improvements in model construction, the management of assumptions, consistency, and communication, and suggest design solutions for the future of CogTool or other modeling tools. We further speculate on the generalization of our experiences to other types of usability evaluation when conducted in a distributed, collaborative environment.
Revisiting personas: the making-of for special user groups BIBAFull-Text 453-468
  Christiane Moser; Verena Fuchsberger; Katja Neureiter; Wolfgang Sellner; Manfred Tscheligi
The diversity of special user groups, i.e. elderly from 50 to 90 years and children from 6 to 14 years, is huge. Assessing their requirements is challenging, as it requires sensitivity in terms of choosing an appropriate approach to collect data. Furthermore, the illustration of the data for the subsequent design process can be difficult, if different partners are involved in a project. In order to overcome these difficulties, we are exploring a decision diagram for the creation of personas. It aims at identifying the most appropriate approach (i.e. qualitative and/or quantitative data collection), taking into account the characteristics of the special user groups among other aspects. In this case study we present how we applied the decision diagram in three different projects to create personas for elderly and children.
Incorporating UCD into the software development lifecycle: a case study BIBAFull-Text 469-484
  Andy Switzky
This case study addresses how we applied user centered design (UCD) to the software development lifecycle for the new City of Austin Utilities Online Customer Care website. The case study focuses on the use of personas, prototypes, and user testing, discusses what worked well, and provides lessons learned.
Designing an improved HCI laboratory: a massive synthesis of likes & wishes BIBAFull-Text 485-488
  Haakon Faste
We have performed a simple human-centered design exercise called "I like, I wish" with all of the graduate students and some faculty in the Human-Computer Interaction Institute at Carnegie Mellon University. Over 300 likes and wishes were gathered and synthesized in an all-day session by a volunteer team of students. Here we report on preliminary findings from this exercise and its implications for the design of more human-centered HCI research environments.
Tale of two studies: challenges in field research with low-literacy adult learners in a developed country BIBAFull-Text 489-504
  Cosmin Munteanu; Heather Molyneaux; Julie Maitland; Daniel McDonald; Rock Leung
Efforts to address the problems of literacy are often focused on developing countries. However, functional illiteracy is a challenge encountered by up to 50% of adults in developed countries. In this paper we reflect on the challenges we faced in trying to design and study the use of a mobile application to support adult literacy with two user groups: adults enrolled in literacy classes and carpenters without a high school education enrolled in an essential skills program. We also elaborate on aspects of the evaluations that are specific to a marginalized, functionally illiterate, group in a developed country -- aspects that are less frequently present in similar studies of mobile literacy support technologies in developing countries. We conclude with presenting the lessons learnt from our evaluations and the impact of the studies' specific challenges on the outcome and uptake of such mobile assistive technologies in providing practical support to low-literacy adults in conjunction with literacy and essential skills training.
Textual tinkerability: encouraging storytelling behaviors to foster emergent literacy BIBAFull-Text 505-520
  Angela Chang; Cynthia Breazeal; Fardad Faridi; Tom Roberts; Glorianna Davenport; Henry Lieberman; Nick Montfort
This paper presents textual tinkerability, a new concept for fostering early literacy skills during parent-child reading. Textual tinkerability maps storytelling gestures to changes in animation and text to assist reading exploration and demonstration of the link between text, spoken word, and concept. TinkRBooks are flexible tablet-based storybooks that allow readers to actively explore concepts in text using textual tinkerability. When reading TinkRBooks, both parents and children can alter text (character attributes and parts of speech) by manipulating story elements (props and characters) as they read. We demonstrate how textual tinkerability encourages more dialog, print referencing and dialogic questioning between parent-child dyads in shared reading as compared to paper books. In addition, our study reports observations of storytelling performance behaviors that foster playful and socially intimate shared reading behaviors that are closely mapped to the teaching and learning of emergent literacy skills.
Building a case for m-learning in Africa: African youth perspectives on education BIBAFull-Text 521-536
  Mokeira Masita-Mwangi; Nancy Mwakaba; Faith Ronoh-Boreh; Jussi Impio
This paper is based on a case study of six African countries. It takes a look at education challenges faced by African youth and the gaps that exist in the education systems. African youth have the potential to be frontrunners in socio-economic transformation in the continent. They need to be empowered to be able to play their part. The huge gaps between education policy and practice, and other problems in this sector leave many African youth out of the system. Information and communication technology (ICT) is being integrated in education in many African countries. The emphasis has been on equipping schools with computers and literacy of the same. However the progress and impact is minimal due to inadequate resources, infrastructural challenges and lack of capacity. Mobile phone penetration in the continent has increased phenomenally unlike ownership of personal computers. This paper therefore proposes m-learning using mobile phones as a logical and viable channel of delivering education to African youth.
Canvas presentations in the wild BIBAFull-Text 537-540
  Leonhard Lichtschlag; Thomas Hess; Thorsten Karrer; Jan Borchers
Most presentation software uses the slide deck metaphor to create visual presentation support. Recently, canvas presentation tools such as Fly or Prezi have instead begun to use a zoomable free-form canvas to arrange information. The effect of this change in format on the authoring process of presentations has been investigated previously in a formal lab study. We have now examined the evolving patterns of usage in publicly available canvas presentations and found that the benefits of this format that have been demonstrated in the lab setting also can be observed in real life presentations. This confirms the potential of canvas based tools to help authors improve the quality of their presentation visuals.
Lost and found: lessons learned from a design retrospective BIBAFull-Text 541-556
  Yolanda Reimer
Reflection is critical for understanding how designs evolve and the factors that impact that evolution. This is especially meaningful for projects that have taken place over a long period of time and with consistent overall direction. In this case study, we reflect back over the design of an information gathering and management system built for students in higher education. We demonstrate how users can be involved in various ways over a development period that spans many years; we show that designs of different fidelities can effectively garner user feedback; and we illustrate the impact of multiple influences, including users, research team members, and resource limitations on the overall transformation of the system. We conclude with a series of lessons learned that we hope will help future researchers plan and execute their own design-implement-evaluate lifecycles.
Interactive exploration of geospatial network visualization BIBAFull-Text 557-572
  Till Nagel; Erik Duval; Andrew Vande Moere
This paper presents a tabletop visualization of relations between geo-positioned locations. We developed an interactive visualization, which enables users to visually explore a geospatial network of actors. The multitouch tabletop, and the large size of the interactive surface invite users to explore the visualization in semi-public spaces.
   For a case study on scientific collaborations between institutions, we applied and improved several existing techniques for a walk-up-and-use system aimed at scientists for a social setting at a conference. We describe our iterative design approach, our two implemented prototypes, and the lessons learnt from their creation. We conducted user evaluation studies at the two on-location demonstrations, which provide evidence of the prototype usability and usefulness, and its support for understanding the distribution and connectivity in a geospatial network.
Mobile service distribution from the end-user perspective: the survey study on recommendation practices BIBAFull-Text 573-588
  Zeynep Ahmet; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio Mattila
Vast amounts of mobile services and applications are being offered to end users via app stores and service providers' web sites. In addition, users take part in the distribution of services by recommending services to each other, i.e. through various word-of-mouth practices. To understand the current patterns of user-initiated service distribution, we conducted an exploratory survey study (N=203) to investigate the recommendation practices and motivations of mobile service users in situations where they recommend to other(s) and other(s) recommend to them. We found that the dominating way to recommend mobile services to others is to tell about the service in face-to-face situations, despite available support for electronic sharing in mobile situations. Social media was also used, but clearly less frequently. Based on the findings of this study, we present design ideas for supporting users in their recommendation practices.
Researching the user experience for connected tv: a case study BIBAFull-Text 589-604
  Vinoba Vinayagamoorthy; Penelope Allen; Matt Hammond; Michael Evans
This paper presents a Case Study of the BBC's recent research and development work into the user experience of Internet-Connected Television. User expectations and aspirations around their TV experiences are changing radically as the platform increasingly supplements broadcast network connectivity with IP connectivity. Despite the relative youth of the platform, it is clear that Connected TV and its users support and seek user experiences which are quite distinctive from web browsing on personal computers, or earlier forms of interactive TV platforms. We describe a number of the BBC's recent research projects developing knowledge and tools to support future user experiences for TV, ranging from typography to alternative input interfaces. In each case, we describe the motivation, the development approach and the empirical assessment of impact of the technology and experiences embodied by our prototypes.
A look into some practices behind Microsoft UX management BIBAFull-Text 605-618
  Agnieszka (Aga) Szóstek
This study aimed to acquire an excerpt of insights about UX management practices at Microsoft research and development departments. Related work points out at a two-fold role of UX managers. They are responsible for fostering their team to become independent and self-manageable. Furthermore, their job concerns raising awareness about the value of the user-centered design approach within their organization. This article describes a number of strategies applied at Microsoft Redmond to achieve these two objectives. The described management practices could serve as a guideline helping other UX managers to run their teams and propagate UX values within their organizations.
A survey on web use: how people access, consume, keep, and organize web content BIBAFull-Text 619-628
  Seungyon Claire Lee; Eamonn O'Brien-Strain; Jerry Liu; Qian Lin
We present the results from a preliminary survey concerning the relationship between web content type (contacted by passive delivery or active discovery) and behavior (access, consume, keep, and organize). From the results of the survey, we highlight content specific design suggestion for Tangible Web (TW), our cloud content repository system that enables users to clip, save, format, and organize web content.
Focusing our vision: the process of redesigning adobe acrobat BIBAFull-Text 629-644
  Liang-Cheng Lin; Craig Scull; Daniel Walsh
In this paper we describe the rationale, strategy, and approach of redesigning Adobe Acrobat and Reader from 2008 to 2010. User research techniques, methodologies, and a series of lessons learned during the two-and-a-half-year development cycle are also summarized.
A print magazine on any screen: the wired app story BIBAFull-Text 645-648
  Jeremy Clark; Joel Brandt
Magazines are a cultural artifact. In the USA alone, there are 189 million individuals who read magazines, and 88% of adults between 18-34 are active magazine readers. Through the portrail of their editors' views, magazines provide a lens into what society is thinking. These views are expressed not only through the words of articles but also through the careful design and layout of each issue. So what would it mean to take this important physical media into the digital world? This case study reports on the design process behind the digital reading experience developed by Adobe Systems for Wired Magazine.
Vintage radio interface: analog control for digital collections BIBAFull-Text 649-660
  Mathieu Hopmann; Mario Gutierrez; Frédéric Vexo; Daniel Thalmann
We present an interface for navigating digital collections based on a one-dimensional analog control and a data visualization based on old analog radios. Our system takes advantage of inertial control to browse a large data collection in a compelling way, reducing the complexity of similar interfaces present in both desktop-based and portable media players. This vintage radio interface has been used to navigate a digital music collection. We have compared the proposed interface with the current most popular hardware, the iPod. The results of user tests with 24 participants are presented and discussed. The insights gained are encouraging enough to continue the development of one-dimensional analog controls for content discovery and retrieval.
In dialogue: methodological insights on doing hci research in Rwanda BIBAFull-Text 661-676
  Samantha Merritt; Abigail Durrant; Stuart Reeves; David Kirk
This paper presents a case study of our recent empirical research on memorialisation in post-genocide Rwanda. It focuses on the pragmatic methodological challenges of working in a 'transnational' and specifically Rwandan context. We first outline our qualitative empirical engagement with representatives from the Kigali Genocide Memorial (KGM) and neighbouring institutions. We then describe our application of Charles L. Briggs' analytic communication framework to our data. In appropriating this framework, we reflect critically on its efficacy in use, for addressing the practical working constraints of our case, and through our findings develop methodological insights with relevance to wider HCI audiences.
Using NFC phones to track water purification in Haiti BIBAFull-Text 677-690
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; David Holstius; Edmund Seto; Brittany Eddy; Michael Ritter
In this paper we describe a system that uses near-field communication (NFC) tags to augment an existing socio-technical system for providing clean water to households throughout Haiti. In the pilot version, we programmed forty NFC phones for use by Haitian water technicians to track chlorine usage in two thousand households, identified by NFC tags on the drinking water buckets in homes. We are in the process of scaling this pilot up to 40,000 households -- approximately a quarter of a million people -- using 100 or more additional phones. The project involves collaboration between an industrial research lab (Nokia Research Center, Palo Alto), the Public Health School of a university (UC Berkeley), and an existing non-profit organization in Haiti (Deep Springs International (DSI)).
Wii as entertainment and socialisation aids for mental and social health of the elderly BIBAFull-Text 691-702
  Yin-Leng Theng; Puay Hoe Chua; Tan Phat Pham
As the world population ages rapidly, it is likely that more elderly risks being detached from society. The possible isolation of many more elderly could lead to societal and mental health problems that could weigh down on public healthcare systems. Using surveys, focus groups, interviews and video analysis, our pilot study examines the effects of the Nintendo Wii games, examples of co-located games, between two generations (old and young), and the factors that could affect the adoption and enjoyment of computer-mediated games as entertainment and socialization aids between the elderly and the youths. This pilot study with 14 pairs of elderly-teenager participants shows that general attitude towards the other age group improves after a period of playing. The paper concludes with a discussion on design recommendations for computer-mediated games in general that can support inter-generational gameplay between the elderly and the youths, and as entertainment and socialisation aids to promote positive mental and social health of the elderly.
Digital art and interaction: lessons in collaboration BIBAFull-Text 703-712
  David England
This paper builds on the recent CHI2011 SIG on Digital Arts and the work of the author to examine the nature of collaboration between HCI researchers and new media (or digital) artists. We look at three particular collaborative projects spread over a number of years. We examine the lessons for future collaboration so that productive CHI Arts collaborations can flourish to sustain the community. The chief lessons are that such partnerships need; to early and ongoing collaboration between the parties in order to develop mutually agreeable goals, and that practices and techniques on both sides need to develop to support further understanding.
A room with a view: understanding users' stages in picking a hotel online BIBAFull-Text 713-716
  Jens Riegelsberger; Michelle Lee; Scott Lederer
We describe how we built a model for user decision-making during local search tasks, specifically hotels. We differentiate between affective and functional needs and identify the following stages and related information needs: 0. Lay of the land; 1. Generating options; 2. Scanning for attractors and detractors; 3. Due diligence. We contrast this framework with existing consumer decision-making models. We close by describing how this model influenced the development of the recently launched experiment, Google Hotel Finder.
User centered design in the OR BIBAFull-Text 717-720
  Tony Fernandes
This case study examines the application of User Centered Design techniques for the design of a mission-critical medical device for spinal surgery. It suggests that HCI practitioners need to extend their work beyond the computer in order to achieve usability in the operating room.
Evaluation of the uses and benefits of a social business platform BIBAFull-Text 721-736
  Lester Holtzblatt; Jill Drury; Daniel Weiss; Laurie Damianos; Donna Cuomo
We evaluated an integrated social software platform, called Handshake, to determine individuals' usage patterns and characterize Handshake's business value. Our multi-step investigation included conducting 63 in-depth interviews, analyzing log data from 4600+ users, and administering an online survey. We found that both the level and type of participation affects whether users experience value. Active participants, for example, say that Handshake supports collaboration, strengthens social connections, fosters awareness of connections' activities, and facilitates knowledge management. This case study captures an early snapshot of behavior that we anticipate will change and grow over time.
Sustainability of a college social network site: role of autonomy, engagement, and relatedness BIBAFull-Text 737-740
  Donghee Wohn
Increasingly, universities are trying, with limited success, to use social network sites (SNSs) as a way of retaining students. This study presents the case of Ewhaian.com, a 10-year old SNS for a large university in South Korea. Success factors are explained from the perspective of self-determination theory.
Applying design strategies in publication networks: a case study BIBAFull-Text 741-744
  Bram Vandeputte; Erik Duval; Joris Klerkx
This case study shows how following two different designs strategies (Overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand [8] and Start from what you know, then grow [5]) influences the sensemaking behavior [6] of users in the context of science2.0 [9]. To this end, we have designed, developed and evaluated two multi touch applications that provide interactive visualizations of authorship networks. Overview first steers people towards structural insight and overview sensemaking, while Start from what you know invites users to use topical information to explore the data.
Acquisition of social abilities through musical tangible user interface: children with autism spectrum condition and the reactable BIBAFull-Text 745-760
  Lilia Villafuerte; Milena Markova; Sergi Jorda
This study assesses the potential of the Reactable, a musical tangible user interface, to help in the acquisition of social interaction abilities in children with Autistic Spectrum Condition (ASC). With this purpose, nine children with ASC participated in the research; the sample being its own control group, and a simple subject design was developed. The type of design was ABA (Basic Withdrawal). In addition to the statistical analysis, this study used qualitative methodological tools for analysis of outlier subjects and detection of atypical behavior for future research. The results show an increase in social interaction during the sessions, even for the non-verbal subjects.
Designing for child resilience BIBAFull-Text 761-764
  Catherine Flick; Penny Duquenoy; Matt Jones
This short case study describes the design and initial feedback of a color-changing "mood lamp" that allows children to make informed decisions about risk-taking behavior on the internet. Such a device is a case study of an attempt to improve resilience amongst unsupervised children on the internet: an important goal in child protection studies.
VOLLEY: design framework for collaborative animation BIBAFull-Text 765-768
  Cindy Wong; Richard Zaragoza
Users are increasingly empowered to produce visual content by a proliferation of online tools to create, publish and share within online communities and social networks. Despite advancements in web browser and image processing, the act of animation building is still considered a solitary activity. A design challenge: Can animation building become accessible to a general audience if it becomes a social activity? Volley is a concept design for a web application that enables users to collectively share, edit, and animate images. We created a design framework for an online community and animation tool that supports meaningful social collaborations and desirable, new animated works.
The relationship between industrial design and interaction design in product development activities BIBAFull-Text 769-776
  Canan Akoglu
This paper describes the relationship between industrial design and interaction design in product development activities based on a case study. The case study is grounded on a specific product's design and development activity. This study shows that the most intense collaboration takes place in early phases of the development activity such as concept generation and creation of design alternatives. This study also shows that there are differences in terms of methods, techniques and design languages in approaching the design problem, understanding users between industrial designers and interaction designers. Therefore conducting more case studies regarding this result might contribute to develop thriving techniques, design and representation languages.
StoryPlace.Me: the path from studying elder communication to a public location-based video service BIBAFull-Text 777-792
  Frank Bentley; Santosh Basapur
We describe our research path that took us from studying communication needs across distance and generations, to a small-scale study of a person-to-person location-based video service, and finally to a public beta of StoryPlace.me which extends this service to support public video sharing and historical content. The process was not a clear, linear design path, but one of an unexpected change in focus that resulted in the current service which goes beyond the original vision of tools for inter-generational communication. We will describe our research methods as well as key findings from each step of our journey and conclude with implications for similar product concept generation activities.
Case study: longitudinal comparative analysis for analyzing user behavior BIBAFull-Text 793-800
  Jhilmil Jain; Susan Boyce
In this case study we describe a four-step process for eliciting and analyzing user behavior with products over an extended period of time. We used this methodology for conducting a comparative study of two mobile applications over a period of seven months with 17 participants. To focus the discussion, we are concentrating on the methodology rather than the results of the study.
Disaster symbolism and social media BIBAFull-Text 801-810
  Hiroko Wilensky
Research on the use of social media during disaster events has gained attention in recent years. Prior research paid attention to warnings, response activities and the dissemination of information through social media during times of crisis. This study focuses on the use of social media during crisis from different perspectives. In this paper, the implications of symbols that emerged in YouTube videos were examined. Social media can be a valuable medium immediately after disaster events for people in crisis and for others who are indirectly affected to seek spiritual and emotional support and to reconstruct their cultural value system and identity. This study also addresses that persistence and replay are crucial attributes in the design of social media tools for users to seek emotional support and to engage with others in larger space and time.
A study of reconstruction watcher in disaster area BIBAFull-Text 811-814
  Yoshia Saito; Yasuhiro Fujihara; Yuko Murayama
The Tohoku Region Pacific Coast Earthquake and its Tsunami caused serious damage to the Pacific coast in northeastern Japan. We suggest it is important to share the serious situation in the disaster area to gain public understanding and support. In this paper, we propose a Reconstruction Watcher which lets people share reconstruction progress visually to gain public understanding and to support the disaster area. To find practical issues and confirm the feasibility of the Reconstruction Watcher, we went to the disaster area and tried to show the serious situation to the public. This paper reports our challenges and findings.
Self-revealing gestures: teaching new touch interactions in windows 8 BIBAFull-Text 815-828
  Kay Hofmeester; Jennifer Wolfe
The touch language we use to interact with computers and devices is still developing. How can we teach users of our systems new touch gestures without interfering with their user experience? A team of user experience designers and researchers went through an iterative process to design a teaching method for two new touch interactions. This case study describes the designs they created, their insight from user studies, and the final design that will be implemented in Windows 8.
Nokia internet pulse: a long term deployment and iteration of a Twitter visualization BIBAFull-Text 829-844
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Anita Lillie; Deepak Jagdish; James Walkup; Rita Parada; Koichi Mori
Nokia Internet Pulse is a system for visualizing current discussion around a particular topic on Twitter. It consists of a time-series of stacked tag clouds consisting of the (interesting) words in tweets that match a topic. Words are sized proportional to frequency and colored according to the emotional content of the tweet: if several people tweet "I love my Nokia N900", then "N900" will show up colored bright green, because it's in the same tweet as the word "love", which the system recognizes as positive. In addition to showing topics of corporate interest ("Nokia", "N9", etc.), the system is also useful for understanding buzz around individuals ("Rihanna"), conferences ("#chi2012"), topics ("rumor OR rumors"), Twitter-specific phenomena ("RT") and more. Clicking on words shows a list of tweets that contain those words, allowing easy drill-down to view individual tweets. It is available at http://nip.nokia.com/.
123D sculpt: designing a mobile 3d modeling application for novice users BIBAFull-Text 845-848
  Leslie Predy; Alexander Rice-Khouri; Greg Fowler; Anna Romanovska; Hans-Frederick Brown
In this case study, we describe the design approach taken in creating 123D Sculpt, a digital sculpting and painting application for the Apple iPad. This paper will focus on tailoring the user experience toward casual users, introducing 3D (three-dimensional) manipulation tools and concepts through the use of metaphors.
The reality of fantasy: uncovering information-seeking behaviors and needs in online fantasy sports BIBAFull-Text 849-864
  Sandra Hirsh; Christine Anderson; Matthew Caselli
Online fantasy sports are rapidly growing in popularity. Fantasy sports players consume massive amounts of sports and player statistics in order to manage their teams, such as to determine who they want on their fantasy sports team and what changes they want to make during the season. With more people actively engaging in this activity and increasing investment in this industry, this case study performs the first detailed investigation into information-seeking behaviors and information needs of online fantasy sports players. Two online fantasy sports were studied: fantasy football and NASCAR. Common themes from one-on-one interviews with active fantasy sports players are discussed and areas for future research identified. Implications for system design include more targeted data provision throughout the sports seasons, better aggregation of online sports statistics and data, development of mobile applications, and innovation in fantasy sports gaming.
User testing of a language learning game for Mandarin Chinese BIBAFull-Text 865-868
  Lindsay Grace; Martha Castaneda; Jeannie Ducher
Polyglot Cubed is an educational game to facilitate the learning of multiple languages. The game is an implementation of contemporary theories in motivation, education and entertainment. This document provides the results from a formal user evaluation of the game. This evaluation was designed to determine user defined difficulties in game experience and understand user interest in its solution. Preliminary results indicate favorable interest in the game as a tool for learning Mandarin Chinese and minor challenges in gameplay experience.
The student activity meter for awareness and self-reflection BIBAFull-Text 869-884
  Sten Govaerts; Katrien Verbert; Erik Duval; Abelardo Pardo
Visualization of user actions can be used in Technology Enhanced Learning to increase awareness for learners and teachers and to support self-reflection. In this paper, we present our Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner actions. We present four design iterations and results of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation studies in real-world settings that assess the usability, use and usefulness of different visualizations. Results indicate that our tool is useful for a variety of teacher and learner needs, including awareness of time spent and resource use. Tools like SAM can also be deployed in other settings that require awareness and self-reflection, e.g. in personal informatics and health monitoring, where motivated users will value the flexible mechanisms to analyze trending data.
Using physical-social interactions to support information re-finding BIBAFull-Text 885-910
  Blake Sawyer; Francis Quek; Wai Choong Wong; Mehul Motani; Sharon Lynn Chu Yew Yee; Manuel Perez-Quinones
A dominant way in which we organize our world is through social interactions. Much research has made use of social context as a way to support information storage and re-finding. However, they tend to focus only on the virtual side of sociality, and downplay the role of physicality in social interaction. In our research, we investigate how a person's physical-social interactions, in the form of co-presence, can be employed to support digital information management. We designed and implemented a system based on this concept and evaluated it in three two-month long case studies. Our system associates digital information used in social situations with co-present individuals through the use of automatic or manual tagging. Our findings showed that although the three participants varied greatly in their information filing and information use strategies, they all accessed digital information using people or groups of people, thereby supporting our initial premise. However, we found that the need to use digital information during social interactions arises only when there is a shared focus in the form of, for example, a large display, or when there is a social purpose for the information, for instance to share it with other meeting members at a later time. Our observations suggest the need for further research and innovation in technology affordances for real-time information use in physical-social interactions.


Designing alternate reality games BIBAFull-Text 911-914
  Elizabeth Bonsignore
An Alternate Reality Game (ARG) is a form of transmedia storytelling, with narrative elements that are distributed across multiple communications platforms, ranging from print materials to mobile devices. ARGs also represent a new genre of transmedia practice where players collaboratively hunt for clues, make sense of disparate information, and solve puzzles to advance an ever-evolving storyline. While players participate in an ARG using everyday communications tools, such as phones and web sites, the interaction design challenges are not an "everyday" process. Designers must create and connect story bits across multiple media (video, audio, text) and multiple platforms (phones, computers, physical spaces). Further, they must engage and connect with players of varying skill levels. Few studies have explored the design process of education-based ARGs, or their relationship to participatory design. This research systematically investigates the design and play of ARGs as participatory design spaces and vehicles for scaffolding information literacy practices.
An idea garden for end-user programmers BIBAFull-Text 915-918
  Jill Cao
Research in end-user programming has seen many techniques aimed at making it easier for ordinary users to program. However, empirical studies continue to report barriers end users face. In my work, I propose an Idea Garden approach to help end users overcome barriers. Rooted in the Minimalist Learning Theory and theories in problem-solving and creativity, the Idea Garden aims to facilitate end-user programmers to generate and work with their own ideas. Expected benefits of this work include both a theory-based understanding of barriers and the Idea Garden approach itself, which is intended to be generalizable across different end-user programming environments.
Urban HCI: interaction patterns in the built environment BIBAFull-Text 919-922
  Patrick Tobias Fischer
The objective of this research is to explore and conceptualize principles for the design of Shared Encounters in Urban Space. By accounting for the relevance of relational and social space a new thinking different from Ubiquitous Computing can emerge.
Materializing and crafting cherished digital media BIBAFull-Text 923-926
  Connie Golsteijn
People's digital media collections are often large and poorly organized. In sharp contrast to collections of physical possessions in the home, in the digital realm there are few possessions that are considered special. As a result, digital possessions are infrequently used, e.g. for reminiscing or storytelling. By studying cherished physical and digital possessions and designing novel products or systems, this PhD explores how digital media can become more cherished. More specifically, newly created designs will aim to integrate physical and digital realms and encourage novel creation or augmentation of digital media, here called digital craft, as a promising means to increase attachment to digital possessions.
Imaginary interfaces: touchscreen-like interaction without the screen BIBAFull-Text 927-930
  Sean Gustafson
Screenless mobile devices achieve maximum mobility, but at the expense of the visual feedback that is generally assumed to be necessary for spatial interaction. With Imaginary Interfaces we re-enable spatial interaction on screenless devices. Users point and draw in the empty space in front of them or on the palm of their hands. While they cannot see the results of their interaction, they do obtain some visual feedback by watching their hands move. Our user studies show that Imaginary Interfaces allow users to create simple drawings, to annotate with them and to operate interfaces, as long as their layout mimics a physical device they have used before. We demonstrate how this allows an imaginary interface to serve as a shortcut for a physical device and we believe that ultimately Imaginary Interfaces will lead to the development of standalone ultra-mobile devices.
Designing effective behaviors for educational embodied agents BIBAFull-Text 931-934
  Chien-Ming Huang
While various forms of online and distance learning have opened up opportunities for people to gain knowledge independent of where they are, embodied interaction with teachers or learning partners supports the social and cognitive aspects of the learning processes. To achieve effective and efficient teaching, teachers use nonverbal behaviors to communicate the focus of their attention and highlight important concepts. With the advance of technology, embodied agents (i.e., robots) keep showing promises of supporting human activities. The goal of my dissertation is to design effective nonverbal behaviors, with a concentration on gaze, hand gestures, and head movements, for embodied agents as teachers or learning partners to support people in learning. To this end, my research focuses on understanding how and what nonverbal behaviors contribute to effective learning, implementing behavioral patterns from this understanding on embodied agents, and evaluating the effectiveness of the embodied agents in various educational contexts.
Supporting design for mobile people: a materialistic approach BIBAFull-Text 935-938
  Michael Leitner
This PhD programme researches the potential of using materials like fabrics to gather insights for design for mobility. This work addresses the need for more inspiring ways of looking at mobility in interaction design. So far, a set of experimental contexts have been tried out and findings will be used to conduct three more studies.
Examining and designing community crime prevention technology BIBAFull-Text 939-942
  Sheena Lewis
My doctoral research examines how middle and low socio-economic communities use technology to address crime. To accomplish this, I have conducted ethnographic fieldwork at joint meetings with Chicago communities and police for the past year. I have also conducted an online content analysis where I have collected over 7000 online crime forum posts that are neighborhood-specific dating back to 2004. The results of my research will inform the design of community crime prevention technologies.
Designing immersive simulations for collective inquiry BIBAFull-Text 943-946
  Michelle Lui
My doctoral research is concerned with the design, development, and evaluation of an immersive simulation in which a community of learners engage in scientific inquiry about biodiversity and evolution. Using distributed large displays in a "smart classroom" to immerse Grade 11 Biology students within a simulated rainforest setting, this research explores how a system of networked tablets, interactive whiteboards, and a web-based learning environment can support real-time face-to-face interactions, as well as asynchronous knowledge co-construction.
Creative self-expression in socio-technical systems BIBAFull-Text 947-950
  Tyler Pace
Massive networked communities, from Wikipedia contributors to amateur multimedia producers, have demonstrated enormous creativity and productivity in recent years. The dissertation research I discuss in this paper theorizes the creative products of these communities as acts of self-expression that exist within unique socio-technical contexts. Further, my work motivates the study of these creative acts as a new avenue for designing creativity support tools in HCI.
The application of multiple modalities for improved home care reminders BIBAFull-Text 951-954
  David Warnock
My work aims to contribute to the development of home care reminder systems through the development of dynamic multimodal notification technology, able to select a notification modality based on user, environmental and message factors such as sensory impairment and social context. This work involves (1) investigating different properties of notification modalities, (2) establishing guidelines for their use as notifications in the home, (3) creating a prototype dynamic multimodal home reminder system and (4) evaluating it in home trials. At present, work on part two is being completed and preparations have begun for the third part of this research.
The role of music in the lives of homeless young people in Seattle WA and Vancouver BC BIBAFull-Text 955-958
  Jill Woelfer
I outline my proposed dissertation study of music in the lives of homeless young people. Participants will include homeless young people and service providers in Seattle WA and Vancouver BC. The study is a mixed methods design including surveys, semi-structured interviews, and design activities. This study will lead to contributions to human-computer interaction (HCI) and the psycho-social literature on youth homelessness.
When hand and device melt into a unit: microgestures on grasped objects BIBAFull-Text 959-962
  Katrin Wolf
I am motivated by the idea to capitalize the hand's abilities for becoming a natural input device. This can be achieved through finger-worn sensors that track their movements. I am particular interested in finger gestures that are feasible while grasping devices. Executing gestures on a steering wheel while driving, such as those seen in Fig. 1, are just some examples of interactions, which would not require any device-release. The resulting question is: To what extent can users interact with grasped objects through tiny microgestures that are performed while grasping? This extended abstract shows the progress of my research and presents the design of a study that is in preparation. Around this study design I formulated research questions. My approach aims to apply motor and mental models for designing interactions and interfaces regarding human motor abilities, interaction favors, and the mental model of themselves within their environment.
Creative drawing with computers BIBAFull-Text 963-966
  Stanislaw Zabramski
The output of creative drawing is negatively influenced by any constrains imposed on the artist. That may be the case especially in computer-based environments. In my research I focus on the identification and assessment of the influence computer input methods (i.e. mouse, stylus-, and touch-input) might have on the results of free-hand drawing tasks in terms of user's creativity and drawing performance.

