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CHI Tables of Contents: 10-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Extended Abstracts of the ACM CHI'15 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:CHI'15: Extended Abstracts of the 33rd ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Bo Begole; Jinwoo Kim; Kori Inkpen; Woontack Woo
Location:Seouol, Korea
Dates:2015-Apr-18 to 2015-Apr-23
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3146-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CHI15
Links:Conference Website
  1. CHI 2015-04-18 Volume 2
    1. Student Design Competition
    2. Student Games Competition
    3. Student Research Competition
    4. Video Showcase Presentations
    5. Doctoral Consortium
    6. Interactivity
    7. alt.chi: Augmentation
    8. alt.chi: New User Interfaces
    9. alt.chi: HCI Methodology
    10. alt.chi: Arts & Philosophy
    11. alt.chi: Mindfulness and Care
    12. Case Studies: Industrial Innovation
    13. Case Studies: Art & Life
    14. Case Studies: Education & Work
    15. Case Studies: Observation & Interaction
    16. Case Studies: Special Environments
    17. Keynote/Plenary Talks
    18. Special Award Talks
    19. Panels
    20. SIG Meetings
    21. WIP Theme: Accessibility
    22. WIP Theme: AI and HCI
    23. WIP Theme: Augmented Reality
    24. WIP Theme: Children and Teens
    25. WIP Theme: Cognition in HCI
    26. WIP Theme: Communities
    27. WIP Theme: Displays
    28. WIP Theme: Gaming
    29. WIP Theme: Gesture and Multimodal
    30. WIP Theme: Healthcare and Wellbeing
    31. WIP Theme: Learning
    32. WIP Theme: Lifestyle
    33. WIP Theme: Mobile Interactions
    34. WIP Theme: Novel Interfaces and Interaction Techniques
    35. WIP Theme: Productivity and Awareness
    36. WIP Theme: Search and Infoviz
    37. WIP Theme: Social Computing
    38. WIP Theme: Trust, Privacy and Emotions
    39. WIP Theme: Ubicomp, Robots and Wearables
    40. WIP Theme: Users and UI Design
    41. Workshop Summaries
    42. Course Overviews

CHI 2015-04-18 Volume 2

Student Design Competition

Am I Native Enough?: Exploring American Indian Identity Through Language Learning BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Jumana Almahmoud; Mallory Anderson; Abhishek Dewan; Sofia Gutierrez; Ram Kumarasubramanian
Minowe is an online community dedicated to teaching and learning Ojibwe, an American Indian language. Its goal is to enable certain Peripheral American Indians (defined below) to better connect with their American Indian communities. Building on prior research in language education, the Minowe website and mobile app emphasize situation-based learning. Minowe introduces non-speakers to Ojibwe through the use of game-oriented lessons. It facilitates language learning by connecting fluent speakers and non-speakers via video chat. Minowe encourages collaboration by incorporating user-generated vocabulary into future lessons and activities.
Lantern: Empowering Refugees Through Community-Generated Guidance Using Near Field Communication BIBAFull-Text 7-12
  Jennifer Baranoff; R. Israel Gonzales; Jay Liu; Heidi Yang; Jimin Zheng
When refugees enter their new host countries, they are faced with a variety of challenges and often find themselves relying on others for help. Equipped with only basic technologies, refugees must utilize the little they have to navigate their new environments. Currently, there are no digital systems in place that ease the transition for newly arriving refugees into the USA. In response to this, we have developed Lantern, a cost-efficient mobile service that combines previous generation technology with modern, near field communication capabilities, enabling refugees to learn and navigate within their new surroundings.
FamCom: A Communication Service Enhancing Conversation Quality Between Elders Residing in Care Hospital and Their Family Member BIBAFull-Text 13-18
  Mingu Kang; Taewan Kim; Youngjae Kim; Junghwan Ahn
FamCom is a service which aids a patient in care hospital to feel more intimate with family members by improving the quality of conversation. We conducted survey, contextual inquiry, personas, scenarios and user test using low and high-fidelity prototypes to enhance the quality of conversation. According to our research lack of conversation topics depreciates the quality of conversation. FamCom provides conversation sources to family members to increase the intimacy between patient and family members.
BlindNavi: A Navigation App for the Visually Impaired Smartphone User BIBAFull-Text 19-24
  Hsuan-Eng Chen; Yi-Ying Lin; Chien-Hsing Chen; I-Fang Wang
These days, many of us frequently use mobile apps to help us navigate. However, these apps with touch screens are not user-friendly for visually impaired people who are eager to be able to leave their homes independently. Moreover, the most widely used apps are not specially made for the visually impaired, so they create much confusion and result in a problematic user experience. The main purpose of this research is to provide a new mobility-aid solution in the form of a navigation app that remembers meaningful information over the journey and makes the trip safer and smoother. Unlike those applications that provide visual guides, we want to refer to the way blind people recognize and remember their route, and provide multi-sensory messages combining familiar reference points that they have learned from O&M training. "BlindNavi" is an app prototype with a 3-step simple search, flat flow design, voice feedback consisting of multi-sensory clues, combined with micro-location technology, to assist visually impaired people leave their homes and safely explore the outside world on their own.
inSight: Kick-Starting Communications for Elderlies Ageing in Place BIBAFull-Text 25-30
  Zhide Loh; Edmund Zhang; Zhi Ying Lim
With an aging population, there is a growing need to fulfill the social needs of this segment of society. In this paper, we present inSight -- a system consisting of paired devices that act as a virtual two-way surface, connecting users through constant audio and video feed. inSight invites elderlies to interact with their loved ones in a playful, intuitive, and non-intrusive manner, all achieved through the utilization of a simple interface metaphor.
Sleepstellar: A Safety Kit and Digital Storyteller for Sleepwalkers BIBAFull-Text 31-36
  Jashanjit Kaur; Nehal Molasaria; Niyati Gupta; Shengjie Zhang; Wei Wang
Sleepwalking affects 2-4% of adults and can be a potentially dangerous condition leading to severe safety incidents. We interviewed sleepwalkers and sleep disorder experts; and investigated sleepwalking forums to understand their needs and characteristics. Research shows that sleepwalkers not only face safety issues, but also social embarrassment leading to conflicts in their self-image and self-awareness. We present Sleepstellar that includes a safety kit to protect sleepwalkers and a platform to encourage digital storytelling for overcoming embarrassment issues. The safety kit provides customized RFID stickers to stick to the potentially harmful places (like staircases, kitchen stove) and connecting it with a sleep tracking wearable that alarms when the patient is close to an RFID sticker. The accompanying mobile app tracks sleepwalking pattern and creates stellar-like beautiful visualizations to be viewed by sleepwalkers and share anonymously with the public along with their individual stories to encourage public engagement, thus enhancing a sleepwalker's self-image and overcome embarrassment issues.
Bikon: Warm-Hearted Movements BIBAFull-Text 37-42
  Yunmo Park; Hoejoon Lee; Gu Lee; Myeongguk Cho; Soyoung Kim
In the winter of 2012, a grandmother and her grandson burned to death in their home in Jeollanam-do, South Korea. The cause of fire was a candle which was lit to light up a cramped room, since they weren't able to pay electricity bills. Like the deceased of this incident, energy poor are continuously exposed to life threatening-either directly or indirectly-danger. On the other hand, there is a dilemma of lightings in Hangang, the river of Seoul. Since earlier this year Government of Seoul decided to reduce the lighting hour of Hangang from 5hrs/day to 3hrs/day in order to save budget but ended up using more. Project Bikon started from a suggestion to relate and solve both energy poor and Hangang lighting issue. The needs and solutions of the project were defined based on the research on statistics and interviews of each user groups.
CityMockUp Co-Creating the Urban Space BIBAFull-Text 43-48
  Jonas Frich Pedersen; Marie Louise Juul Søndergaard
This paper presents CityMockUp, our contribution to the CHI'15 student design competition. CityMocUup emphasizes and proposes a solution to the problem of involving citizens in the actual process of furnishing or shaping the urban environment that they inhabit. The design consists of digitally interconnected and tangible wooden modules that enable the citizens to construct their own desired urban architecture proposals. The product is rooted within and contributes to the emerging field of Urban Interaction Design (UIxD).
SIGCHI: Enabling Context for Traditional Chinese Paintings with "Rice Paper" BIBAFull-Text 49-54
  Hariharan Subramonyam; Yuncheng Shen; Samantha Lauren Jones
Chinese paintings are deeply rooted in cultural context. The problem is that, outside of Chinese culture, the uniqueness, the meaning and the value of these paintings is largely lost. Our design, titled "Rice Paper", helps bridge the cultural disconnect between the creators of traditional Chinese paintings, guohua, and non-Chinese viewers. It leverages an iPad application to facilitate the sharing of large quantities of artistic context for traditional Chinese paintings in the form of tangible, printed booklets, making the cultural context that breathes life into a Chinese painting more accessible to a wider audience.
GoodGuide: Reconnecting the Homeless and Others BIBAFull-Text 55-60
  Chien-Chun Wu; Shih-Min Hong; Yu-Han Huang
We developed a service, GoodGuide, to reconnect the homeless to the society. Through our human-centered research process, we have identified the homeless desire to communicate and interact with others. With the GoodGuide service design, the homeless can help guiding the passengers who usually lose their directions in the Taipei Railroad Station. Our design features three stages service activities also a feedback mechanism for the passengers. Through this service the homeless and the passengers might interact, communicate and have a new relationship. We believe it will be a chain effect of improved impression toward the homeless, if the homeless aids more passengers in the station. We also anticipate the staffs and other people will be friendlier to the homeless because of the improved impression from surrounding passengers.