Interactivity presentations

Artistic robot please smile BIBAFull-Text 967-970
  Hye Yeon Nam; Changhyun Choi
This paper explains how people interpret artistic robots as more than mere machines in the theory of intentionality and introduces the implementation of the artistic robot, Please Smile, which consists of five robotic skeleton arms that gesture in response to a viewer's facial expressions.
Embroidered confessions: an interactive quilt of the secrets of strangers BIBAFull-Text 971-974
  Julynn Benedetti
The condition of anonymity creates a private space within a public space as a person feels the freedom to act without attribution. This phenomenon holds true in both physical and digital spaces. People feel free to post their most intimate secrets on the Internet with the belief that their confessions are ephemeral and intangible. In reality, this data is perpetually archived and cached on distant servers. A disconnect exists between the perception of the transitory quality of digital data and the truth of its enduring existence. Through the weaving of the stories and secrets of strangers from the Internet into a material artifact, Embroidered Confessions represents the physical manifestation of the duality of digital information.
Herzfassen: a responsive object BIBAFull-Text 975-978
  Monika Hoinkis
Herzfassen is a self-contained kinetic object that uses physical computing and biometric data to provide a highly aesthetic and sensual experience while still having the outer appearance of an ordinary everyday object. A metal bowl filled with water visualizes the human heartbeat through vibration and according patterns in the water surface. The title Herzfassen derives from the German expression for 'to take heart' thus hints to the haptic and emotional experience with the object.
   This paper describes aim and design of the piece, comprising construction, technical function, as well as the interaction cycle respectively the object's dramaturgy. Further, it reports on audience's joyful and emotional experiences with the object within past exhibitions as display and use hence human contact is the main purpose of Herzfassen.
hipDisk: experiencing the value of ungainly, embodied, performative, fun BIBAFull-Text 979-982
  Danielle Wilde
hipDisk is a wearable interface that extends the hips and torso horizontally to give the moving body musical capabilities. The device prompts wearers to move in strange ways, bypassing norms of self-constraint, to actuate sound. The result is sonically and physically ungainly, yet strangely compelling, and often prompts spontaneous laughter. hipDisk emerged from an embodied, performative research approach. It began as a single user device, and evolved to support social interaction and co-creation, as well as creatively engaged, embodied discovery and learning. Using, and also observing hipDisk in use, affords insight into how ungainly, embodied, performative fun may be a powerful vehicle for embodied knowledge generation and learning.
HWD corporation BIBAFull-Text 983-986
  Roger Ibars
HWD (Hard-wired devices) Corporation is a collection of 100 electronic devices, each consisting of a travel alarm clock connected to a different game controller selected from the last 30 years of gaming culture. For each device a new interaction has been crafted by hard-wiring the functions of the alarm clock onto the digital switches of the controller. As a result the basic functionalities of the alarm clock set up time, set up alarm, light on and off, alarm off -- can be controlled with the joysticks. This project is a journey through the history of game controllers, to celebrate both its revolutionary successes and remarkable failures.
Light arrays BIBAFull-Text 987-990
  Danielle Wilde; Alvaro Cassinelli; Alexis Zerroug
The Light Arrays project explores the extension of the body through an array of visible light beams projecting on the environment a dynamic representation of the body, its movement and posture. Interestingly, these light cues are visible both for the user wearing the device as well as for others. The result is an experiential bridge between what we see and what we feel or know about the dynamic, moving body. The Light Arrays afford augmented proprioception, generated through the artificial visual feedback system; enhanced body interaction prompted by the interactively augmented body image (in time and space); as well as a clear visual representation of interpersonal and inter-structural | architectural space.
Lovely Rita BIBAFull-Text 991-994
  Minhye Lee; Romy Achituv
"Lovely Rita" is a dress constructed solely out of variations on a single modular unit: a zipper and the embedded light array it controls. The zipper module is both the fundamental structural unit of the garment as well as a versatile interactive design element, which provides the wearer with the flexibility to dynamically shape the look and feel of the dress. http://vimeo.com/329410240.
MelodicBrush: a cross-modal link between ancient and digital art forms BIBAFull-Text 995-998
  Michael Xuelin Huang; Will Tang; Kenneth W. K. Lo; C. K. Lau; Grace Ngai; Stephen Chan
MelodicBrush is a novel cross-modal musical system that connects two ancient art forms: Chinese ink-brush calligraphy and Chinese music. Our system endows the process of calligraphy writing with a novel auditory representation in a natural and intuitive manner to create a novel artistic experience. The writing effect is simulated as though the user were writing on an infinitely large piece of paper viewed through a viewport. The real-time musical generation effects are motivated by principles of metaphoric congruence and statistical music modeling.
Murmur study BIBAFull-Text 999-1002
  Christopher Baker
Murmur Study is an art installation that examines the rise of micro-messaging technologies such as Twitter and Facebook's status updates. One might describe these messages as a type of digital small talk. But unlike face to face conversations, these fleeting thoughts are accumulated, archived and digitally indexed by corporations, governments and research institutions. While the long-term impact of these archives remains to be seen, the sheer volume of publicly accessible, personal, and often emotional expressions should give us pause.
Pygmy: a ring-like anthropomorphic device that animates the human hand BIBAFull-Text 1003-1006
  Masayasu Ogata; Yuta Sugiura; Hirotaka Osawa; Michita Imai
Pygmy is an anthropomorphic device that magnifies hand expressions. It is based on the concept of hand anthropomorphism and it uses finger movements to create the anthropomorphic effect. Wearing the device is similar to having eyes and a mouth on the hand; the wearer's hand spontaneously expresses their emotions. Interactive manipulation by controllers and sensors make the hand look animated.
RobotBuddha BIBAFull-Text 1007-1010
  Woosuk Choi; Romy Achituv
Using a dedicated twitter account, participants are encouraged to send their prayers, blessings and wishes to the RobotBuddha shrine. Incoming messages are converted to Morse code and "chanted" by the robotic arms, i.e., played back on Korean Moktaks -- traditional wooden percussion instruments ritualistically used by Buddhist clergy.
scoreLight & scoreBots BIBAFull-Text 1011-1014
  Alvaro Cassinelli; Daito Manabe; Stephane Perrin; Alexis Zerroug; Masatoshi Ishikawa
"scoreLight" and "scoreBots" are two experimental platforms for performative sound design and manipulation. Both are essentially synesthetic interfaces -- synesthetic musical instruments -- capable of translating free-hand drawings into a sonic language of beats and pitches, all in real time. While scoreLight uses a modified "smart" laser scanner to track the figure's relevant features (in particular contours), scoreBots rely on one or more tiny line-follower robots to do the same. We present here some of our latest experimentations in an informal way.
Sifteo cubes BIBAFull-Text 1015-1018
  David Merrill; Emily Sun; Jeevan Kalanithi
In this paper we describe Sifteo cubes™, a tangible and graphical user interface platform. We note several patterns of use observed in homes and schools and identify design recommendations for display utilization on distributed interfaces like Sifteo cubes. Additionally we discuss the process of commercializing the research prototype to create a marketable game system.
Sonik spring BIBAFull-Text 1019-1022
  Tomÿs Henriques
The Sonik Spring is an interface for real-time control of sound that directly links gestural motion and kinesthetic feedback to the resulting musical experience.
   The interface consists of a 15-inch spring with unique flexibility, which allows multiple degrees of variation in its shape and length. These are at the core of its expressive capabilities and wide range of functionality as a sound processor.
Touchbox: intriguing touch between strangers BIBAFull-Text 1023-1026
  Mads Hobye
The Touchbox is about facilitating intriguing touch interaction between strangers. The Participants each wear a pair of headphones, and when they touch each others bare skin, they both hear a complex sound pattern. Previous (successful) work involved a skilled Performer and one Participant; the Touchbox was designed to be played by pairs of pristine Participants exploring the interaction situation on their own. It turned out that their interaction experiences were quite engaging albeit more varied in mood and character. The Touchbox illustrates a novel approach to embodied interaction design where social norms are transcended by means of daring and captivating interactions.
The urban musical game: using sport balls as musical interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1027-1030
  Nicolas Rasamimanana; Frédéric Bevilacqua; Julien Bloit; Norbert Schnell; Emmanuel Fléty; Andrea Cera; Uros Petrevski; Jean-Louis Frechin
We present Urban Musical Game, an installation using augmented sports balls to manipulate and transform an interactive music environment. The interaction is based on playing techniques, a concept borrowed from traditional music instruments and applied here to non musical objects.
AHNE: a novel interface for spatial interaction BIBAFull-Text 1031-1034
  Matti Niinimäki; Koray Tahiroglu
In this paper we describe AHNE (Audio-Haptic Navigation Environment). It is a three-dimensional user interface (3D UI) for manipulating virtual sound objects with natural gestures in a real environment. AHNE uses real-time motion tracking and custom-made glove controllers as input devices, and auditory and haptic feedback as the output. We present the underlying system and a possible use for the interface as a musical controller.
AMARA: the affective museum of art resource agent BIBAFull-Text 1035-1038
  S. Joon Park; Gunho Chae; Craig MacDonald; Robert Stein; Susan Wiedenbeck; Jungwha Kim
This interactive system uses an embedded agent for question-based art collection search on the platform of the Indianapolis Museum of Art website. Unlike a keyword search box, AMARA helps users browse and search for artwork by asking them simple questions with answers mapped to social tags. Thus, the users do not need to be subject matter experts to input specific terms to search. In designing AMARA, we focused on creating an enjoyable browsing experience and helping users to determine their known and unknown art preferences.
BodiPod: interacting with 3d human anatomy via a 360° cylindrical display BIBAFull-Text 1039-1042
  John Bolton; Peng Wang; Kibum Kim; Roel Vertegaal
We present BodiPod, a 3D 360° stereoscopic human anatomy browser. Our cylindrical display allows users to view a human anatomy volume at full scale from any perspective. Shutter glasses are only required if users want to examine the data stereoscopically. Users can change views simply by walking around the display volume, and interact with the human anatomy model inside the display through gesture and speech interactions, which include scaling, rotation, peeling, slicing and labeling. Our demonstration shows that using a cylindrical display has the benefits of providing stereoscopic rendering of human anatomy models at life-size scale that can be examined from any angle, while allowing interactions from an appropriate viewing distance.
Combiform: beyond co-attentive play, a combinable social gaming platform BIBAFull-Text 1043-1046
  Edmond Yee; Josh Joiner; Tai An; Andrew Dang
Combiform is a novel digital gaming console featuring four combinable handheld controllers. It is a new and unique tangible gaming interface that stresses the importance of co-located, co-attentive social interactions among players. In particular, multiple players may freely combine and lock together their handheld game controllers, thereby creating a very flexible collective and transformable tangible interface. Combiform emphasizes social interaction through controller-to-controller contact. The platform and its 10 games introduce novel, tangible and physical co-attentive experiences that are not found in traditional co-located gaming platforms using 'embodied' controllers (e.g. Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect). Based on observations, this new interactive technique has successfully transformed typical co-located social play experiences into a multisensory physical activity.
EyeRing: an eye on a finger BIBAFull-Text 1047-1050
  Suranga Nanayakkara; Roy Shilkrot; Pattie Maes
Finger-worn devices are a greatly underutilized form of interaction with the surrounding world. By putting a camera on a finger we show that many visual analysis applications, for visually impaired people as well as the sighted, prove seamless and easy. We present EyeRing, a ring mounted camera, to enable applications such as identifying currency and navigating, as well as helping sighted people to tour an unknown city or intuitively translate signage. The ring apparatus is autonomous, however our system also includes a mobile phone or computation device to which it connects wirelessly, and an earpiece for information retrieval. Finally, we will discuss how different finger worn sensors may be extended and applied to other domains.
FlexCam: using thin-film flexible OLED color prints as a camera array BIBAFull-Text 1051-1054
  Connor Dickie; Nicholas Fellion; Roel Vertegaal
FlexCam is a novel compound camera platform that explores interactions with color photographic prints using thinfilm flexible color displays. FlexCam augments a thinfilm color Flexible Organic Light Emitting Diode (FOLED) photographic viewfinder display with an array of lenses at the back. Our prototype allows for the photograph to act as a camera, exploiting flexibility of the viewfinder as a means to dynamically re-configure images captured by the photograph. FlexCam's flexible camera array has altered optical characteristics when flexed, allowing users to dynamically expand and contract the camera's field of view (FOV). Integrated bend sensors measure the amount of flexion in the display. The degree of flexion is used as input to software, which dynamically stitches images from the camera array and adjusts viewfinder size to reflect the virtual camera's FOV. Our prototype envisions the use of photographs as cameras in one aggregate flexible, thin-film device.
Hanging off a bar BIBAFull-Text 1055-1058
  Florian Mueller; Cagdas Toprak; Eberhard Graether; Wouter Walmink; Bert Bongers; Elise van den Hoven
Exertion Games involve physical effort and as a result can facilitate physical health benefits. We present Hanging off a Bar, an action hero-inspired Exertion Game in which players hang off an exercise bar over a virtual river for as long as possible. Initial observations from three events with audiences ranging from the general public to expert game designers suggest that Hanging off a Bar can be engaging for players and facilitate intense exertion within seconds. Furthermore, we collected suggestions for what game elements players believe could entice them to increase their physical effort investment. These suggestions, combined with Hanging off a Bar as research vehicle due to the easy measurement of exertion through hanging time, enable future explorations into the relationship between digital game elements and physical exertion, guiding designers on how to support exertion in digital games.
Interactive block device system with pattern drawing capability on matrix leds BIBAFull-Text 1059-1062
  Junichi Akita
This paper describes an interactive block device with dot-matrix LED, with capabilities of drawing patterns by lights, physical and signal connections of devices with magnet connectors, and interaction using accelerometer and sounder. The pattern drawing is implemented by the technique of using matrix LEDs as light sensor array, which saves the additional hardware cost. Three applications of this block device, pattern morphing, function definable block, and musical box, are also described.
Joggobot: a flying robot as jogging companion BIBAFull-Text 1063-1066
  Eberhard Graether; Florian Mueller
Exertion activities, such as jogging, provide many health benefits, but exercising on your own can be considered disengaging. We present our system 'Joggobot', a flying robot accompanying joggers. Our design process revealed preliminary insights into how to design robots for exertion and how to address emerging design challenges. We summarize these insights into the four themes: 'embodiment', 'control', 'personality' and 'communication', which mark initial starting points towards understanding how to design robots for exertion activities. We hope our work guides and inspires designers when facilitating the benefits of exertion through robots.
Miniature alive: augmented reality-based interactive digilog experience in miniature exhibition BIBAFull-Text 1067-1070
  Taejin Ha; Kiyoung Kim; Nohyoung Park; Sangchul Seo; Woontack Woo
In this paper, we present Miniature Alive, a next-generation interactive miniature exhibition that provides a DigiLog experience that combines aesthetic/spatial feelings with an analog miniature and dynamic interaction with digitalized 3D content by exploiting augmented reality (AR) technology. Using our Miniature Alive, exhibition visitors can enjoy virtual storytelling in the physical miniature by turning a page of an e-book, interacting with augmented 3D objects through their mobile phones, and even change the original story. Our work is useful in guiding the design and implementation of new miniature exhibitions.
Mobile ActDresses: programming mobile devices by accessorizing BIBAFull-Text 1071-1074
  Mattias Jacobsson; Ylva Fernaeus; Stina Nylander
Mobile ActDresses is a design concept where existing practices of accessorizing, customization and manipulation of a physical mobile device is coupled with the behaviour of its software. With this interactivity demonstrator we will provide a hands on experience of doing this kind of playful manipulation. We provide two examples for how to implement Mobile ActDresses using quick'n dirty hacks to create custom shells and jewellery for controlling the behaviour of the phone.
Scoop!: a movement-based math game designed to reduce math anxiety BIBAFull-Text 1075-1078
  Katherine Isbister; Mike Karlesky; Jonathan Frye; Rahul Rao
In this paper, we describe Scoop!, a movement-based game designed to reduce math anxiety. The game makes use of research on the effects of 'power poses' to explore whether movement mechanics can shift feelings about math for players. The Interactivity demonstration includes both a 'high power', Kinect-driven version of the game, and a 'low power', track-pad-driven version of the game. CHI attendees can try out both versions to physically experience the effects.
Sketch it, make it: sketching precise drawings for laser cutting BIBAFull-Text 1079-1082
  Gabe Johnson; Mark Gross; Ellen Yi-Luen Do; Jason Hong
Sketch It, Make It (SIMI) is a modeling tool that enables non-experts to design items for fabrication with laser cutters. SIMI recognizes rough, freehand input as a user iteratively edits a structured vector drawing. The tool combines the strengths of sketch-based interaction with the power of constraint-based modeling. Several interaction techniques are combined to present a coherent system that makes it easier to make precise designs for laser cutters.
Stackables: faceted browsing with stacked tangibles BIBAFull-Text 1083-1086
  Petra Isenberg; Stefanie Klum; Ricardo Langner; Jean-Daniel Fekete; Raimund Dachselt
We demonstrate Stackables, tangible widgets designed for individual and collaborative faceted browsing. In contrast, current interfaces for browsing and search in large data spaces largely focus on supporting either individual or collaborative activities. Each stackable facet token represents search parameters that can be shared amongst collaborators, modified, and stored. We show how individuals or multiple people can interact with Stackables and combine them to formulate queries on realistic datasets. We have successfully used and evaluated Stackables in a user study with a dataset of over 1500 books and 12 facets with ranges of thousands of facet values.
Surround haptics: tactile feedback for immersive gaming experiences BIBAFull-Text 1087-1090
  Ali Israr; Seung-Chan Kim; Jan Stec; Ivan Poupyrev
In this paper we propose an architecture for rendering rich and high-resolution haptic feedback on the user's body while playing interactive games. The haptic architecture consists of three main elements, namely, haptic engine, haptic API/codec, and haptic display. The haptic engine extracts events from the game, assigns haptic feedback to these events, and sends coded packets to haptic API/codec. The haptic API/codec translates the coded packets and computes driving signals based on carefully evaluated algorithms derived from psychophysical modeling of tactile perception. The driving signals are then routed to the haptic display embedded with an array of vibratory transducers. A user feels high resolution and refined tactile sensations on the body through the display. We have integrated the Surround Haptics system with a driving simulation game to provide an enjoyable gaming experience.
Toolset to explore visual motion designs in a video game BIBAFull-Text 1091-1094
  David Milam; Magy Seif El-Nasr; Lyn Bartram; Matt Lockyer; Chao Feng; Perry Tan
We describe a research toolset to explore visual designs in a video game. We focus specifically on visual motion, defined by attributes of motion, and their effect on accessibility, which may lead to a diminished experience for novice players. Eight expert game designers evaluated the tool embedded into a simple point and click game. Specifically they controlled attributes of speed, size of game elements, and amount of elements on screen associated to game targets, distractions, and feedback. The tool allowed experts to define difficulty settings and expose patterns, which they verified. As a game, we then investigated the effect of visual motion on accessibility in a formal user study comprised of 105 participants. As a follow-up to this work, we expanded the toolset to include 8 additional attributes of motion.
Using augmented snapshots for viewpoint switching and manipulation in augmented reality BIBAFull-Text 1095-1098
  Mengu Sukan; Steven Feiner
SnapAR is a magic-lens-based hand-held augmented reality application that allows its user to store snapshots of a scene and revisit them virtually at a later time. By storing a still image of the unaugmented background along with the 6DOF camera pose, this approach allows augmentations to remain dynamic and interactive. This makes it possible for the user to quickly switch between vantage points at different locations from which to view and manipulate virtual objects, without the overhead of physically traveling between those locations.
A virtual reality dialogue system for the treatment of social phobia BIBAFull-Text 1099-1102
  Willem-Paul Brinkman; Dwi Hartanto; Ni Kang; Daniel de Vliegher; Isabel L. Kampmann; Nexhmedin Morina; Paul G. M. Emmelkamp; Mark Neerincx
People with social phobia have a severe fear of everyday social situations. In this paper we describe a virtual reality exposure therapy system specifically designed to expose patients with social phobia to various social situations. Patients can engage in a free speech dialogue with avatars while being monitored by a therapist. To control phobic stressors, therapists can control the avatar's gaze, the avatar's dialogue style and the narrative stories that are embedded throughout the exposure. The system uses the Delft remote virtual reality exposure therapy platform which allows remote treatment.
A visual display of sociotechnical data BIBAFull-Text 1103-1106
  Yanni Loukissas; David Mindell
Can visualization bring entangled social and technical relationships into sharper view for the broad range of professionals who study, design, or operate within complex human-machine systems? This interactive project demonstrates how visual tools can illuminate the changing meaning and importance of human presence in remote or autonomous operations. Using historical data sets from the 1969 Apollo 11 moon landing, the project presents opportunities and challenges in the visual display of sociotechnical data: integrating qualitative and quantitative sources, flattening data into graphics without losing interpretive depth, using a visual composition to tell non-linear stories. It introduces a timely and long-term endeavor, the development of a visual language and interface connecting researchers, designers, and operators in the study of human-machine teams.


Women in UX leadership in business BIBAFull-Text 1107-1110
  Janaki Kumar; Dan Rosenberg; Catherine Courage; Janice Rohn; Lisa Kamm; Lisa Anderson; Christine Holsberry; Apala Lahiri Chavan
The goal of this panel is to launch a dialog on women in UX leadership. Despite ongoing progress toward equality, women still haven't reached significant representation in leadership positions in the high-tech industry. Is the field of User Experience an exception to this norm? Does the interdisciplinary nature of UX play a role in making it easier or more difficult for women in our field? Does a career in UX, regardless of gender place a glass ceiling on upward mobility into "C" level positions? Our accomplished panel of UX managers will share their professional journeys, their observations on advantages and disadvantages, and their advice for the next generation.
The arts, HCI, and innovation policy discourse: invited panel BIBAFull-Text 1111-1114
  Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Joanna Berzowska; Ernest Edmonds; Ken Goldberg; D. Fox Harrell; Brian Smith
Although both HCI and innovation policy discourse have a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) basis, both also include trends that incorporate the arts. The purpose of this panel is to show how HCI/arts discourse and innovation policy/arts discourse inform each other. We then discuss with the audience how innovation initiatives configure programs and roles for artists and HCI professionals working in HCI/arts.
Creating great user experience: facing the challenges ahead BIBAFull-Text 1115-1118
  Joseph Konstan; Aaron Marcus; Karen Holtzblatt; Eric Schaffer
Creating products and systems that deliver exceptional user experience is a challenge faced by product managers, user experience specialists, and product designers. The challenge has grown keener as users expect to interact seamlessly across a variety of platforms, as computing completes its move from being about computers to being integrated into life activities, and as businesses continue to expand their reach and address diverse user populations with different cultural expectations and norms. This panel brings together three experienced consultants to share their thoughts and answer your questions.
Music interaction research in HCI: let's get the band back together BIBAFull-Text 1119-1122
  Lassi Liikkanen; Christopher Amos; Sally Jo Cunningham; J. Stephen Downie; David McDonald
The ubiquity of music consumption is overarching. Statistics for digital music sales, streaming video videos, computer games, and illegal sharing all speak of a huge interest. At the same, an incredible amount of data about every day interactions (sales and use) with music is accumulating through new cloud services. However, there is an amazing lack of public knowledge about everyday music interaction. This panel discusses the state of music interaction as a part of digital media research. We consider why music interaction research has become so marginal in HCI and discuss how to revive it. Our two discussion themes are: orientation towards design vs. research in music related R&D, and the question if and how private, big data on music interactions could enlighten our understanding of ubiquitous media culture.
Tangible interfaces for children: cognitive, social, & physical benefits and challenges BIBAFull-Text 1123-1126
  Shuli Gilutz; Sandra Calvert; Kathleen Kremer; Barbara Chamberlin; Geri Gay
With the rise of prevalence of tangible interfaces of all kinds for children, this panel will present diverse perspectives on the benefits and challenges of these interfaces. These will include: exergames, mobile applications, and using digitally enhanced feedback for non-digital environments.
Fail whaling: designing from deviance and failures in social computing BIBAFull-Text 1127-1130
  Michael Bernstein; Michael Conover; Benjamin Mako Hill; Andres Monroy-Hernandez; Brian Keegan; Aaron Shaw; Sarita Yardi; R. Stuart Geiger; Amy Bruckman
Social computing technologies are pervasive in our work, relationships, and culture. Despite their promise for transforming the structure of communication and human interaction, the complex social dimensions of these technological systems often reproduce offline social ills or create entirely novel forms of conflict and deviance. This panel brings together scholars who study deviance and failure in diverse social computing systems to examine four design-related themes that contribute to and support these problematic uses: theft, anonymity, deviance, and polarization.
Indy R&D: doing HCI research off the beaten path BIBAFull-Text 1131-1134
  Amanda Williams; Johanna Brewer; Alicia Gibb; Eric Wilhelm; Hugh Forrest
This panel discusses independent research and development in HCI. We focus on possible models for Indy R&D operations, supporting infrastructures, practical methods, and taking advantage of academic skills in the transition. Panel participants have experience in several different models of funding, conducting, and disseminating results from independent research. We will provide the audience with practical tips to help them decide if Indy R&D is right for them, and if so, help them do it.
The humanities and/in HCI BIBAFull-Text 1135-1138
  Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Carl DiSalvo; William Gaver; Phoebe Sengers
In the past two decades, as technology has moved from the workplace to nearly all aspects of our everyday lives, HCI has also increased the breadth and depth of its research agenda. The breadth increase can be seen in the increasingly broad understanding of stakeholders and long-term socio-cultural-environmental consequences of interactive technologies. The depth increase can be seen in the seriousness with which HCI takes complex, subjective dimensions of interaction, such as affect, identity, experience, aesthetics. Humanistic forms of scholarship, including theories, methodologies, and scholarly forms, have increasingly been used to address many of these breadth and depth issues. In this panel, we explore the state of the art of humanist scholarship in HCI and consider its future trajectories.
Occupy CHI!: engaging U.S. policymakers BIBAFull-Text 1139-1142
  Janet Davis; Harry Hochheiser; Juan Pablo Hourcade; Jeff Johnson; Lisa Nathan; Janice Tsai
This panel will be a call for HCI professionals to become involved in U.S. public policy. Panelists representing a range of commitments to public policy work will share compelling stories and lessons from concrete situations where insights from HCI have (or have not) influenced U.S. public policy.
Invited panel: managing UX teams: insights from executive leaders BIBAFull-Text 1143-1146
  Janice Rohn; Dennis Wixon; Dan Rosenberg; Jeremy Ashley; Larry Tesler
A number of well-known corporations were earlier adopters of creating and building User Experience departments, which has resulted in a small set of executive leaders in User Experience who have decades of corporate User Experience management experience. This session is an interview of some of these executive leaders to learn how the field has changed over the decades, their recommendations for best practices, lessons learned, and their vision for the future. The panel will be of interest to managers, practitioners and those who work closely with these teams, including developers, project managers, market researchers, test managers, and executives.
"Material interactions": from atoms & bits to entangled practices BIBAFull-Text 1147-1150
  Mikael Wiberg; Hiroshi Ishii; Paul Dourish; Daniela Rosner; Anna Vallgårda; Petra Sundström; Tobie Kerridge; Mark Rolston
This panel addresses some of the core aspects of the theme "It's the experience", for the CHI2012 conference by focusing on the materials that constitute the foundation for interaction with computers. We take a series of questions as a joint point of departure to consider the nature and character of "material interactions" in HCI. Specifically, we consider theoretical, critical and practical approaches to material interactions and how they inform/become useful to HCI. The panel will include position statements from the panelists as well as high-level audience participation. We envision a fun and intellectually stimulating panel moderated by Prof. Mikael Wiberg consisting of a number of scholars with a well-developed view on digital materialities to fuel a discussion on material interactions -- from atoms & bits to entangled practices. These scholars include: Prof. Hiroshi Ishii, Prof. Paul Dourish, Daniela Rosner, Petra Sundström, Anna Vallgårda and Tobie Kerridge. This panel also features Mark Rolston, Chief Creative Officer at Frog design, Inc.
Social sustainability: an HCI agenda BIBAFull-Text 1151-1154
  Daniela Busse; Eli Blevis; Richard Beckwith; Shaowen Bardzell; Phoebe Sengers; Bill Tomlinson; Lisa Nathan; Samuel Mann
The panel will capture some of the breadth and depth of the current CHI discourse on Social Sustainability, and discuss a forward-looking research agenda.
How-to-guide: collaborating with executives in a pro-design world BIBAFull-Text 1155-1156
  Iram Mirza; Jannie Lai; Craig Villamor; Larry Tesler; Mark Rolston; Chris Maliwat
This panel includes designers, product managers, and executives from various industries. The discussion focuses on how designers can collaborate effectively with executives to create a design-driven strategy from concept to implementation.