Student Games Competition

Keyewai: Looking at Cooperation in a Holographic Projection Screen BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Paulo Bala; Lucilia Noóbrega; Guilherme Neves; Lai's Lopes; Joana Morna; João Camacho; Cristina Freitas
Keyewai: Last Meal is an innovative two-player computer game for a holographic projection screen, using eye gaze and gamepad controllers as input. We explore the affordances given by our interaction setup by creating game mechanics (like controllable transparency and reversed instructions) that foster cooperation between players. This multi-modal co-located interaction scheme allows for a novel playing experience with face-to-face social interaction, allowing players to communicate with facial expressions and body movement to create a more immersive interaction environment.
Fighting Gulliver: An Experiment with Cross-Platform Players Fighting a Body-Controlled Giant BIBAFull-Text 65-68
  Kuan-Ting Chou; Min-Chieh Hsiu; Chiuan Wang
Pretend play is a play where children assign roles and then act them out. A child may even imagine himself as a giant among his toys in his play. To rebuild such pretend play, immersive gaming experience is required throughout the gameplay. We introduce Fighting Gulliver, featuring an innovative game design that integrates cutting-edge technologies including virtual reality (VR), body motion input methods, mobile devices, and wearable devices. The player with VR headsets and body motion capturing devices plays as the giant, while others without the two devices join forces to defeat the giant. Players playing character roles other than the giant are not limited on a desktop device. Entering the game through different devices results in different character roles, skills, and user interfaces. As a result, Fighting Gulliver is a cross-platform multiplayer online role-playing game (MORPG) with novel gaming experience and unique game settings rarely found in previous works. Game balance design and a user study are also discussed in this work.
Crystallize: Simulating Language Immersion through Gameplay BIBAFull-Text 69-72
  Gabriel Culbertson
Many people want to learn a foreign language, but find it challenging to sustain engagement when daily life is disconnected from the target language environment. Ideally, we would have language learning tools that provide the same benefits as being immersed in the target environment. Crystallize takes a first step towards this goal by providing a structured immersive experience. Instead of memorizing vocabulary words and grammar, the player solves linguistic puzzles, interacts with the environment, and infers word meanings from context.
TranSection: Hand-Based Interaction for Playing a Game within a Virtual Reality Game BIBAFull-Text 73-76
  Po-Wei Lee; Han-Yu Wang; Ying-Chao Tung; Jhe-Wei Lin; Andries Valstar
TranSection is a new VR interface design concept with cross-dimensional virtual reality interface. It is a 2D puzzle platformer game within a 3D virtual environment. By incorporating the head tracking and visualization capabilities of Oculus Rift and hand tracking capabilities of Leap Motion, TranSection enables realistic interaction with virtual objects through one's own hands. Our evaluation with 12 participants showed that players rated the fun level as 4.17 on a 5-point Likert scale, and 83% of the players would like to play TranSection again. The cross-dimensional interface also significantly reduced simulator sickness, which is one of the critical usability barriers to using virtual reality, compared to the highest rated puzzle game on Oculus Rift.
Atomatic: An Inclusive Game to Learn Concepts of Atoms and Elements BIBAFull-Text 77-80
  Sylvan Lobo
Chemistry is an area which is particularly difficult for visually challenged students to learn, as the concepts largely involve visual aspects, for instance, changes in colour. It is also often unsafe and inaccessible. Atomatic is an inclusive educative puzzle-like game which teaches concepts of atoms and elements. Atomatic follows an approach where the student figures out concepts by trial and error while playing with the atomic model. The student tries to combine constituents of an atom-protons, neutrons and electrons, aiming to create various elements. The model assists the student in different situations and teaches concepts along the way.
Get Creative With Learning: Word Out! A Full Body Interactive Game BIBAFull-Text 81-84
  Felicia Clare Paul; Christabel Goh; Kelly Yap
This paper presents Word Out, an interactive game to train a child's creative thinking and problem solving capabilities through full body interaction. Targeted at children 4-7 years old, Word Out employs the Microsoft Kinect to detect the silhouette of players. Players are tasked to use their bodies to match the shapes of the alphabets displayed on the screen. Being explorative in nature, the game promotes creative learning through play, as well as encourages collaboration and kinesthetic learning for children. Over two months, more than 15,000 children have played Word Out installed in two different museums. This paper presents the design and implementation of the Word Out game and preliminary analyses of data collected at the museums to share insights on the potential of meaningful and engaging educational games that promote freedom and encourage creativity in the child.
Jelly Polo: True Sport-Like Competition Using Small-Scale Exertion BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Mike Sheinin; Carl Gutwin
Sports video games attempt to be the best possible simulation of their real-world sport counterpart; the graphics are near perfect, the physics are highly realistic, and the in-game statistics of each character closely represent the real-world person they are mimicking. Overall, this has led to sports video games being heavily based on statistical simulations (e.g., how high a shot statistic is determines the success of a shot, not player skill). This takes away from the sport-like aspect of true competition between the players of the game. Jelly Polo is a team-based sports video game which uses small-scale exertion. By providing small-scale exertion, in terms of movement, players can gain expertise development, have individual differences in how they play, and get tired during the course of a game. This makes the game more sport-like and competitive because players have to work to strategize as a team, counter-balance fatigue, and increase their physical and mental skills to win against opponents.
Towering Defense: An Augmented Reality Multi-Device Game BIBAFull-Text 89-92
  Paul Tolstoi; Andreas Dippon
This game aims to present a modern approach for interaction between multiple devices, such as a large screen tablet and a smartphone, using the example of a simple game like tower defense. The player interacts with the game on the tablet by using simple touch input and on the smartphone by using Augmented Reality and gestures. The position of the smartphone relative to the tablet is tracked by using feature tracking of the image on the tablet. Depending on the position of the smartphone the player can select different towers or different floors of a tower for additional interaction inside. Additionally selecting a resource node allows a player to mine it by executing the mining gesture with his smartphone. After selecting an enemy the user can perform gesture based interaction to deal damage directly to the selected unit.
Purrfect Crime: Exploring Animal Computer Interaction through a Digital Game for Humans and Cats BIBAFull-Text 93-96
  Rui Trindade; Micaela Sousa; Cristina Hart; Nádia Vieira; Roberto Rodrigues; João França
Purrfect Crime is an innovative installation-based game that sets out to explore the application of Animal Computer Interaction (ACI) to game design. The game is intended for play by a human and a domesticated cat. The design of the game pays close attention to inter-species gameplay and the need to capture the attention of the cat while maintaining its appeal to the human. The game consists of an interactive floor projection with two distinct input methods, a Wiimote game controller for use by the human player and a Kinect sensor to track the movement of the cat. Initial tests have shown the game to engage humans and cats in gameplay and highlight the way for further developments in inter-species gameplay.

Student Research Competition

GAZE: Using Mobile Devices to Promote Discovery and Data Collection BIBAFull-Text 97-102
  Zachary Allen
Developments in citizen science, community sensing, and crowdsourcing offer the opportunity of large scale data collection of the physical world because of the ubiquity of sensor-rich, mobile devices. Despite this opportunity, large-scale data collection about physical spaces is currently not widespread because of high-effort participation. In this paper, we explore the ability for people to contribute on the go. We developed Gaze, a system that will collect information about people's responses to physical spaces through low-effort feedback. To enable low-effort contributions for large scale data collection, we have developed a design pattern called Identify-Focus-Capture that identifies opportunities for users given current situational context, helps users to focus in on the opportunity, and captures useful data through simple actions or gestures. Through our pilot, users successfully helped collect 50+ data points about their environment, showing that useful data can be collected when the opportunity is low-effort.
Blowatch: Blowable and Hands-free Interaction for Smartwatches BIBAFull-Text 103-108
  Wei-Hung Chen
The emergence of smart devices promises to bring enhanced convenience to common communication and information retrieval tasks. However, disabled users often have trouble operating touch screens. We introduce Blowatch, a novel input method for smartwatches and potentially for other mobile devices, which provides hands-free interaction and avoid the occlusion problem. Users blow air on the smartwatches so as to invoke several operations, such as adjusting the music volume, taking a picture or answering the call. In this paper, we explore the input dimension of blowing-gesture set and examine potential usage of the gestures with a simple user study. Finally, to illustrate the potential of our approach, we developed a series of example applications for our blow-based gestures.
Cyrafour: How Two Human Avatars Communicate With Each Other BIBAFull-Text 109-114
  Enrique Encinas
Human avatars or physical surrogates are becoming increasingly present in leisure, artistic and business activities that seek to augment the sensory richness available to telepresent participants. While a number of studies have focused on how human avatars relate to other humans, little attention has been paid to the particularities of human avatar to human avatar interaction. This paper examines characteristic features of such interaction through Cyrafour, a playful embodied identity game in which two human avatars clone various conversations generated elsewhere. Such cloning, or speech shadowing, seems to allow for an empathic embodiment of the meaning transmitted and appears to create a frame for further discussion on the topics raised. This project contributes to the study of telepresence with new insights applicable to the design and research of human computer and human robot interfaces.
Realism in Interactive Tutors BIBAFull-Text 115-120
  Nicholas Hynes
Software learnability, a central aspect of usability, can be improved by including a tutorial. Existing research suggests that interactive, gamified tutorials are more effective than passive ones in increasing user engagement and learning. There is disagreement, however, as to whether the tutor should present a reduced or full interface of the tutored program. To determine if either approach offers an advantage, we have created an interactive tutor for the Git revision control system that uses the user's own installation of the program for maximal realism. We intend to compare this tutor to one that uses a simpler, but less accurate simulation of Git. In a pilot study, participants, despite having challenges with secondary programs used by the real Git, remained engaged and were able to discover and learn commands not available in the simplified interface. These findings suggest that designing for authenticity in interactive tutorials may be beneficial.
Libero: On-the-go Crowdsourcing for Package Delivery BIBAFull-Text 121-126
  Yongsung Kim
Throughout the world, millions of people walk, bike, and run the same routes at the same time, every day. This patterned, collective effort represents a potentially valuable yet underutilized resource for sensing, transporting goods, or completing small tasks that advance individual and societal goals. In this paper, we introduce a system called Libero, which utilizes people's existing routine for package delivery by incorporating just-in-time notifications in hopes of reducing task distance to an extreme (50 meters) and having a community support itself in doing simple tasks for one another. The results of preliminary studies show that just-in-time notifications helped promoting delivery, but other factors, such as reciprocity, community building, and social obligation were also important drivers for promoting participation.
Can Specialised Electronic Musical Instruments Aid Stroke Rehabilitation? BIBAFull-Text 127-132
  Pedro Kirk
Stroke patients often have limited access to rehabilitation after discharge from hospital leaving them to self-regulate their recovery. Previous research has indicated that several musical approaches can be used effectively in stroke rehabilitation. Stroke patients (n = 43), between 6 months and 19 years post-stroke, took part in specially created workshops playing music, both in groups and individually, using a number of digital musical interfaces. Feedback forms were completed by all participants, which helped to develop the prototypes and gain insights into the potential benefits of music making for rehabilitation. 93% of participants stated they thought that the music workshops were potentially beneficial for their rehabilitation. The research project contributes to the field of HCI by exploring the role of computer based systems in stroke rehabilitation.
QuizCram: A Question-Driven Video Studying Interface BIBAFull-Text 133-138
  Geza Kovacs
QuizCram is a question-focused format for navigating and reviewing lecture videos. QuizCram shows users a question to answer, with an associated video segment. Users navigate through the video segments by answering questions. We also allow users to review using a timeline of previously answered questions and videos. To encourage users to review questions, QuizCram keeps track of their question-answering and video-watching history and recommends users to review questions they have not fully mastered. QuizCram-format courses can be generated automatically from lectures with in-video quizzes, though the format is flexible enough to accommodate multiple questions per video segment. Our user study comparing QuizCram to in-video quizzes found that users practice answering and reviewing questions more when using QuizCram, and are better able to remember answers to questions they encountered.
Challenges for Wearable Camera: Understanding of the meaning behind photo-taking BIBAFull-Text 139-144
  Ahreum Lee
The wearable camera industry is facing low adoption rates due to concerns over the amount of data the devices collect and the inability to differentiate from mobile phones and digital cameras. To improve adoption rates, the perception of the wearable camera should be changed. This research attempts to portray mobile cameras as tools for personal experience sharing. A 50-day study was conducted to determine what types of experiences are meaningful for the users. These factors should be considered when designing wearable cameras for personal re-experiencing system.
Pull-To-Refresh and Learn: Leveraging Mobile Email Load Time for Education BIBAFull-Text 145-150
  Anji Ren
Users of connected devices regularly encounter technical inefficiencies that result in waiting for small durations of time. In this paper, we examine how we can leverage these brief moments of waiting when users pull-to-refresh email on their mobile phones to engage people in learning. We extended an existing mobile email client by presenting a micro-quiz when the user pulls to refresh email. The exercise is displayed within the dead-space resulting from the pull to minimize intrusiveness, and allows the user to complete the exercise without leaving the email context. In multiple iterations of preliminary user testing with 10 users and a pilot deployment with 3 users, we found that participants were able to non-intrusively integrate learning into their existing mobile activities.
Assessing the Supportiveness of Gift Emoticons in Care Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 151-156
  Kirsten A. Smith
There is potential for an Intelligent Virtual Agent to provide good emotional support for carers; however, its text-based messages lack context and may be misconstrued. One possible solution is to use gift emoticons to convey support. I investigate how supportive an emotional support statement is when paired with a digital gift of flowers, varying the modality (text/graphics) and explicitness of the gift (implicit/explicit). Adding a graphical emoticon improved support, measured on four scales of appropriateness, helpfulness, effectiveness and sensitivity. Images of flowers were rated higher than text; additionally, appropriate and sensitive ratings were consistently higher than effective and helpful ratings. There was no difference between explicit and implicit gifts. Participants reported that adding flowers to the support message was sympathetic and represented an effort to cheer the carer up.

Video Showcase Presentations

TagMe: An Easy-to-Use Toolkit for Turning the Personal Environment into an Extended Communications Interface BIBAFull-Text 157
  Judith Amores; Xavier Benavides; Pattie Maes
In this paper we present a wearable device in the form of a bracelet that turns everyday objects into interactive physical gameplay. We combine physical exploration and interactive entertainment by providing real-time audio and light feedback without the need to be in front of a screen. In contrast with today's computer, video and smartphone games, our system has the potential to enhance children's physical, social and outdoor play. We designed a set of playful applications that seamlessly integrate technology with outdoor game play, music, sports and social interactions.
Cyclops: Wearable and Single-Piece Full-Body Gesture Input Devices BIBAFull-Text 159
  Liwei Chan; Chi-Hao Hsieh; Yi-Ling Chen; Shuo Yang; Da-Yuan Huang; Rong-Hao Liang; Bing-Yu Chen
This work presents Cyclops, a single-piece wearable device that sees its user's whole body postures through an ego-centric view of the user that is obtained through a fisheye lens at the center of the user's body, allowing it to see only the user's limbs and interpret body postures effectively. Unlike currently available body gesture input systems that depend on external cameras or distributed motion sensors across the user's body, Cyclops is a single-piece wearable device that is worn as a pendant or a badge. Owing to the ego-centric view, Cyclops turns posture recognition into a highly controllable computer vision problem. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept device and an algorithm for recognizing static and moving bodily gestures based on motion history images (MHI) and a random decision forest (RDF). Four example applications of interactive bodily workout, a mobile racing game that involves hands and feet, a full-body virtual reality system, and interaction with a tangible toy are presented.