Current issues in assessing and improving information usability: (invited SIG of the UX community) BIBAFull-Text 1157-1160
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This meeting is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators' list of topics, augmented by attendees' suggestions.
Special interest group for the CHI 2012 management community BIBAFull-Text 1161-1164
  Dennis Wixon; Janice Rohn
This SIG serves two purposes: sharing the results from the two-day CHI workshop, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Special interest group in child computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 1165-1168
  Janet C. Read; Panos Markopoulos; Allison Druin
This special interest group provides the forum for an unofficial gathering of the Child-Computer Interaction community for CHI 2012. Its aim is to provide a venue for structured discussions and networking. Particularly, it aims to support newcomers to this community and to CHI 2012, to acquire an overview of people, topics, and trends that are active in the area. Further, it aims to attract participants with an active interest in the topic of child computer interaction to engage in the various activities of this community, in and outside CHI 2012.
Invited SIG: designing for the living room tv experience BIBAFull-Text 1169-1172
  Jhilmil Jain; Anne Aula
This SIG brings together practitioners and academic user researchers and designers who are interested in or working on defining both the software and hardware aspects of the user experience for TV. This SIG will be useful to people at all stages ranging from early research to released products. We especially welcome people from product labs.
Games and entertainment community SIG: shaping the future BIBAFull-Text 1173-1176
  Regina Bernhaupt; Katherine Isbister
The community of games and entertainment includes researchers and practitioners focusing on player-centered development and evaluation of all forms of games and applications that focus on entertainment. Games and entertainment have been represented in all CHI venues including workshops, tutorials, papers, and notes. In 2011 Games and Entertainment was selected as a Special Community at CHI, a designation that continues this year and can be taken into future CHI conferences. This year's Games and Entertainment SIG meeting will be a venue for exploring where to take this community in future at CHI, including identifying strong research and commercial talent in our community interested in playing leadership roles.
Articulating lines of research in digital arts, HCI, and interaction (invited SIG) BIBAFull-Text 1177-1180
  Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Linda Candy; Ayoka Chenzira; Ernest Edmonds; David England; Thecla Schiphorst; Atau Tanaka
The establishment of a Digital Arts Featured Community at CHI 2012 indicates the general acceptance of mutually beneficial synergies between digital arts and HCI. At this juncture, the Digital Arts Community has an opportunity to build upon this established community platform to begin articulating lines of research. This SIG initiates this essential step in establishing traditions of contribution.
Chi 2012 sustainability community invited SIG: inventory of issues and opportunities BIBAFull-Text 1181-1184
  Eli Blevis; Daniela Busse; Samuel Mann; Yue Pan; John Thomas
This year's CHI Sustainability Community's SIG is designed to broaden participation and also designed to collect an inventory of issues and opportunities to broaden the reach and scope of HCI's role in securing a sustainable future.
RepliCHI SIG: from a panel to a new submission venue for replication BIBAFull-Text 1185-1188
  Max Wilson; Wendy Mackay; Ed Chi; Michael Bernstein; Jeffrey Nichols
At CHI2011 we ran a panel on how the CHI community handles the replicability of research and the reproducibility of findings. Careful scientific scholarship should build on firm foundations, which includes re-examining old evidences in the face of new findings. Yet, as a community that strives for novelty, we have very little motivation to look back and reconsider the validity of previous work. Thus, for CHI2013 we are planning a new venue, where replicated studies can be submitted, presented, and discussed. For CHI2012, we propose a SIG to discuss the preparations for how RepliCHI will work in its first year. We invite participation from those interested in setting an agenda for facilitating replication in HCI, including those who have begun using replication as a teaching method since RepliCHI at CHI2011.
Multitasking and interruptions: a SIG on bridging the gap between research on the micro and macro worlds BIBAFull-Text 1189-1192
  Sandy Gould; Duncan Brumby; Anna Cox; Victor González; Dario Salvucci; Niels Taatgen
Within the CHI community there has been sustained interest in interruptions and multitasking behaviour. Research in the area falls into two broad categories: the micro world of perception and cognition; and the macro world of organisations, systems and long-term planning. Although both kinds of research have generated insights into behaviour, the data generated by the two kinds of research have been effectively incommensurable. Designing safer and more efficient interactions in interrupted and multitasking environments requires that researchers in the area attempt to bridge the gap between these worlds. This SIG aims to stimulate discussion of the tools and methods we need as a community in order to further our understanding of interruptions and multitasking.
SIG: end-user programming BIBAFull-Text 1193-1196
  Christopher Scaffidi; Joel Brandt; Margaret Burnett; Andrew Dove; Brad Myers
As users continue to grow in number and diversity, end-user programming is playing an increasingly central role in shaping software to meet the broad, varied, rapidly changing needs of the world. Numerous companies have therefore begun to sell tools enabling end users to create programs. In parallel, ongoing academic research is aimed at helping end-user programmers create and adapt new kinds of programs in new ways. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers and companies focused on creating end-user programming tools, thereby facilitating technology transfer and future collaboration.
Reject me: peer review and SIGCHI BIBAFull-Text 1197-1200
  Michael Bernstein; Dan Cosley; Carl DiSalvo; Sanjay Kairam; David Karger; Travis Kriplean; Cliff Lampe; Wendy Mackay; Loren Terveen; Jacob Wobbrock; Sarita Yardi
The HCI research community grows bigger each year, refining and expanding its boundaries in new ways. The ability to effectively review submissions is critical to the growth of CHI and related conferences. The review process is designed to produce a consistent supply of fair, high-quality reviews without overloading individual reviewers; yet, after each cycle, concerns are raised about limitations of the process. Every year, participants are left wondering why their papers were not accepted (or why they were). This SIG will explore reviewing through a critical and constructive lens, discussing current successes and future opportunities in the CHI review process. Goals will include actionable conclusions about ways to improve the system, potential alternative peer models, and the creation of materials to educate newcomer reviewers.
HCI research and education in Arabic universities BIBAFull-Text 1201-1204
  Habib M. Fardoun; Jose Gallud; Daniyal Alghazzawi
The main topic of this SIG is to discuss how the Human-Computer Interaction subject is present in the universities degrees and research groups from the Arabic countries. The SIG will contribute to disseminate the teaching and research activities from several Arabic universities of reference, and also will allow participants to exchange experiences and research opportunities.
Invited engineering community SIG: the role of engineering work in CHI BIBAFull-Text 1205-1208
  Ruven Brooks; Nicholas Graham; Jeffrey Nichols; Philippe Palanque; Fabio Paternò
The Engineering Community faces a number of serious challenges around its role in the larger CHI community and its contribution to SIGCHI-sponsored conferences. This SIG is its forum to report progress on key issues for 2012, identify objectives for 2013, and develop plans to address them.
Changing requirements to HCI funding: a global perspective BIBAFull-Text 1209-1212
  Vanessa Evers; Stephen Brewster; Jonathan Lazar; Zhengjie Liu; Gary Marsden; Raquel Prates; Femke Nijboer
The requirements for funding for HCI research are changing globally. In this SIG meeting, we will review with panel members and high-level grant decision makers from different continents and countries how the requirements are changing and discuss how this affects HCI research and its impact.
Digital art: evaluation, appreciation, critique (invited SIG) BIBAFull-Text 1213-1216
  David England; Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Celine Latulipe; Linda Candy; Jennifer Sheridan
This SIG examines the vexed question of evaluation of Digital Art and how lessons on evaluation can be exchanged between the arts and mainstream HCI. We start by looking at critiques of standard approaches to evaluation in HCI. We then look at approaches, which have been developed in Digital Art to merge qualitative and quantitative methods. These investigations set the agenda for the SIG with the aim of uncovering the audience's knowledge and attempts at Digital Art evaluation, appreciation and critique. The chief outcome will be an exchange of experiences and proposals for ways forward for both the Digital Arts community and the broader CHI community.
Invited SIG -- participation and HCI: why involve people in design? BIBAFull-Text 1217-1220
  John Vines; Rachel Clarke; Tuck Leong; John McCarthy; Ole Sejer Iversen; Peter Wright; Patrick Olivier
Participation is of high relevance to the CHI Design community. Participatory work has been performed with very different intentions: to democratize the design process; to better inform the design of new systems; to engage the public in the construction of their own futures; or simply to appease funding commitments. Whilst this increased attention has lead to a large amount of methodological innovation, very little effort has been spent reflecting on why various participatory approaches should, or should not be, used and how we can assess their impacts on the design process and products. This invited SIG will bring together invited experts who have explored participation to different degrees within their past work to provoke group and plenary audience discussion. The aim of this SIG is to provide an opportunity for discussion and reflection on how and why participative methods are used in HCI research and practice.
Gaze interaction in the post-WIMP world BIBAFull-Text 1221-1224
  Andreas Bulling; Raimund Dachselt; Andrew Duchowski; Robert Jacob; Sophie Stellmach; Veronica Sundstedt
With continuous progression away from desktop to post-WIMP applications, including multi-touch, gestural, or tangible interaction, there is high potential for eye gaze as a more natural human-computer interface in numerous contexts. Examples include attention-aware adaptations or the combination of gaze and hand gestures for interaction with distant displays.
   This SIG meeting provides a discussion venue for researchers and practitioners interested in gaze interaction in the post-WIMP era. We wish to draw attention to this emerging field and eventually formulate fundamental research questions. We will discuss the potential of gaze interaction for diverse application areas, interaction tasks, and multimodal user interface combinations. Our aims are to promote this research field, foster a larger research community, and establish the basis for a workshop at CHI 2013.
Designing wellness interventions and applications BIBAFull-Text 1225-1228
  Young Lee; Petra Kempf
In recent years, we have seen a large explosion of wellness interventions and technology applications focused on human's well-being with the intention of helping people avoid needing medical care. Given the increasing emergence of wellness applications, there is a need to integrate existing diverse research endeavors and discuss key challenges and opportunities for next generation wellness interventions and applications. In this SIG, we bring together researchers and practitioners in the wellness field to develop a shared understanding of existing approaches around the wellness interventions and applications and identify key synergies, opportunities, and challenges for future research that lead to successful wellbeing.
SIG: Work life balance in HCI BIBAFull-Text 1229-1232
  Anicia Peters; Susan Dray; Jofish Kaye
With the pervasiveness of technology, it has not only permeated our workspaces but it has also become invasive in our private personal spaces. Whether on the sports field, in the home, in health or spiritual spaces, technology is ever present. With this persistent presence, it keeps us constantly connected to our work, extending work beyond the normal working hours that used to be sharply demarcated by physical distance between work and play. This SIG will discuss the challenges and possible interventions to maintain work life balance for HCI researchers and practitioners.
Animal-computer interaction SIG BIBAFull-Text 1233-1236
  Clara Mancini; Shaun Lawson; Janet van der Linden; Jonna Häkkilä; Frank Noz; Chadwick Wingrave; Oskar Juhlin
User-computer interaction research is demonstrating growing interest in the relation between animals and technology (e.g., computer-mediated interspecies interactions and animal-computer interfaces). However, as a research area, this topic is still underexplored and fragmented, and researchers lack opportunities to exchange ideas, identify resources, form collaborations and co-operatively develop a coherent research agenda. The Animal-Computer Interaction (ACI) SIG meeting aims to provide such an opportunity, promoting the development of ACI as a distinct area of research which is relevant to both animals and humans.

Student design

No place like home: pet-to-family reunification after disaster BIBAFull-Text 1237-1242
  Mario Barrenechea; Joshua Barron; Joanne White
Pets are important household members, and their welfare and safety are imperative to the emotional welfare of the family. Displacement of pets after disaster events is a serious matter to families and for public safety at large. People are not willing to evacuate without their non-human family members; many will break through evacuation zones to recover animals left behind. In the 2005 Hurricane Katrina event, over 200,000 pets were displaced, and 95% of them were never reunited with their families. The US Department of Agriculture confirms that the problem of reuniting displaced pets and their guardians at this scale is unfortunately common in disaster events. We introduce No Place Like Home, a socially networked web and mobile platform that facilitates reunification of non-human with human family members following disaster events. No Place Like Home is an effort that supports the formation of small cadres of micro-tasking 'digital volunteers' that converge after disasters to do photo- and description-matching; employs a reputation and reward system to encourage use; and uses match-based machine learning techniques to accelerate the manual matching tasks performed by digital volunteers.
Home2Home: a "lightweight" gift-giving portal between homes BIBAFull-Text 1243-1248
  Alexandra Boughton; Arjun Gopalakrishna; Bhavya Udayashankar; Alexandra Morgan
As families become more dispersed within countries and around the world, the ability to maintain frequent and personalized communication becomes more challenging. Home2Home is a lightweight, smartboard device with ambient display that supports family communication practices with particular attention to the novice technology user. By leveraging the ease of a whiteboard and instant sharing, the familiarity of notepads and "care packages," and the emotive qualities of handwriting and voice, Home2Home is an easy-to-learn technology that affords the major communication capacities of other software and devices, together in one place. In this paper, we describe the system and the user-centered design process employed to create it.
KidArt: displaying children's art in the home BIBAFull-Text 1249-1254
  Allison Brown; Kaitlin Hegarty; Aileen McCollum; Colin Twaddell
In this paper we present a device to display children's art in the home. Our primary goal was to create a device that can enhance the display of art, capturing the experience families have both when the child creates the art and when they reflect on that art together. The display device removes the burden of organizing and displaying the art children create so that families can enjoy the art in their homes instead.
weRemember: letting ad patients to enjoy their home and their families BIBAFull-Text 1255-1260
  Oscar Daniel Camarena Gomez; Rodrigo Juarez Armenta; Hugo Huipet; Victor Martinez
weRemember was designed to provide elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) a relative independence at home and a new way to communicate and interact with their family. Our solution offers support for AD patients helping them to longer deal with the disease while living at home with their family instead of moving into a nursing home. Following an iterative design approach, a number of prototypes were evaluated with potential users and their feedback was used to enhance the family experience. During the prototype evaluation we found that the system could have a positive impact both on the relationship between the patient and the caregivers as well as on the patient home experience.
MeCasa: a family virtual space BIBAFull-Text 1261-1266
  Tyler Davis; Camie Steinhoff; Maricarmen Vela
We present MeCasa, a tool for connecting family members who have been geographically separated. MeCasa was designed with the intent to accomplish three objectives: 1. Increase the emotional connection between displaced family members, 2. Mimic the privacy provided by an actual home, 3. Make the interaction fun and interesting to use. A mid-fidelity prototype was built and tested to meet these objectives. Our results showed that MeCasa successfully bridged the emotional disconnect created when families physically drifted apart.
Anchor: connecting sailors to home BIBAFull-Text 1267-1272
  Jacob Farny; Matthew Jennex; Rebekah Olsen; Melissa Rodriguez
Maintaining a connection to home is difficult for deployed sailors in the US Navy. At sea, data transfer and personal privacy are limited, the consequences of which are detrimental to the romantic relationships of sailors with stateside partners. We propose Anchor, a tablet application that uses asynchronous messages to synthesize synchronous communication when there is no data transfer. Anchor helps sailors and their romantic partners communicate using media-rich messages, and it creates a connection to home no matter where service takes them.
Feelybean: communicating touch over distance BIBAFull-Text 1273-1278
  Dimitrios Kontaris; Daniel Harrison; Evgenia-Eleni Patsoule; Susan Zhuang; Annabel Slade
Increasingly, due to work or study reasons, many couples find themselves living apart, in different cities or even countries, experiencing the challenges of a long distance relationship. Much research has been conducted into helping couples overcome the problems associated with long distance relationships (LDRs) and many steps have been made towards solving it through enabling them to keep in contact via video, audio, or visual artifacts. Our approach supplements these traditional communication mediums by exploiting ""touch" -- a sensation that is dominant in almost every relationship. We designed, built and tested a prototype touch device, with the intention of bringing couples closer together during a regular Skype conversation, by allowing each to feel the other's touch. Our study showed that participants found touching each other in this way was intriguing, enabling them to feel the other person's hand touching theirs at a distance, and in doing so bridging the distance between them.
Habitag: virtually home BIBAFull-Text 1279-1284
  Samuel Hsein Chin Heng; Kevin Jianxiong Lin; Teng Chek Lim; Kaili Agatha Soh
In Singapore, many young adults do not move out of their family home even after marriage. We conducted several interviews and identified that moving into the marital home is a problem for many newlyweds. Using data from surveys, interviews and a cultural probe, we designed Habitag -- a private smartphone application that targets newly married couples in Singapore, helping them to plan for and adjust to their new home in a collaborative and playful manner. Testing results indicate that Habitag may help to reduce the amount of frustration and difficulties that newlyweds face during these critical processes. Finally, we discuss Habitag's potential transferability to other Asian countries.
Shoji: communicating privacy BIBAFull-Text 1285-1290
  Caroline Laroche; Benoît Rochon; Serge Pelletier; Joëlle Sasseville
People sharing a living space in Québec City chose to do so to take advantage of various practical advantages. However, this way of life is far from perfect. Indeed, the lodger's need for privacy is an aspect of shared accommodation that can be very hard to reconcile with the needs of the other roommates. Based on our user research, we were able to determine that this aspect of the domestic experience is an important issue with regard to sharing accommodation. Roommates can be encouraged to communicate delicate emotions differently through Shoji, an interactive door that acts as an ice-breaker and helps to avoid awkward situations, thus improving the quality of life and the domestic experience for everyone.
fridgeTop: bringing home-like experience back to kitchen space BIBAFull-Text 1291-1296
  Shwetangi Savant; Gin L. Chieng; Szu-Hsuan Lai; Yi-yu Lin; Ityam Vasal
Owing to cultural and time zone differences, international students studying far away from their homes struggle to re-create home-like experiences. Living in a shared accommodation with new people further adds to this struggle, since common spaces become non-conducive to home-like activities. We study kitchen space in this context, and offer a solution called fridgeTop, which seeks to reduce the threshold of a kitchen's perceived public space in a shared accommodation by fostering familiar family interactions on a smart fridge surface.
Bzzzt: when mobile phones feel at home BIBAFull-Text 1297-1302
  Susanne Stadler; Stefan Riegler; Stefan Hinterkörner
"I long, as does every human being, to feel at home wherever I find myself."" -- Maya Angelou.
   We present Bzzzt, the sketching process for an application which enables your smart phone to sense its surroundings to distinguish between familiar and unknown vibes. The phone will vibrate and record the echoes with its accelerometer or microphone, analyze those echoes and distinguish if it has felt the vibrations of this particular surface before, or not. From this it could potentially recognize some kind of feeling of being at home or hominess. Basically, this paper presents a material exploration for how we potentially could come to use the accelerometer and the microphone nowadays embedded in almost all mobile phones.
Moodcasting: home as shared emotional space BIBAFull-Text 1303-1308
  Abigale Stangl; Joshua Wepman; Dylan White
The home experience revolves around an intangible yet pervasive dynamic: shared emotional space, in which members of the home are influenced by each other's expressions of mood as well as the associated values, activities, people and spaces that influence mood. The Moodcasting system is a set of pervasive and ambient technologies designed to interactively enhance mood awareness and understanding in a home by representing mood and the supporting contexts in easy-to-understand and actionable representations.
Silka: a domestic technology to mediate the threshold between connection and solitude BIBAFull-Text 1309-1314
  Katarzyna Stawarz; Jesper Garde; Ciaran McLoughlin; Robert Nicolaides; Jennifer Walters
Families living apart -- with relatives and loved ones in different cities or countries -- is not unusual. However, even though multiple communication technologies exist, communicating emotions can still be difficult. In this paper we present Silka: a device that supports long-distance communication by sending "smiles" and communicating presence in between traditional modes of communication, with the goal of enhancing bonds between two individuals or households. Silka's design is based on findings from an online survey, interviews and observations conducted to better understand how people communicate with loved ones and how they feel before and after communication. It aims to address worry and anxiety, which we found characterise the period between regular weekly, fortnightly or monthly calls.
SharryBot: a mobile agent for facilitating communication in a neighborhood BIBAFull-Text 1315-1320
  Sevgi Uzungelis; Christoph Brüunlich; Siarhei Pashkou; Konstantin Zerebcov; Sarah Mennicken
In this work we present a possible solution to problems related to interaction between neighbors. To explore the problem space we conducted interviews in the canton of Zurich in Switzerland. Although our interviews showed that the participants are generally happy with their neighborhoods, there are still some barriers to overcome in personal communication between neighbors. These are mostly time related or because of overacted cautiousness. The interviews further showed that gift-giving often improves relationships and enables communication. These findings led to a couple of design ideas of which we chose the most promising to investigate further. Our final solution was a concept of a mobile agent "SharryBot" which can distribute gifts among the neighborhood and thereby connecting people in an effective way. The robot should not only make the neighbors known to each other but it should also improve face-to-face communication when neighbors communicate later.
StoryCubes: connecting elders in independent living through storytelling BIBAFull-Text 1321-1326
  Micah Linnemeier; Yi-Ying Lin; Gierad Laput; Ramachandra Vijjapurapu
One's home is often a place that reflects and affirms one's identity, but when an elderly person moves to a group living environment, they must re-assert themselves and make new social connections in a place that may inadvertently frame them in terms of their disabilities. We present StoryCubes, a system that helps residents of independent living communities make connections through sharing stories, and express their identity in terms of their unique background, interests, and values. StoryCubes centers around the creation and sharing of tangible paper objects which display and contain the stories of residents using QR code technology. StoryCubes can be displayed together, where residents and visitors can listen to stories within any cube that piques their interest. By giving residents a way to discover and share stories, they are able to gain a greater understanding of their fellow residents, helping them to better appreciate and become more comfortable in their shared living experience.

Student games

Power defense: a serious game for improving diabetes numeracy BIBAFull-Text 1327-1332
  Bill Kapralos; Aaron DeChamplain; Ian McCabe; Matt Stephan; Bill Kapralos; Farid H. Mahmud; Adam Dubrowski
Adolescents with T1D often have poor control of their disease. With the knowledge that the current generation appreciates and learns more from interactive approaches to teaching, we have developed Power Defense, a highly interactive video game aimed at improving one particular skill associated with managing diabetes -- numeracy. Diabetes-related numeracy encompasses the ability to understand and interpret results and then appropriately apply the results to the management of diabetes. Power Defense employs the principals of experiential learning and includes both implicit and explicit methods for teaching the player the necessary diabetes numeracy skills.
Hit it!: an apparatus for upscaling mobile HCI studies BIBAFull-Text 1333-1338
  Niels Henze
Mobile HCI studies are often conducted in a highly controlled environment and with a small convenient sample. Such common studies can have a high internal validity but often lack external validity. The findings cannot always be generalized to the behaviour of real users in real contexts. In contrast, researchers recently started to use apps as an apparatus for mobile HCI research. Publishing apps in mobile application stores enables to study large samples in their 'natural habitat'. We present the game Hit It! that has been installed 427,255 times and, more importantly, served as a tool to conduct a number of HCI studies. The amount of collected data enabled us to study users' touch behaviour, approaches to ask for consent, the best time to deploy games, and approaches for providing tactile feedback. We discuss advantages of the approach and argue that Hit It! enabled findings that would be impossible to obtain using traditional studies.
BombPlus: using NFC and orientation-sensing to enhance social gaming experience for co-located players BIBAFull-Text 1339-1344
  Chao-Ju Huang; Chien-Pang Lin; Min-Lun Tsai; Fu-Chieh Hsu
We present BombPlus, a multi-player, multi-device game that uses two novel technologies to enhance social gaming experience for co-located players. First, TouchConnect uses Near Field Communication (NFC) to enable users to simply touch two mobile phones to connect and join a game. Second, RealSense uses orientation sensing to enable directional gestures to provide spatial interaction among players during the game.
Motion chain: a webcam game for crowdsourcing gesture collection BIBAFull-Text 1345-1350
  Ian Spiro
This paper describes the development and preliminary design of a game with a purpose that attempts to build a corpus of useful and original videos of human motion. This content is intended for use in applications of machine learning and computer vision. The game, Motion Chain, encourages users to respond to text and video prompts by recording videos with a web camera. The game seeks to entertain not through an explicit achievement or point system but through the fun of performance and the discovery inherent in observing other players. This paper describes two specific forms of the game, Chains and Charades, and proposes future possibilities. The paper describes the phases of game design as well as implementation details then discusses an approach for evaluating the game's effectiveness.
Herding nerds on your table: NerdHerder, a mobile augmented reality game BIBAFull-Text 1351-1356
  Yan Xu; Sam Mendenhall; Vu Ha; Paul Tillery; Joshua Cohen
In this paper, we introduce NerdHerder, a mobile game with an augmented reality interface. The game's premise is that you are hired as an IT manager, and your job is to use ""management skills"" to get the nerd employees back to work in their cubicles. The core game mechanic relies on the physical position and movement of the handheld device in relation to the physical-digital game world. NerdHerder creatively integrates puzzle-solving and motion-based action with a mobile Augmented Reality interface. This paper introduces the system implementation, design process and design rationales of the game. More information about the game can be found on www.MicroNerd.net.
Combiform: beyond co-attentive play, a combinable social gaming platform BIBAFull-Text 1357-1362
  Edmond Yee; Josh Joiner; Tai An; Andrew Dang
Combiform is a novel digital gaming console featuring four combinable handheld controllers. It is a new and unique tangible gaming interface that stresses the importance of co-located, co-attentive social interactions among players. In particular, multiple players may freely combine and lock together their handheld game controllers, thereby creating a very flexible collective and transformable tangible interface. Combiform emphasizes social interaction through controller-to-controller contact. The platform and its 10 games introduce novel, tangible and physical co-attentive experiences that are not found in traditional co-located gaming platforms using 'embodied' controllers (e.g. Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect). Based on observations, this new interactive technique has successfully transformed typical co-located social play experiences into a multisensory physical activity.

Student research

Impact of platform design on cross-language information exchange BIBAFull-Text 1363-1368
  Scott Hale
This paper describes two case studies examining the impact of platform design on cross-language communications. The sharing of off-site hyperlinks between language editions of Wikipedia and between users on Twitter with different languages in their user descriptions are analyzed and compared in the context of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in Japan. The paper finds that a greater number of links are shared across languages on Twitter, while a higher percentage of links are shared between Wikipedia articles. The higher percentage of links being shared on Wikipedia is attributed to the persistence of links and the ability for users to link articles on the same topic together across languages.
Personal task management: my tools fall apart when I'm very busy! BIBAFull-Text 1369-1374
  Amirrudin Kamsin; Ann Blandford; Anna L. Cox
Existing applications tend to highlight tasks that people should be doing at any given time based on the parameters of urgency (e.g. deadline), assigned priority and reminders. Our field studies demonstrate that people consider existing applications as inadequate to flexibly adapt to current changes in other essential factors, including, task size, complexity and interdependency and the unexpected situations that people face over time. Another key challenge facing busy people is that there is no mechanism that can monitor their work habits and match their tasks with their time constraints. Grounded in our data, we propose important requirements for tools that support users in managing tasks and assessing their schedules.
ScreenMatch: providing context to software translators by displaying screenshots BIBAFull-Text 1375-1380
  Geza Kovacs
Translators often encounter ambiguous messages while translating software. To resolve ambiguity, the translator needs to understand the context in which the message appears. Currently, context is provided via textual descriptions, or not at all. This paper describes ScreenMatch, a system which provides translators with visual context for each translatable message. It does so by matching each message with a corresponding screenshot of the application. ScreenMatch consists of a tool to gather screenshots, an algorithm to match messages to screenshots, and an interface that presents translators with screenshots alongside messages. We evaluated the system by gathering screenshots for 3 applications, using the algorithm to match messages to screenshots, and comparing results to manual matches. We found that hard-to-reproduce error messages make it difficult to gather all the screenshots. The algorithm correctly matched messages to screenshots 80% of the time when a corresponding screenshot had been gathered.
A multi-user collaborative space for architectural design reviews BIBAFull-Text 1381-1386
  Viswanathan Kumaragurubaran
I present a multi-touch multi-user collaborative design review space for architectural practice. With the advent of 3D visual programming systems, abstract graphical representations of the algorithmic processes that generate the geometry of a building have become a subject of discussion. These discussions require collaboration among many professions. The system presented in this paper provides an interactive interface for navigation and editing of a Grasshopper visual programming ""canvas"" for the Rhinoceros 3D modeling program. It uses a tabletop display of the Grasshopper canvas and touch-based input for navigation and manipulation of algorithmic components. A wall-projected display provides synchronized real-time visualization of the 3D model. The aim of the interface is to facilitate dynamic decision-making, increase team understanding and provide an integrated environment for collaborative interaction with parametrically driven designs.
Symbolic documentation: toward fashion-related sustainable design BIBAFull-Text 1387-1392
  Yue Pan
In this paper, I present ongoing research on fashion-related sustainable interaction design. This work focuses on exploring and identifying the role of fashion in people's acquisition of objects, especially digital and electronic devices, and how fashion and sustainability could and might interplay in the IT industry. In what follows, I first describe the background and related research apropos of sustainability and fashion within HCI literature. Then, I present the early findings from an ongoing empirical study, which involves a method of symbolic documentation and collection of digital objects. I conclude by articulating several design implications that can serve as a catalyst to embed the notion of fashion in sustainable interaction design.
PartoPen: enhancing the partograph with digital pen technology BIBAFull-Text 1393-1398
  Heather Underwood
Existing paper-based systems for monitoring maternal labor have been shown to reduce life-threatening complications in low-resource environments; however, significant barriers exist to their use in developing countries. In this paper I describe a system that enhances a common labor-monitoring form, the partograph, using a digital pen. The digital partograph system provides real-time data feedback and reinforces birth attendant training, while retaining the paper-and-pen interface currently used by most healthcare workers. The system is currently being evaluated in Kenya.
Third-party applications' data practices on Facebook BIBAFull-Text 1399-1404
  Na Wang
The objective of this study is to better understand the information exchange created between social networking sites and third-party applications. Toward this end, I have collected data from the 29,020 most popular social applications on Facebook. I have analyzed the general distribution patterns of applications in terms of what types of interfaces they will present to users when users wish to add them to their profile as well as the scope of information that applications can potentially collect from users of Facebook. To further explore the ways in which third-party applications collect users' information, I am currently conducting data analysis to identify permissions that tend to bundle together, permission collecting patterns that exist in different categories of applications, and the information collecting patterns of large developers versus smaller developers.
Mobile continuous reading BIBAFull-Text 1405-1410
  Chen-Hsiang Yu
This research focuses on mobile continuous reading under frequent context switching while reading web pages. This paper presents the results of a user study with 10 users. Four conditions were investigated in the study: visual-reading, audio-listening, manual-switching between visual and audio, and auto-switching between them. The results showed that auto-switching not only provides the easiest reading experience, but it also results in significantly fewer missteps while walking, compared with visual-reading.
A framework for interactive paper-craft system BIBAFull-Text 1411-1416
  Kening Zhu
Paper, as a tradition medium for art and communication, shows great potential as a good candidate for organic user interface (OUI), with its intrinsic deformability and flexibility. In this paper I present the analysis of the user behaviors while playing paper-craft, such as writing, drawing, folding, cutting, gluing, etc. Then I derive three main characteristics for paper-computing system, as an initial framework for designing paper-computing interaction. Furthermore, two supportive technologies were developed: natural-feature-based origami recognition and selective inductive power transferring. With these two technologies, users could easily design and implement paper-computing systems which fullfill the three characteristics in the proposed framework. Finally, an interactive system for physical origami sharing through internet is developed by using these two technologies and the presented framework.
SocialProof: using crowdsourcing for correcting errors to improve speech based dictation experiences BIBAFull-Text 1417-1422
  Shaojian Zhu
Though various Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) based text correction techniques have been proposed, it is still difficult to correct dictation errors using speech based commands. Inspired by the successful use of crowdsourcing to solve computation tasks, we propose SocialProof, a crowdsourcing powered ASR dictation enhancement, to provide a powerful and accurate but fairly cheap ASR dictation system. SocialProof begins with the output produced by ASR engines and enhances this output using the power of crowd intelligence via MTurk service. Our system splits one ASR dictation scenario into several smaller tasks, allowing multiple people to work on different pieces of the task at the same time. Data merging strategies are used to combine multiple responses from MTurk workers to provide improved results. An evaluation of SocialProof strongly supports the effectiveness of this approach.