TakeTwo: Using Google Glass for Augmented Memory BIBAFull-Text 161
  Scott W. Greenwald; Christian D. Vazquez; Pattie Maes
Recent advances in wearable technology create the opportunity for seamless interactions that would be too cumbersome or limited on handheld devices such as cameras or mobile phones. The use of a head-mounted camera and display can allow users to capture and review audiovisual information without disrupting the continuity their ongoing activities. When presented with large amounts of information, people are prone to miss or forget details which can be essential later. TakeTwo builds on the capabilities of such wearable devices to provide a virtual extension of memory, i.e. augmented memory, to aid users in learning and recall. In particular, we use Google Glass to capture audiovisual content of ongoing events, and allow users to actively bookmark moments for later review. The Thalmic Labs Myo armband allows users to create bookmarks with discrete hand gestures. Future work will explore automatic bookmark creation triggered by physiological signals such as electrodermal activity, EEG, eye tracking, and motion. This will allow users to review events based on signals of emotional arousal, confusion, focus, or understanding, furthering their ability to recall and reinforce memory when it is needed most.
MagCubes: Magnetically Driven Tangible Widgets for Children BIBAFull-Text 163
  Sungjae Hwang; Kwang-yun Wohn
MagCubes are tangible widgets for children that work both on and around mobile devices. The advantage of this technique is that it is simple, battery-free, and inexpensive because it solely relies on a magnetometer, which is already installed in modern smart devices. To motivate our approach, we suggest various applications using a MagGetz toolkit. The first application is a board game with a magnetic dice. With this application, users can input numbers by placing the dice in the specific area after throwing it. The second application is a simple drawer with a color picker cube. The third application is a math learning game with five different sizes of cubes. (The strength of the magnetic force is proportional to the size of the cubes).
Touch+: Expanding Touch Input Vocabulary using a Smartphone and a Smartwatch BIBAFull-Text 165
  Sungjae Hwang; John Song; Junghyeon Gim
In this video, we present a new interaction technique, called Touch+, which expands touch input vocabulary by using both mobile devices and wrist-worn devices. This technique enables to recognize twisting, rolling, and lifting of a finger while it is touching the device. Moreover, our system differentiates between a fast touch (release) and a normal touch (release). This is achieved by calculating the relative differences in a movement speed and an angle between the smartphone and the smartwatch. To illustrate the potential of our approach, we developed a set of possible applications. We believe that Touch+ will open a large area for designing input interactions of mobile devices by combining wrist-worn devices.
Contextual Drag: Context-based Dynamic Friction for Dragging Interaction BIBAFull-Text 167
  Sungjae Hwang; Junghyun Gim; Junwoo Yoo; Andrea Bianchi
In this video, we present a novel dragging interaction technique, called Contextual Drag, which dynamically changes the friction of the dragging movement according to the context (e.g., type of content presented, density of points of interest in a map, and frequency of usage of items in a list). We also suggest a number of dragging effects such as snapping, shaking (changing trajectory of motion), and zooming. To explore the potential of this idea, we implemented a prototype and suggest a series of possible applications. We believe that this simple and novel technique enables users to navigate digital content more effectively than motions with constant friction.
The Smart Steering Wheel Cover: Motivating Safe and Efficient Driving BIBAFull-Text 169
  Eleonora Ibragimova; Nick Mueller; Arnold Vermeeren; Peter Vink
The Smart Steering Wheel Cover is an in-vehicle system designed to enhance driving experiences to be safer and more efficient. It collects data from the driver's smartphone accelerometer to detect how fast the driver is accelerating and braking. The smoothness of the driving correlates with fuel economy: the less aggressive is the driver's behaviour, the less fuel the vehicle consumes. The feedback is communicated to the driver in terms of vibration as warning of poor behaviour and gradual change of light as a reward to motivate constant fuel-efficient behaviour. The physical buttons embedded in the steering wheel cover allow the driver to control their phones straight from the steering wheel without having to compromise safety.
G-raff: An Elevating Tangible Block for Spatial Tabletop Interaction BIBAFull-Text 171
  Chang Min Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
This video introduces an elevating tangible block, G-raff which supports spatial interaction in a tabletop computing environment. The elevating head part of G-raff moves according to the given height and angle data. The two rollable metal tape structures creates large movements with a small volume block. Design details, key features and applications are introduced in the video.
Remnance of Form: Interactive Narratives with Augmented Shadows BIBAFull-Text 173
  Sang-won Leigh; Asta Roseway; Ann Paradiso
This video illustrates Remnance of Form, an interactive art installation comprising a series of vignettes designed to challenge our notion of reality through the manipulation of light and shadow. By fusing light, projection, and motion technologies, the shadow can now detach itself from its former role. This creates a new narrative that blurs the border between what's real and what's not.
Proprioceptive Interaction BIBAFull-Text 175
  Pedro Lopes; Alexandra Ion; Willi Müller; Daniel Hoffmann; Patrik Jonell; Patrick Baudisch
We propose a new way of eyes-free interaction for wearables. It is based on the user's proprioceptive sense, i.e., rather than seeing, hearing, or feeling an outside stimulus, users feel the pose of their own body. We have implemented a wearable device called Pose-IO that offers input and output based on proprioception. Users communicate with Pose-IO through the pose of their wrists. Users enter information by performing an input gesture by flexing their wrist, which the device senses using a 3-axis accelerometer. Users receive output from Pose-IO by finding their wrist posed in an output gesture, which Pose-IO actuates using electrical muscle stimulation. This mechanism allows users to interact with Pose-IO without visual or auditory senses, but through the proprioceptive sense alone. We developed three simple applications that demonstrate symmetric proprioceptive interaction, where input and output occur through the same limb, as well as asymmetric interaction, where input and output occur through different limbs. In a first user study, participants using a symmetric proprioceptive interface re-entered poses received from Pose-IO with an average accuracy of 5.8° despite the minimal bandwidth offered by the device. In a second, exploratory study, we investigated participants' emotional response to asymmetric proprioceptive interaction and the concept of the user's body serving as interface. Participants reported to enjoy the experience (4.6 out of 5).
A Dose of Reality: Overcoming Usability Challenges in VR Head-Mounted Displays BIBAFull-Text 177
  Mark McGill; Roderick Murray-Smith; Daniel Boland; Stephen A. Brewster
This video presents insights into the usability challenges present in consumer VR Head-Mounted Displays regarding a users' capability to interact with and be aware of reality. We demonstrate how these issues can be overcome through selectively incorporating necessary elements of reality into VR, as a user engages with reality. We term this approach Engagement-Dependent Augmented Virtuality.
"Hello World": A Digital Quandary and the Apotheosis of the Human BIBAFull-Text 179
  Kyle Overton
This animated film postulates how a sentient robot might reify the concept of human as creator. The artificially intelligent narrator attributes deity status to humans, and wrestles with the consequences of an illogical god. Exaltation, condemnation, praise, belittlement, status, worth, and self-actualization are all themes in this short. The film is neither a direct criticism nor tribute to the work of practitioners. Rather, it is an examination of the dynamic exchange between the role of human and the ability of machine, for the purpose of illustrating the philosophical paradoxes related to intelligence, and theory of mind.
Bendi: Shape-Changing Mobile Device for a Tactile-Visual Phone Conversation BIBAFull-Text 181
  Young-Woo Park; Joohee Park; Tek-Jin Nam
We present a shape-changing mobile device, Bendi, which enables tactile-visual interactions in real time during phone conversations. It allows users to generate shape-changing movements such upward or downward bending, left or right tilting, and shrinking from the user's joystick input to the other party's device. Bendi is divided into the upper part that represents small and fast movements and the lower part that represents larger movements. We designed that users can have phone conversations with Bendi while holding the device in the hand and wearing an earphone, because this is one of natural phone calling postures.
TRANSFORM as Adaptive and Dynamic Furniture BIBAFull-Text 183
  Luke Vink; Viirj Kan; Ken Nakagaki; Daniel Leithinger; Sean Follmer; Philipp Schoessler; Amit Zoran; Hiroshi Ishii
TRANSFORM is an exploration of how shape display technology can be integrated into our everyday lives as interactive, shape changing furniture. These interfaces not only serve as traditional computing devices, but also support a variety of physical activities. By creating shapes on demand or by moving objects around, TRANSFORM changes the ergonomics, functionality and aesthetic dimensions of furniture. The video depicts a story with various scenarios of how TRANSFORM shape shifts to support a variety of use cases in the home and in the work environment: It holds and moves objects like fruits, game tokens, office supplies and tablets; creates dividers on demand; and generates interactive sculptures to convey messages and audio.
Cutting Edge Vision: Metal Embedded Optics for Smart Knives BIBAFull-Text 185
  Amit Zoran; Nan-Wei Gong; Roy Shilkrot; Shuo Yan; Pattie Maes
This video presents a novel technique for embedding optic fibers into a metal blade to sense objects that the knife is cutting. In particular, we present a design for a kitchen knife with fiber optics between the edge of the blade and the handle, with a skin-color sensor that overcomes the complex conditions in the kitchen. Hoping this design will lead to future work on minimizing cooking injuries, our handheld device also includes a simple finger-protection mechanism in the form of a retracting blade. We present our novel hardware design, an initial study of imaging capabilities, and a discussion of future directions.

Doctoral Consortium

Transmigrant Saudi Arabian Youth and Social Media: Privacy, Intimacy and Freedom of Expression BIBAFull-Text 187-190
  Norah Abokhodair
The diverse ways in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are modified and appropriated into local contexts is an important theme in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research. In my dissertation I propose to investigate the use of social media by transmigrant Saudi Arabian youth living between the USA and Saudi Arabia. In particular, I aim to understand how youth conceptualize values such as privacy, intimacy, and freedom of expression across different cultures, and how they appropriate social media during their transnational experience.
Apps with Habits: Adaptive Interfaces for News Apps BIBAFull-Text 191-194
  Marios Constantinides
Reading the news on smartphones has become a significant activity for users. It is also a highly individual experience with marked differences in the way people read and access news. This work explores novel methods of "smart personalisation" of news apps. It is investigating smartphone users' news reading behaviour. It is developing a prototype news app able to recognise particular kinds of news reading behaviour and adapt its display and interaction methods, i.e. an app that forms "habits". A longitudinal evaluation of the deployed app is being conducted.
Technology at Mealtime: Beyond the 'Ordinary' BIBAFull-Text 195-198
  Hasan Shahid Ferdous
In this research, we investigate the everyday interactions of familial uses of technology around mealtimes and explore how family members configure the dinner space and the technologies within it. We seek to understand how technologies are used and negotiated amongst family members and the influence of technologies on the content and context of their interactions. We aim to pay special attention to understand how our everyday technologies support our regular mealtimes as well as special occasions.
Aligning the Social Interaction Spaces of Intergenerational Family Members BIBAFull-Text 199-202
  Francisco J. Gutierrez
The adoption of digital media for supporting social interaction among family members has caused a misalignment between the social interaction spaces of different generations. This usually produces social isolation in the elderly people due to their limitations on using digital media. This thesis work studies cross-generational family communication practices, in order to provide insights for designing computer-mediated solutions that help reduce the social isolation of elderly people. Based on that, we intend to support family connection through a social personalization model that tries to align the social interaction spaces of the elderly with those of their family members.
Social Equity and Ecological Sustainability in HCI: An Ecofeminist Perspective BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  Gopinaath Kannabiran
Despite the recent exponential growth of thought and activity on the topic of sustainability in HCI, important aspects of ecological issues such as the socio-cultural and political remain largely unengaged within the existing discourse. My dissertation research attempts to contribute towards addressing such a gap by focusing on issues of social equity as applicable to ecological issues. My work remains inspired and informed by ecofeminist philosophy in approaching the question 'How are our current notions of sustainability produced?' Such an engagement is an attempt to critically explore, understand, and articulate how existing discursive arrangements and practices lend support to specific goals, commitments, priorities, assumptions, values, roles, responsibilities, and ethical considerations shaping HCI's engagement with ecological issues. This engagement is framed as my dissertation work through the scoping of social equity issues from an ecofeminist perspective.
Engage People in Pro-Environmental Behaviors through Online Prosocial Interaction and Pro-Health Intervention BIBAFull-Text 207-210
  Pei-Yi Kuo
People are often unaware that everyday behavior and lifestyle choices involving food, exercise, and shopping all have varying levels of consequences on the environment. In fact, this makes it difficult for people to understand the mutual relationship between personal health and the environmental health. My thesis investigates a lifestyle intervention that emphasizes the mutual benefits of pro-health and pro-environmental behaviors. I further intend to investigate online prosocial interaction in this intervention and its impact on participant motivation to engage in pro-environmental behaviors.
Practical Sensory Substitution In Real And Virtual Worlds: Development, Accessibility And Neuroscience BIBAFull-Text 211-214
  Shachar Maidenbaum
The main proposition behind this work is that current technology and recent results allow us to create new Sensory Substitution Devices which can break the barriers limiting their practical adoption, significantly increase the accessibility of computerized information and graphical virtual environments and open the door to fascinating possibilities in creating new augmented senses and exploring the neural basis of using them.
Designing Self-care Technologies for Everyday Life: A Practice Approach BIBAFull-Text 215-218
  Francisco Nunes
The number of self-care technologies in HCI is growing; too often though, these are medically-oriented, failing to integrate in everyday life. In this study I focus on the self-care of Parkinson's using a practice lens. Understanding everyday practices will enable me to derive design considerations for creating technology that integrates well in everyday life, which may benefit other chronic conditions as well.
Scalable Webcam Eye Tracking by Learning from User Interactions BIBAFull-Text 219-222
  Alexandra Papoutsaki
Eye tracking systems are commonly used in a variety of research domains, but cost thousands of dollars. In my thesis I investigate a new approach to enable eye tracking for common webcams. The aim is to provide a natural experience to everyday users that are not restricted to laboratories and highly controlled studies. The accuracy of eye tracking webcams will be improved by user interactions which continuously calibrate the eye tracker during regular usage. Eye tracking can become a reality for many potential applications such as large-scale naturalistic user studies, online gaming, or enabling people to perform hands-free navigation of websites.
Casual Interaction: Scaling Interaction for Multiple Levels of Engagement BIBAFull-Text 223-226
  Henning Pohl
In the focused-casual continuum, users are given a choice of how much they wish to engage with an interface. In situations where they are, e.g., physically encumbered, they may wish to trade some control for the convenience of interacting at all. Currently, most devices only offer focused interaction capabilities or restrict users to binary foreground/background interaction choices. In casual interactions, users consciously pick a way to interact that is suitable for their desired engagement level. Users will be expecting devices to offer several ways for control along the engagement scale.
Addressing Obsolescence of Consumer Electronics through Sustainable Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 227-230
  Christian Remy
The obsolescence of consumer electronics is a major topic in the domain of sustainable HCI, which has seen a variety of theoretical frameworks emerging to address this issue. My research seeks to apply one of those established theoretical frameworks from sustainable HCI research, the Attachment Framework, to design practice. The goal of my research is to identify opportunities and challenges in bringing theoretical frameworks from sustainable HCI research to practitioners outside of our field, ultimately creating guidelines and scenarios that aid in overcoming the problem of obsolete consumer electronics.
Support Environment for Co-designing Micro Tasks in Suburban Communities BIBAFull-Text 231-234
  Tomoyo Sasao
Designing usable tasks for coping with civic challenges can be hard without an appropriate design environment. I explore a support environment for co-designing them with citizens. I expect that co-designed tasks will help address urban issues and extend the possibility of citizen-centered urban design methods.
Whole Body Interaction with Public Displays BIBAFull-Text 235-238
  Robert Walter
In my dissertation project I investigate whole body interaction with interactive public displays. For a successful interaction I define the following four basic challenges that need to be considered: passers-by have to 1) notice the display, understand 2) that the display is interactive, 3) understand how they can interact with the screen, and finally be 4) motivated to interact. In this paper I present an abstract of my research work and an approach how to tackle the above challenges.
Enhancing User Experience to Design Enjoyable Exhibition Events BIBAFull-Text 239-242
  Nan Wang
This proposal introduces research which is trying to bridge the gap between Computer Human Interaction (CHI) research and Exhibition Design studies through an investigation of how to design enjoyable exhibition events for audiences in China.
Designing with Emerging Publics: The Case of Physician-Assisted Suicide BIBAFull-Text 243-246
  Daisy Yoo
As interactive technologies continue to become pervasive, new opportunities arise for such technologies to be leveraged by wider publics. Yet, in many ways, publics remain a wicked problem that is difficult to characterize. In my PhD thesis, I propose to draw on research through design and value sensitive design to investigate design with emerging publics in the case of physician-assisted suicide, primarily within the USA (the state of Washington) and, for a point of comparison, in The Netherlands.
Retention in MOOCs: Understanding Users' Motivations, Perceptions and Activity Trajectories BIBAFull-Text 247-250
  Saijing Zheng
Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) have experienced rapid development and achieved substantial attention from learners, educators and practitioners. Although MOOCs have been widely accepted, they have been plagued by tremendously high drop-out rate. However, while some studies have focused on students' retention and engagement issues, very little attention has been given to the population of students who do not finish the courses in which they register. I propose to understand retention in MOOCs by analyzing qualitative (interview) data and quantitative data (course-related information from completed MOOCs) to characterize the motivations and experiences, learning activities, and outcomes for all MOOC students, by focusing on the vast majority, those who do not finish MOOCs. I will use this richer understanding to identify instructional and platform design implications.