Video presentations

STEM initiatives for improved communication skills in the zombie apocalypse BIBAFull-Text 1423-1424
  Jennifer Golbeck
The threat of the zombie apocalypse has finally begun to reach a level of popular concern, both in the media and in government organizations like the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The zombie apocalypse and subsequent destruction of modern communication technologies will present a unique challenge to future generations. This video describes new STEM initiatives that will enable today's children to maintain vital information links once the undead hordes are upon us.
Pet video chat: monitoring and interacting with dogs over distance BIBAFull-Text 1425-1426
  Jennifer Golbeck; Carman Neustaedter
Companies are now making video-communication systems that allow pet owners to see, and, in some cases, even interact with their pets when they are separated by distance. Such 'doggie cams' show promise, yet it is not clear how pet video chat systems should be designed (if at all) in order to meet the real needs of pet owners. To investigate the potential of interactive dog cams, we then designed our own pet video chat system that augments a Skype audio-video connection with remote interaction features and evaluated it with pet owners to understand its usage. Our results show promise for pet video chat systems that allow owners to see and interact with their pets while away.
Designing visualizations to facilitate multisyllabic speech with children with autism and speech delays BIBAFull-Text 1427-1428
  Joshua Hailpern; Andrew Harris; Reed LaBotz; Brianna Birman; Karrie Karahalios; Laura DeThorne; Jim Halle
The ability of children to combine syllables represents an important developmental milestone. This ability is often delayed or impaired in a variety of clinical groups including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and speech delays (SPD). This video illustrates some of the features of VocSyl, a real-time voice visualization system to shape multisyllabic speech. VocSyl was designed using the Task Centered User Interface Design methodology from the beginning to the end of the design process. Children with Autism and Speech Delays, targeted users of the software, were directly involved in the development process, thus allowing us to focus on what these children demonstrate they require.
TimeBlocks: mom, can i have another block of time? BIBAFull-Text 1429-1430
  Eiji Hayashi; Martina Rau; Zhe Han Neo; Nastasha Tan; Sriram Ramasubramanian; Eric Paulos
Time is a difficult concept for parents to communicate with young children. We developed TimeBlocks, a novel tangible, playful object to facilitate communication about concepts of time with young children. TimeBlocks consists of a set of cubic blocks that function as a physical progress bar. Parents and children can physically manipulate the blocks to represent the concept of time. We evaluated TimeBlocks through a field study in which six families tried TimeBlocks for four days at their homes. The results indicate that TimeBlocks played a useful role in facilitating the often challenging task of time-related communication between parents and children. We also report on a range of observed insightful novel uses of TimeBlocks in our study1.
An augmented multi-touch system using hand and finger identification BIBAFull-Text 1431-1432
  Peter Kung; Dominik Küser; Craig Schroeder; Tony DeRose; Donald Greenberg; Kenrick Kin
With the advent of devices such as smart phones and tablet computers, multi-touch applications are rapidly becoming commonplace. However, existing multi-touch sensors are not able to report which finger, or which hand, is responsible for each of the touches. To overcome this deficiency we introduce a multi-touch system that is capable of identifying the finger and hand corresponding to each touch. The system consists of a commercially available capacitive multi-touch display augmented with an infrared depth camera mounted above the surface of the display. We performed a user study to measure the accuracy of the system and found that our algorithm was correct on 92.7% of the trials.
TEROOS: a wearable avatar to enhance joint activities (video preview) BIBAFull-Text 1433-1434
  Tadakazu Kashiwabara; Hirotaka Osawa; Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Michita Imai
This video shows a wearable avatar named TEROOS, which is mounted on the shoulder of a person. TEROOS allows the users who wear it and control it to remotely share a vision. Moreover, the avatar has an anthropomorphic face that enables the user who controls it to communicate with people that are physically around the user who wears it. We have conducted a field test by using TEROOS and observed that the wearable avatar innovatively assisted the users to communicate during their joint activities such as route navigating, and buying goods at a shop. In addition, both users could easily identify objects that they discussed. Moreover, shop's staffs members communicated with the user controlling TEROOS and they exhibited a typical social behavior.
The design evolution of LuminAR: a compact and kinetic projected augmented reality interface BIBAFull-Text 1435-1436
  Natan Linder; Pattie Maes
LuminAR is a new form factor for a compact and kinetic projected augmented reality interface. This video presents the design evolution iterations of the LuminAR prototypes. In this video we document LuminAR's design process, hardware and software implementation and demonstrate new kinetic interaction techniques. The work presented is motivated through a set of applications that explore scenarios for interactive and kinetic projected augmented reality interfaces. It also opens the door for further explorations of kinetic interaction and promotes the adoption of projected augmented reality as a commonplace user interface modality.
EyeRing: an eye on a finger BIBAFull-Text 1437-1438
  Suranga Nanayakkara; Roy Shilkrot; Pattie Maes
Finger-worn devices are a greatly underutilized form of interaction with the surrounding world. By putting a camera on a finger we show that many visual analysis applications, for visually impaired people as well as the sighted, prove seamless and easy. We present EyeRing, a ring mounted camera, to enable applications such as identifying currency and navigating, as well as helping sighted people to tour an unknown city or intuitively translate signage. The ring apparatus is autonomous, however our system also includes a mobile phone or computation device to which it connects wirelessly, and an earpiece for information retrieval. Finally, we will discuss how different finger worn sensors may be extended and applied to other domains.
Which book should i pick? BIBAFull-Text 1439-1440
  Hyoyoung Kim; Dongseop Lee; Jin Wan Park
This video proposes readability visualization, genre visualization, and combined visualization to provide unconventional information for book selection. Data visualization was initiated for the practical purpose of delivering information, as it efficiently links visual perception and data so that readers are able to instantly recognize patterns in overcrowded data. In this interdisciplinary research we used the strength of data visualization, and this paper suggests three possible textual visualizations of a book, which may help users to find a desirable book, with the use of intuitive information out of a large volume of book data.
Video mediated recruitment for online studies BIBAFull-Text 1441-1442
  Torben Sko; Henry Gardner
More than ever, researchers are turning to the internet as a means to conduct HCI studies. Despite the promise of a worldwide audience, recruiting participants can still be a difficult task. In this video we discuss and illustrate that videos -- through their sharable and entertaining nature -- can greatly assist the recruitment process. Videos can also be a crucial part in developing an online presence, which may yield a community of followers and interested individuals. This community in turn can provide many long term benefits to the research, beyond just the recruitment phase.
PINOKY: a ring-like device that gives movement to any plush toy BIBAFull-Text 1443-1444
  Yuta Sugiura; Calista Lee; Masayasu Ogata; Anusha Withana; Yasutoshi Makino; Daisuke Sakamoto; Masahiko Inami; Takeo Igarashi
Everyone has owned or have been in contact with plush toys in their life, and plush toys play an integral part in many areas, for example in a child's growing up process, in the medical field, and as a form of communication media. In order to enhance the interaction experience with plush toys, we created the PINOKY. PINOKY is a wireless, ring-like device that can be externally attached to any plush toy as an accessory that animates the toy by moving its limbs. It is a non-intrusive device, and users can instantly convert their personal plush toys into soft robots. Currently, there are several interactions, such as letting the user control the toy remotely, or inputting the desired movement by moving the toy, and having the data recorded and played back.
Experience "panavi,": challenge to master professional culinary arts BIBAFull-Text 1445-1446
  Daisuke Uriu; Mizuki Namai; Satoru Tokuhisa; Ryo Kashiwagi; Masahiko Inami; Naohito Okude
This video introduces the user experience of "panavi" that supports cooking for domestic users to master professional culinary arts in their kitchens by managing temperature and pan movement properly. Utilizing a sensors-embedded frying pan wirelessly connected computer system, it analyzes sensors' data, recognizes users' conditions, and provides the users situated navigation messages. In the video, a young lady tries to cook spaghetti Carbonara using panavi, and masters this "difficult" menu by enjoying cooking process. The full paper of this work [1] is also published in CHI '12 conference proceedings.
Ferro tale: electromagnetic animation interface BIBAFull-Text 1447-1448
  Nan Zhao; Xiang Cao; Jaturont Jamigranont
In this video we demonstrate the idea and the prototype of an electromagnetic animation interface, ferro tale.
   Ferromagnetic particles, such as iron filings, have very fascinating characteristics. Therefore they are widely used in art, education and as toys. Besides their potential to enable visual and tactile feedback and to be used as a medium for high resolution tangible input, peoples natural desire to engage and explore the behavior of this material makes them interesting for HCI.
   Inspired by the expressiveness of sand drawing, we want to explore ways to use an electromagnetic array, camera feedback, computer vision, and ferromagnetic particles to produce animations. The currently used magnetic actuation device consists of a 3 by 3 coil array. Even with such a small number of actuators, we are able demonstrate several animation examples.
Supporting children with autism to participate throughout a design process BIBAFull-Text 1449-1450
  Beate Grawemeyer; Emma Ashwin; Laura Benton; Mark Brosnan; Hilary Johnson
A deficit in social communication is one of a number of core features of autism that can result in the exclusion of individuals with autism from the design process. Individuals with autism can be highly motivated by new technology, and the design of technologies for individuals with autism could potentially benefit from their direct input. We structured participatory design sessions using Cooperative Inquiry specifically to support the needs of individuals with autism. This video highlights how, when appropriately supported, the challenges of the social communication deficits associated with autism can be overcome and individuals with autism can take a full and active role within the design process.
Towards a wearable music system for nomadic musicians BIBAFull-Text 1451-1452
  Sharyselle Kock; Anders Bouwer; Tantra Rusiyanadi; Bayo Siregar
This concept video shows the design of a wearable system for musicians to record their ideas while being away from their instruments, using an interactive shirt and belt.
Tongueduino: hackable, high-bandwidth sensory augmentation BIBAFull-Text 1453-1454
  Gershon Dublon; Joseph A. Paradiso
The tongue is known to have an extremely dense sensing resolution, as well as an extraordinary degree of neuroplasticity, the ability to adapt to and internalize new input. Research has shown that electro-tactile tongue displays paired with cameras can be used as vision prosthetics for the blind or visually impaired; users quickly learn to read and navigate through natural environments, and many describe the signals as an innate sense. However, existing displays are expensive and difficult to adapt. Tongueduino is an inexpensive, vinyl-cut tongue display designed to interface with many types of sensors besides cameras. Connected to a magnetometer, for example, the system provides a user with an internal sense of direction, like a migratory bird. Piezo whiskers allow a user to sense orientation, wind, and the lightest touch. Through tongueduino, we hope to bring electro-tactile sensory substitution beyond the discourse of vision replacement, towards open-ended sensory augmentation that anyone can access.
Pen-in-hand command: NUI for real-time strategy eSports BIBAFull-Text 1455-1456
  William Hamilton; Andruid Kerne; Jon Moeller
Electronic Sports (eSports) is the professional play and spectating of digital games. Real-time strategy games are a form of eSport that require particularly high-performance and precise interaction. Prior-2 eSports HCI has been keyboard and mouse based. We investigate the real-time strategy eSports context to design novel interactions with embodied modalities, because of its rigorous needs and requirements, and the centrality of the human-computer interface as the medium of game mechanics. To sense pen + multi-touch interaction, we augment a Wacom Cintiq with a ZeroTouch multi-finger sensor[1]. We used this modality to design new pen + touch interaction for play in real-time strategy eSports.
PLUSHBOT: an introduction to computer science BIBAFull-Text 1457-1458
  Yingdan Huang; Michael Eisenberg
We present the Plushbot project that focuses on providing a more motivating introduction of computer science to middle school students, employing tangible programming of plush toys as its central activity. About sixty students, ages 12-14, participated in a 7.5-week study in which they created and programmed their own plush toys. In order to achieve these, they learned and used several tools, including LilyPad Arduino, Modkit and a web-based application called Plushbot, which permits the user to integrate circuitry design with a pattern of plush toy pieces. Once a design is complete, the user can print the pattern and use it as a template for creating a plush toy. Plushbot is a system that allows children to create their own interactive plush toys with computational elements and ideas embedded.
Fast and frugal shopping challenge BIBAFull-Text 1459-1460
  Khaled Bachour; Jon Bird; Vaiva Kalnikaite; Yvonne Rogers; Nicolas Villar; Stefan Kreitmayer
There are a number of mobile shopping aids and recommender systems available, but none can be easily used for a weekly shop at a local supermarket. We present a minimal, mobile and fully functional lambent display that clips onto any shopping trolley handle, intended to nudge people when choosing what to buy. It provides salient information about the food miles for various scanned food items represented by varying lengths of lit LEDs on the handle and a changing emoticon comparing the average miles of all the products in the trolley against a social norm. A fast and frugal shopping challenge is presented, in the style of a humorous reality TV show, where the pros and cons of using various devices to help make purchase decisions are demonstrated by shoppers in a grocery store.
Anyone can sketch vignettes! BIBAFull-Text 1461-1462
  Rubaiat Habib Kazi; Takeo Igarashi; Shengdong Zhao; Richard Davis; Toni-Jan Keith Monserrat
Vignette is an interactive system that facilitates texture creation in pen-and-ink illustrations. Unlike existing systems, Vignette preserves illustrators' workflow and style: users draw a fraction of a texture and use gestures to automatically fill regions with the texture. Our exploration of natural work-flow and gesture-based interaction was inspired by traditional way of creating illustrations. We currently support both 1D and 2D synthesis with stitching. Our system also has interactive refinement and editing capabilities to provide a higher level texture control, which helps artists achieve their desired vision. Vignette makes the process of illustration more enjoyable and that first time users can create rich textures from scratch within minutes.
SIGCHI SPrAyCE: a space spray input for fast shape drawing BIBAFull-Text 1463-1464
  Raphael Kim; Pattie Maes
Current technological solutions that enable sharing some shape-based ideas are often time demanding and painful to use. The goal of this project is to create a new device, a new way of drawing in an intuitive way. A spray-based input is created to allow natural gestures to draw 3D objects and manipulate the drawing.
Looking glass: a field study on noticing interactivity of a shop window BIBAFull-Text 1465-1466
  Jörg Müller; Robert Walter; Gilles Bailly; Michael Nischt; Florian Alt
In this paper we present our findings from a lab and a field study investigating how passers-by notice the interactivity of public displays. We designed an interactive installation that uses visual feedback to the incidental movements of passers-by to communicate its interactivity. In the field study, three displays were installed during three weeks in shop windows, and data about 502 interaction sessions were collected. Our observations show: (1) Significantly more passers-by interact when immediately showing the mirrored user image (+90%) or silhouette (+47%) compared to a traditional attract sequence with call-to-action. (2) Passers-by often notice interactivity late and have to walk back to interact (the landing effect). (3) If somebody is already interacting, others begin interaction behind the ones already interacting, forming multiple rows (the honeypot effect).
Watchit: simple gestures for interacting with a watchstrap BIBAFull-Text 1467-1468
  Simon Perrault; Sylvain Malacria; Yves Guiard; Eric Lecolinet
We present WatchIt, a new interaction technique for wristwatch computers, a category of devices that badly suffers from a scarcity of input surface area. WatchIt considerably increases this surface by extending it from the touch screen to the wristband. The video shows a mockup of how simple gestures on the external and/or internal bands may allow the user to scroll a list (one-finger slide), to select an item (tap), and to set a continuous parameter like the volume of music playing (two-finger slide), avoiding the drawback of screen occlusion by the finger. Also shown is the prototype we are currently using to investigate the usability of our new interaction technique.
The interactive punching bag BIBAFull-Text 1469-1470
  Marian Petre; Chris Baines; Michael Baker; Ed Copcutt; Adam Martindale; Taranjit Matharu; Max Petre Eastty
The 'interactive punching bag' transforms a conventional punching bag into a programmable 'smart device' enhanced to provide various forms of stimulus and feedback (sound, lights, and displayed images). The physical characteristics of each punch are captured using impact sensors and accelerometers, and LEDs, speakers and an associated display can be used to provide different prompts and responses. Interactions are logged over time for analysis. The bag was devised as a means of investigating how to design interactions in the context of a fun, physical, familiar object. Preliminary studies suggest that users are surprised and engaged, and that first-time users spend more time in their first encounter if the bag is running an 'unexpected' program (e.g., giggling on impact rather than grunting). However, some users are sensitive about the nature of images and sounds associated with the bag, particularly where there is a conflict with social expectations or values. So far, the interactions that hold users' attention are those, like the musical 'punching bag keyboard', that combine moderate physical activity with a creative element or an intellectual challenge.
Haptic lotus: a theatre experience for blind and sighted audiences BIBAFull-Text 1471-1472
  Janet van der Linden; Terry Braun; Yvonne Rogers; Maria Oshodi; Adam Spiers; David McGoran; Rafael Cronin; Paul O'Dowd
How can new technologies be designed to facilitate comparable cultural experiences that are accessible by both blind and sighted audiences? An immersive theatre experience was designed to raise awareness and question perceptions of 'blindness', through enabling both sighted and blind members to experience a similar reality. We designed the Haptic Lotus, a novel device that changes its form in response to the audience's journey through the dark. The device was deliberately designed to be suggestive rather than directive to encourage enactive exploration for both sighted and blind people. During a week of public performances in Battersea Arts Centre in London 150 sighted and blind people took part. People were seen actively probing the dark space around them and for many the Haptic Lotus provided a strong sense of reassurance in the dark.
MAWL: mobile assisted word-learning BIBAFull-Text 1473-1474
  Pramod Verma
Word-learning is one of the basic steps in language learning. A general traditional approach for learning new words is to keep a dictionary and use it whenever one encounters a new word. This video demonstrates Mobile Assisted Word-Learning (MAWL)[1]: an augmented reality based collaborative social-networking interface for learning new words using a smartphone. MAWL keeps track and saves all textual contexts during reading process; along with providing augmented reality-based assistance such as images, translation into native language, synonyms, antonyms, sentence usage etc.