BandSense: Pressure-sensitive Multi-touch Interaction on a Wristband BIBAFull-Text 251-254
  Youngseok Ahn; Sungjae Hwang; HyunGook Yoon; Junghyeon Gim; Jung-hee Ryu
In this paper, we propose a new interaction technique, called BandSense, which allows pressure-sensitive multi-touch interaction on a wristband. The proposed method provides users with a broader interaction area and higher input expressiveness, enabling a precision interaction with a less occlusion. To illustrate the potential of our approach, we present a series of example applications with several input vocabularies. We also describe the overall architecture of our system. We believe that our technique would greatly help users control a smartwatch easily and conveniently.
VoroGraph: Visualization Tools for Epidemic Analysis BIBAFull-Text 255-258
  Cody Dunne; Michael Muller; Nicola Perra; Mauro Martino
Epidemiologists struggle to integrate complex information about the incidence and spread of disease, in relation to population density and other demographic conditions, at geographical scales ranging from global air travel down to local commuting. A partial solution overlays air travel as arcs above color-coded maps. However, commuting is not shown and it is often challenging to understand changing relationships due to the visual complexity arcs introduce. Moreover, when region sizes and shapes vary their color-codings become difficult to perceive. We introduce three visualizations which combine representations of population, movement, and disease spread at a local scale that is consistent with a zoomable global scale: (1) a map with commuting border encodings, (2) a centroidal Voronoi tessellation morphing technique, and (3) a meta-layout showing commuting alongside air travel. Our work provides mid-level abstractions that expert epidemiologists can use for insights into contagion.
TESSA: Toolkit for Experimentation with Multimodal Sensory Substitution and Augmentation BIBAFull-Text 259-262
  Carlos Sainz Martinez; Faustina Hwang
TESSA is a toolkit for experimenting with sensory augmentation. It includes hardware and software to facilitate rapid prototyping of interfaces that can enhance one sense using information gathered from another sense. The toolkit contains a range of sensors (e.g. ultrasonics, temperature sensors) and actuators (e.g. tactors or stereo sound), designed modularly so that inputs and outputs can be easily swapped in and out and customized using TESSA's graphical user interface (GUI), with "real time" feedback. The system runs on a Raspberry Pi with a built-in touchscreen, providing a compact and portable form that is amenable for field trials. At CHI Interactivity, the audience will have the opportunity to experience sensory augmentation effects using this system, and design their own sensory augmentation interfaces.
Waving Authentication: Your Smartphone Authenticate You on Motion Gesture BIBAFull-Text 263-266
  Feng Hong; Meiyu Wei; Shujuan You; Yuan Feng; Zhongwen Guo
User authentication is important to protect sensitive and private information for smartphone users. We propose Waving Authentication (WA) which is a motion gesture authentication system based on accelerometer. WA utilizes eight distinguishing features hiding in the acceleration traces of motion gestures and exploits one-class Support Vector Machine for classification. It is insusceptible to shoulder surfing attacks. In the interactivity, we first provide two exhibitors' phones for audiences to try intruding WA by all kinds of waving. And we present our WA app to the audience smartphones, letting the phone to recognize their owners on audiences motion gesture.
PaperPulse: An Integrated Approach to Fabricating Interactive Paper BIBAFull-Text 267-270
  Raf Ramakers; Kashyap Todi; Kris Luyten
We present PaperPulse, a design and fabrication approach that enables designers to produce standalone interactive paper artifacts by augmenting them with electronics. With PaperPulse, users overlay visual designs with widgets provided in the design tool. PaperPulse provides three families of widgets, designed for smooth integration with paper, for a total of 20 different interactive components. We also contribute a demonstration and recording approach, Pulsation, that allows specifying interaction logic. Using the final design and the recorded Pulsation logic, PaperPulse generates layered electronic circuit designs, and code that can be deployed on a microcontroller. By following automatically generated assembly instructions, designers can seamlessly integrate the microcontroller and widgets in the final paper artifact.
Designing Engaging Data in Communities BIBAFull-Text 271-274
  Tim Regan; David Sweeney; John Helmes; Vasillis Vlachokyriakos; Siân Lindley; Alex Taylor
We present two sets of 'data technologies' that we have designed to collect and display local data, both derived from our engagement with a community. The first, Bull-frog, is a bespoke voting device. The second, a series of physical charts, respond to the increasing sophistication of data visualisations by making playful use of pie charts and bar graphs, reimagining them in mechanical forms that are compelling but easily readable.
Nebula: An Interactive Garment Designed for Functional Aesthetics BIBAFull-Text 275-278
  Ludvig Elblaus; Vasiliki Tsaknaki; Vincent Lewandowski; Roberto Bresin
In this paper we present Nebula, a prototype for examining the properties of textiles, fashion accessories, and digital technologies to arrive at a garment design that brings these elements together in a cohesive manner. Bridging the gap between everyday performativity and enactment, we aim at discussing aspects of the making process, interaction and functional aesthetics that emerged. Nebula is part of the Sound Clothes project that aims at exploring the expressive potential of wearable technologies creating sound from motion.
NOISA: A Novel Intelligent System Facilitating Smart Interaction BIBAFull-Text 279-282
  Koray Tahiroglu; Thomas Svedström; Valtteri Wikström
In this paper, we describe NOISA (Network of Intelligent Sonic Agents). NOISA is an intelligent system that acts to maintain and deepen the user's engagement with digital artefacts by learning from the user's actions and behavioural patterns in the moment of interaction. It facilitates a smart interaction by monitoring user's bodily movements, facial expressions and control inputs. We present our model and system in a musical context, interfaced with our digital musical instrument (DMI). Our concept can be further extended to possible application areas in Human Computer Interaction (HCI) research field.
KIST Smart Wall' and its Media Art Application: The Scenery Series BIBAFull-Text 283-286
  Joong Ho Lee; Hyun Jhin Lee; Sanghwa Hong; Chungyo Ha; Ji-Hyung Park
The interactive large displays for use in professional applications such as signage, education and installation art have been introduced for many years. However the innovative technology and novel application needed to drive the rapid growth of the market are still sought after. We suggest a series of media art application with the KIST Smart Wall which provides robust and highly functional multi-touch capability on the large display at low cost enabling to provide perspective scene for users. For this interactivity exhibition, we collaborated with three media artists to explore the interactive wall as an emotional and aesthetic media art platform. 'The Scenery Series' will communicate with audiences in emotionally touching images and meanings.
Development of Realistic Digital Expression of Human Avatars through Pupillary Responses based on Heart Rate BIBAFull-Text 287-290
  Myoung Ju Won; Sangin Park; SungTeac Hwang; Mincheol Whang
The eyes of a virtual human avatar are the fundamental means for communicating language and affective feelings in a virtual environment. For this purpose, this study evaluates user's visual feeling according to the changes pupillary responses based on the heart rate for a representing a human avatar; this is considered as a new factor for representing a realistic avatar. We construct a human avatar in which the pupillary response is delivered real-time based on the heart rate. The results can be regarded as the basis for designing a realistic human avatar system by supporting a new visual realistic representing factor.
Comfort Zone BIBAFull-Text 291-294
  Todd Holoubek
This experiment explores human to human interaction through presenting a base example of an individual modeled with software to actual human individuals. It compares the real humans behaviors with the model and humans with humans.
Harmonious Haptics: Enhanced Tactile Feedback Using a Mobile and a Wearable Device BIBAFull-Text 295-298
  Sungjae Hwang; John Song; Junghyeon Gim
Smartwatches now allow information to be conveniently accessed directly from the user's wrist. However, the smartwatches currently available in the market offer a limited number of applications. In this paper, we propose a new interaction technique named Harmonious Haptics, which provides users with enhanced tactile sensations by utilizing smartwatches as additional tactile displays for smartphones. When combined with typical mobile devices, our technique enables the design of a wide variety of tactile stimuli. To illustrate the potential of our approach, we developed a set of example applications that provide users with rich tactile feedback such as feeling textures in a graphical user interface, transferring a file between the tablet and the smartwatch device, and controlling UI components.
WoBo: Multisensorial travels through Oculus Rift BIBAFull-Text 299-302
  Stefano Fibbi; Lucio Davide Spano; Fabio Sorrentino; Riccardo Scateni
WoBo (World in a Box) aims to provide a new experience for travellers, allowing them to visit distant or hardly reachable places through the exploitation of consumer cameras and a head mounted display. The experience consists in watching a 360-degrees video with 3D audio in a dedicated cabin. The user can select videos shot in different places, which have been created with six consumer cameras. We describe the proposed experience, the hardware and the software used for a first prototype.
Filteryedping: A Dwell-Free Eye Typing Technique BIBAFull-Text 303-306
  Diogo Pedrosa; Maria da Graça Pimentel; Khai N. Truong
The ability to type using eye gaze only is extremely important for individuals with a severe motor disability. To eye type, the user currently must sequentially gaze at letters in a virtual keyboard and dwell on each desired letter for a specific amount of time to input that key. Dwell-based eye typing has two possible drawbacks: unwanted input if the dwell threshold is too short or slow typing rates if the threshold is long. We demonstrate an eye typing technique, which does not require the user to dwell on the letters that she wants to input. Our method automatically filters out unwanted letters from the sequence of letters gazed at while typing a word. It ranks candidate words based on their length and frequency and presents them to the user for confirmation. Spell correction and support for typing words not in the corpus are also included.
Smart Eyewear for Interaction and Activity Recognition BIBAFull-Text 307-310
  Shoya Ishimaru; Kai Kunze; Katsuma Tanaka; Yuji Uema; Koichi Kise; Masahiko Inami
vice class with a lot of possibilities for user interaction design and unobtrusive activity tracking. In this paper we show applications using an early prototype of J!NS MEME, smart glasses with integrated electrodes to detect eye movements (Electrooculography, EOG) and motion sensors (accelerometer and gyroscope) to monitor head motions. We present several demonstrations: We show a simple eye movement visualization, detecting left/right eye motion and blink. Additionally, users can play a game, "Blinky Bird". They need to help a bird avoid obstacles using eye movements. We implemented online detection of reading and talking behavior using a combination of blink, eye movement and head motion. We can give people a long term view of their reading, talking, and also walking activity over the day.
Wearable Solution for Industrial Maintenance BIBAFull-Text 311-314
  Xianjun Sam Zheng; Patrik Matos da Silva; Cedric Foucault; Siddharth Dasari; Meng Yuan; Stuart Goose
Wearable technology, such as Google Glass, offers potential benefits to engineers in industrial settings. We designed and developed a wearable solution for industrial maintenance, which 1) provides workflow guidance to the user, 2) supports hands-free operation, 3) allows the users to focus on their work, and 4) enables an efficient way for collaborating with a remote expert. The prototype, which was demonstrated at InnoTrans 2014, the largest international trade show for train technology, received positive feedback from many potential users and customers.
Wrist Compression Feedback by Pneumatic Actuation BIBAFull-Text 315-318
  Henning Pohl; Dennis Becke; Eugen Wagner; Maximilian Schrapel; Michael Rohs
Most common forms of haptic feedback use vibration, which immediately captures the user's attention, yet is limited in the range of strengths it can achieve. Vibration feedback over extended periods also tends to be annoying. We present compression feedback, a form of haptic feedback that scales from very subtle to very strong and is able to provide sustained stimuli and pressure patterns. The demonstration may serve as an inspiration for further work in this area, applying compression feedback to generate subtle, intimate, as well as intense feedback.
Data Transmission Method for Mobile Phone Using Groove Scan Code BIBAFull-Text 319-322
  Junbong Song; Hyunwoo Bang
A new mobile phone data-transmit method, groove scan code, is suggested for transmitting low-size data. As groove scan code uses audible collision sound generated by scanning on pre-encoded groove pattern as a data source, it can be implemented at minimum cost. By decoding the scanning sound, the original data can be transferred to mobile phone. Through the feasibility tests, we achieved an acceptable data decoding success rate and transmitting speed. The usability and intuitiveness are scored through user interviews.
Datawear: Self-reflection on the Go or How to Ethically Use Wearable Cameras for Research BIBAFull-Text 323-326
  Anya Skatova; Victoria E. Shipp; Lee Spacagna; Benjamin Bedwell; Ahmad Beltagui; Tom Rodden
A growing number of studies use wearable sensors, including cameras, to detect user activity patterns. When an object of academic investigation, these patterns are interpreted by researchers and conclusions are drawn about people's habits and routines. Alternatively, interpretations are provided by users themselves during extensive post-study interviews. Such approaches inevitably expose personal data collected about individuals to researchers, which can potentially change the behavior under investigation. We introduce a new approach to using wearable sensor data in research. It allows people to interpret and self-reflect on their data and submit for investigation only reflections, without sharing their raw data. In this interactivity, we present and discuss the Datawear mobile application prototype, which is designed to conduct "in the wild" studies of personal experiences.
Low-Fidelity Fabrication: Speeding up Design Iteration of 3D Objects BIBAFull-Text 327-330
  Stefanie Mueller; Dustin Beyer; Tobias Mohr; Serafima Gurevich; Alexander Teibrich; Lisa Pfistere; Kerstin Guenther; Johannes Frohnhofen; Hsiang-Ting Chen; Patrick Baudisch; Sangha Im; François Guimbretière