Postboard: free-form tangible messaging for people with aphasia (and other people) BIBAFull-Text 1475-1480
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Sander Dijkhuis; Liza Blummel; Iris Elberse
In this paper we report the design of a communication system for people with aphasia. It consists of pairs of physical whiteboards that are connected over the internet. This allows users to combine any personal language skills with visuals and already existing materials at hand. The design has been based on feedback and evaluation sessions with aphasics and their therapists. The user test results show that the design provides a low entry barrier and enables relaxed conversations.
Understanding designer brainstorms: the effect of analog and digital interfaces on dominance BIBAFull-Text 1481-1486
  Marie Bautista; Jared Crane; Jeff Largent; Jingya Yu; Shaowen Bardzell
Brainstorming has long been an integral part of the design process. However, only recently have technological advances given rise to collaborative interfaces for facilitating brainstorming activities. While there has been some research on the effects of these technologies on group dynamics, little is known about how collaborative interfaces affect dominance within a brainstorm in interaction design. In this paper, we explore the relationship between one collaborative technology, the DiamondTouch Tabletop, and dominance in designer brainstorms.
Do cognitive styles of users affect preference and performance related to CAPTCHA challenges? BIBAFull-Text 1487-1492
  Marios Belk; Christos Fidas; Panagiotis Germanakos; George Samaras
A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is nowadays a widely used security mechanism for constructing a high-confidence proof that the entity interacting with a remote service is actually a human being. Aiming to investigate the relation among users' cognitive styles, and CAPTCHA challenges in terms of preference and performance, a study is in progress which entails a psychometric-based survey for extracting users' cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario with two variations of CAPTCHA mechanisms. A total of 131 participants of age between 19 and 25 participated in the reported study providing interesting insights with respect to users' cognitive styles and CAPTCHA preference and performance issues.
Visualizing sentiments in business-customer relations with metaphors BIBAFull-Text 1493-1498
  Guia Gali; Symon Oliver; Fanny Chevalier; Sara Diamond
This project explores how the visualization of sentiments, extracted from social media posts, can foster transparency and strengthen relations between businesses and their customers. Guided by the nature of the data and an iterative design based on our end users' feedback, we examine a variety of visualization styles and metaphors as possible directions for a common set of tools to benefit both groups of users.
MixT: automatic generation of step-by-step mixed media tutorials BIBAFull-Text 1499-1504
  Pei-Yu Chi; Sally Ahn; Amanda Ren; Björn Hartmann; Mira Dontcheva; Wilmot Li
As software interfaces become more complicated, users rely on tutorials to learn, creating an increasing demand for effective tutorials. Existing tutorials, however, are limited in their presentation: Static step-by-step tutorials are easy to scan but hard to create and don't always give all of the necessary information for how to accomplish a step. In contrast, video tutorials provide very detailed information and are easy to create, but they are hard to scan as the video-player timeline does not give an overview of the entire task. We present MixT, which automatically generates mixed media tutorials that combine the strengths of these tutorial types. MixT tutorials include step-by-step text descriptions and images that are easy to scan and short videos for each step that provide additional context and detail as needed. We ground our design in a formative study that shows that mixed-media tutorials outperform both static and video tutorials.
Sharing narrative and experience: digital stories and portraits at a women's centre BIBAFull-Text 1505-1510
  Rachel Clarke; Peter Wright; John McCarthy
We present our work-in-progress designing technologies to foster social connection with isolated immigrant women in the UK. We report our preliminary studies using digital storytelling and digital portrait methods with participants at a Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) centre supporting women who have experiences of domestic violence. While these methods have provided valuable insights, in contexts where participants feel vulnerable and cultural diversity is the norm, HCI's conventional assumptions about storytelling and probe use cannot be taken for granted. We describe our rationale for the adaptation of methods and tensions highlighted through the process.
Sketch-based interface for interaction with unmanned air vehicles BIBAFull-Text 1511-1516
  Danielle Cummings; Stephane Fymat; Tracy Hammond
In order to decrease the number of casualties and limit the number of potentially dangerous situations that Soldiers encounter, the US military is exploring the use of autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) to fulfill air support requests (ASR) from the field. The interface for this system must provide interaction in modes that facilitate the completion of the support request in various scenarios, and it must be usable by operators of all skill levels, without requiring extensive training or considerable expertise. Sketches are a simple and natural way to exchange information and ideas. Sketching as a form of human-computer interaction can be very useful in areas where information is represented graphically. In this paper we present the development of an interface that allows the user to plan an ASR using sketch and other inputs while conforming to the user's mental model of natural interaction.
Exquisite corpses that explore interactions BIBAFull-Text 1517-1522
  Audrey Desjardins; Ron Wakkary; Xiao Zhang
Inspired by the Surrealist technique known as exquisite corpse, we investigated a novel method for exploring low-level interactions. By creating a video collection of input actions and output reactions, we created a tool that allows quick video sketching of interactions. Designers can mix and match different actions, and quickly see the results. We present three examples and conclude with our lessons learned from using this technique.
Exploring material-centered design concepts for tangible interaction BIBAFull-Text 1523-1528
  Tanja Döring; Axel Sylvester; Albrecht Schmidt
In this paper we present two concepts for material-centered design of tangible interaction: (1) material-based interaction constraints and (2) material-driven user engagement. This approach applies material iconography as underlying theory, a method from art history that focuses on the characteristics and meanings of materials. Our reflections are based on experiences with an interactive installation we have built: the soap bubble user interface, a tangible user interface that has been presented and used in six public and semi-public settings. This work contributes to the emerging field of research on materiality of tangible user interfaces.
Spatial awareness and intelligibility for the blind: audio-touch interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1529-1534
  Juan Diego Gomez; Guido Bologna; Thierry Pun
Many people with visual disabilities mainly use audio feedback as a primary modality for interaction. Representing the visual environment with appropriate sounds contributes to make it intelligible to the blind. This audio-encoded environment still needs to be accessed in the same way as sighted people scan visual contents with their gaze. A finger-based scanning could be seen as a gaze-like strategy for those with visual impairments to be able of sensing an audio-represented context. We present in this work a computational interface that meets both, the visual-audio codification and the multi-touch interaction, so as to enlarge legibility of the environment for the blind and to facilitate navigating to desired locations, exploration, and serendipitous discovery. The core of this interface is the color and depth codification into musical instruments sounds, which effectively provides spatial awareness, audio revealing of boundaries and obstacles detection. The main contribution of our work is the assistance provided by this interface toward an active interaction of the user with his fingers that makes it possible to selectively explore, to discover points of interest, develop personalized strategies for navigating, and, in general, enjoy a greater sense of independence.
It's neat to feel the heat: how can we hold hands at a distance? BIBAFull-Text 1535-1540
  Daniel Gooch; Leon Watts
There is a growing body of work in HCI on the design of communication technologies to help support long distance relationships. We build upon this work by presenting three different prototypes based on hand holding. This distinguishes itself by basing distance communication metaphors on elements of co-located hand-holding actions. We then present an evaluation of the prototypes based on a three-phase interview process with 12 participants. We conclude by discussing the combined evocative power of unique physical metaphors and memories in fostering romantic connections at a distance.
Deriving requirements for an online community interaction scheme: indications from older adults BIBAFull-Text 1541-1546
  David Greathead; Lynne Coventry; Budi Arief; Aad van Moorsel
Social media and online communication encourage social interaction but do little to strengthen community relations between people who live in the same area. The aim of this work is to develop a set of requirements, in this initial case from a group of older adults, for an online system aimed at increasing local face-to-face communication and enhancing community interaction. Eleven older adults took part in two discussion groups to develop this list of requirements. The results of these discussions are presented and come under six broad categories, these being: Security/Information, Social, Physical, Interface, Crime and Management. We also suggest additional requirements we think would benefit the system and future directions.
Multiple visualizations and debugging: how do we co-ordinate these? BIBAFull-Text 1547-1552
  Prateek Hejmady; N. Hari Narayanan
There are many popular Integrated Development Environments (IDE) that provide multiple visualizations and other sophisticated functionalities to facilitate program comprehension and debugging. To better understand the effectiveness and role of multiple visualizations, we conducted a preliminary study of java program debugging with a professional, multi-representation IDE. We found that program code and dynamic representations (dynamic viewer, variable watch and output) attracted the most attention of programmers. Static representations like Unified Modeling Language (UML) Diagrams and Control Structure Diagrams (CSD) saw significantly lesser usage. Interesting eye gaze patterns of programmers were also revealed by the study.
DigitShadow: facilitating awareness of home surroundings BIBAFull-Text 1553-1558
  Haidan Huang; Davide Bolchini
DigitShadow is a novel information affordance aimed at enhancing the awareness of home surroundings. It aggregates local online information and events happening in the neighborhood, and communicates them to the inhabitants by supporting both peripheral and focused attention. DigitShadow casts the digital shadow of online information to the ambient level, and then facilitates the transition to attentive and interactive level to provide detail information. We illustrate the design process of DigitShadow, including the contextual interviews, the data analysis and findings from a cognitive perspective, the conceptual design framework, and the preliminary prototyping.
SparkInfo: designing a social space for co-creation of audiovisual elements and multimedia comments BIBAFull-Text 1559-1564
  Jee Yeon Hwang; Henry Holtzman
People can have more insights and social experiences when they collaborate on collecting, revisiting, and utilizing their contents, such as images and videos; however, designing a social space that offers rich co-creation and exploration of multimedia contents remains a challenge. We propose a new system, SparkInfo, which enables users to create, exchange and augment their audiovisual elements in ways that are personally unique and sociable. SparkInfo is designed for a group of people, who have created audiovisual elements for the same purpose or at the same event, to collect their elements in one place and have a meaningful experience of their co-created media resources. SparkInfo provides a social space for the co-creation of audiovisual and multimedia resources. In the process of exploring and embellishing their materials, SparkInfo users can create new ideas, stories, and information. By utilizing this process, the users are able to experience how SparkInfo can embody the cycle of knowledge building, re-mixing, and sharing.
PseudoButton: enabling pressure-sensitive interaction by repurposing microphone on mobile device BIBAFull-Text 1565-1570
  Sungjae Hwang; Kwang-yun Wohn
We propose a new interaction technique, called PseudoButton, which emulates a pressure-sensitive touch sensor by repurposing a built-in microphone on mobile devices. This simple and novel technique increases input expressivity of the device and expands its interaction area for users to alleviate the occlusion problem caused by touchscreens without adding extra sensors. To verify our idea, we implemented a prototype and conducted a preliminary evaluation on it. The results show that participants can input at accuracy of 94% for five different pressure levels with minimal error.
Tactile feedback on flat surfaces for the visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 1571-1576
  Ali Israr; Olivier Bau; Seung-Chan Kim; Ivan Poupyrev
In this paper we introduce a mobile, generic, and inexpensive visuo-tactile sensory substitution device for the visually impaired. The device helps users to explore the world around them, by pointing it towards objects of the environment and rendering tactile information to the objects sensed by a camera. With the help of two visually impaired participants, we conducted three preliminary experiments and evaluated the performance of the device in detecting, reaching and exploring tasks. Both participants were able to detect, explore and reach for a given object of interest in a controlled room setting using only the tactile information rendered on the flat panel of the device. The implication of results and future directions for tactile assistive devices are discussed.
"Listen2dRoom": helping blind individuals understand room layouts BIBAFull-Text 1577-1582
  Myounghoon Jeon; Nazneen Nazneen; Ozum Akanser; Abner Ayala-Acevedo; Bruce Walker
Over half a million Americans are legally blind. Despite much effort in assistive technology, blindness remains a major challenge to accessibility. For individuals who are blind, there has been considerable research on indoor/outdoor way finding, but there has been little research on room layout information. The purpose of the current research is to support blind individuals to understand the layout of an unfamiliar room. We found some important applications for this type of assistive technology such as safety, easy-to-use furniture and home appliances. To this end, we identified user needs and variables with blind participants, designed and evaluated prototype systems, and iteratively improved the system. The overall process, findings, and on-going future works are discussed. This effort is expected to enhance independence for persons who are blind.
Back keyboard: a physical keyboard on backside of mobile phone using qwerty BIBAFull-Text 1583-1588
  Hwan Kim; Yea-kyung Row; Geehyuk Lee
Since smart phones adopted touchscreen, users have been enjoying large displays. However, when using soft keyboard, the available size of the display becomes less than 50%. In this paper Back Keyboard, a physical keyboard installed backside of mobile phone, is presented. Also the design process with a prototype through a series of studies is described. User evaluation was conducted with the prototype; the average text entry rate was 15.3 WPM (SD: 3.6) and the error rate was 12.2% (SD: 9.0) after a 40-minute typing session. Moreover, the text entry rates of Back Keyboard and general keyboards for PCs did not have significant relations. This means that the prototype could be used smoothly regardless of one's ability of typing on a PC.
Clerk agent promotes consumers' ethical purchasing behavior in unmanned purchase environment BIBAFull-Text 1589-1594
  Atsushi Kimura; Naoki Mukawa; Masahide Yuasa; Mana Yamamoto; Takashi Oka; Tomohiro Masuda; Yuji Wada
This study explored whether cues from others in a purchase environment have an effect on purchase behavior for products with fair-trade labels, an ethical attribute of products, among Japanese consumers. By manipulating cues from others, we assessed consumers' intentions to purchase fair-trade products under three different experimental situations: 1) the observed condition, in which participants' purchasing behaviors were observed by others (N = 84), 2) the agent condition, in which participants' purchasing behaviors were observed by a clerk-like agent (N = 118), and 3) the non-observed condition, in which participants' purchasing behaviors could not be observed by others (N = 106). The results of this conjoint experiment demonstrate that participants under both the agent and observed conditions valuated fair-trade products higher than those under the non-observed condition, although participants both in the agent and the non-observed conditions were instructed that their responses would remain anonymous. These findings imply that implications of the presence of others, such as a clerk-like agent in an unmanned purchase environment, enhance ethical purchasing behaviors as with manned purchase environments.
Can users live with overconfident or unconfident systems?: a comparison of artificial subtle expressions with human-like expression BIBAFull-Text 1595-1600
  Takanori Komatsu; Kazuki Kobayashi; Seiji Yamada; Kotaro Funakoshi; Mikio Nakano
We assume that expressing the levels of confidence using human-like expressions will cause users to have a poorer impression of a system than if artificial subtle expressions (ASEs) were used when the quality of the presented information does not match the expressed level of confidence. We confirmed that this assumption was correct by conducting a psychological experiment.
Design principles: crowdfunding as a creativity support tool BIBAFull-Text 1601-1606
  Pei-Yi Kuo; Elizabeth Gerber
Creativity supports societal and economic prosperity. As such, HCI researchers have been concerned with creating technologies to support creativity. Crowdfunding offers a new type of creativity support tool where creators rely on the crowd to collect, create, relate, and donate creative work. With the rapid growth of crowdfunding platforms, design principles are needed to guide platform development. This paper presents design principles informed by Shneiderman's Genex Framework for creativity support tools in order for designers to answer the call from Human Computer Interaction (HCI) to empower more people to be more creative.
Automatic web design refinements based on collective user behavior BIBAFull-Text 1607-1612
  Luis Leiva
This paper explores the following question: Could web browsing data be used to inform design refinements? An interactive tool to help website builders in the process of redesigning web layouts is introduced. The novelty of the approach is that visual modifications are generated, either completely or partially unsupervised, according to the collective behavior of the website visitors. Implications of the method and its importance for the HCI community are discussed as well.
Visual planner: beyond prerequisites, designing an interactive course planner for a 21st century flexible curriculum BIBAFull-Text 1613-1618
  Zhen Li; David Tinapple; Hari Sundaram
In the 21st century knowledge economy there is a growing need for the types of creative thinkers who can bridge the engineering mindset with the creative mindset, combining multiple types of skills. New economies will need workers who have "diagonal" skill sets, who can develop systems and content as an integrative process. This requires a new type of training and curriculum. In the newly formed "Digital Culture" undergraduate program at ASU, we attempt to support new types curricula by structuring differently the way students move through courses. With a constantly shifting and changing curriculum, structuring course enrollment using class "prerequisites" leads to fixed and rigid pathways through the curriculum. Instead, Digital Culture structures course sequences based on the students accumulation of abstract "Proficiencies" which are collected by students as they complete courses, and which act as keys to unlock access to higher level course. As a student accumulates more and more of these proficiencies, they are increasingly able to unlock new courses. This system leads to more flexible and adaptive pathways through courses while ensuring that students are prepared for entrance into more advanced classes. It is however more complicated and requires that students strategically plan their route through the curriculum. In order to support this kind of strategic planning we have designed and deployed a course planning system where students can simulate various possible paths through the curriculum. In this paper, we show our design process in coming up with our "Digital Culture Visual Planner". This design process starts with a network analysis of how all the Digital Culture courses are interrelated by, visualizing the relationships between "proficiencies" and courses. A number of possible design directions result from this analysis. Finally we select a single design and refine it to be understandable, useful and usable by new undergraduate Digital Culture majors.
Super Mirror: a kinect interface for ballet dancers BIBAFull-Text 1619-1624
  Zoe Marquardt; João Beira; Natalia Em; Isabel Paiva; Sebastian Kox
We propose the Super Mirror, a Kinect-based system that combines the functionality of studio mirrors and prescriptive images to provide the user with instructional feedback in real-time. In this study, we developed a working prototype of this system, which records ballet movements (also called positions and poses), captures live motion, and shows the difference between the two.
Using visual website similarity for phishing detection and reporting BIBAFull-Text 1625-1630
  Max-Emanuel Maurer; Dennis Herzner
Phishing is a severe threat to online users, especially since attackers improve in impersonating other websites [1]. With websites looking visually the same, users are fooled more easily. However, the close visual similarity can also be used to counteract phishing. We present a framework that uses visual website similarity: (1) to detect possible phishing websites and (2) to create better warnings for such attacks. We report first results together with the three step process planned for the project. We expect the detection results to be comparable to previously published work which would allow for new kinds of phishing warnings with better coverage, less false positives and explicit user recommendations how to avoid these critical situation.
Video call, or not, that is the question BIBAFull-Text 1631-1636
  Andrew L. Kun; Zeljko Medenica
New technologies have made video calling in vehicles possible. Results from a driving simulator experiment indicate that video calling reduces visual attention on the road. While in some situations drivers would refrain from engaging in this activity, our results should serve as a warning to interface designers, lawmakers, transportation officials, and drivers that video calling presents a real distraction from driving.
einclusion @ Cyprus universities: provision and web accessibility BIBAFull-Text 1637-1642
  Eleni Michailidou; Katerina Mavrou; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This paper presents part of a work-in-progress that aims to discuss issues of accessibility in higher education regarding equal opportunities in the use and access of information and technology for students with disabilities in Cyprus. All Cypriot university Websites have been examined using accessibility evaluation techniques and the provisions made by the higher education officers for equal access to their university websites have been reviewed. The results showed that all university pages show accessibility problems, with the public ones having the least errors. With respect to provisions, results showed that internal regulations and policy of universities did not include any specific provisions for web or other technology accessibility.
Towards stress-less user interfaces: 10 design heuristics based on the psychophysiology of stress BIBAFull-Text 1643-1648
  Neema Moraveji; Charlton Soesanto
In this paper we identify 10 design heuristics used to minimize the number of stressors in an interface. They are meant to complement other interface design heuristics. The heuristics are based on characteristics of stressors drawn from decades of empirical study. These include both evolutionary (survival) and psychosocial sources of stressors. The list is followed by the results of an exploratory heuristic evaluation conducted on four different mobile Twitter clients. It shows how the heuristics complement Nielsen's usability heuristics by enabling designers to evaluate and differentiate interfaces along two dimensions: usability and potential for stress. The results of the paper are useful for designers and scholars interested in systems that induce, or mitigate the risk of inducing, negative psychophysiological state change. Current methods of evaluating interfaces on this dimension require user interviews and physiological monitoring.
MammiBelli: sharing baby activity levels between expectant mothers and their intimate social groups BIBAFull-Text 1649-1654
  Mary Hui; Christine Ly; Carman Neustaedter
Many expectant mothers desire to share information about their pregnancy with family and friends in their intimate social group. This includes details about baby growth and activity (e.g., kicks). Based on interviews with new and expectant mothers, we have designed an initial prototype called MammiBelli that allows pregnant women to share baby activity information with family and friends over distance.
Hands-up: motion recognition using kinect and a ceiling to improve the convenience of human life BIBAFull-Text 1655-1660
  JongHwan Oh; Yerhyun Jung; Yongseok Cho; Chaewoon Hahm; Hyeyoung Sin; Joonhwan Lee
Now we display information everywhere, but ceiling is the last place we haven't used extensively. A ceiling at home, an overhead surface ordinarily used for structural and aesthetic purpose and less used compared to other interior surfaces, is expected to be a perfect screen when people lay on the bed. In this paper, we present Hands-Up system, our novel way to utilize ceiling to display information and to interact with by using Microsoft Kinect, which could give commands to the computer through a minimum hands motion. The Hands-Up system has been created by a combination of the specific situation on the bed and a smart device, Kinect, which can read human movements. We made a prototype and designed User Interface (UI) suitable for the system.
Touch & detach: physics-based unbinding and observation of complex virtual objects in 3d space BIBAFull-Text 1661-1666
  Mai Otsuki; Tsutomu Oshita; Asako Kimura; Fumihisa Shibata; Hideyuki Tamura
The main contribution of this study is the stable and intuitive detach method, named "Touch & Detach," for 3D complex virtual objects using gesture-based operations in mixed reality space. In general modeling software, parts of a complex 3D object are grouped in a multi-level hierarchy for efficient operation and ungrouping is necessary for observing or manipulating a part in detail. Our method uses real-world bond metaphors (such as glue or a joint) to prevent incorrect operations and improve the system's operational feeling and responsiveness. This paper presents the details of our proposed method and an informal user study.
VizDeck: a card game metaphor for fast visual data exploration BIBAFull-Text 1667-1672
  Bill Howe; Alicia Key; Daniel Perry; Cecilia Aragon
Scientists in all fields are acquiring data at a rate that is challenging the limits of human cognitive capacity. At the same time, researchers' attention is increasingly claimed by ever more diverse demands on their time. Visual perception is the highest bandwidth channel into the human brain, yet many existing visualization tools require a period of training rendering them inaccessible from a practical standpoint for many users. In addition, appropriate visualizations for cognitively overloaded users may differ from those optimized for analysis. We present VizDeck, a web-based visualization system for relational data that uses a card game metaphor and automatic visualization techniques to assist scientists and researchers in creating interactive visual dashboard applications in seconds with no programming necessary.
What's the best music you have?: designing music recommendation for group enjoyment in GroupFun BIBAFull-Text 1673-1678
  George Popescu; Pearl Pu
Satisfaction and enjoyment are essential in group entertaining domains in which individuals share their preferences and actively participate in group decisions. Group recommender systems (GRS) do not yet employ methods and features allowing users to discover others' interests in an enjoyable fashion. Based on an in-depth user study and a user-centered design approach, we created GroupFun, a collaborative environment that help groups of friends' arrive at a common decision fostering group enjoyment and offering them a unique, fun music experience. We also conducted a user evaluation consisting in: system usage, questionnaires and open interviews to collect user feedback about our algorithms and interaction. Our results present GroupFun as an enjoyable and entertaining group decision platform which highly motivates users.
Has NFC the potential to revolutionize self-reported electronic data capture?: an empirical comparison of different interaction concepts BIBAFull-Text 1679-1684
  Andreas Prinz; Philipp Menschner; Jan Marco Leimeister
The objective of this paper is to analyze and assess different electronic data capture (EDC) interaction concepts regarding usability, hedonistic and pragmatic quality. We designed an application (app) for self-reported nutrition documentation and developed three different interaction concepts: an iPhone app, a computer based app and an app for a near field communication (NFC)-enabled phone with a smart poster. A plain paper protocol was used as a reference object. The prototype was evaluated in a laboratory setting with (n=206) participants. Our results show the potential of NFC for self-reported EDC. NFC outperformed the other solutions on pragmatic and hedonistic aspects, while the prototypes of iPhone and PC underperformed. The results provide initial findings for the design of such systems.
Knoby: pet-like interactive door knob BIBAFull-Text 1685-1690
  Yong-Kwan Kim; Yea-Kyung Row; Tek-Jin Nam
We present pet-like characteristics as a useful interactivity model for future products that could be more usable, emotional and sustainable. We investigated this issue by designing Knoby, a pet-like interactive door knob. Dogs' emotional and behavioral characteristics were applied to a product concept in the design development process. The main features of Knoby include i) emotional expression of welcoming through its tail movement, ii) locking and unlocking interface similar to people's interaction with a dog, and iii) continuous dynamic interaction for long term product attachment. Preliminary evaluation has showed that users perceive Knoby to be alive and to support emotional and playful interaction. This research provides a new perspective on the development of complex and intelligent products, and this model can be used as a design method for considering different pets and associated characteristics.
Photocation: tangible learning system for DSLR photography BIBAFull-Text 1691-1696
  Kilian Moser; Martin Kiechle; Kimiko Ryokai
We present Photocation, a tangible photography education system that invites people to explore and learn about the technical settings involved in a digital single lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The basic DSLR camera elements such as aperture, ISO and shutter speed are represented in tangible forms so that people can physically manipulate and explore how these settings interact with one another to produce different types of photographic expressions. A built-in physical diorama further provides a controlled environment to test their photographic settings against. By physically exploring with Photocation, aspiring photographers can familiarize themselves with the interactive linkages of the basic DSLR elements and take exemplary photos before transferring their knowledge to full-fledged DSLR cameras. We present the design rationale, a prototype, and a preliminary evaluation of our prototype.
A platform for large-scale machine learning on web design BIBAFull-Text 1697-1702
  Arvind Satyanarayan; Maxine Lim; Scott Klemmer
The Web is an enormous and diverse repository of design examples. Although people often draw from extant designs to create new ones, existing Web design tools do not facilitate example reuse in a way that captures the scale and diversity of the Web. To do so requires using machine learning techniques to train computational models which can be queried during the design process. In this work-in-progress, we present a platform necessary for doing such large-scale machine learning on Web designs, which consists of a Web crawler and proxy server to harvest and store a lossless and immutable snapshot of the Web; a page segmenter that codifies a page's visual layout; and an interface for augmenting the segmentations with crowdsourced metadata.
How to use behavioral research insights on trust for HCI system design BIBAFull-Text 1703-1708
  Matthias Söllner; Axel Hoffmann; Holger Hoffmann; Jan Marco Leimeister
Trust has been shown to be a major antecedent of technology acceptance and usage. Consequently, behavioral research has created vast insights on trust building. However, only a small fraction of the existing literature also shows ways of systematically including these insights into system design. Hence, the potential of most behavioral insights on trust for developing new systems often remains only partly realized. To alleviate this problem, we present a way to systematically derive trust-supporting design elements using trust theory. Using a laboratory experiment, we show that the trust-related design elements derived from theory are regarded as being important by the participants, and significantly increased their trust in a restaurant recommendation system as well as in their intention to use it in the future.
Opportunistic engagement by designing on the street BIBAFull-Text 1709-1714
  Stephen Lindsay; Nick Taylor; Patrick Olivier
Lightweight, opportunistic participatory design exercises in public spaces have the potential to collect large volumes of candid feedback and insights from members of the public. We motivate the need for ''designing on the street' in terms of the time and resource requirements of traditional participatory design methods, and begin the process of unpicking the conditions for success and practical requirements. We demonstrate through a pilot study that opportunistic participatory design can be a useful tool for addressing design challenges in everyday settings, where most people have some familiarity with the design area.
Unearthing the family gems: design requirements for a digital reminiscing system for older adults BIBAFull-Text 1715-1720
  Elizabeth Thiry; Mary Beth Rosson
This paper presents preliminary findings from a study investigating the reminiscing habits of older adults. We first define the concept of reminiscence, including aspects such as how, when and why it takes place. Then we present our findings from an interview study with older adults, where they reflect on their own habits related to reminiscing, and consider these reflections with respect to software that might support digital reminiscing. Finally we summarize our plan for future work.
Smart material interfaces: a new form of physical interaction BIBAFull-Text 1721-1726
  Dhaval Vyas; Wim Poelman; Anton Nijholt; Arnout De Bruijn
Smart Material Interface (SMI) is the latest generation of user interface that makes use of engineered materials and leverages their special properties. SMIs are capable of changing their physical properties such as shape, size and color, and can be controlled under certain (external) conditions. We provide an example of such an SMI in the form of a prototype of a vacuum cleaner. The prototype uses schematic electrochromic polymer at the suction nozzle of the vacuum cleaner, which changes its color depending on the dust level on a floor. We emphasize on the new affordances and communication language supported by SMIs, which challenges the current metaphors of user interfaces in the field of HCI.
Investigating one-handed multi-digit pressure input for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1727-1732
  Graham Wilson; David Hannah; Stephen Brewster; Martin Halvey
This paper presents initial results from the design and evaluation of one-handed squeezing of a mobile phone: the application of force by each individual digit, and combinations of digits, of one hand as a means of interacting with a mobile device. As part of the evaluation we also consider how to alter the size of the interaction space to best suit the number of digits being used. By identifying which digits can accurately apply force both individually and in combination with others, we can then design one-handed, multi-channel input for mobile interaction. The results suggest that not all digits are equally accurate, and that some are more accurate when used in combination with others. Further, increasing the size of the underlying interaction space to suit the number of digits used improves user performance.
Designing for the task: what numbers are really used in hospitals? BIBAFull-Text 1733-1738
  Sarah Wiseman; Anna Cox; Duncan Brumby
In the English language, the letters of the alphabet do not occur with equal frequency. Some letters occur far more often than others, for example the letter e occurs more frequently than z. In this paper we show that as with letters, digits too suffer from unequal distributions in some situations. Here we show that the most common digits being used when programming infusion pumps to administer drugs to patients are 0, 1, 2 and 5. The digit 9 is also frequently used to set an infusion to run at the maximum rate possible. With this information, we evaluate three current forms of infusion pump input with regards to the digits that are actually being programmed into the machines. We argue that the current number interface designs used in medical devices should take into account these findings in order to produce interfaces that are both more suitable for the task, and less error prone in use.
Does proprioception guide back-of-device pointing as well as vision? BIBAFull-Text 1739-1744
  Katrin Wolf; Christian Müller-Tomfelde; Kelvin Cheng; Ina Wechsung
We present research that investigates the amount of guidance required by users for precise back-of-device interaction. We explore how pointing effectiveness is influenced by the presence or absence of visual guidance feedback. Participants were asked to select targets displayed on an iPad device, by touching and releasing them from underneath the device. Another iPad was used to detect finger positions from the rear. Results showed that participants were able to select targets as accurately without visual feedback of finger position as they were with it. Additionally, no significant increase in workload was identified when visual feedback was removed. Our results show that users do not require complex techniques to visualize finger position on the rear of device. Visual feedback does not affect any performance parameters, such as effectiveness, perceived performance, and the number of trials needed to select a target. We also outline the implications of our findings and our future work to fully investigate the effect of visual guidance feedback.
Hold that thought: are spearcons less disruptive than spoken reminders? BIBAFull-Text 1745-1750
  Maria Wolters; Karl Isaac; Jason Doherty
Speech reminders can severely disrupt list recall. Spearcons, time-compressed speech messages, might be less disruptive because they are much shorter. In this study, we asked 24 younger participants to recall 64 short lists of digit, animal, food, or furniture names. List items were presented one at a time; the number of items presented depended on individual digit spans. Spearcons affected list recall to the same extent as speech. However, people with higher digit spans had significantly worse recall. This could be due to short-term memory overload or the longer presentation time of long lists. We discuss implications for menu design.
Modeling dwell-based eye pointing at two-dimensional targets BIBAFull-Text 1751-1756
  Xinyong Zhang; Wenxin Feng; Hongbin Zha
Zhang et al. (2010) proposed a performance model for dwell-based eye pointing. However, their model was based on a specific circular target condition, without the ability to predict the performance of acquiring conventional rectangular targets. In this paper, we extend their one-dimensional model to two-dimensional (2D) target conditions. Carrying out an experiment, we evaluate the abilities of different model candidates to find out the most appropriate one. The new index of difficulty we redefine for 2D eye pointing (IDeye) can properly reflect the asymmetrical impact of target width and height, and consequently the IDeye model can accurately predict the performance for 2D targets (R2 > 0.9). According to the results of our study, the new model can provide more useful design implications for gaze-based interactions.
Informing user experience design about users: insights from practice BIBAFull-Text 1757-1762
  Derya Özçelik Buskermolen; Jacques Terken; Berry Eggen
In this paper we explore what type of information from end-users designers find useful for early concept evaluations. We addressed the question through a study where user feedback taken from a real design project was assessed by four designers working in the project. We found that designers consider elaborate feedback indicating clear attitudes and motivations and feedback revealing past experiences of people most valuable. Finally, we discuss the methodology for evaluating the value of user feedback.
The effects of positive and negative self-interruptions in discretionary multitasking BIBAFull-Text 1763-1768
  Rachel Adler; Raquel Benbunan-Fich
Human multitasking is often the result of self-initiated interruptions in the performance of an ongoing task. Compared to externally induced interruptions, self-interruptions have not received enough research attention. To address this gap, this paper develops a detailed classification of self-interruptions rooted in positive and negative feelings of task progress based on responses subjects provided after completing a multitasking laboratory experiment. The results suggest that multitasking due to negative feelings is associated with more self-interruptions than those triggered by positive feelings and that more self-interruptions may produce lower accuracy in all tasks. Therefore, negative internal triggers of self-interruptions seem to unleash a downward spiral that ultimately affects performance.
Flytalk: social media to meet the needs of air travelers BIBAFull-Text 1769-1774
  Kagonya Awori; Emme Clark; Andreia Gonçalves; Troy Effner; Justine Yang; Ian Oakley; Nuno Nunes
The aviation industry plays a vital role in supporting economies and connecting people worldwide; it is a cornerstone of modern life. However, user experience of air travel is often marked by frustration, stress and confusion. Indeed, over the last decade, traveler satisfaction with air travel experiences has steadily declined. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews (using a range of user research methods) that aims to understand the needs of air travelers. Key insights from this process are presented and a conceptual system design, based on connecting travelers using existing social media systems, is introduced. Ultimately, this paper argues that applying innovation in social media technology to air travel has the potential to improve user experiences and reduce industry costs, making travelling smoother, cheaper and more satisfying.
Seamless and continuous user identification for interactive tabletops using personal device handshaking and body tracking BIBAFull-Text 1775-1780
  Christopher Ackad; Andrew Clayphan; Roberto Martinez Maldonado; Judy Kay
Touch-based tabletops are a form of embedded device for group collaboration. This work tackles two key problems for effective use of such tabletops: there is currently no easy way for people to identify themselves to the table; and most current hardware does not link a person's touches to their identity. This paper presents a system which tackles these problems as it can identify users and keeps track of their actions around interactive tabletops. To start the user identification, a user puts their personal device onto the interactive surface. Once this is paired with the tabletop, linking the device owner's identity to the table, the system continuously tracks any touch by that user. The system seamlessly and continuously associates each user touch with an identity.
Mobile applications to support dietary change: highlighting the importance of evaluation context BIBAFull-Text 1781-1786
  Jill Freyne; Emily Brindal; Gilly Hendrie; Shlomo Berkovsky; Mac Coombe
Along with the smart phone came smart phone applications, which range in functionality, complexity and price. Hugely popular are lifestyle applications which include tools for diet and exercise. Despite the popularity of these applications however, we have yet to see any form of rigorous investigation into their value, i.e. their impact on user behaviour and long term health goals. We embarked on a live clinical trial of a behavior based mobile application designed to assist users on meal replacement diet programs to judge its impact and value. Our analysis showed that users were more engaged with a fully interactive application than an information based application, and that varying analysis conditions seemed to result in varying impact.
Investigating in-car safety services on the motorway: the role of screen size BIBAFull-Text 1787-1792
  Peter Fröhlich; Matthias Baldauf; Stefan Suette; Dietmar Schabus; Matthias Fuchs
Today's in-car information systems are undergoing an evolution towards device miniaturization as well as to real-time telematics services. In a road study with 26 participants, we investigated whether small smartphone-sized screens are recommendable for the communication of realtime safety services. We did not find strong overall differences between large and small screen setups in any of our investigated measures. However, when no audio was presented, safety services presentation on small screens resulted in significantly more long glances to the HMI than on large screen. Also, subjective comprehensibility of driving recommendations was best when screen size was large and audio presentation was available. Implications and further research opportunities are discussed.
Values in action (ViA): combining usability, user experience and user acceptance BIBAFull-Text 1793-1798
  Verena Fuchsberger; Christiane Moser; Manfred Tscheligi
The shift in HCI towards emotions, values, needs etc., (third-wave HCI) reflects the new understanding of interactions between users and technology. However, the focus on usability in the first-wave slightly got out of sight in the second-wave, which mainly addressed the user in working environments, and even more in the third-wave HCI. This wave holds a focus on emotions, experiences and values, not only at work but also during leisure time. We have identified a lack of suitable frameworks and concepts, which provide an integrated view on values on the one hand and usability, user experience and user acceptance on the other hand. For evaluating a prototype in an Ambient Assisted Living project we developed an approach for combining value- and user-centered design with factors related to usability, user experience and user acceptance.
Designing a tool for exploratory information seeking BIBAFull-Text 1799-1804
  Gene Golovchinsky; Anthony Dunnigan; Abdigani Diriye
We describe an on-going design process in building Querium, a search system for multi-session exploratory search tasks. Querium extends a conventional search interface with a sophisticated search history interface that helps people make sense of their search activity over time. Information seeking is a cognitively demanding process that can benefit from many kinds of information. Our design process has focused on creating interfaces that facilitate on-going sense-making while keeping the interaction efficient, fluid, and enjoyable.
Understanding effects of time and proximity on collaboration: implications for technologies to support collaborative information seeking BIBAFull-Text 1805-1810
  Roberto González-Ibáñez; Muge Haseki; Chirag Shah
We present a user study involving 80 participants in 40 pairs about the implications of four time-space conditions in a collaborative information seeking task, namely: co-located, remotely located with text chat, remotely located with audio chat, and asynchronous. Results suggest that when individuals are co-located, their search behaviors tend to overlap thus affecting their ability to find diverse and useful information. On the other hand, when people are remotely located, the levels of independency and diversity depend upon the richness of the communication channel being used. Finally, when collaborative search is performed asynchronously, team members reach high levels of independency at the cost of effectiveness. These findings are particularly essential in various areas of research and application such as human-computer interaction (HCI) and information retrieval (IR), providing additional knowledge that would enable system designers to provide better support for the information search process of teams.
Using affect to evaluate user engagement BIBAFull-Text 1811-1834
  Jennefer Hart; Alistair Sutcliffe; Antonella De Angeli
User Experience (UX) emerged beyond the traditional views of usability to account for users' emotional response to the aesthetics of an interactive product. This paper outlines the first of a series of studies on User Engagement (UE), a subset of UX, which focuses upon the quality of the within session interactive experience. The aim of this study is to explore affect through the responses to interactive features and how this impacts upon user judgment. Initial findings indicate that websites with more interactive features generate enhanced positive affect within session, which may predominate over a longer term, thus impacting on the overall user experience.
Drawing shapes and lines: spawning objects on interactive tabletops BIBAFull-Text 1835-1840
  Tobias Hesselmann; Volker Gollücke; Benjamin Poppinga; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
In tabletop computing it is crucial to instantiate objects, such as documents or virtual containers, in an ergonomically convenient way for users. Particularly, objects need to be positioned within reach of users, need to be orientated properly, and need to be scaled appropriately for convenient interaction by touch. As the user's location at the device is usually unknown to the system, objects are typically spawned at a default position and with a default orientation and size in tabletop user interfaces. Thus, users typically need to manipulate objects after instantiation until they are properly aligned and scaled, which can be a cumbersome and time-consuming process. We designed two gesture-based interaction techniques to instantiate objects with a convenient orientation, size, and position, making further adjustments to these properties unnecessary. We describe the functionality of both techniques and discuss insights gathered during initial evaluations.
The routines and social behaviours of frequent mcommerce shoppers BIBAFull-Text 1841-1846
  Serena Hillman; Carman Neustaedter; John Bowes
Recently, there has been widespread growth of mobile shopping and buying, termed mCommerce. With this comes a need to understand user's routines and social behaviours in mCommerce activities so we can understand how to design for the mobile space. To address this, we conducted a diary and interview study with regular mobile device users to explore their mobile shopping activities. Our results describe a variety of usage patterns including spontaneous purchasing and routine shopping where people gravitate to their mobile device even if a computer is nearby.
MicPen: pressure-sensitive pen interaction using microphone with standard touchscreen BIBAFull-Text 1847-1852
  Sungjae Hwang; Andrea Bianchi; Kwangyun Wohn
This paper introduces MicPen, a low-cost pressure-sensitive stylus pen interface for standard touchscreen displays that uses a microphone to estimate the amount of pressure applied to the pen. This is achieved by filtering and analyzing the acoustic signal generated when the tip of the pen is rubbed on the touchscreen. The advantage of this approach is that it is inexpensive, reliable and suitable for mobile interaction because it does not require mechanical parts to sense the input pressure. Results from a user study shows that the participants recognized five out of ten different pressure levels with perfect accuracy, and nine out of ten with minimal error.
Dream drill: learning application BIBAFull-Text 1853-1858
  Aya Ikeda; Toshifumi Arai; Itiro Siio
Some evidence indicates that sleep supports memory consolidation. Items studied before sleeps are memorized more efficiently than those not followed by sleep. Consequently, we propose a learning management system based on these findings. The system includes an alarm clock, whose alarm is set only if a user answers some questions. The user also has to answer the same questions once the clock has awakened him or her in the morning. We implemented a prototype and conducted a user study with five participants to evaluate the effectiveness of the system.
The usefulness of an immersion questionnaire in game development BIBAFull-Text 1859-1864
  Johanna Huhtala; Poika Isokoski; Saila Ovaska
It would be in the interest of game developers to be able to design for immersive player experiences and to verify that their design iterations have succeeded. We conducted playtest evaluations for two versions of a new mobile game in development (Foozles) and one version of a commercially available benchmark game (Angry Birds) to assess the usefulness of an established immersion questionnaire in game development. Our results on Foozles were unexpected: we measured a decrease in players' basic attention and emotional involvement between playing sessions although the intention of the developers was to improve the game.
Towards a combined method of web usability testing: an assessment of the complementary advantages of lab testing, pre-session assignments, and online usability services BIBAFull-Text 1865-1870
  Christopher Jewell; Franco Salvetti
Lab-based testing is one of the key methods employed for evaluating web site usability. Yet the artificial conditions of the setting, including surveillance and stylized tasks, can distort user behavior and limit the data that can be obtained. This paper reports on the effectiveness of this standard method compared against two complementary methods which involve more natural, user-driven evaluation contexts, namely, pre-session homework assignments and online usability testing. Using illustrations from recent studies of online shopping sites we detail the advantages and limitations of each method and claim that employing them in combination could improve the quantity and quality of findings. We then propose that future work should focus on optimizing this combined method through sequencing, so that one evaluation approach would inform the design of subsequently used ones.
Kinetic device: designing interactions with a deformable mobile interface BIBAFull-Text 1871-1876
  Johan Kildal; Susanna Paasovaara; Viljakaisa Aaltonen
We introduce the user-centered research that we are conducting using functional deformable research prototypes. This work has recently crystallized in the demonstration of the Nokia Kinetic Device (figure 1). In the large design space that opens before us around deformable user interfaces (DUIs), we have chosen to focus on mobile personal interfaces. We aim to investigate how human factors should influence the transition from rigid to deformable hardware. In this paper, we propose the topics that a research agenda should cover, and we discuss our research methodology. We also describe the functional deformable research prototype (called Kinetic DUI-RP) that we are using to conduct our research. Finally, we present an initial set of design guidelines that future research will develop further.