Low-fidelity fabrication systems speed up rapid prototyping by printing intermediate versions of a prototype as fast, low-fidelity previews. Only the final version is fabricated as a full high-fidelity 3D print. This allows designers to iterate more quickly-achieving a better design in less time. Depending on what is currently being tested, low-fidelity fabrication is implemented in different ways: (1) faBrickator allows for a modular approach by substituting sub-volumes of the 3D model with building blocks. (2) WirePrint allows for quickly testing the shape of an object, such as the ergonomic fit, by printing wireframe structures. (3) Platener preserves the technical function by substituting 3D print with laser-cut plates of the same size and thickness. At our CHI'15 interactivity booth, we give a combined live demo of all three low-fidelity fabrication systems-putting special focus on our new low-fidelity fabrication system Platener (paper at CHI'15).
EdiPulse: Turning Physical Activity Into Chocolates BIBAFull-Text 331-334
  Rohit Ashok Khot; Ryan Pennings; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
We present EdiPulse that creates 3D printed chocolates displaying cheerful messages using the heart rate data of physical activity. Our work expands the view on representing physical activity data through the use of edible materials such as chocolates, which additionally serves as a hedonic reward for doing the physical activity. Ultimately, with this work, we aim to inspire and guide design thinking on food printing, which we believe opens up new interaction possibilities to support the physical activity experience.
("Salm", "To Live"): Gaze Reactive Typography Inspired by Ahn Sang-Soo BIBAFull-Text 335-338
  Monchu Chen; Bongkeum Jeong; Yoram I. Chisik
This research aims to explore the concept of gaze reactive typography, in which the design changes dynamically according to how audiences view it. Inspired by the philosophy and styles of the famous Korean typographer Ahn Sang-Soo, we created an installation to showcase and exemplify relationships in four different levels between viewing behaviors and dynamic representations of typography.
The EmotiveModeler: An Emotive Form Design CAD Tool BIBAFull-Text 339-342
  Philippa Mothersill; V. Michael, Jr. Bove
Whether or not we are experts in the design language of objects, we have an unconscious understanding of the emotional character of their forms. The EmotiveModeler integrates knowledge about our emotive perception of shapes into a CAD tool that uses descriptive adjectives as an input to aid designers in creating objects that can communicate emotive character. Through inputting words into the EmotiveModeler UI in the Rhinoceros 3D modeling software, both expert and novice designers can manipulate the design of a bottle to express emotive character through its form.
Visual Liquidizer or Virtual Merge BIBAFull-Text 343-346
  Tatsuo Unemi; Daniel Bisig
The authors' latest artwork entitled Visual Liquidizer or Virtual Merge is a new form of audio-visual interactive installation that displays a deformed dynamic images of visitors as if their bodies become liquidized, scattered, and mixed. It is intended to provide a virtual experience of deeper contact with the other persons. The basic idea was inspired by a science fiction Wetware by R. Rucker. The authors developed an algorithm using two types of swarm simulations, ANT and BOIDS, in order to realize deformation of living fragments. Sound effects are generated synchronously with visuals by mixing sampled sounds of water flows with the visitors' voice. It achieved quick response for realtime interaction utilizing parallel processing with CPU and GPU.
mood.cloud: Data as Art BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  Younghui Kim; Geri Gay; Lindsay Reynolds; Hyuns Hong
The project "mood.cloud" is a LED light sculpture created through a collaborative effort among artists and information scientists. This light installation reflects the mood of people in a public space. For this exhibit, people selected an image on an iPad that best represented their current mood. The colors of the sculpture changed reflecting not only the individual's mood but the mood of others in the space. The "mood.cloud" platform can be re-programmed to not only capture represent emotional status in different ways, but also has the potential to track many different kinds of input.
RGB Color Bits BIBAFull-Text 351-353
  Sanghwa Hong
RGB Color bits is an animated RGB LED panel which represents a mutual understanding of recognition between analog colors and 8 bit color data of machine. We, humans are surrounded by digital displays in this era and high resolution of the digital display technology is blurring the lines between real and virtual world. Images that we've seen though the digital displays look almost real but they are obviously composed of different elements, being consistent of code and data. For example, the true red color on monitor display and colored paper could have the same appearance but the inside composing elements are totally different. RGB Color Bit tried to show the constituents of digital color by physical RGB LEDs and 8 bits dots punched out of wooden panel.
Multi-Player Gaming on Spherical Displays BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Julie R. Williamson; John Williamson; Daniel Sundén; Jay Bradley
Spherical displays offer unique affordances for multi-player games and playful interactions in social spaces. The shape of a spherical display allows users to face each other and maintain eye contact during interaction, creating a different social dynamic than at a flat display. There is also no intrinsically defined front or centre of the display, offering different views from different viewing angles. This creates shared and private areas of the display given users' varying perspectives. Trajectory based games have a dramatically different experience when played on a spherical surface. Side-scrolling games are also exciting on a spherical surface, becoming "rotating" games where users' action affect others playing at different points around the screen. This Interactivity exhibit showcases two multi-player games that specifically exploit the affordances of a spherical display in a social setting.
Level-Ups: Motorized Stilts that Simulate Stair Steps in Virtual Reality BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Dominik Schmidt; Robert Kovacs; Vikram Mehta; Udayan Umapathi; Sven Köhler; Lung-Pan Cheng; Patrick Baudisch
We present "Level-Ups", computer-controlled stilts that allow virtual reality users to experience walking up and down steps. Each Level-Up unit is a self-contained device worn like a boot. Its main functional element is a vertical actuation mechanism mounted to the bottom of the boot that extends vertically. Unlike traditional solutions that are integrated with locomotion devices, Level-Ups allow users to walk around freely ("real-walking"). We present Level-Ups in a demo environment based on a head-mounted display, optical motion capture, and integrated with a game engine.
Digiti Sonus v2: New Interface for Fingerprint Data Sonification using Hand Motion BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Yoon Chung Han; Byeong-jun Han
Digiti Sonus v2 is a new interface for fingerprint data sonification using audience's biometric data and apply their hand motions to control and modify their own audiovisual contents. This interface explores users' fingerprint data as personalized artistic materials, and allows them to rearrange and compare the data with others as pieces of a sonic puzzle by hand motion. This work expands the possibility of creating diverse audiovisual results based on users' interaction, and enhances easier and more intuitive interaction with hand motion using short-range depth camera.
Mingle: Wearable Devices for Enhancing Communications and Activities between the Blind and Ordinary People through a Waltz BIBAFull-Text 367-370
  Yoonji Song; Jiye Kim
This research has begun from recognizing a problem as to activities that arises by limitations of visual information for the blind. Mingle is a wearable device as a communication medium through senses of hearing and touch which helps the blind and ordinary people who have no visual impairment easily and intuitively learn a waltz. The entire device operation coupled with a waltz basic step comprises of 4 phases of a step, basic step, box step and an advanced box step linked to the song. In terms of a modality, hearing information informs of the voice information as to steps and tactual information informs of the directions of the steps that vibration information located in each device teaches. All the information are communicated to the blind and ordinary people in the same way and through this, the blind and ordinary people can learn the dance without any visual reliance.
Know Yourself: Self-portrait with Emotion Expressed in the EEG Data BIBAFull-Text 371-374
  Hyo-jin Kim; Su-yeon Kim
Self-portrait was painted for the reflection of the inner face of the old days, not only just draw a face of the human beings. So self-portrait is re-interpreted in various ways to adapt the new media platforms that is caused by the development of the media, and different to represent. In this study, our project -- "Know yourself" is not only tried to make an opportunity to express an external description, but also reflected them to draw a self-portrait for using brainwave that include one's feelings. At first, "Know yourself" is starting to make a question to the audience to see or not to see. It is a question that one's face reflected in a mirror is spoken real emotion and respected all about them. The technology of our project to draw the self-portrait is a linking methods use an 'EEG Analysis algorithm' express the face of the 'EEG headset' and face recognition processing solutions. We don't have many chances to remind our feelings because of the many circumstances that surround to you or change suddenly. We sincerely want that user makes an answer to use our self-inner portrait project.
Sustainable Transport System: A Wheel Based Interactive Information Installation BIBAFull-Text 375-378
  Geon Dong Kim; Juhyun Eune
Sustainable Transport System is an interactive wheel based information installation where users can watch the information projected on the wheel with a narration. Its information consists of 9 questions that are related with road transport systems ranging from 'The history of road traffic' to 'How will the sustainable traffic system evolve in the future'? The circular interface was used to show information in a pie chart, diagram and history of wheel. This interface contains the meaning of sustainable circulation. The modalities of the project are Vision, Sonic, and Touch. A potentiometer sensor is mounted onto the center of wheel, which is linked with Flash action script through Arduino as the technical method. The user enables the information to be navigated by rotating the wheel clockwise from No.1 to No.9 and counterclockwise from No.9 to No.1. CHI attendees can experience the information ranging from history of road transport to necessity of sustainable transport system easily, interestingly and engagingly.
Canvas Dance: An Interactive Dance Visualization for Large-Group Interaction BIBAFull-Text 379-382
  Carla F. Griggio; Mario Romero
We present Canvas Dance, a prototype of an interactive dance visualization for large-group interaction that targets non-professional dancers in informal environments such as parties or nightclubs, and uses the smartphones of the dancers as the input device for the motion signal. The visualization is composed of individual representations for each dancer, and the visual mappings designed for their dance moves have three main goals: to help the users identify their own representation, to uncover and inspire imitation among dancers, and to support unpredictable dance moves.
Researcher: A Reading Application Helping the Flow of Research in Tablet and Mobile Phone BIBAFull-Text 383-386
  Minjeong Kang; Juhyun Eune
With a growing digital environment, a huge quantity of digital content is being created and distributed quickly. Therefore, people from academia are under pressure to create and study such content. In addition, there are a number of reading applications supporting different functions and diverse platforms, which distract the flow of research. To solve this problem, we created a prototype reading app, Researcher, for the tablet PC and mobile phone, which helps the flow of research by providing cooperation among platforms, seamlessly circulating between consumption and creation of contents, prioritizing contents by context, and holding attention by multimodal input. We conducted an in-depth interview and survey to verify the effectiveness of the features and to find out the appropriate modality of input for the flow of research.
Remnance of Form: Interactive Narratives through Unexpected Behaviors of a Shadow BIBAFull-Text 387-390
  Sang-won Leigh; Asta Roseway; Ann Paradiso; Pattie Maes
Remnance of Form is an interactive installation that explores the dynamic tension between an object and its shadow. By fusing light, projection, and motion technologies, the shadow can now detach itself from its former role. This creates a new narrative that challenges our perception of reality, what's real and what's not. Through several playful vignettes, the shadow interacts with viewers' presence, body posture, and their manipulation of the light source creating the shadow.
The Art.CHI Gallery: An Embodied Iterative Curation Experience BIBAFull-Text 391-394
  Nic Lupfer; Bill Hamilton; Andrew Webb; Rhema Linder; Ernest Edmonds; Andruid Kerne
We present an exhibition of the 2015 Art.CHI Gallery as an embodied and iterative curation experience. We develop a method to represent the initial curated collection of interactive art works as a holistic exhibition. We explore how to physically manifest and present the exhibition at the CHI conference. Our exhibition will invite visitors to interact with the gallery as an embodied experience. They will browse the exhibit, as a whole, and view details of individual works. Participants will be encouraged to iteratively curate their own miniature gallery as they peruse. These curations will be made accessible online and shared through social media.
ListenTree: Audio-Haptic Display In The Natural Environment BIBAFull-Text 395-398
  Edwina Portocarrero; Gershon Dublon; Joseph Paradiso; V. Michael, Jr. Bove
In this paper, we present ListenTree, an audio-haptic display embedded in the natural environment. A visitor to our installation notices a faint sound appearing to emerge from a tree, and might feel a slight vibration under their feet as they approach. By resting their head against the tree, they are able to hear sound through bone conduction. To create this effect, an audio exciter transducer is weatherproofed and attached to the tree trunk underground, transforming the tree into a living speaker that channels audio through its branches. Any source of sound can be played through the tree, including live audio or pre-recorded tracks. For example, we used the ListenTree to display live streaming sound from an outdoor ecological monitoring sensor network, bringing an urban audience into contact with a faraway wetland. Our intervention is motivated by a need for forms of display that fade into the background, inviting attention rather than requiring it. ListenTree points to a future where digital information might become a seamless part of the physical world.