Ghost fingers: a hybrid approach to the interaction with remote displays BIBAFull-Text 1877-1882
  Seung Wook Kim; Stefan Marti
In this paper, we describe a novel interaction method called Ghost Fingers, which enables efficient and intuitive switching between keyboard and multi-touch input on systems where the display is out of arm's reach. In addition, Ghost Fingers provides a translucent real-time visualization of the fingers and hands on the remote display, creating a closed interaction loop that enables direct manipulation even on remote displays. Our solution includes a wireless keyboard with attached imaging sensor that is used to both determine the position of the user's hand and fingers, and to provide a real-time translucent overlay of hand and fingers over the remote UI.
Cooking together: a digital ethnography BIBAFull-Text 1883-1888
  Jeni Paay; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov; Kenton O'Hara
Cooking together is an important part of everyday life, a social event in which people enhance their relationships through shared stories and swapping ideas on food preparation. We present a new methodology for studying human interaction to inform the design of interactive systems. In our digital ethnography we study a selection of YouTube videos and use Kendon's theory of F-formations to catalogue a set of spatial patterns created between cooks, kitchen spaces and cameras that influence the social aspects of cooking together. A new F-formation specific to this domain is identified and used to suggest design opportunities for a digitally enhanced kitchen space for sharing the social experience of "cooking together" for people living in different homes.
Care robot able to show the order of service provision through bodily actions in multi-party settings BIBAFull-Text 1889-1894
  Yoshinori Kobayashi; Keiichi Yamazaki; Akiko Yamazaki; Masahiko Gyoda; Tomoya Tabata; Yoshinori Kuno; Yukiko Seki
Service robots, such as tea-serving robots, should be designed to show the order of service provision in multi-party settings. An ethnographic study we conducted at an elderly care center revealed that the gaze and bodily actions of care workers can serve this function. To test this, we developed a robot system able to utilize its gaze and other gestures in this way. Experimental results demonstrated that the robot could effectively display the order of service provision using this method, and highlighted the benefits of employing the gaze for robots working in multi-party settings.
Applying participatory design theory to designing evaluation methods BIBAFull-Text 1895-1900
  Diana Kusunoki; Aleksandra Sarcevic
System evaluators face several challenges in designing evaluation methods, including measurement and relevance, context, establishing common ground with users, and eliciting users' tacit knowledge. To address these challenges, we propose applying participatory design theory to designing evaluation methods by increasing user involvement and by integrating this process into the overall process of system design.
rainbottles: gathering raindrops of data from the cloud BIBAFull-Text 1901-1906
  Jinha Lee; Greg Vargas; Mason Tang; Hiroshi Ishii
This paper introduces a design for a new way of managing the flow of information in the age of overflow. The devices, rainBottle, collect virtual data and converts it into a virtual liquid that fills up specially designed glass bottles. The bottles then serve as an ambient interface displaying the quantity of information in a queue as well as a tangible controller for opening the applications associated with the data in the bottles. With customizable data relevance metrics, the bottles can also serve as filters by letting less relevant data overflow out of the bottle.
The meanings of music sharing in tween life BIBAFull-Text 1907-1912
  Vilma Lehtinen; Lassi Liikkanen
The effects of digitalization for music sharing have been debated vastly. However, the new practices of making widely available music meaningful for those who share it remain largely uncovered. We set out to study this through exploring how the tweens of early 2010's face this challenge. In a qualitative exploration with Finnish children aged 10-13 years, we identified practices of making digital music meaningful: socially considerate sharing, modification and associations outside music, and consideration for the difficulties of infrastructure. We find that the content gains value in the socio-technical network of sharing practices. This observation challenges the notions of digital music as a ""mass"" format lacking personal or social value.
Shape your body: control a virtual silhouette using body motion BIBAFull-Text 1913-1918
  Luís Leite; Veronica Orvalho
In this paper we propose to use our body as a puppetry controller, giving life to a virtual silhouette through acting. A framework was deployed based on Microsoft Kinect using OpenNI and Unity to animate in real-time a silhouette. This was used to perform a set of experiments related to the user's interaction with human and non-human like puppets. We believe that a performance-driven silhouette can be just as expressive as a traditional shadow puppet with a high degree of freedom, making use of our entire body as an input. We describe our solution that allows real-time interactive control of virtual shadow puppets for performance animation based on body motion. We show through our experiment, performed by non-expert artists, that using our body to control puppets is like mixing the performance of an actor with the manipulation of a puppeteer.
The hankie probe: a materialistic approach to mobile ux research BIBAFull-Text 1919-1924
  Michael Leitner; Gilbert Cockton; Joyce Yee; Thomas Greenough
Mobile user experience (UX) research can benefit from unexplored opportunities from theory and practice. Contemporary sociology has developed sophisticated understandings of mobilities that can expand the scope of mobile HCI research. At the same time, we need to extend the scope of mobile experience beyond its current main foci on the portable device and moments of experience. We report the interim results of exploratory pilot studies of a fabric based probe that has been developed to extend the scope of mobile experience research both theoretically and in the range of insights that can be collected in mobile user studies. We report our initial experiences with a 'hankie' (handkerchief) probe that aims to gather rich usage and experience insights for early stages of design.
GestureCommander: continuous touch-based gesture prediction BIBAFull-Text 1925-1930
  George Lucchese; Martin Field; Jimmy Ho; Ricardo Gutierrez-Osuna; Tracy Hammond
GestureCommander is a touch-based gesture control system for mobile devices that is able to recognize gestures as they are being performed. Continuous recognition allows the system to provide visual feedback to the user and to anticipate user commands to possibly decrease perceived response time. To achieve this goal we employ two Hidden Markov Model (HMM) systems, one for recognition and another for generating visual feedback. We analyze a set of geometric features used in other gesture recognition systems and determine a subset that works best for HMMs. Finally we demonstrate the practicality of our recognition HMMs in a proof of concept mobile application for Google's Android mobile platform that has a recognition accuracy rate of 96% over 15 distinct gestures.
Test-driven development for the web: increasing efficiency of web development BIBAFull-Text 1931-1936
  Jalal Mahmud; Clemens Drews; Michael Collins; Arnaldo Carreno-Fuentes; Alex Bullard; Mark Vickstrom; Margaret Cho
With the rapid growth of World Wide Web, demands on website developers have increased dramatically. At the same time new web development challenges have emerged. These challenges include enabling web developers with a low level of experience, fast paced development cycles and a disconnect between different phases of web development. In this paper we present algorithms which address some of these challenges. Our algorithms lower the barrier of expertise and experience required to transform development requirements into web pages, bridge the divide between web testing and development as well as improve test case maintenance. We also present a survey we conducted among web developers to understand their problems, experiments to demonstrate the performance of our algorithms and a user study that shows the value of our approach.
Participatory design of social search experiences BIBAFull-Text 1937-1942
  Nick Matterson; David Choi
Social search engines connect users with content created or recommended by social contacts. A new participatory design methodology was created to understand user needs for social search and propose solutions to these needs. The method involved participants interacting with a mock-up of a social search experience and co-creating solutions with the researchers. We present two key findings highlighting specific user needs and corresponding design solutions. The participatory design methodology was useful in bridging the gap between the research and design phases of the development project.
Turtledove: a tangible grain interface for image organization BIBAFull-Text 1943-1948
  Oliver Metz; Christian Leichsenring; René Tünnermann; Thomas Hermann; Till Bovermann
Interfaces supporting bi-manual interaction offer great benefits. In recent years, a variety of multi-touch systems have even shown new possibilities for multi-finger input. However, multi-finger interactions do not always show better performance. We propose an interface consisting of a large amount of minimal tangible objects called tangible grains combined with a visual projection. The system is intended to add passive physical feedback to increase performance and improve the quality of the interface. In this paper we present the concept, the implementation and first small-scale user studies of a tangible grain interface for the organization and, especially, the sorting and tagging of images.
ResEval Mash: a mashup tool that speaks the language of the user BIBAFull-Text 1949-1954
  Imran Muhammad; Daniel Florian; Casati Fabio; Marchese Maurizio
End-user development (i.e., enabling end-users without programming skills to build their own applications) is undergoing a revolution, as mashups are widely considered to be the most appealing development tool for the situational, short-span applications. Plain technology (e.g., SOAP/WSDL web services) or simple modeling languages (e.g., Yahoo! Pipes) don't convey enough meaning to non-programmers. In this paper, we propose a domain-specific approach to mashups that speaks the language of the user", i.e., that is aware of the terminology, concepts, rules, and conventions (the domain) the user is comfortable with. We exemplify the approach by implementing a mashup tool for a specific domain (research evaluation) and describe the respective user study. The results of a first user study confirm that domain-specific mashup tools indeed lower the entry barrier to mashup development.
A sensemaking environment for literature study BIBAFull-Text 1955-1960
  Aditi Muralidharan; Marti A. Hearst
We present a sensemaking environment for literary text analysis. Literature study is a cycle of reading, interpretation, exploration, and understanding. While there is now abundant technological support for reading and interpreting literary text in new ways through text-processing algorithms, the other parts of the cycle -- exploration and understanding -- have been relatively neglected. Motivated by the literature on sensemaking, we are developing a software system that integrates tools for algorithmic processing of text with interaction techniques that support the interpretive, exploratory, and note-taking aspects of scholarship. At present, our project supports grammatical search and contextual similarity determination, visualization of patterns of word context, and examination and organization of the source material for comparison and hypothesis-building. This article illustrates its capabilities by analyzing language-use differences between male and female characters in Shakespeare's plays. We find that when love is a major plot point, the language Shakespeare uses to refer to women becomes more physical, and the language referring to men becomes more sentimental. Future work will incorporate additional sensemaking tools to aid comparison, exploration, grouping, and pattern recognition.
EyeRing: a finger-worn assistant BIBAFull-Text 1961-1966
  Suranga Nanayakkara; Roy Shilkrot; Pattie Maes
Finger-worn interfaces are a vastly unexplored space for interaction design. It opens a world of possibilities for solving day-to-day problems, for visually impaired people and sighted people. In this work we present EyeRing, a novel design and concept of a finger-worn device. We show how the proposed system may serve for numerous applications for visually impaired people such as recognizing currency notes and navigating, as well as helping sighted people to tour an unknown city or intuitively translate signage. The ring apparatus is autonomous, however it is counter parted by a mobile phone or computation device to which it connects wirelessly, and an earpiece for information retrieval. Finally, we will discuss how finger worn sensors may be extended and applied to other domains.
A security assessment of tiles: a new portfolio-based graphical authentication system BIBAFull-Text 1967-1972
  James Nicholson; Paul Dunphy; Lynne Coventry; Pamela Briggs; Patrick Olivier
In this paper we propose Tiles, a graphical authentication system in which users are assigned a target image and subsequently asked to select segments of that image. We assess the extent to which this system provides protection against two security threats: observation attacks and sharing of authentication credentials in two laboratory-based studies. We note some of the vulnerabilities of the new system but provide evidence that automated manipulation of the similarity of the decoy images can help mitigate the threat from verbal sharing and observation attacks.
Couch mobility: the cell phone's most important feature at home is mobility BIBAFull-Text 1973-1978
  Stina Nylander; Jenny Fådal; Saman Mottaghy
A preliminary analysis of diary study of cell phone use in the home shows that mobility is an important feature at home and phones are more mobile than laptop computers with wifi. The phone adds functionality to the home, such as text messaging, reminders and integrated picture taking and sending. The needs of mobile phone use in the home are similar to the needs in traditional mobile use situations: mobility, quick access, ease of use.
In search of theoretical foundations for UX research and practice BIBAFull-Text 1979-1984
  Marianna Obrist; Virpi Roto; Arnold Vermeeren; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Kari Kuutti
In this paper we point out the relevance of and the need for a theoretical discussion around UX research and practice. Although there is a good coverage of methodological and design related topics in the HCI literature, there is still a lack of theoretical focus in the rapidly increasing work on user experience (UX). We analyzed 122 individual items on theories collected in a CHI'11 special interest group session on UX theories and theoretical frameworks. The data set was filtered and categorized in several iterations, resulting in 56 items distributed over 7 major theory categories and related to 9 relevant disciplines. The categories are an initial mapping of the field and point towards the directions for further conceptual and theoretical clarification. Our results help to explore the multi-disciplinary nature of UX and to build a more solid foundation for UX research and practice.
Kinect in the kitchen: testing depth camera interactions in practical home environments BIBAFull-Text 1985-1990
  Galen Panger
Depth cameras have become a fixture of millions of living rooms thanks to the Microsoft Kinect. Yet to be seen is whether they can succeed as widely in other areas of the home. This research takes the Kinect into real-life kitchens, where touchless gestural control could be a boon for messy hands, but where commands are interspersed with the movements of cooking. We implement a recipe navigator, timer and music player and, experimentally, allow users to change the control scheme at runtime and navigate with other limbs when their hands are full. We tested our system with five subjects who baked a cookie recipe in their own kitchens, and found that placing the Kinect was simple and that subjects felt successful. However, testing in real kitchens underscored the challenge of preventing accidental commands in tasks with sporadic input.
Multitasking in e-learning environments: users' multitasking strategies and design implications BIBAFull-Text 1991-1996
  Ji Hyun Park; Min Liu
The purpose of this study is to better understand users' multitasking behavior patterns and to extract design implications based on user experience and user testing evaluation. To understand users' multitasking strategies, we conducted a user testing and post-session interviews. Our preliminary results show that each user has different strategies for multitasking efficiently. Four main themes emerged as characteristics of users' multitasking strategies in e-Learning environments, including: tiling windows, customizing shortcut keys, switching windows one by one, and utilizing visual notifications.
"Check out where I am!": location-sharing motivations, preferences, and practices BIBAFull-Text 1997-2002
  Sameer Patil; Gregory Norcie; Apu Kapadia; Adam Lee
Rapid growth in the usage of location-aware mobile phones has enabled Location Sharing Services (LSS) to gain mainstream adoption. Integration with social networking services has further accelerated LSS usage. We conducted an online study (N = 401) to uncover the impact of recent changes in the underlying social and technological landscape on the preferences and practices of LSS users in the US. We found that the main motivations for location sharing were to connect with one's social circle, to project an interesting image of oneself, and to receive rewards offered for "checking in." Respondents overwhelmingly preferred sharing location only upon explicit action. More than 25% of the respondents recalled at least one instance of regret over having shared location. These findings highlight the tension between the utility of location sharing and concerns with invasions of privacy. Empowering users to resolve this tension effectively can potentially drive further growth in adoption and utility of LSS.
Emotion as an indicator for future interruptive notification experiences BIBAFull-Text 2003-2008
  Celeste Paul; Anita Komlodi
This paper explores the relationship between emotion and the notification experience. We found a strong relationship between the user emotions used to describe interruptive notification experiences and whether the users wanted similar interruptive notifications again in the future. Participants were likely to want similar future interruptive notifications if they described their interruptive notification experiences using positive words. They were likely to not want similar future interruptive notifications if they described their interruptive notification experiences using negative words. The implications for the use of this knowledge in the design of intelligent systems and potential for future work are also discussed.
Phonetic shapes: an interactive, sonic guest book BIBAFull-Text 2009-2014
  Mary Pietrowicz; Karrie Karahalios
Sound exists only in the moment, and cannot be referenced or searched, except in the mutable memories of people. Because of this, it has been an overlooked modality and social information channel, particularly where nonverbal communication cues and identity are concerned. Yet, it encapsulates a person's identity as effectively as a fingerprint or signature. Sound is even more useful when combined with other modalities, like the visual and gestural. In order to use the modality of sound effectively, however, we need tools that simultaneously analyze, persist, and present the important information in sound. What if you could capture identity and meaning in sound, and give it additional affordances, that go beyond those of written communication? In this paper, we explore the voice as identity and as the carrier of nonverbal information in the context of a sonic guest book.
Display blocks: cubic displays for multi-perspective visualization BIBAFull-Text 2015-2020
  Pol Pla; Pattie Maes
We propose the design, implementation and evaluation of a set of tangible cubic displays. This novel approach to display technology consists of arranging six organic light emitting diode screens in a cubic form factor. We explore the possibilities that this type of display holds for data visualization, manipulation and exploration. We are especially interested in exploring how the physicality of the screen can be perceived as a cue to better interpret its contents. To this end, we propose a series of applications that leverage the affordances of this technology.
HCI professions: differences & definitions BIBAFull-Text 2021-2026
  Cynthia Putnam; Beth Kolko
In this paper, we present findings from a pilot survey in which we investigated how industry practitioners who create interactive technologies discuss their work and include end users, (e.g. user research methods used). We also explored measures of empathy (a key concept for ''walking in end-user's shoes') among HCI professionals. We found that there were distinct and significant differences among individuals who claimed user-centric job titles (e.g. usability engineer) from those who claimed design-centric job titles (e.g. interaction designer, developer). Differences included how job-title groups considered end-users in their work and their empathetic profiles. We used results from this pilot study to inform a more comprehensive study we are currently undertaking.
Point-and-shoot data BIBAFull-Text 2027-2032
  Stephanie Lin; Samuel Luescher; Travis Rich; Shaun Salzberg; Hiroshi Ishii
We explore the use of visible light as a wireless communication medium for mobile devices. We discuss the advantages of a human perceptible communication medium in regards to user experience and create tools for direct manipulation of the communication channel.
Webbox+page blossom: exploring design for aktive data interaction BIBAFull-Text 2033-2038
  m. c. schraefel; Daniel Smith; Max Van Kleek
We give away our data to multiple data services without, for the most part, being able to get that data back to reuse in any other way, leaving us, at best, to re-find, re-cover, retype, remember and re-manage this material. In this work in progress, we hypothesize that if we facilitate easy interaction to store, access and reuse our personal, social and public data, we will not only decrease time spent to recreate it for multiple walled data contexts, but in particular, we will develop novel interactions for new kinds of knowledge building. To facilitate exploration of this hypothesis, we propose Page Blossom an exemplar of such dynamic data interaction that is based on data reuse via our open data platform Webbox + Active (active knowledge technology) lenses.
Initial approaches for extending sketch recognition to beyond-surface environments BIBAFull-Text 2039-2044
  Paul Taele; Tracy Hammond
Sketch recognition researchers have long concentrated their energies on investigating issues related to computer systems' difficulties in recognizing hand-drawn diagrams, but the focus has largely been on recognizing sketches on physical surfaces. While beyond-surface sketching actively takes place in diverse forms and in various activities, directly applying existing on-surface sketch recognition techniques beyond physical surfaces is far from trivial. In this paper, we investigate initial approaches for locating corners and extracting primitive geometric shapes in beyond-surface sketches, which are important ingredients of subsequent higher-level interpretations for building richer sketching interfaces. Moreover, we investigate preliminary challenges of sketch recognition in beyond-surface environments and discuss possible solutions for achieving successful next-step extensions of this work.
Video increases the perception of naturalness during remote interactions with latency BIBAFull-Text 2045-2050
  Jennifer Tam; Elizbeth Carter; Sara Kiesler; Jessica Hodgins
Visual telecommunication systems support natural interaction by allowing users to remotely interact with one another using natural speech and movement. Network connections and computation cause delays that may result in interactions that feel unnatural or belabored. In an experiment using an audiovisual telecommunications device, synchronized audio and video delays were added to participants' conversations to determine how delay would affect conversation. To examine the effects of visual information on conversation, we also compared the audiovisual trials to trials in which participants were presented only the audio information. We present self-report data indicating that delay had a weaker impact when both audio and video channels were available, for delays up to 500 ms, than when only the audio channel was available.
Slant menu: novel GUI widget with ergonomic design BIBAFull-Text 2051-2056
  Ayumi Tomita; Keisuke Kambara; Itiro Siio
In this paper, we propose a new GUI design method based on ergonomics and describe our new menu widget named Slant Menu. Natural human hand movements on a table are reflected in this menu, which appears in an inclined direction with a curved form, rather than a conventional vertical, linear GUI menu. We have developed the prototype and conducted usability testing.
Increasing the reliability and validity of quantitative laddering data with LadderUX BIBAFull-Text 2057-2062
  Vero Vanden Abeele; Erik Hauters; Bieke Zaman
Laddering is an interview technique that provides rich qualitative data, and subsequent content analysis allows crossing over from qualitative to a quantitative measurement. However, the method is not tailored to data coming from user experience studies, and resulting data analysis of UX Laddering studies risks to lack scientific rigor with respect to the reliability and validity of the data. Therefore, we present LadderUX and point out the design rationale for its special features that help UX researchers measure what they actually set out to measure, ensuring that the resulting dominant means-end chains form an accurate representation of the population under study.
Tagging might not be slower than filing in folders BIBAFull-Text 2063-2068
  Karl Voit; Keith Andrews; Wolfgang Slany
Tagging is a promising method for organising and refinding information. However, studies comparing tagging mechanisms to organising information in folder hierarchies are relatively scarce. A study with the software framework tagstore shows that tagging does not necessarily mean slower filing performance. For experienced users, tagging required less time, fewer mouse clicks, and had very high acceptance rates.
Keyword clouds: having very little effect on sensemaking in web search engines BIBAFull-Text 2069-2074
  Mathew Wilson; Jonathan Hurlock; Max Wilson
Tag clouds are typically presented so that users can actively utilize community-generated metadata to query a collection. This research investigates whether such metadata representations also provide passive support for sensemaking without any direct interaction. Previous work reported potentially significant results from a pilot study of three variations of keyword cloud support (interactive, non-interactive, and absent), built from related query terms. Our full study, however, found no significant differences in learning across the three conditions. We concluded that the sensemaking and learning mainly occurred outside of the search engine, where the keyword cloud no longer provided support. Our future work will study the passive support that may be provided by keyword clouds in more integrated systems like digital libraries.
Reinforcement of spatial perception for stereoscopic 3d on mobile handsets BIBAFull-Text 2075-2080
  Seunghyun Woo; Hyojin Suh; Hosang Cheon
In this paper, we propose reinforcement of spatial perception on stereoscopic 3D user interfaces. We design basic stereoscopic 3D components that can maximize reinforcement of spatial perception in user interfaces for mobile handsets. Prior works do not make sufficient use of the stereoscopic effect with autostereoscopic displays. We also investigate design methods that provide a comfortable 3D user interface on mobile handsets. Existing stereoscopic 3D technology focuses on entertainment value and emphasizes graphical effects. However, these 3D experiences require excessive parallax resulting in discomfort and visual fatigue. We propose basic design methods to reduce such negative effects.
   In this paper, we try to approach stereoscopic 3D not as a technology or a function, which was the case in previous examples, but as an additional spatial experience for the users, moving closely to the original meaning of 3D space.
SINQ: Scientific INQuiry learning using social media BIBAFull-Text 2081-2086
  June Ahn; Michael Gubbels; Jinyoung Kim; Johnny Wu
In this paper we describe SINQ, a prototype web application that utilizes social participation to guide learners through the scientific inquiry process. The paper outlines the challenges associated with scientific inquiry learning within natural environments, and describes initial research to leverage technology mediated social participation (TMSP) to scaffold inquiry learning.
Programming by voice: a hands-free approach for motorically challenged children BIBAFull-Text 2087-2092
  Amber Wagner; Ramaraju Rudraraju; Srinivasa Datla; Avishek Banerjee; Mandar Sudame; Jeff Gray
This paper introduces a voice-driven tool applied to an Initial Programming Environment (IPE), which gives motorically challenged individuals the opportunity to learn programming skills; in particular, our project allows programming by voice within Scratch. Although the native Scratch environment allows users to create a program by arranging graphical blocks logically, such visual languages are completely dependent on the use of a mouse and keyboard. This modality of interaction limits users based on physical abilities. Our solution is a tool, called Myna, which is a voice-driven Java application executed parallel to Scratch. Myna processes voice commands from the user, interprets those commands according to a pre-defined grammar, and simulates synonymous actions of a mouse and keyboard within Scratch. The resulting environment assists those with a motor disability (particularly young children) in learning the joy of programming. This extended abstract describes the motivation behind the project, a technical description of Myna, and defines the current work in progress.
Climbing the cool wall: exploring teenage preferences of cool BIBAFull-Text 2093-2098
  Daniel Fitton; Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read; Linda Little; Nicola Toth
Cool is an essential characteristic when designing technologies that appeal to teenagers, but is very challenging to understand and design for. This paper describes a study that investigated cool with teenagers using a specially constructed 'Cool Wall' that allows items to be rated using a simple scale. We present the design of the Cool Wall prototype then the findings from two field studies in which it was used. The studies found that expensive mobile technologies were considered the most cool by teenagers participating in the studies, while items that are gender or age specific often divided opinion. This suggests that HCI practitioners wishing to 'design for cool' need to carefully understand the their user groups, also that the cool wall described in this paper is one low-cost tool for providing insights into this understanding.
School friendly participatory research activities with children BIBAFull-Text 2099-2104
  Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read; Emanuela Mazzone; Gavin Sim; Daniel Fitton
Participatory Design is a common practice in HCI and user based evaluations are also highly recommended. This paper looks at the practice of carrying out design and evaluation sessions with school aged children by describing a general method for carrying out and arranging whole class activities that are school friendly and then by analyzing the academic value of these activities. An analysis of 6 MESS days with 21 activities yielded a research out of 9 publications at a research output of 43%.
Family interaction for responsible natural resource consumption BIBAFull-Text 2105-2110
  Francisco Lepe Salazar; Tetsuo Yamabe; Todorka Alexandrova; Yefeng Liu; Tatsuo Nakajima
In this paper we propose a novel approach to persuasive technology, based on children-parent interaction, to be implemented in a smart pad ludic application; to contribute to the natural resource consumption problem, not only by raising awareness, but by encouraging informed decisions on their use. We conducted a survey to see which natural resources are more relevant to Japanese society. We designed an attractive multimedia tool, considering the family interaction, that uses eco-visualizations, a narrative and cartoon characters. If successful, we would achieve better informed consumption of food and other natural resources, reinforcing positive attitudes within the family.
Squishy circuits as a tangible interface BIBAFull-Text 2111-2116
  Matthew Schmidtbauer; Samuel Johnson; Jeffrey Jalkio; AnnMarie Thomas
Squishy Circuits is an approach to exploring and learning electronics. This method uses homemade sculpting dough recipes -- one that is conductive, and another that is insulating -- to replace wires and insulators. Squishy Circuits can be used to model basic circuits, but can also be used as an interface for more advanced microcontroller projects.
Practices surrounding children's photos in homes BIBAFull-Text 2117-2122
  Dhaval Vyas; Gerrit van der Veer; Anton Nijholt; Guido Grassel
New parents cherish photos of their children. In their homes one can observe a varied set of arrangements of their young ones' photos. We studied eight families with young children to learn about their practices related to photos. We provide preliminary results from the field study and elaborate on three interesting themes that came out very strongly from our data: physical platforms; family dynamics and values; and creative uses of photos. These themes provide an insight into families' perceived values for photo curating, displaying and experiencing them over a longer period. We provide future directions for supporting practices surrounding children's photos.
Using need validation to design an intelligent tangible learning environment BIBAFull-Text 2123-2128
  Erin Walker; Winslow Burleson
Tangible learning environments may be improved if combined with another successful educational technology, intelligent tutoring systems. However, design principles for tangible environments and intelligent support are often at odds. To reconcile these differences, we employ a need validation methodology to understand student needs in an intelligent tangible learning environment. We found that students seek activities that provide them with feelings of discovery, inter-group competition, and an appropriate level of challenge. In addition, students value physical movement, interactivity, and perceived relevance to their learning objectives. We discuss design implications of these findings for combining the benefits of tangible learning and intelligent support systems.
Sensor-based physical interactions as interventions for change in residential energy consumption BIBAFull-Text 2129-2134
  Mailyn Fidler; Sharon Tan; Samar Alqatari; Nishant Bhansali; Alex Chang; Mia Davis; Eric Kofman; Krystal Lee; Phounsouk Sivilay; Marilyn Cornelius; Brendan Wypich; Banny Banerjee
Interventions for behavior change in domestic energy consumption rely critically on energy usage data. To obtain this data, collection systems must be established. Pervasive sensing systems enable such monitoring, but populating homes with sensors is challenging. We offer an alternative to feedback approaches that depend on the assumption that users are motivated by energy data in its raw state. Physical Experiential Technology Systems (PETS) is a behavior-and sensor-based platform supporting rich experiences and the diffusion of sensors in homes. In this paper, we present our novel approach to building sensor feedback systems and our initial product concepts.
A subscription-based authoring tool for mobile citizen science campaigns BIBAFull-Text 2135-2140
  Sunyoung Kim; Eric Paulos
Across HCI and social computing platforms we have seen the rapid emergence and adoption of mobile applications to empower non-experts to explore, measure, and share data about their world from blooming flowers to air quality. However, the creation of mobile citizen science applications with the type and method of data collected remains under the control of the developers and accompanying infrastructure of each citizen science effort. In this paper we present a flexible subscription-based web tool for non-experts to create and manage citizen science campaigns. Using our system, people can author their own campaigns with no programming skills and development infrastructure. We evaluated a functional prototype of our system with three groups having genuine needs to develop and deploy their own mobile citizen science applications. We hope that our system can help flourish citizen science activities and increase everyday people's participation in the citizen science data collection activities.
EVERT: energy representations for probing electric vehicle practice BIBAFull-Text 2141-2146
  Anders Lundström; Cristian Bogdan; Filip Kis; Ingvar Olsson; Lennart Fahlén
Energy and design of energy-feedback are becoming increasingly important in the HCI community. Our application area concerns electric vehicles, we thus depart from home and workplace appliances and address range and energy anxiety caused by short driving distance capabilities and long charging times in mobile settings. We explore this topic by letting conventional fuel car drivers reflect on their current driving habits through an exploration tool that we use as a technology probe. Our preliminary results demonstrate the educational values of the energy representations in the tool, and we also identify a design tension for map-related energy representations.
Practicing eco-safe driving at scale BIBAFull-Text 2147-2152
  Marconi Madruga Filho; Helmut Prendinger; Todd Tilma; Martin Lindner; Edgar Santos; Arturo Nakasone
Eco-safe driving is a driving style that tries to minimize vehicle emissions and ensure the drivers' safety. It is an important contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions of transport. However, current methods do not scale to teaching eco-safe driving to many people, including the next generation of drivers. Consequently, we developed BeGreen, an application for practicing eco-safe driving based on our own massively multiuser networked 3D virtual environment. A feasibility study of our virtual environment technology was conducted at a Japanese High School with 41 participants, and two types of eco-feedback interfaces were compared.
Towards new widgets to reduce PC power consumption BIBAFull-Text 2153-2158
  Ross McLachlan; Stephen Brewster
We present a study which describes the power consumption characteristics of a number of different interaction techniques on a desktop and laptop computer. In total, 8 interactions that can be used to carry out a single task (navigating a PDF document) were compared for power consumption across both a desktop and a laptop computer and across two different power saver settings. The results suggest that the power consumption of different interaction techniques for a single task vary significantly. Furthermore, the results suggest that a key factor in the power consumption of the interaction technique is the number of screen updates involved.
HCI and sustainability: the role of macrostructures BIBAFull-Text 2159-2164
  Emilie Mollenbach; Jens Hoff; Kasper Hornbæk
Sustained behavior changes are required to reduce the impact of human society on the environment. Much research on how HCI may help do so focuses on changing behavior by providing information directed at an individual or a microstructure (e.g., household). We propose societal macrostructures (e.g., municipalities) and their interaction with microstructures as a focus for HCI aimed at designing behavior change. We present two ongoing case studies involving municipalities in Denmark and discuss how and why macrostructures may be used in the design of HCI for behavior based environmental sustainability.
Active office: towards an activity-promoting office workplace design BIBAFull-Text 2165-2170
  Kathrin Probst; Florian Perteneder; Jakob Leitner; Michael Haller; Andreas Schrempf; Josef Glöckl
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders have become one of the most common chronic diseases of modern society. In this paper, we address the problem of physical inactivity in the context of office work and we introduce a new concept of working "in-motion" with high potential to reduce prolonged sedentary behavior and related degenerative phenomena. We promote a paradigm shift in workplace design towards an integrated supportive environment that provides opportunities for office workers to seamlessly change between different work environments. Based on that, we discuss associated opportunities and challenges for HCI design to encourage people for the adoption of a physically active work process in a more natural way.
Teenagers talking about energy: using narrative methods to inform design BIBAFull-Text 2171-2176
  Nicola Toth; Linda Little; Janet Read; Yukang Guo; Daniel Fitton; Matthew Horton
This paper explores teenagers' attitudes towards energy consumption. The research is part of a wider project with the goal of designing, developing and evaluating mobile solutions to change teenagers' attitudes and behaviour towards energy. Diaries, stories, written scenarios and focus groups provided initial insight into teenagers' attitudes. The use of multiple methods engaged teenagers in the project and resulted in data that was rich in detail and context. Initial themes that emerged for the data were: type of energy used, impact of energy use, sources of information, location and green teens. Findings will inform the design of mobile solutions for teenagers and help in the development of a behavioural change programme.
TopicViz: interactive topic exploration in document collections BIBAFull-Text 2177-2182
  Jacob Eisenstein; Duen Horng Chau; Aniket Kittur; Eric Xing
Existing methods for searching and exploring large document collections focus on surface-level matches to user queries, ignoring higher-level semantic structure. In this paper we show how topic modeling -- a technique for identifying latent themes across a large collection of documents -- can support semantic exploration. We present TopicViz: an interactive environment which combines traditional search and citation-graph exploration with a force-directed layout that links documents to the latent themes discovered by the topic model. We describe usage scenarios in which TopicViz supports rapid sensemaking on large document collections.
A study on touch & hover based interaction for zooming BIBAFull-Text 2183-2188
  Seungju Han; Joonah Park
Proximity is a useful medium for interaction with high interactive digital contents. It can be used in different contexts such as for navigation through depth in 3D space in zoomable interfaces. In this paper, we propose hover-based zoom interaction as an alternative to multi-touch-based zoom interaction, such as expanding/pinching to zoom. It allows users to work rapidly and intuitively at multiple levels of zooming views as their fingertip is hovering over the surface. We evaluated our technique in the context of target search and found that hover-based zoom interaction significantly outperforms the conventional touch-based zoom interaction and touch/hover-based zoom interaction in both objective and subjective measurements: users searched targets more than twice as fast as with the conventional touch-based zoom interaction in our experiment.
EasyGroups: binding mobile devices for collaborative interactions BIBAFull-Text 2189-2194
  Andrés Lucero; Tero Jokela; Arto Palin; Viljakaisa Aaltonen; Jari Nikara
We present a touch and proximity based method for binding a group of mobile devices into an ecosystem for collaborative interactions. We aim to provide a seamless user experience by integrating the binding method with the application start-up flow. Our method also determines the order of the devices, allowing implementation of spatial interactions.
Blaze: supporting two-phased call graph navigation in source code BIBAFull-Text 2195-2200
  Jan-Peter Krämer; Joachim Kurz; Thorsten Karrer; Jan Borchers
Understanding source code is crucial for successful software maintenance. A particularly important activity to understand source code is navigating the call graph [4]. Programmers have developed distinct strategies for effective call graph exploration [3, 9]. We introduce Blaze, a source code exploration tool tailored closely to these strategies. In a study, we compare Blaze to Stacksplorer [2], a tool that visualizes the immediate neighborhood of the current method in the call graph, to a tool resembling the standard Call Hierarchy view in the Eclipse IDE, and to an unmodified Xcode installation. The call graph exploration tools significantly increased success rates in typical software maintenance tasks, and using Stacksplorer or Blaze significantly reduced task completion times compared to using the Call Hierarchy or Xcode.
Understanding communicative emotions from collective external observations BIBAFull-Text 2201-2206
  Shiro Kumano; Kazuhiro Otsuka; Dan Mikami; Masafumi Matsuda; Junji Yamato
This paper presents a research framework for understanding communicative emotions aroused between people while interacting in conversation. Our advance is to consider how these emotions are perceived by other people, rather than what the target's internal state really is. Because such perception is subjective, we introduce the concept of using a collection of subjective external observations to objectively identify a fact. By treating the difference in perceived state as a probability distribution, we propose a computational model that describes the relationship between the perceived emotion and participants' key nonverbal behaviors, i.e. gaze and facial expressions. We also propose an evaluation method to assess the model by comparing the distributions estimated by using it with those of observers'. This paper describes initial experiments and discusses its potential.
Design of a shape dependent snapping algorithm BIBAFull-Text 2207-2212
  Seongkook Heo; Yong-Ki Lee; Jiho Yeom; Geehyuk Lee
Many layout design applications support snapping functionalities to help users align objects precisely. Currently, the center location of the object's bounding box is used for aligning the object. Users, however, may not perceive the bounding box center as the center of a shape, especially if that shape lacks symmetry. In this paper, we report on the results of our experiment, which examines how users perceive the center of a shape, and discuss how the research outcome can be applied to improve snapping algorithms for layout applications.
Using scribble gestures to enhance editing behaviors of sketch recognition systems BIBAFull-Text 2213-2218
  Wenzhe Li; Tracy Hammond
Mechanix is a computer-assisted tutoring system for engineering students. It uses recognition of freehand sketches to provide instant, detailed, and formative feedback as a student progresses through each homework problem. By using recognition algorithms, the system allows students to solve free-body diagrams and truss problems as if they were using a pen and paper. However, the system currently provides little support for students to edit their drawings by using free hand sketches. Specifically, students may wish to delete part or the whole of a line or shape, and the natural response is to scribble that part of shape out. We developed a new method for integrating scribble gestures into a sketch recognition system. The algorithm automatically identifies and distinguishes scribble gestures from regular drawing input using three features. If the stroke is classified as a scribble, then the algorithm further decides which shape or which part of shape to be deleted. Instead of using slower brute-force methods, we use geometric-based linear-time algorithms which efficiently detect a scribble gesture and remove the intended shapes in real-time.
An ecologically valid evaluation of speech summarization BIBAFull-Text 2219-2224
  Anthony McCallum; Cosmin Munteanu; Gerald Penn; Xiaodan Zhu
The past decade has witnessed an explosion in the size and availability of online audio-visual repositories, such as entertainment, news, or lectures. Summarization systems have the potential to provide significant assistance with navigating such repositories. Unfortunately, automatically-generated summaries often fall short of delivering the information needed by users. This is due, in no small part, to the fact that the natural language heuristics used to generate summaries are often optimized with respect to currently-used evaluation metrics. Such metrics simply score automatically-generated summaries against subjectively-classified gold standards without taking into account the usefulness of a summary in assisting a user achieve a certain goal or even overall summary coherence. We have previously shown that an immediate consequence of this problem is that even the most linguistically-complex summarization systems perform no better than basic heuristics, such as picking the longest sentences from a general-topic, spontaneous dialog, or the first few sentences from a news recording. Our hypothesis is that complex systems are in fact better, if measured properly. What is thus needed instead are evaluation metrics (and consequently, automatic summarizers) that incorporate features such as user preferences and task-orientation. For this, we propose an ecologically valid evaluation metric that determines the value of a summary when embedded in a task, rather than how closely a summary matches a gold standard.
Remote gaze-tracking system with automatic user calibration using particle filter BIBAFull-Text 2225-2230
  Tatsuhiko Ueki; Ryuichi Sugano; Takashi Nagamatsu; Junzo Kamahara
We propose the use of a particle filter in an automatic user-calibration method for a remote gaze-tracking system. From previous studies, the optical axis of the eye is estimated using two calibrated cameras and two light sources. To realize gaze tracking without user calibration, we must estimate the offsets between the optical and visual axes of the eyes. We propose a method for estimating these offsets automatically. We use a particle filter to calculate the offsets based on the fact that true offsets make no distinction between the points of gaze (POGs) that are calculated from the optical axes of the eyes, irrespective of where the user gazes on the display. We evaluated the proposed method by simulation. Furthermore, we developed a prototype system, which was evaluated experimentally.
Exploring the perceptual space of a novel slip-stick haptic surface display BIBAFull-Text 2231-2236
  Hyunsu Ji; Ian Oakley; Jeonggoo Kang; Jeha Ryu
Touch screens offer advantages for mobile interaction: large, rich graphical displays and powerful multi-touch input. However, they lack inherent haptic feedback to match this expressiveness. One recent approach to this problem has been to actuate glass plates at high frequency to controllably vary surface friction. This paper extends this work by describing vibration beating, a novel haptic actuation method that increases the range of cues that can be rendered via dynamic variations of surface friction. In order to understand how users perceive the cues it produces a set of 16 stimuli were chosen and two studies that generate and interpret a perceptual map are described. Three distinct clusters of tactile cues are identified, delimited and named. These groupings will form the basis of future work to develop interfaces and interaction techniques based on the vibration beating actuation method.
SpeckleEye: gestural interaction for embedded electronics in ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 2237-2242
  Alex Olwal; Andrew Bardagjy; Jan Zizka; Ramesh Raskar
We introduce SpeckleEye, design and implementation of an embedded gesture and real-time motion tracking system using laser speckle. SpeckleEye is a low-cost, scalable, open source toolkit for embedded speckle sensing and gestural interaction with ubiquitous devices in the environment. We describe embedded speckle sensing hardware and firmware, a cross-platform gesture recognition library optimized to run on embedded processors, and a set of prototypes that illustrate the flexibility of our platform.
Reconstructing multiparty conversation field by augmenting human head motions via dynamic displays BIBAFull-Text 2243-2248
  Kazuhiro Otsuka; Shiro Kumano; Dan Mikami; Masafumi Matsuda; Junji Yamato
A novel system is presented for reconstructing multiparty face-to-face conversation scenes in the real world through the use of dynamic displays that augment human head motion. This system aims to display and playback recorded conversations as if the remote people were talking in front of the viewer. It consists of multiple projectors and transparent screens attached to actuators. The screens displaying the life-size faces are spatially arranged to recreate the actual scene. Screen pose is dynamically synchronized to the actual head motions of the participants to emulate their head motions, which typically indicate shifts in visual attention. Our hypothesis is that physical screen motion with image motion can boost the viewer's understanding of others' visual attention. Experiments suggest that viewers can more clearly discern the attention of meeting participants, and more accurately identify the addressees.
mashpoint: supporting data-centric navigation on the web BIBAFull-Text 2249-2254
  Igor Popov
Large numbers of Web sites support rich data-centric features to explore and interact with data en masse. For example, online shopping or travel sites routinely offer users ways to filter, explore and interact with their data. The ability to find related information on other Web sites about selected subsets of the data, however, is currently compromised by the Web's inherent, one document at a time, navigation. In this paper we present work-in-progress on mashpoint, a framework that allows distributed data-powered Web applications to exchange subsets of their data, in effect enabling many-to-many navigation on the Web, at a more granular, data level. We hypothesise that allowing such navigation unlocks novel possibilities for information exploration and interaction on the Web. We present an initial prototype and discuss the opportunities and challenges of facilitating this kind of interaction.
Blink suppression sensing and classification BIBAFull-Text 2255-2260
  Kazuma Murao; Carson Reynolds; Masatoshi Ishikawa
In this paper we propose a new alert system which precisely times dialog events depending on blinks. We hypothesize that during blinks human reaction time is significantly increased and by putting an intentional delay before alerts, the whole reaction time (including the intentional delay) may be reduced. This system architecture was achieved using a high-speed camera and a novel, fast detection algorithm. Experimental results show with precisely timed alerts (in some cases) it is possible to react more quickly than the worst case which occurs during blink suppression.
Distributed multisensory signals acquisition and analysis in dyadic interactions BIBAFull-Text 2261-2266
  Ashish Tawari; Cuong Tran; Anup Doshi; Thorsten Zander; Mohan Trivedi
Human-machine interaction could be enhanced by providing information about the user's state, allowing for automated adaption of the system. Such context-aware system, however, should be able to deal with spontaneous and subtle user behavior. The artificial intelligence behind such systems, hence, also needs to deal with spontaneous behavior data for training as well as evaluation. Although harder to collect and annotate, spontaneous behavior data are preferable to posed as they are representative of real world behavior. Towards this end, we have designed a distributed testbed for multisensory signals acquisition while facilitating spontaneous interactions. We recorded audio-visual as well as physiological signals from 6 pairs of subjects while they were playing a bluffing dice game against each other. In this paper, we introduce the collected database and provide our preliminary results of bluff detection based on spatio-temporal face image signal analysis.
Age-specific predictive models of human performance BIBAFull-Text 2267-2272
  Shari Trewin; Bonnie John; John Richards; David Sloan; Vicki Hanson; Rachel Bellamy; John Thomas; Calvin Swart
Designers often struggle to create interfaces that are optimal for both younger and older adults, as they may interact differently with the same interface. Human-performance models have been used to aid designers in evaluating the efficiency of user interfaces. Can we create age-specific models to help designers create interfaces that are efficient for all age groups? We modeled a target acquisition task using published younger and older person parameters. While the younger model's mean prediction matches younger human data well (within 3.2%), the older model overestimates older users' mean task times by 34.6%. Further work should explore the influence of device type and the role of error-avoidance on parameter values for models of older adult interactions with technology.
Transcribing handwritten text images with a word soup game BIBAFull-Text 2273-2278
  Vicent Alabau; Luis Leiva
The major contribution presented here is the transformation of the tedious process of transcribing text images into an enjoyable game. A web-based application is composed by a word soup interface and a game engine that uses a system for automatic handwriting transcription as input to play the game. This WiP describes the rationale and design principles for the game, envisioning evaluation strategies and deriving insights for future developments.
Avatarians: playing with your friends' data BIBAFull-Text 2279-2284
  Asier Marzo Pérez; Oscar Ardaiz
This article describes a new game mechanic called Game Entity Social Mapping (GESM) based on using social networking data fetched from a remote site about the player and his contacts to create characters, items or scenarios. A preliminary evaluation consisting of applying this mechanic to three different games was conducted. A small number of users tested those games to measure the enjoyment and learning about their contacts information.
Everscape: the making of a disaster evacuation experience BIBAFull-Text 2285-2290
  Eurico Doirado; Mignon van den Berg; Hans van Lint; Serge Hoogendoorn; Helmut Prendinger
Disaster evacuation studies are important but difficult or impossible to conduct in the real world. Evacuation simulation in a virtual world can be an important tool to obtain data on the escape and choice behavior of people. However, to obtain accurate "realistic" data, the engagement of participants is a key challenge. Therefore, we describe the making of an engaging evacuation scenario called "Everscape", and highlight the collaborative effort of researchers from the informatics and transportation fields. Further, we describe encouraging results from a pilot study, which investigates the level of engagement of participants of the Everscape experience.
Mind maps as behavior controllers for virtual characters BIBAFull-Text 2291-2296
  Tiago Fernandes; José Serra; Juan Órdoñez; Verónica Orvalho
We propose a new mind map interface method for controlling virtual character's artificial intelligence and behavior in games. Commonly used techniques, such as scripting, require an extensive analysis and discrimination of all the possible behaviors that are triggered by the stimuli received by the virtual character. Scripting is also subject to strict syntax rules that may be hard to comprehend by non-expert users. Instead, our method can be easily created by users that do not have any technical background, since they graphically represent the natural process of organizing information in the human brain.
   Our mind map interface method follows a behavior-based architecture combined with an emotional depth module to control the character's behaviors individually in a game. We implemented a graph-based visual editor to ease the definition of the mind map nodes interactively. We also show how mind maps were implemented in the LIFEisGAME (LearnIng of Facial Expressions usIng Serious GAMEs) project as a proof of concept.
Using the Kinect to encourage older adults to exercise: a prototype BIBAFull-Text 2297-2302
  Samyukta Ganesan; Lisa Anthony
This paper reports current progress on a project that aims to find the factors that play an important role in motivating older adults to maintain a physical exercise routine, a habit recommended by doctors but difficult to sustain. Our initial data gathering includes an interview with an expert in aging and physical therapy, and a focus group with older adults on the topics of exercise and technology. Based on these data, an early prototype game has been implemented for the Microsoft Kinect that aims to help encourage older adults to exercise. The Kinect application has been tested for basic usability and found to be promising. Next steps include play-tests with older adults, iterative development of the game to add motivational features, and evaluation of the game's success in encouraging older adults to maintain an exercise regimen.
Get lost: facilitating serendipitous exploration in location-sharing services BIBAFull-Text 2303-2308
  Ben Kirman; Conor Linehan; Shaun Lawson
This paper describes ongoing work in developing social computing systems and services to support serendipitous real life experiences. The paper introduces the location-aware prototype service "GetLostBot", which uses the Foursquare API to longitudinally monitor a user's check-in locations and intervenes when they have fallen into a predictable routine. Interventions take the form of mysterious walking directions on a map to unknown destinations that challenge the user to take an explorative attitude and go into the unknown. Early results from a user trial suggest that while users are extremely positive about the ideas and concept of delivering serendipity through social computing, in this case there was low engagement with the actual suggested new experiences and activity. Despite this, the act of the intervention itself is reported to still have intrinsic value. This finding is discussed in terms of potential design issues around supporting serendipity in future systems.
CTArcade: learning computational thinking while training virtual characters through game play BIBAFull-Text 2309-2314
  Tak Yeon Lee; Matthew Louis Mauriello; John Ingraham; Awalin Sopan; June Ahn; Benjamin B. Bederson
In this paper we describe CTArcade, a web application framework that seeks to engage users through game play resulting in the improvement of computational thinking (CT) skills. Our formative study indicates that CT skills are employed when children are asked to define strategies of common games such as Connect Four. In CTArcade, users can train their own virtual characters while playing games with it. Trained characters then play matches against other virtual characters. Based on reviewing the matches played, users can improve their game character. A basic usability evaluation was performed on the system, which helped to define plans for improving CTArcade and assessing its design goals.
Biometric storyboards: visualising game user research data BIBAFull-Text 2315-2320
  Pejman Mirza-Babaei; Lennart Nacke; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Gareth White; Graham McAllister; Nick Collins
Player experience is difficult to evaluate and report, especially using quantitative methodologies in addition to observations and interviews. One step towards tying quantitative physiological measures of player arousal to player experience reports are Biometric Storyboards (BioSt). They can visualise meaningful relationships between a player's physiological changes and game events. This paper evaluates the usefulness of BioSt to the game industry. We presented the Biometric Storyboards technique to six game developers and interviewed them about the advantages and disadvantages of this technique.
Facilitation of affection by tactile feedback of false heartbeat BIBAFull-Text 2321-2326
  Narihiro Nishimura; Asuka Ishi; Michi Sato; Shogo Fukushima; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
When a person is attracted to someone, characteristic physiological responses are observed, such as flush and perspiration. Our goal was to control this affective feeling by using artificial autonomous physiological reactions. To achieve this goal, we used vibration to simulate a heartbeat on subjects' chest with a voice-coil type actuator and controlled the frequency of the false heartbeat. In this study, we verify that the preference towards female nude photos was increased by modulating the frequency of the false heartbeat. We also discuss the suitable implementation of our method in applications such as movie viewing and daily communication.
Towards a game experience design model centered on participation BIBAFull-Text 2327-2332
  Luis Lucas Pereira; Licínio Roque
In this paper we present a game design and evaluation model centered on the concept of participation, the way players take part in gameplay activity, from which gameplay experience emerges. The variety and subjectiveness of experiences enabled by the videogame medium lead us to consider the challenge of how to frame the notion of participation in a model of gameplay experience, that could serve as a guide for designers. The proposed model aims to contribute to an informed game design process by focusing on six perspectives of player participation: Playfulness, Challenge, Embodiment, Sociability, Sensemaking and Sensoriality. These perspectives are then exercised along three operational levels: Intention, Artifact and Participation -- the setting of gameplay experience goals, the characterization of the videogame object, and the evaluation of the player experience.
Intergenerational gameplay: evaluating social interaction between younger and older players BIBAFull-Text 2333-2338
  Mark Rice; Lih Jie Yau; Jeremy Ong; Marcus Wan; Jamie Ng
In this paper, we compared the digital gameplay of three user groups comprising of younger and older adults. Players were paired together with the game objective of cooperatively nurturing and maintaining a set of virtual garden plants using a novel form of silhouette interaction. Questionnaire and observations revealed marked differences in the communicative behavior of the age groups, with higher verbal communication amongst the older pairs, but lower gameplay competency. Variations were identified in the paired interaction of the younger and older players, highlighting the challenge of designing games to encourage intergenerational bonding.
Inspiring creative constructivist play BIBAFull-Text 2339-2344
  Chadwick Wingrave; Juliet Norton; Christopher Ross; Nathan Ochoa; Sergiu Veazanchin; Emiko Charbonneau; Joseph LaViola
Inline with the BSCS 5E instructional model, we are using constructivist learning to teach physics in a heavily modified Minecraft game server. However, not all players like to be creative or are good at it. Because of this, we are creating three inspiration interventions to study their impact on learning and creative outcomes. Our model of inspiration incorporates three of the creativity resources defined by Investment Theory: knowledge, motivation and environment. We report on our current protocol, piloting of the protocol and our evolving methods of intervention creation.
Snap-n-fold: origami pattern generation based real-life object structure BIBAFull-Text 2345-2350
  Kening Zhu; Chamika Deshan; Owen Noel Newton Fernando
Origami (Paper-folding) is one of the main forms of paper-craft which has been appreciated by people from different cultures all over the world. However, it is still difficult for ordinary people to model the real-life objects and design their paper-folding patterns. In this paper we present 'Snap-n-Fold', an origami-generating system based on real-life objects' structures captured by a camera. It is based on the algorithm which combines object extraction, structure skeletonization, and origami generation. Users only need to capture the desired object through the camera to create origami folding pattern. Snap-n-Fold can be implemented on both PC and mobile platforms such as iOS and Andriod, therefore users can model the real-life objects using origami by only taking a snap-shot of the objects anytime and anywhere.
Tabletops in motion: the kinetics and kinematics of interactive surface physical therapy BIBAFull-Text 2351-2356
  Fraser Anderson; Michelle Annett; Walter Bischof
Technology-based rehabilitation methods have shown promise for improving physical therapy programs, but much of the research is lacking quantitative analysis. We present a study conducted with healthy participants where we compared traditional "table-based" therapy methods with new technology-based methods. Using motion analysis and electromyography recordings, we assessed the kinetic and kinematic dimensions of participant motion during four activities. While technology-based methods are more enjoyable, our results indicate that it is the design of an activity that has a significant impact on the movements performed.
FEEL: frequent EDA and event logging -- a mobile social interaction stress monitoring system BIBAFull-Text 2357-2362
  Yadid Ayzenberg; Javier Hernandez Rivera; Rosalind Picard
This work proposes a system for the automatic annotation and monitoring of cell phone activity and stress responses of users. While mobile phone applications (e.g., e mail, voice, calendar) are used to non-intrusively extract the context of social interactions, a non-intrusive and comfortable biosensor is used to measure the electrodermal activity (EDA). Then, custom stress recognition software analyses the streams of data in real-time and associates stress levels to each event. Both contextual data and stress levels are aggregated in a searchable journal where the user can reflect on his/her physiological responses.
ActivMON: encouraging physical activity through ambient social awareness BIBAFull-Text 2363-2368
  Patrick Burns; Christopher Lueg; Shlomo Berkovsky
In this paper we discuss the use of low-complexity interfaces to encourage users to increase their level of physical activity. We present ActivMON -- a wearable device capable of representing a user's individual activity level, and that of a group, using an ambient display. We discuss the results of a preliminary usability evaluation of ActivMON.
User needs in the performance of prescribed home exercise therapy BIBAFull-Text 2369-2374
  Hitee Chandra; Ian Oakley; Hugo Silva
Musculoskeletal disorders are a globally significant health problem affecting millions. Physiotherapy, including prescribed exercises performed independently by patients in their homes, is a key treatment for many sufferers. However, many fail to complete home exercises, prolonging recovery periods or accelerating decline. Pervasive health technologies, capable of monitoring users in their homes, are ideally suited to address this problem. This paper describes user research with a group of three physiotherapists and eleven current physiotherapy patients to understand the problems and user needs underlying non-compliance with home exercise regimes. The user research adopted a speed dating approach and culminated with recommendations relating to the design of feedback, scheduling systems and privacy.
Factors associated with persistent participation in an online diet intervention BIBAFull-Text 2375-2380
  Jill Freyne; Ian Saunders; Emily Brindal; Shlomo Berkovsky; Gregory Smith
In recent years, much work has been carried out in interface design and service quality in order to maximise user experience and sustain engagement. We are often unsure, however, what factors really influence user interactions with the technologies. Here we report on an ongoing examination of the relationships between user demographics, self reported attitudes, efficacy, and system feature, and participation on an online diet support site. Our findings indicate that not only the characteristics of the users themselves are associated with sustained engagement with a weight loss site, but also that usage of particular features on the site results in higher return rates. These findings support a push for designers to understand their users and features of their site, in order to maximise engagement with their target audiences.
Meeting cancer patient needs: designing a patient platform BIBAFull-Text 2381-2386
  Jeana Frost; Nienke Beekers; Bartho Hengst; Ruud Vendeloo
Cancer patients have a variety of unmet informational and support needs. Yet to date, online cancer resources only address a small number of these needs. The goal of this project, kanker.nl, is to address the changing needs of Dutch cancer patients for both information and support. Kanker.nl is a novel collaboration between institutions that provide complementary patient services: a major cancer charity, patient organizations and comprehensive care centers. To design a platform that is both innovative and useful to patients, we conducted a series of design research studies with patients including focus groups, interviews and surveys. Results suggest a demand for this type of platform, openness towards sharing medical information anonymously, and the inherent complexity of information searches in this environment. Based on these findings, we present an interactive prototype and proof of concept.
Constructionism of virtual humans to improve perceptions of conversational partners BIBAFull-Text 2387-2392
  Shivashankar Halan; Brent Rossen; Michael Crary; Benjamin Lok
We propose a methodology to help people improve the accuracy of their mental model of a conversational partner by creating a virtual human representation of the partner. By creating a virtual human, the users will be able to transfer their mental model of the partner to a virtual human representation. Other people can then interact with the virtual human and provide feedback. The feedback will help the creator reduce the gap between their mental model of a partner and the actual qualities of the partner. Reducing this gap in perception is important in learning interpersonal skills. We implemented this methodology in a health professions course using Virtual People Factory, an online application for creating and interacting with virtual humans. The applicability of the methodology to reduce gaps in perception models was investigated through a user study with health professions students (n=32). The results indicate that students can reduce gaps in perceptions of conversational partners by creating virtual humans.
Controlling the amount of physical activity in a specific exertion interface BIBAFull-Text 2393-2398
  Pascal Landry; Narcis Pares
We present the empirical validation of a system that controls the amount of physical activity that children do while playing in a specific exertion interface called the Interactive Slide. The control of the amount of physical activity is done through a newly defined system variable we call the Interaction Tempo. Moreover, the detection of this physical activity is done in a non-invasive manner using a computer vision system. Both the control potential of physical activity by the Interaction Tempo and the quantification of this physical activity by the computer vision system have been validated against the change in heart rate of the users. This provides a safe, unencumbered, comfortable and natural system for children play and opens the door to apply it in other exertion interfaces.
Playful ARM hand training after stroke BIBAFull-Text 2399-2404
  Luuk Beursgens; Annick Timmermans; Panos Markopoulos
This paper presents the design of an interactive system designed to support arm-hand rehabilitation of stroke survivors through gaming. It consists in an interactive tabletop game and wearable sensing technology that provides feedback to patients to assist with the correct execution of movements. We present the motivation for this design, the main choices made during the design process, an initial evaluation, and an outline of ongoing work for developing this system further.
BreathTray: augmenting respiration self-regulation without cognitive deficit BIBAFull-Text 2405-2410
  Neema Moraveji; Athman Adiseshan; Takehiro Hagiwara
Concerns grow concerning the negative impact information work has on stress, anxiety, and cognitive performance. This has led to recent research on technological methods that attempt to augment the user's psycho-physiological self-regulatory processes. Rather than explicit prompting and reminders, BreathTray incentivizes calm respiration with continuous monitoring and feedback integrated into the desktop. This paper shows that such techniques do not significantly distract users from their work. The feedback effectively influenced users' respiration patterns when they worked on a single intensive task but not while multi-tasking.
Wind runners: designing a game to encourage medical adherence for children with asthma BIBAFull-Text 2411-2416
  Shawn Nikkila; Gaurav Patel; Hari Sundaram; Aisling Kelliher; Ashutosh Sabharwal
In this paper, we present Wind Runners, which is a game designed for children with asthma. The goal of Wind Runners is to increase the likelihood of asthmatic children adhering to the NIH's recommendation of measuring their peak expiratory flow (PEF) on a daily basis. We aim to accomplish this by incorporating both social gaming features and the actual medical regimen of measuring PEF into a mobile game.
Sharing medical data vs. health knowledge in chronic illness care BIBAFull-Text 2417-2422
  Aisling Ann O'Kane; Helena Mentis
Chronic illnesses are becoming more prevalent worldwide breeding an interest in supporting patient care through electronic health information exchange. Through a study of diabetes patients and the specialists in their care network, the challenges involved in sharing health information from the two perspectives become apparent. There are opportunities in the design of electronic medical information exchange to support the patient's need for knowledge and specialist's need for data, bridging the gap that can lead to tensions and inefficiencies in the management of illness trajectories.
A framework for designing assistive technologies for teaching children with ASDs emotions BIBAFull-Text 2423-2428
  Ji Hyun Park; Bretagne Abirached; Yan Zhang
This paper presents a theory-driven serious game design framework for teaching emotions to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The framework is based on the integration of two theoretical models, Kolb's experiential learning model and Piaget's cognitive development model. Based on these theories, we extracted six essential elements (factors) for designing games (and other assistive technologies) to teach children with ASDs emotions: matching, recognizing, observing, understanding, generalizing and mimicking.
Magic land: play therapy on interactive tabletops BIBAFull-Text 2429-2434
  Olga Pykhtina; Madeline Balaam; Sue Pattison; Gavin Wood; Patrick Olivier
We describe an ongoing study that explores the introduction of digital technology into play therapy. While digital technologies are increasingly used in educational and directive therapeutic contexts with older children, they are largely missing from non-directive play therapy settings with younger children. Based on the play therapy research and practice literature we describe the design and ongoing evaluation of Magic Land, a set of digital play activities for interactive tabletops used in non-directive play therapy with younger children.
Using a high-resolution wall-sized virtual microscope to teach undergraduate medical students BIBAFull-Text 2435-2440
  Rebecca Randell; Gordon Hutchins; John Sandars; Thilina Ambepitiya; Darren Treanor; Rhys Thomas; Roy Ruddle
The Leeds Virtual Microscope is an interactive visualization system, capable of rendering gigapixel virtual slides onto high-resolution, wall-sized displays. We describe the evaluation of this technology for teaching pathology to undergraduate medical students, providing insights into the use of high-resolution, wall-sized displays in an educational context. Students were quickly able to become confident in using the technology, collaboratively exploring virtual slides in order to understand the mechanisms of disease. Being able to point with a finger to features on virtual slides promoted multi-way interaction between the students and tutor, led to the spontaneous expansion of the tutorial's scope, and was indicative of a high level of engagement. Students were very positive about being able to interact with the virtual slides and described their increased enthusiasm for pathology as a subject.
User needs for technology supporting physical activity in chronic pain BIBAFull-Text 2441-2446
  Tali Swann-Sternberg; Aneesha Singh; Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze; Amanda Williams
An emerging field of HCI is the use of interactive technology to promote fitness. However, current persuasive fitness technologies for the general population do not address the psychological needs of users with chronic conditions. This is particularly the case in chronic pain. Research indicates that people with chronic pain have negative beliefs and experiences associated with pain such as anxiety about provoking pain through exercise. We interviewed physiotherapists and people with chronic pain to get an understanding of the physical and psychological needs that must be addressed by a technology for supporting physical activity in this population. Five themes emerged: pain management approach, personalisation/tailoring, exercise adherence, supportive functions, and visual representations.
Boneshaker: a generic framework for building physical therapy games BIBAFull-Text 2447-2452
  Lieven Van den Audenaeren; Vero Vanden Abeele; Luc Geurts; Jelle Husson; Jan-Henk Annema; Stef Desmet
We present the Boneshaker framework, a generic framework developed to facilitate the design of physical therapy games with the Unity 3D engine. The Boneshaker framework lowers the threshold for developing a variety of physical therapy games as it allows both developer and therapist to quickly add input devices and change specific game dynamics/therapy exercises.
Combining visual block programming and graph manipulation for clinical alert rule building BIBAFull-Text 2453-2458
  Dave Krebs; Alexander Conrad; Jingtao Wang
In this paper, we present MARBLS (Medical Alert Rule BuiLding System) -- a visual end-user programming environment to facilitate the design and testing of clinical alert rules. MARBLS enables a two-way, synchronized visual rule workspace and visual query explorer. Clinical rules can be built by docking relevant block components in the rule workspace, by directly manipulating graphs in the visual query explorer, or a combination of both. In a pilot study with five healthcare experts, we found MARBLS is easy to learn and users can build rules efficiently and discover errors in existing rules quickly with the visual environment provided by MARBLS.
What colour is 'exercise?': designing multimodal reminders for the home BIBAFull-Text 2459-2464
  Julie Williamson; Marilyn McGee-Lennon; Stephen Brewster
When designing home care systems to keep individuals independent in their homes longer, multimodal interaction provides a compelling approach to creating an enjoyable and usable experience. Previous work in multimodal home care systems has looked at how reminders might be disruptive [1] or socially appropriate [5]. However, previous work has not looked specifically at how reminder content is paired with a multimodal presentation, especially when that presentation is not speech or text based, for example an abstract visual or olfactory presentation. In order to explore these issues, we completed a survey that focused on how the content of a reminder might affect a variety of factors such as appropriateness, importance and annoyance. Building on this survey, we are currently completing a series of focus groups that looks at how users pair reminders with multimodal presentations.
We like to move it move it!: motivation and parasocial interaction BIBAFull-Text 2465-2470
  Jeana Frost; Nora Boukris; Peter Roelofsma
Researchers studying virtual coaching have identified a variety of characteristics associated with heightened motivation, but have not, to date, identified a mechanism underlying the success of particular coaches. This project tests two possible explanations for how coaches heighten motivation: the first is the straightforward explanation that coaching heightens self-efficacy, which in turn raises motivation; the second is the more novel idea that the quality of the pseudo-relationship between the virtual coach and the trainee is key to motivation. In an experiment comparing three systematically differing coaches, virtual coaches heightened both self-efficacy and parasocial interaction in some coaching conditions, but only parasocial interaction explained the patterns of results for intrinsic motivation. The findings have important theoretical implications for understanding the effects of parasocial interaction on health behaviors, with practical applications for the design of virtual coaches to improve health.
Kin'touch: understanding how visually impaired people explore tactile maps BIBAFull-Text 2471-2476
  Anke Brock; Samuel Lebaz; Bernard Oriola; Delphine Picard; Christophe Jouffrais; Philippe Truillet
Tactile or interactive maps are largely used as an orientation aid for visually impaired people. Yet, little is known about haptic exploration strategies and their influence on the resultant cognitive mapping. We have designed a prototype with the potential to automatically analyze different users' exploration strategies. This prototype integrates data from the MS Kinect camera and a multi-touch table. It registers location of hands and digits on a tactile map. Results of preliminary studies show that this approach is promising.
CoStream: in-situ co-construction of shared experiences through mobile video sharing during live events BIBAFull-Text 2477-2482
  Niloofar Dezfuli; Jochen Huber; Simon Olberding; Max Mühlhäuser
Mobile live video broadcasting has become increasingly popular as means for novel social media interactions. Recent research mainly focused on bridging larger physical distances in large-scale events such as car racing, where participants are unable to spectate from a certain location in the event. In this paper, we advocate using live video streams not only over larger distances, but also in-situ in closed events such as soccer matches or concerts. We present CoStream, a mobile live video sharing system and present its iterative design process. We used CoStream as an instrument in a field study to investigate the in-situ co-construction of shared experiences during live events. We contribute our findings and outline future work.
Leveraging the palm surface as an eyes-free tv remote control BIBAFull-Text 2483-2488
  Niloofar Dezfuli; Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Jochen Huber; Florian Müller; Max Mühlhäuser
User input on television typically requires a mediator device such as a handheld remote control. While being a well-established interaction paradigm, a handheld device has serious drawbacks: it can be easily misplaced due to its mobility and in case of a touch screen interface, it also requires additional visual attention. Emerging interaction paradigms like 3D mid-air gestures using novel depth sensors such as Microsoft's Kinect aim at overcoming these limitations, but are known for instance to be tiring. In this paper, we propose to leverage the palm as an interactive surface for TV remote control. Our contribution is two-fold: (1) we have explored the conceptual design space in an exploratory study. (2) Based upon these results, we investigated the accuracy and effectiveness of such an interface in a controlled experiment. Our results show that the palm has the potential to be leveraged for device-less and eyes-free TV interactions without any third-party mediator device.
Magic-sense: dynamic cursor sensitivity-based magic pointing BIBAFull-Text 2489-2494
  Ribel Fares; Dustin Downing; Oleg Komogortsev
MAGIC (Manual and Gaze Input Cascaded) pointing methods use eye gaze as a complementary input for the primary input device. This paper introduces a novel MAGIC pointing technique to provide fast and accurate selection. Cursor sensitivity is reduced near eye focus to allow fine selection, and increased away from target to improve selection speed. MAGIC-SENSE is tested against a traditional mouse and a gaze only pointing method using an ISO 9241-9 compliant circular Fitts' Law experiment. Using MAGIC-SENSE, subjects achieved lower error rates without compromising movement times compared to mouse-only method. A local calibration method that can boost all MAGIC pointing techniques is discussed.
From texting app to braille literacy BIBAFull-Text 2495-2500
  Brian Frey; Kate Rosier; Caleb Southern; Mario Romero
We report the results of a pilot study that explores potential uses for BrailleTouch in the instruction of braille literacy for the visually impaired. BrailleTouch is an eyes-free text entry application for smart phones. We conducted individual semi-structured interviews and a focus group with four domain expert participants.
A crowdsourcing quality control model for tasks distributed in parallel BIBAFull-Text 2501-2506
  Shaojian Zhu; Shaun Kane; Jinjuan Feng; Andrew Sears
Quality control for crowdsourcing systems has been identified as a significant challenge [2]. We propose a data-driven model for quality control in the context of crowdsourcing systems with the goal of assessing the quality of each individual contribution for parallel distributed tasks (allowing multiple people working on a same task). The model is initiated with a data training process providing a rough estimate for several quality-related performance measures (e.g. time spent on a task). The initial estimates are combined with observations of results produced by workers to estimate the quality for each individual contribution. We conduct a study to evaluate the model in the context of improving speech recognition-based text correction using MTurk services. Results indicate that the model accurately predicts quality for more than 92% of the non-negative (useful) contributions and 96% of the negative (useless) ones.
Informing the design of group recommender systems BIBAFull-Text 2507-2512
  Sascha Herr; Andreas Rösch; Christoph Beckmann; Tom Gross
In this paper we present a literature study on social psychological concepts, which informs the design of group recommender process models in group recommender systems. We matched core concepts to well-established factors influencing satisfaction in groups, and obtained three most relevant social psychological concepts: group identification, group norms, and social roles.
LightBeam: nomadic pico projector interaction with real world objects BIBAFull-Text 2513-2518
  Jochen Huber; Jürgen Steimle; Chunyuan Liao; Qiong Liu; Max Mühlhäuser
Pico projectors have lately been investigated as mobile display and interaction devices. We propose to use them as 'light beams': Everyday objects sojourning in a beam are turned into dedicated projection surfaces and tangible interaction devices. While this has been explored for large projectors, the affordances of pico projectors are fundamentally different: they have a very small and strictly limited projection ray and can be carried around in a nomadic way during the day. Thus it is unclear how this could be actually leveraged for tangible interaction with physical, real world objects. We have investigated this in an exploratory field study and contribute the results. Based upon these, we present exemplary interaction techniques and early user feedback.
Proximity and physical navigation in collaborative work with a multi-touch wall-display BIBAFull-Text 2519-2524
  Mikkel Jakobsen; Kasper Hornbæk
Multi-touch, wall-sized displays afford new forms of collaboration. Yet, most data on collaboration with multi-touch displays come from tabletop settings, where users often sit and where space is a limited resource. We study how two-person groups navigate in relation to a 2.8m x 1.2m multi-touch display with 24.8 megapixels and to each other when solving a sensemaking task on a document collection. The results show that users physically navigate to shift fluently among different parts of the display and between parallel and joint group work.
Towards a better understanding of adaptive multitasking by individuals BIBAFull-Text 2525-2530
  Christian Janssen; Duncan Brumby; Andrew Howes
This paper reports work in progress on understanding how multitasking performance is influenced by two factors: task difficulty and task priority. In a task that involved switching between typing and controlling a cursor, these two factors were experimentally manipulated and shown to affect the chosen strategy, where a strategy was defined as the number of digits typed per visit. A cognitive model was used to explore the range of strategies and associated individual differences. The implications for using cognitive models to predict multitasking performance are explored.
Occlusion-aware interaction techniques for tabletop systems BIBAFull-Text 2531-2536
  Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Patrik Schmittat; Max Mühlhäuser; Jürgen Steimle
This paper addresses challenges created by physical objects that occlude screen contents on interactive tabletops. We propose novel techniques to support awareness, access and overview of occluded digital objects. These techniques take into account different functional zones on tabletops to provide information at varying levels of detail. We also contribute the PressView technique, a pressure-based interaction technique to get a quick overview of occluded objects.
Design and evaluation of a service-oriented collaborative consumption platform for the elderly BIBAFull-Text 2537-2542
  Philip Koene; Felix Köbler; Sebastian Esch; Jan Marco Leimeister; Helmut Krcmar
Research indicates that social networking sites can be used to foster social interaction and reduce the risk of social isolation for the elderly demographic segment. Collaborative consumption, a new evolutionary step in SNS, enables the sharing of personal services, thus holding the potential to strengthen social integration and enable an independent lifestyle for the elderly. We therefore developed a local, service-oriented collaborative consumption platform called "Bring Dich ein!" with the purpose of facilitating social interaction across generations as well as the trade of peer-to-peer services. The platform was fully implemented in a participatory development process and evaluated in an extended pilot phase. The qualitative evaluation shows good usability for the elderly and high potential for the proposed concept within the target group.
Evaluating mobile projectors as a shared display option for small groups BIBAFull-Text 2543-2548
  Alan Wecker; Tsvi Kuflik; Joel Lanir; Oliviero Stock
This work in progress compares group use of mobile projector technology with an existing mobile solution in a simulated environment. Early Results indicate that while having potential, pico projectors still have areas that need to be improved such as focus and shakiness. In addition, personal control was found to be an important factor in user satisfaction when a small group uses a single mobile projector and may thus inhibit a projector-only solution. We also report on different group techniques and usage patterns observed while using a pico projector. A future part of this on going study will compare mobile tablets with the same existing mobile solution in a museum environment.
Using real-time feedback to improve visual question answering BIBAFull-Text 2549-2554
  Yu Zhong; Phyo Thiha; Grant He; Walter Lasecki; Jeffrey Bigham
Technology holds great promise for improving the everyday lives of people with disabilities; however, automated systems are prone to errors and cannot handle many real-world tasks. VizWiz, a system for answering visual questions for blind users, has shown that crowdsourcing can be used for assistive technology in such domains. Our work extends the VizWiz model by enabling users to interact with the crowd via a real-time feedback loop. We introduce Legion:View, a system that enables such a real-time feedback loop for visual questions between users and crowd workers. Legion:View sends audio questions and streaming video to the crowd, and forwards feedback about the position and orientation of the camera and answers to questions back to users.
Self-correcting crowds BIBAFull-Text 2555-2560
  Walter Lasecki; Jeffrey Bigham
Much of the current work in crowdsourcing is focused on increasing the quality of responses. Quality issues are most often due to a small subset of low quality workers. The ability to distinguish between high and low quality workers would allow a wide range of error correction to be performed for such tasks. However, differentiating between these types is difficult when no measure of individual success is available. We propose it is possible to use higher quality workers to compensate for lower quality ones, without explicitly identifying them, by allowing them to observe and react to the input of the collective. In this paper, we present initial work on eliciting this behavior and discuss how it may be possible to leverage self-correction in the crowd for better performance on continuous real-time tasks.
Multi-touch based video selection with an audio emotional curve BIBAFull-Text 2561-2566
  Grégoire Lefebvre
This article describes a new multi-touch based method for selecting video parts on mobile devices. Basically, a video player displays only the current image and a timeline to interact with the entire video content. Rewinding and forwarding to a specific scene are thus little practicable for selecting the best video moments. Our proposal is the addition of an informative transparency overlay showing the salient information about a soccer game and allowing new multi-touch interactions. This audio emotional curve tends to describe crowd reactions and speaker excitements revealing the best soccer events. Our experiment shows that multi-touch selections based on this curve improve efficiency and fun.
Supporting opportunistic search in meetings with tangible tabletop BIBAFull-Text 2567-2572
  Nan Li; Frédéric Kaplan; Omar Mubin; Pierre Dillenbourg
Web searches are often needed in collocated meetings. Many research projects have been conducted for supporting collaborative search in information-seeking meetings, where searches are executed both intentionally and intensively. However, for most common meetings, Web searches may happen randomly with low-intensity. They neither serve as main tasks nor major activities. This kind of search can be referred to as opportunistic search. The area of opportunistic search in meetings has not yet been studied. Our research is based upon this motivation. We propose an augmented tangible tabletop system with a semi-ambient conversation-context-aware surface as well as foldable paper browsers for supporting opportunistic search in collocated meetings. In this paper, we present our design of the system and initial findings.
Sharing emotion on Facebook: network size, density, and individual motivation BIBAFull-Text 2573-2578
  Han Lin; Lin Qiu
Social networking sites afford substantial affective self-expression and hybrid social connections. In this study, we collected 185 Facebook users' egocentric social network data and analyzed the words of positive emotion and negative emotion in their past status updates. Preliminary results reveal that sharing emotion on Facebook is associated with their social network size and density, and this association is moderated by the individual motivation for relationship management. We also found a decreasing trend of emotion sharing with longer usage of Facebook. Follow-up studies and implications are discussed.
Interacting with videos on paper-like displays BIBAFull-Text 2579-2584
  Roman Lissermann; Simon Olberding; Max Mühlhäuser; Jürgen Steimle
Analog paper is still often preferred over electronic documents due to specific affordances and rich spatial interaction, in particular if multiple pages are laid out and handled simultaneously. We investigated how interaction with video can benefit from paper-like displays that support interaction with motion and sound. We present a system that includes novel interaction concepts for both video and audio. This includes spatial techniques for temporal navigation, arranging and grouping of videos, virtualizing and materializing contents, as well as focusing on multiple parallel audio sources.
Reducing visual demand for gestural text input on touchscreen devices BIBAFull-Text 2585-2590
  Scott MacKenzie; Steven Castellucci
We developed a text entry method for touchscreen devices using a Graffiti-like alphabet combined with automatic error correction. The method is novel in that the user does not receive the results of the recognition process, except at the end of a phrase. The method is justified over soft keyboards in terms of a Frame Model of Visual Attention, which reveals both the presence and advantage of reduced visual attention. With less on-going feedback to monitor, there is a tendency for the user to enter gestures more quickly. Preliminary testing reveals reasonably quick text entry speeds (>20 wpm) with low errors rates (<5%).
DigiGraff: considering graffiti as a location based social network BIBAFull-Text 2591-2596
  David McGookin; Stephen Brewster; Georgi Christov
We introduce DigiGraff: a technique to allow lightweight and unconstrained digital annotation of the physical environment via mobile digital projection. Using graffiti as a design meme, DigiGraff provides a way to study the role of location in the creation and browsing of social media, and introduces concepts of temporality, ageing and wear into message presentation. As the volume of geo-tagged social media increases, we outline why such consideration is relevant and important, and how DigiGraff will support deeper understanding of location data in social media.
Leveraging motor learning for a tangible password system BIBAFull-Text 2597-2602
  Martez Mott; Thomas Donahue; G. Michael Poor; Laura Leventhal
Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) may allow users to have more direct interaction with systems when compared to traditional graphical user interfaces (GUIs). However, the full range of applications where TUIs can be utilized in practice is unclear. To resolve this problem, the benefits of TUIs must be analyzed and matched to an application domain where they hold advantages over more traditional systems. Since TUIs require users to use their hands in order to interact with the system, there is the possibility for these systems to leverage motor learning to help users perform specific tasks. In this paper we will describe an early attempt to understand how motor learning can be used to create a tangible password system. A novel tangible password system was created and a small study conducted in order to identify future research objectives.
Namibian and American cultural orientations toward Facebook BIBAFull-Text 2603-2608
  Anicia Peters; Michael Oren; Nicola Bidwell
Nadkarni and Hofman's [8] meta-review of literature on Facebook usage recommends examining differences in Facebook use between collectivistic and individualistic cultures. We discuss early findings of an exploratory study to compare use between participants in America, Namibia, and expatriate Namibians. From this, we identified five key areas of difference: 1) Motivations for joining Facebook; 2) Attitude toward Facebook connections; 3) Self presentation and photo sharing; 4) Communication about death, religion, and politics; 5) General privacy definitions. However, our findings showed no statistical difference in the Collectivism Scale [10] administered among the three groups, despite Namibia being considered a highly collectivistic county [12] and the US being a highly individualistic country [6].
Considerate supervisor: an audio-only facilitator for multiparty conference calls BIBAFull-Text 2609-2614
  Rahul Rajan; Cliff Chen; Ted Selker
This paper shows that automated feedback on an audio-only channel can reduce dominance in collaborative tasks. In a study of multiple three-person distributed groups solving Hangman, a word guessing game, the Considerate Supervisor reduced the difference between the most dominant and the most dormant participants significantly. This paper points towards opportunities for computers to improve communication between people through a pro-active and considerate interface, and calls for further exploration of the effectiveness of such interfaces.
An initial analysis of communicability evaluation methods through a case study BIBAFull-Text 2615-2620
  Soraia Reis; Raquel Prates
HCI researchers have raised the importance of research regarding HCI theories, as well as new evaluation methods that can take into consideration novel applications and technologies. Semiotic Engineering is an HCI theory in which the interface is perceived as a communicative act from designers of a system to its users. Based on this theory, new evaluation methods have been proposed, namely, the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM) and Communicability Evaluation Method (CEM). Research assessing each of these methods has been carried out. However, a study comparing both methods has not yet been performed. In this paper we describe a case study performed comparing SIM and CEM methods and present the initial results obtained.
Characterizing the effectiveness of Twitter hashtags to detect and track online population sentiment BIBAFull-Text 2621-2626
  Glívia Angélica Rodrigues Barbosa; Ismael S. Silva; Mohammed Zaki; Wagner, Jr. Meira; Raquel O. Prates; Adriano Veloso
In this paper we describe the preliminary results and future directions of a research in progress, which aims at assessing the hashtag effectiveness as a resource for sentiment analysis expressed on Twitter. The results so far support our hypothesis that hashtags may facilitate the detection and automatic tracking of online population sentiment about different events.
Making the switch: channel switching in romantic couple conflict BIBAFull-Text 2627-2632
  Lauren Scissors
This work explores the role of channel switching, or switching between forms of face-to-face and mediated communication (e.g., text messaging, instant messaging) in romantic couple conflict. Exploratory interviews were conducted with 24 individuals currently involved in a romantic relationship of at least 3 months. Initial results indicate that many patterns of channel switching are used during conflict and that participants have a number of motivations for initiating a channel switch. Implications for the design of communication technologies for romantic couples are discussed.
Tactile feedback for button GUI on touch devices BIBAFull-Text 2633-2636
  Heesook Shin; Jeong-Mook Lim; Jong-uk Lee; Ki-Uk Kyung; Geehyuk Lee
In this paper, we describe a tactile feedback for a button GUI activated by a tap gesture on mobile touch devices. We implemented a new HW platform based on a film-type actuator to obtain a large range of tactile expression. From the analysis of touch interaction and user tests, we designed tactile feedback patterns and evaluated them. Two experimental results showed rapid response time, short falling time, and patterns responding to 'Touch' and 'Release' user gestures are important elements for simulation of the feeling of physical button clicking.
TeleWEAR: engaging users and suppliers of telecare in product design BIBAFull-Text 2637-2642
  Andrea Taylor; Lorna Bernard; Hugh Pizey; Craig Whittet
Telecare is the remote or enhanced delivery of care services to people in their own home or community setting using ICT. Telecare is expected to play an important role in addressing some of the challenges of an ageing population. However, products are often unsatisfactory and a major contributing factor is that suppliers do not typically involve users in design processes. This paper describes a participatory design project involving 25 designers, 6 service users, 11 potential future service users and 2 telecare suppliers: six concept designs were created for a wearable alarm button in two half-day workshops. Our main contribution is to present the design features considered most important to users, which can be incorporated into future product designs and inform other wearable alarm systems for older people. As a result of the project, a leading supplier has invited users to participate in their research and development activities for the first time.
Effects of input device familiarity on content creation and sharing in meetings BIBAFull-Text 2643-2648
  Himanshu Verma; Flaviu Roman; Patrick Jermann; Pierre Dillenbourg
In co-located meetings, content creation is often distributed among the group members and sharing requires transfer of content artifacts, which impedes collaboration. In this paper, we present the design of a collaborative environment to support this activity in meetings for small groups. The system consists of a shared wall-mounted workspace where users can interact using either mouse and keyboard or digital pen and paper. We also present a user study comparing the two input configurations and its preliminary results.
Exploring infrastructure assemblage in volunteer virtual organizations BIBAFull-Text 2649-2654
  Alyson Young; David Gurzick; Wayne Lutters; Caroline Dombrowski; Jeffrey Kim
This ongoing research project investigates ad-hoc infrastructure development in volunteer virtual organizations (VVOs). A comparative analysis of the tool appropriation of VVO activity among alternate reality game (ARG) players in three cities yielded insight for future research into underlying principles of infrastructure assemblage, types of ad-hoc resource provisioning, and potential means of design support.
Enhancing web page skimmability BIBAFull-Text 2655-2660
  Chen-Hsiang Yu; Robert C. Miller
Information overload on the Web and limited reading time force users to skim read web pages. For non-native English readers, it is challenging to understand first-hand information written in English under time constraints. Traditional readability enhancement research has focused on enhancing reading comprehension and user satisfaction, but average reading times for non-native readers have remained the same or even worse. In this paper, we investigate useful techniques for readers when reading web pages under time constraints, i.e., having skim reading capability. We propose two techniques to help non-native readers to skim read web pages: (1) content spotlight, masking and filtering; and (2) semantic data extraction and in-place translation. Froggy GX is a prototype system that implements proposed techniques to provide skim-reading support for non-native readers.
Watching you moving the mouse, i know who you are BIBAFull-Text 2661-2666
  Chun Yu; Yue Shi; Xinliang Wang; Yuanchun Shi
Previous research on modeling human's pointing behavior focuses on user-independent variables such as target width and distance. In this work-in-progress, we investigate a set of user-dependent variables, which are drawn from cursor trajectory data and may represent an individual user's unique pattern when controlling mouse movement. Using these features, the 8 users in our experiment can be recognized at a promising accuracy as high as 87.5%.
Turning personal calendars into scheduling assistants BIBAFull-Text 2667-2672
  Jacob Bank; Zachary Cain; Yoav Shoham; Caroline Suen; Dan Ariely
Personal calendars have long played a major role in time management, but they have evolved little over the years, and their contribution to productivity has stagnated. Inspired by logical theories of intention as well as experimental results on human productivity, and leveraging the power of optimization algorithms, we seek to reinvent the digital calendar. First, we increase the expressive power of calendar systems by deriving new entity types that go beyond simple events to better represent human intentions, plans, and goals. Next, we build on social psychological research to characterize the properties of a schedule best engineered for human productivity. Finally, we develop an optimization framework and algorithm to generate these schedules from a set of entities. With these tools combined, we transform the digital calendar from a passive repository into an active scheduling assistant.
How can a DSL for expert end-users be designed for better usability?: a case study in computer music BIBAFull-Text 2673-2678
  Hiroki Nishino
Programming languages have been rarely discussed from the perspective of user-centered design when compared to GUIs or Human Interface Devices. We describe our case study in user-centered design of a domain-specific language (DSL) for computer music. Since the potential usability problems of a DSL is largely unforeseeable in the early phase of the design, we took an approach that begins with the analysis of the usability problems in an existing DSL and then use the analysis for redesign of the DSL and design of a new DSL. The frameworks provided by the previous HCI studies are introduced into the design process. Such an approach is also valuable for claim-evidence correspondences for usability claims, which have been lacking in language design today.

Workshop summaries

Game user research BIBAFull-Text 2679-2682
  Magy Seif El-Nasr; Heather Desurvire; Lennart Nacke; Anders Drachen; Licia Calvi; Katherine Isbister; Regina Bernhaupt
Game User Research is an emerging field that ties together Human Computer Interaction, Game Development, and Experimental Psychology, specifically investigating the interaction between players and games. The community of Game User Research has been rapidly evolving for the past few years, extending and modifying existing methodologies used by the HCI community to the environment of digital games. In this workshop, we plan to investigate the different methodologies currently in practice within the field as well as their utilities and drawbacks in measuring game design issues or gaining insight about the players' experience. The outcome of the workshop will be a collection of lessons from the trenches and commonly used techniques published in a public online forum. This will extend the discussion of topics beyond the workshop, and serve as a platform for future work. The workshop will be the first of its kind at CHI, tying together HCI research and Game User Research.
Managing user experience teams: lessons from case studies, and establishing best practices BIBAFull-Text 2683-2686
  Janice Rohn; Dennis Wixon
This workshop is based on the initial findings from the CHI 2011 workshop, and focuses on managing cross-disciplinary teams for product and corporate success. The workshop brings together a diverse group of leaders in order to create a set of best practices and guidelines specific to a variety of topics that are important to the success of managers and their teams. Emphasis is placed on cross disciplinary teams, corporate culture and environment, and international factors.
CrowdCamp: rapidly iterating ideas related to collective intelligence & crowdsourcing BIBAFull-Text 2687-2690
  Paul André; Michael Bernstein; Mira Dontcheva; Elizabeth Gerber; Aniket Kittur; Rob Miller
The field of collective intelligence -- encompassing aspects of crowdsourcing, human computation, and social computing -- is having tremendous impact on our lives, and the fields are rapidly growing. We propose a hands-on event that takes the main benefits of a workshop -- provocative discussion and community building -- and allows time to focus on developing ideas into actual outputs: experiment designs, in-depth thoughts on wicked problems, paper or coded prototypes. We will bring together researchers to discuss future visions and make tangible headway on those visions, as well as seeding collaboration. The outputs from brainstorming, discussion, and building will persist after the workshop for attendees and the community to view, and will be written up.
Educational interfaces, software, and technology BIBAFull-Text 2691-2694
  Edward Tse; Lynn Marentette; Syed Ishtiaque Ahmed; Alexander Thayer; Jochen Huber; Max Mühlhäuser; Si Jung Kim; Quincy Brown
One of the primary goals of teaching is to prepare learners for life in the real world. In this ever changing world of technologies such as mobile interaction, cloud computing, natural user interfaces, and gestural interfaces like the Nintendo Wii and Microsoft Kinect people have a greater selection of tools for the task at hand. Teachers and students can leverage these tools to improve learning outcomes. Educational interfaces and software are needed to ensure that new technologies serve a clear purpose in the classrooms and homes of the future.
   Since teachers are always looking for creative ways to engage 21st century learners there needs to be an academic venue for researchers to discuss novel educational tools and their role in improving learning outcomes. This workshop aims at filling this void: combining the pedagogical expertise of the cooperative learning, and learning sciences communities with the technical creativity of the CHI, UIST and interactive surface communities. The objective of this workshop is to become a conference within two years.
The 3rd dimension of CHI (3DCHI): touching and designing 3D user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2695-2698
  Frank Steinicke; Hrvoje Benko; Antonio Krüger; Daniel Keefe; Jean-Baptiste de la Riviére; Ken Anderson; Jonna Häkkilä; Leena Arhippainen; Minna Pakanen
In recent years 3D has gained increasing amount of attention -- interactive visualization of 3D data has become increasingly important and widespread due to the requirements of several application areas, and entertainment industry has brought 3D experience to the reach of wide audiences through games, 3D movies and stereoscopic displays. However, current user interfaces (UIs) often lack adequate support for 3D interactions: 2D metaphors still dominate in GUI design, 2D desktop systems are often limited in cases where natural interaction with 3D content is required, and sophisticated 3D user interfaces consisting of stereoscopic projections and tracked input devices are rarely adopted by ordinary users. In the future, novel interaction design solutions are needed to better support the natural interaction and utilize the special features of 3D technologies.
   In this workshop we address the research and industrial challenges involved in exploring the space where the flat digital world of surface computing meets the physical, spatially complex, 3D space in which we live. The workshop will provide a common forum for researchers to share their visions of the future and recent results in the area of improving 3D interaction and UI design.
Emerging technologies for healthcare and aging BIBAFull-Text 2699-2702
  Tracy Mitzner; Marita O'Brien; Wendy Rogers
The aging population is growing rapidly and technology has great potential to meet older adults' healthcare needs. However, the technologies being developed must take into account older adults' needs and related interaction issues. This workshop explores interaction issues such as accepting, integrating, efficacy, sharing, and privacy for emerging health technologies, including tablets, ambient systems, robotics, electronic medical records, mobile systems, and tracking and monitoring devices. We also consider the user characteristics of care recipients, informal caregivers, and formal caregivers. An outcome of this workshop will be the development of use cases to provide guidance for designing technologies for older adults and their caregivers.
HCI for peace: preventing, de-escalating and recovering from conflict BIBAFull-Text 2703-2706
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Natasha Bullock-Rest; Janet Davis; Lahiru Jayatilaka; Neema Moraveji; Lisa Nathan; Panayiotis Zaphiris
The increasing ubiquity of computing devices coupled with recent empirical research on the factors that affect the likelihood of conflict provide HCI researchers with new opportunities to conduct research on interactive systems designed to prevent, de-escalate and recover from conflict. Approaches used by HCI researchers in this field have included the use of a multi-lifespan research initiative to support peace and reconciliation after genocide, CSCW to facilitate communication, visualization to help detect landmines, and calming technology to support individuals desiring interactive systems that scaffold non-violent interactions. In this workshop we plan to further explore these ideas and discuss existing and future challenges.
A contextualised curriculum for HCI BIBAFull-Text 2707-2710
  Sally Fincher; Paul Cairns; Alan Blackwell
The ACM and IEEE are currently revising their joint Computer Curriculum. The purpose of this workshop is to discuss and formulate a context for the HCI component of the undergraduate curriculum in terms of the current teaching practices of HCI educators. The goals of the workshop are to provide rich methods for capturing pedagogical content knowledge that would support HCI educators using the revised curriculum in their teaching.
Defamiliarization in innovation and usability BIBAFull-Text 2711-2714
  Charline Poirier; Calum Pringle
This workshop will explore how defamiliarization -- a process of slowing down perception -- can be exploited as a bridge between usability and innovation. This workshop will investigate: 1) how to use defamiliarization to support innovation; 2) how to evaluate defamiliarization by means of user testing; and 3) reflection around the creation of design guidelines specific to defamiliarization.
Visual thinking & digital imagery BIBAFull-Text 2715-2718
  Eli Blevis; Elizabeth Churchill; William Odom; James Pierce; David Roedl; Ron Wakkary
This workshop focuses on exploring the centrality of visual literacy and visual thinking to HCI. Drawing on emerging critical perspectives, the workshop will address visual literacy and visual thinking from an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary design-orientation [2, 8], foregrounding the notion that imagery is a primary form of visual thinking. Imagery -- "which subsumes digital imagery -- "goes well beyond sketching and beyond storyboards, screenshots and wireframes. We will address how a broader framework for visual thinking and imagery in HCI can play a role in raising the visual standards of HCI research and practice. Workshop participants will investigate possibilities for developing a culture of curatorial gaze in HCI, in order to (i) promote collection of digital images as a method appropriate for a design-oriented discipline, (ii) invite others to contribute to a genre of working and corpus of imagery unique to HCI, and (iii) to expand the approaches that design-oriented HCI may productively and creatively draw upon.
distributed user interfaces: collaboration and usability BIBAFull-Text 2719-2722
  Ricardo Tesoriero; María Lozano; Jean Vanderdonckt; José A. Gallud; Victor M. R. Penichet
This document describes the most relevant issues regarding collaboration and usability when using distributed user interfaces (DUIs). The goal of this workshop is to promote the discussion about the emerging topic of DUIs, answering a set of key questions: how can collaboration be improved using DUIs? When are DUIs suitable to perform collaborative work? How can usability standards be employed to evaluate the usability of DUIs? How do µ7 concepts influence on DUIs regarding collaboration, usability and cognition?
Bridging clinical and non-clinical health practices: opportunities and challenges BIBAFull-Text 2723-2726
  Yunan Chen; Charlotte Tang; Karen Cheng; Sun Young Park
There has been a growing interest in the HCI community to study Health, with particular focus in understanding healthcare practices and designing technologies to support and to enhance these practices. A majority of current health studies in HCI have focused on either clinical settings, such as hospitals and clinics, or non-clinical spaces, like patients' homes and senior centers. Yet, there has been little work investigating how patient care in clinical and non-clinical settings connect with each other. Building on the illness trajectory concept, this workshop aims to explore the interplay between, and the challenges and opportunities in designing healthcare technologies for bridging the clinical and the non-clinical settings, as well as their impact on the continuum of patient care.
Theories, methods and case studies of longitudinal HCI research BIBAFull-Text 2727-2730
  Evangelos Karapanos; Jhilmil Jain; Marc Hassenzahl
The interest in longitudinal studies of users' experiences and behaviors with interactive products is mounting, while recent methodological advances have enabled new ways to elicit as well as process longitudinal data. With this workshop we want to establish a forum for the exchange of knowledge and discussion on novel theories, methods and experiences gained through case studies of longitudinal HCI research. This is an effort towards the collection of best practices for an edited book publication.
I just love this product!: looking into wow products, from analysis to heuristics BIBAFull-Text 2731-2734
  Jettie Hoonhout; Bernt Meerbeek; Elizabeth Buie
Increasingly products need to be 'cool', 'wow', fun, rather than merely being 'functional' in order to appeal to consumers. Product innovation then turns into not only working out how to apply technologies to realize some useful product function, but also in how to create an appealing and alluring experience. The core question one would like to see answered already early on in the development process is, of course, how we can make sure that the final product is going to be fun, pleasurable, appealing (in addition to being functional and usable). However, when looking at the literature, no real, concrete, hands-on answers are popping up yet. On the other hand, in industry and academia much tacit knowledge and experience must exist, about what worked before and what not. Analyzing systematically successful product introductions, tapping into that tacit knowledge, may help to derive heuristics that can support new product and service development, and aid in a better understanding of this elusive concept.
Methods to account for values in human-centered computing BIBAFull-Text 2735-2738
  Christian Detweiler; Alina Pommeranz; Luke Stark
This workshop brings together scholars and practitioners of human-centered computing, requirements engineering, ethics and related fields. We will share knowledge and insights on methods to account for human values in information technology design. Through short presentations, group discussions and practical design group work, participants will collaborate on developing methodological frameworks for values in human-centered computing, and putting these methods into practice.
Technology for today's family BIBAFull-Text 2739-2742
  Jerry Fails; Mona Leigh Guha; Michael Horn; Sara Isola
This workshop will bring together researchers from academia and industry for a one-day workshop to promote a community focused on addressing the needs of families by designing and developing family-centric interactive technologies. Together we will weigh the gains made in the area of technologies for families and brainstorm new technology directions and methods for designing technologies for families.
Ar-CHI-Tecture: architecture and interaction BIBAFull-Text 2743-2746
  Nicholas Dalton; Keith Green; Paul Marshall; Ruth Dalton; Christoph Hoelscher; Anijo Mathew; Gerd Kortuem; Tasos Varoudis
The rise of ubiquitous computing leads to a natural convergence between the areas of architectural design (the design of buildings, spaces and experience of being in and moving through them) and HCI. We suggest that Architecture and CHI have much to learn from each other in terms of research and practice. This workshop will bring together these communities to explore the benefits of architecture envisioned as integral to an expanded CHI community. The workshop organizers aim to create a framework for future collaboration and identify new directions for research in this multidisciplinary field. This promises significant impacts on both interaction research and its real-world applications.
Designing and evaluating text entry methods BIBAFull-Text 2747-2750
  Per Ola Kristensson; James Clawson; Mark Dunlop; Poika Isokoski; Brian Roark; Keith Vertanen; Annalu Waller; Jacob Wobbrock
Our workshop has three primary goals. The first goal is community building: we want to get text entry researchers that are active in different communities into one place. Our second goal is to promote CHI as a natural and compelling focal point for all kinds of text entry research. The third goal is to discuss some difficult issues that are hard or near impossible to handle within the traditional format of research papers.
Theories behind UX research and how they are used in practice BIBAFull-Text 2751-2754
  Marianna Obrist; Virpi Roto; Effie Lai-Chong Law; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila; Arnold Vermeeren; Elizabeth Buie
At CHI2011 we organized a SIG session asking the question "What theoretical roots do we build on, if any, in UX research?" Overall, 122 single items from about 70 participants were collected, which corroborates the relevance of and interest in this topic. Whilst the theoretical foundations for UX research are not yet established, those responses can serve as candidate resources for setting the theoretical directions. A primary conclusion from the SIG discussion is that the CHI community needs theories in UX research and practice. A major contribution of the workshop will be to clarify the applicability and transferability of different theories, theoretical foundations, concepts in informing UX design and evaluation in both research and practice. In particular we will look into theories that have already been applied in practice.
End-user interactions with intelligent and autonomous systems BIBAFull-Text 2755-2758
  Simone Stumpf; Margaret Burnett; Volkmar Pipek; Weng-Keen Wong
Systems that learn from or personalize themselves to users are quickly becoming mainstream yet interaction with these systems is limited and often uninformative for the end user. This workshop focuses on approaches and challenges to explore making these systems transparent, controllable and ultimately trustworthy to end users. The aims of the workshop are to help establish connections among researchers and industrial practitioners using real-world problems as catalysts to facilitate the exchange of approaches, solutions, and ideas about how to better support end users.
Memento mori: technology design for the end of life BIBAFull-Text 2759-2762
  Michael Massimi; Wendy Moncur; William Odom; Richard Banks; David Kirk
The role of interactive technologies at End of Life (EoL) is a recently established and quickly growing topic in the CHI community. In this workshop, we focus on the design space, methodologies and processes associated with EoL, moving forward the research agenda initiated in the successful CHI 2010 workshop "HCI at the End of Life" [8]. In particular, we focus on moving from fieldwork to thanatosensitive design -- a process which engages with EoL issues as part of the design concept. We invite participation from a wide range of people interested in technology and EoL, from the HCI community, academic and professional communities with a variety of perspectives/disciplines, and entrepreneurs developing applications in this space.
Identity, performativity, and HCI BIBAFull-Text 2763-2766
  Gopinaath Kannabiran; Ann Light; Tuck Leong
Identity is a theme spanning multiple discourses, such as feminist HCI, ICT4D and data control, becoming notable as a culturally understood phenomenon within third-wave HCI. This workshop extends current thinking about identity toward performative aspects: how self and identity is constituted, how this relates to digital technology, and what this means for design and use of such technology. As technology's growth in domestic, social and intimate contexts suggests a new consideration of how identity is invoked, we propose to examine philosophical commitments, methodological implications, and pragmatic aspects of putting performativity to work, identifying blind spots and obstacles that hamper research and practice in this area. And we use hands-on critique, panel discussion and brief presentations, to explore how HCI can respond to the challenge of who we are and what we might become in our pursuit of digitally mediated futures.
Food and interaction design: designing for food in everyday life BIBAFull-Text 2767-2770
  Rob Comber; Eva Ganglbauer; Jaz Hee-jeong Choi; Jettie Hoonhout; Yvonne Rogers; Kenton O'Hara; Julie Maitland
Food and interaction design presents an interesting challenge to the HCI community in attending to the pervasive nature of food, the socio-cultural differences in food practices and a changing global foodscape. To design for meaningful and positive interactions it is essential to identify daily food practices and the opportunities for the design of technology to support such practices. This workshop brings together a community of researchers and practitioners in human-food interaction to attend to the practical and theoretical difficulties in designing for human-food interactions in everyday life. Through a practical field study and workshop we explore themes of food experiences, health and wellbeing, sustainability and alternative food cultures.
Exploring HCI's relationship with liveness BIBAFull-Text 2771-2774
  Jonathan Hook; Guy Schofield; Robyn Taylor; Tom Bartindale; John McCarthy; Peter Wright
Liveness has long been a valued quality of mass media presentation in areas such as music, sports and debate. The rapid development of new digital media, and the interpenetration of these media and staged performance, places liveness center stage in attempts to understand emerging human-computer configurations. This workshop will bring together insights from a variety of disciplines and perspectives to explore how HCI can benefit from critical engagement with theoretical and practical treatment of liveness. To seed discussion and action, participants will engage reflectively with the liveness of an authentic performance, experienced firsthand and at one-remove through a mediating technology, using an innovative video-based methodology.
Interaction design and emotional wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 2775-2778
  David Coyle; Conor Linehan; Karen Tang; Sian Lindley
The World Health Organisation has concluded that emotional wellbeing is fundamental to our quality of life. It enables us to experience life as meaningful and is an essential component of social cohesion, peace and stability in the living environment [21]. This workshop will bring together a diverse community to consolidate existing knowledge and identify new opportunities for research on technologies designed to support emotional wellbeing. The workshop will examine uses of technology in mental health settings, but will also consider the importance of emotional needs in physical healthcare and wellbeing more generally. The design of technology to provide social support and to extend traditional care networks will be key workshop themes.
NUIs for new worlds: new interaction forms and interfaces for mobile applications in developing countries BIBAFull-Text 2779-2782
  Kasper Løvborg Jensen; Gary Marsden; Edward Cutrell; Matt Jones; Ann Morrison
Mobile phones constitute the most ubiquitous computing platform in the developing world, and for the past decade it has been focus of many research efforts within Human Computer Interaction for Development (HCI4D). HCI4D has matured through a series of previous HCI related conferences and workshops and a growing body of work have established it as subfield of its own [1][2][4][5][6].
   We believe it is now time to focus on more specific topics within this subfield and this workshop is dedicated to one such topic; namely how the next wave of more sophisticated mobile handsets will enable new interaction forms and interfaces, and how this can be use to create more natural ways of interacting with mobile ICTs.
   The aim of this workshop is to discuss the current (and near-future) technologies and create a research agenda for how we can design, implement and evaluate new and more natural interaction forms and interfaces for mobile devices. The ultimate goal is to lower the technical and literacy barriers and get relevant information, applications and services out to the next billion users.
Heritage matters: designing for current and future values through digital and social technologies BIBAFull-Text 2783-2786
  Elisa Giaccardi; Elizabeth Churchill; Sophia Liu
This one-day workshop brings together human computer interaction (HCI) scholars and practitioners interested in how emerging technologies are changing the way we understand and experience heritage. Digital media play an increasing role in how we see ourselves, and how future generations will see themselves in relation to us. The workshop will address how personal digital archives, heirlooms, and inscriptions come to have social value in the long term. Understanding how people come to value and interact with digital traces and memories through a heritage perspective will provide the HCI community with a vocabulary to expand the boundaries of HCI theory and practice beyond individuals acting 'in the moment,' and support individuals, communities, and organizations participating 'over time' in the social production of memory and identity.
From materials to materiality: connecting practice and theory in hc BIBAFull-Text 2787-2790
  Daniela Rosner; Jean-François Blanchette; Leah Buechley; Paul Dourish; Melissa Mazmanian
As practical resources and analytical precepts, "materials" have become central to the design and study of information technology. By considering how HCI has moved from material to materiality and, by implication, from practice to theory, we will examine different facets of material culture in HCI, drawing from domains just beyond it, such as craft studies, information studies and organizational studies. This workshop thus aims to bring together a range of perspectives on the materials of HCI to enrich our understanding of the design and analysis of interaction.
Cool across continents, cultures and communities BIBAFull-Text 2791-2794
  Janet C. Read; Daniel Fitton; Linda Little; Matthew Horton
The ability to be or to create 'cool' is universally desirable, for individuals wishing to impress their peers and multinational corporations attempting to gain market share alike. To achieve cool, however, is as challenging as it is desirable; often fleeting, unexpected, uncontrolled and seemingly mysterious. This work builds upon previous work by the authors in understanding and designing for cool. Current literature and work on cool predominantly focuses on specific demographics of society without exploring its broader application. This workshop aims to explore and discuss the notion of cool and how it crosses the boundaries of continents, cultures and communities. This workshop aims to gather a deeper understanding of the different facets and contexts of cool, and whether cool as a concept can be globally defined.
Simple, sustainable living BIBAFull-Text 2795-2798
  Maria Håkansson; Gilly Leshed; Eli Blevis; Lisa Nathan; Samuel Mann
The goal of this workshop is to better understand how to design for simpler lifestyles as part of a more holistic understanding of what it means to be sustainable. This goal takes us beyond what has been previously emphasized in sustainable HCI or at the confines of environmental sustainability. Instead, we discuss the possibilities of an alternative framing of technologies, economies, cultural norms, social mechanisms, and everyday practices that may be needed for simple, sustainable living. We posit that achieving simple, sustainable living may be a matter of thoughtfully embracing positive complexity and avoiding negative complexity. These require careful decisions about design, choice, and use of technology, as well as taking a broader perspective on sustainability.
Personal informatics in practice: improving quality of life through data BIBAFull-Text 2799-2802
  Ian Li; Yevgeniy Medynskiy; Jon Froehlich; Jakob Larsen
Personal informatics refers to a class of software and hardware systems that help individuals collect personal information to improve self-understanding. Improving self-understanding can foster self-insight and promote positive behaviors: healthy living, energy conservation, etc. The development of personal informatics applications poses new challenges for human-computer interaction and creates opportunities for applications in various domains related to quality of life, such as fitness, nutrition, wellness, mental health, and sustainability. This workshop will continue the conversations from the CHI 2010 and CHI 2011 workshops on personal informatics [6][7]. The focal themes for this workshop are: (1) practical lessons from previous research and development experiences that can guide interface design for systems that allow users to collect and reflect on personal data; (2) requirements for building robust personal informatics applications; and (3) design and development of infrastructures that make personal informatics applications easier to create and evaluate.
Qualitative research in HCI BIBAFull-Text 2803-2806
  Jennifer Rode; Mark Blythe; Bonnie Nardi
This workshop is targeted towards academics in HCI who practice qualitative evaluation methods. In particular we hope to understand the use of participatory practices in ethnography, as well as, share experiences doing fieldwork. This is especially important as community members from different social science backgrounds and countries often receive dissimilar training and have few opportunities to discuss fieldwork practice. Beyond this we wish to examine issues raised by workshop participants as key challenges to their qualitative research.