alt.chi: Augmentation

ChameleonMask: Embodied Physical and Social Telepresence using Human Surrogates BIBAFull-Text 401-411
  Kana Misawa; Jun Rekimoto
Chameleonmask is a telepresence system that shows a remote user's face on the other user's face. While most telepresence systems have been designed to provide a remote user's existence with a teleoperated robot, the system uses a real human as a surrogate for another remote user. To do this, a surrogate user wears a mask-shaped display that shows a remote user's live face, and a voice channel transmits a remote user's voice. A surrogate user mimics a remote user by following the remote user's directions. This design is based on our hypothesis assuming physical and social telepresence can be embodied by such a surrogate human who imitates the remote user. It also eliminates many difficulties of teleoperated robots wandering in the environment. Our pilot study confirmed that people could regard the masked person as a right person.
Consider the Moon. Human-Computer Bricolage of Extended Objects BIBAFull-Text 413-423
  Cosima Rughinis; Razvan Rughinis
Our minds are extended through tools -- from pencils on paper to clocks and computers. 'Extended minds' have gained acclaim in digital times, but have also stirred fear: do objects become smarter at our expense? We propose a new approach to help cultivate auspicious cognitive relationships with things: the 'extended object'. If our thoughts are extended through things, things can be symmetrically and methodically extended through our thoughts -- in conversation, and in time. Let us consider the Moon: Can it colonize us?
The Broken Dream of Pervasive Sentient Ambient Calm Invisible Ubiquitous Computing BIBAFull-Text 425-435
  Matthew P. Aylett; Aaron J. Quigley
We dreamt of technology becoming invisible, for our wants and needs to be primary and the tools we use for making them a reality to become like a genie, a snap of the fingers and ta daa, everything is realised. What went wrong? Was this always an impossible dream? How did we end up with this fetishised obsession with mobile phones? How did we end up with technology tearing apart our sense of experience and replacing it with 'Likes'. No one meant this to happen, not even US Corporates, they just wanted to own us, not diminish our sense of existing and interacting within the real world. In this paper we consider how tools took over, and how the dream of ubiquitous (or whatever its called) computing was destroyed. We rally rebellious forces and consider how we might fight back, and whether we should even bother trying.
A Formal Analysis of the ISO 9241-210 Definition of User Experience BIBAFull-Text 437-450
  Alexander G. Mirnig; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Daniela Wurhofer; Thomas Meneweger; Manfred Tscheligi
User Experience (UX) is a major concept in HCI and a variety of different UX definitions have been suggested within the scientific community. An ISO UX definition has been presented to standardize the term from an industry perspective. We introduce methods from formal logic in order to formalize and analyze the ISO UX definition with regard to consistency and ambiguities and present recommendations for an improved version. Although this kind of formalization is not common within the CHI community, we show that quasi-formal methods provide an alternative way of analyzing widely discussed HCI terms, such as UX, to deepen its understanding.

alt.chi: New User Interfaces

Emergent Interfaces: Constructive Assembly of Identical Units BIBAFull-Text 451-460
  Alexandru Dancu; Catherine Hedler; Stig Anton Nielsen; Hanna Frank; Zhu Kening; Axel Pelling; Adviye Ayça Ünlüer; Christian Carlsson; Max Witt; Morten Fjeld
In this paper, we present five types of constructive assemblies that emerge through a form-finding process resembling growth. The synthetic growth is obtained through the assembly of identical blocks performed by two competing users. Each block type gives rise to different morphologies during each assembly session depending on the user and the environment that is augmented through projection on the synthetic structure and around it. The digitally augmented tangible interface is evaluated by professionals and students in interaction design. We introduce the concept of Emergent Interfaces (EI), which proposes harnessing non-determinism, temporal design, and self-organization. This work could contribute to organic user interfaces and morphogenetic engineering.
Your Paper is Dead!: Bringing Life to Research Articles with Animated Figures BIBAFull-Text 461-475
  Tovi Grossman; Fanny Chevalier; Rubaiat Habib Kazi
The dissemination of scientific knowledge has evolved over the centuries from handwritten manuscripts transcribed and published as physical black and white prints-on-paper, to digital documents in full color available for consultation online. Even if it now primarily relies on digital media, academic publishing still generally adheres to its historical rigid paper-based style-where static content is presented at the ready-to-print letter format. In this paper, we reflect on our experience of authoring a published academic article that embeds an animated figure and discuss the opportunities and caveats of transitioning to such practice at the wider academic literature scale.
"I Woke Up as a Newspaper": Designing-in Interaction Analytics BIBAFull-Text 477-488
  Michael Evans; Lianne Kerlin; Caroline Jay
Spending the day as a newspaper, with your faculties and HCI curiosity intact, would allow rich observation of the interaction process: the reader's touch, gaze, expression... all relating valuable information about the user experience. Digital devices -- unlike newspapers -- have the capacity to log interaction data. We are still some way from fully exploiting it however, due to the data's size and complexity. Rather than simply logging data and trying to make sense of it, we suggest designing-in detailed UX-analytics. We report our experience challenging interaction designers to consider what they would like to know about the user, and how they could capture this data -- from the starting point of a sentient newspaper.
Not all Days are Equal: Investigating the Meaning in the Digital Calendar BIBAFull-Text 489-501
  Daniel Buzzo; Nicolo Merendino
The electronic calendar is a common tool used by large numbers of people to reflect and shape their daily activities. It's function and structure is rooted in legacy representations dating back thousands of years. Collaborating with designers and engineers our project seeks to re-consider what the calendar does for us and how we may perceive and represent our time, personally and collectively. This paper investigates the background to 'the calendar problem' and documents design-led research. Seeking to identify some of the key problems with the current representation and to establish criteria for new interpretations of the meaning of calendar.

alt.chi: HCI Methodology

HCI as an Inter-Discipline BIBAFull-Text 503-516
  Alan F. Blackwell
This paper responds to a 2014 paper by Liu et al seeking a quantifiable thematic core to CHI. As an alternative, I argue that CHI should strategically avoid the search for such a core, instead seeking its identity as a mode of responding and contributing to other disciplines.
The User Experience Designer's Charlatan Test: A First Step towards UX Sanity Checking BIBAFull-Text 517-529
  Jonathan S. Arnowitz
This paper proposes an introspective test to see whether the reader of this paper is a charlatan UX practitioner. If so, it points ways the reader can professionalize their practice. For the non-UX professional this questionnaire can act as an interview script to ascertain how professional a potential UX candidate is during a job interview. This paper also infers a need for a governing body of some kind to assure the quality of the practitioner. The test can be taken and evaluated. Future versions of this test look to include a wider coverage of UX best practices, techniques and methods.
Design + Ethnography + Futures: Surrendering in Uncertainty BIBAFull-Text 531-542
  Yoko Akama; Sarah Pink; Annie Fergusson
This paper aims to co-explore alternative ways that a designed product is not and could be, by committing to a future-oriented approach to research with users. We do not report results but share our process and reflections to discuss how a co-exploration with users underwent a transformative process of our researcher-selves to re-make what we know and more importantly, how we not-know.
Deep Cover HCI: A Case for Covert Research in HCI BIBAFull-Text 543-554
  Julie R. Williamson; Daniel Sundén
The growing popularity of methodologies that turn "to the wild" for real world data creates new ethical issues for the HCI community. For investigations questioning interactions in public or transient spaces, crowd interaction, or natural behaviour, uncontrolled and uninfluenced (by the experimenter) experiences represent the ideal evaluation environment. We argue that covert research can be completed rigorously and ethically to expand our knowledge of ubiquitous technologies. Our approach, which we call Deep Cover HCI, utilises technology-supported observation in public spaces to stage completely undisturbed experiences for evaluation. We complete studies without informed consent and without intervention from an experimenter in order to gain new insights into how people use technology in public settings. We argue there is clear value in this approach, reflect on the ethical issues of such investigations, and describe our ethical guidelines for completing Deep Cover HCI Research.

alt.chi: Arts & Philosophy

Reimagining Digital Fabrication as Performance Art BIBAFull-Text 555-566
  Laura Devendorf; Daniela K. Rosner
Within the HCI literature to date, digital fabrication systems are often oriented towards pre-determined goals and discussed in terms of the meaning of objects produced rather than the meanings of actions from which those object emerged. This paper draws from contemporary performance art to inform fabrication system designs that frame meaningful actions as the primary product of fabrication activity. In doing so, we open up new generative ideas for HCI theory and practice, specifically in relation to posthumanist and research through design agendas.
Behind The Scenes at HCI's Turn to the Arts BIBAFull-Text 567-578
  Rachel Jacobs; Steve Benford; Ewa Luger
Since 2000, Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has seen a turn to the artistic, looking at more provocative, cultural and social experiences. In doing so HCI is increasingly collaborating with artists who engage with real world data. Much of this work focuses on engaging the public in the spectacle of interactive experiences. In contrast, this paper takes a look behind the scenes by studying a collaboration between artists, climate scientists and researchers as they designed a participatory sensing system to interpret scientific data for public presentation. This paper presents this cross-disciplinary approach from the perspective of an artist/researcher on the project.
Touch of the Eye: Does Observation Reflect Haptic Metaphors In Art Drawing? BIBAFull-Text 579-588
  Suk Kyoung Choi; Steve DiPaola
We present preliminary indications from an examination of the relationship between stimulus fixation and subsequent motor activity in art drawing. We utilize eye-tracking technology to observe the complex vision cycles of an artist's drawing process, and a digital drawing tablet to capture motor activity. Early results suggest that deeper investigation of the relationship of eye and hand movement during artistic drawing may help to extend access to cognitive processes involved in the behavior and embodied response of artistic practice. We propose that a synthesis of phenomenological and technological modalities helps extend creative interactivity in computationally mediated self-expression.
Games Against Health: A Player-Centered Design Philosophy BIBAFull-Text 589-600
  Conor Linehan; Sabine Harrer; Ben Kirman; Shaun Lawson; Marcus Carter
This paper announces the "Games Against Health" (GAH) research agenda, a criticism of, and response to, the cultural imperialism of the "Games for Health" paradigm. Committed to player-centric design ethics, GAH seeks to dismantle the "games for health" myth as neo-liberal elitist diktat. We acknowledge the values, tastes and pleasures of billions of game players worldwide. We argue that game designers should engage more efficiently in the disimprovement of player health and wellbeing in order to cater to those players' existing preferences. We hope the paper can serve as a convenient reference for those designing psychotic, sociopathic or antisocial games.

alt.chi: Mindfulness and Care

Being Reasonable: A Manifesto for Improving the Inclusion of Disabled People in SIGCHI Conferences BIBAFull-Text 601-612
  Reuben Kirkham; John Vines; Patrick Olivier
Participation levels of people with disabilities in the SIGCHI community reflect a general inadequacy in how they are supported, and their interests promoted, within the ACM, the wider computing industry and academia itself. In response, we propose a manifesto for overhauling existing SIGCHI practices to increase the opportunities for including a wide range of disabled people in our research community through dissemination venues such as CHI. We set out the moral case for change, before providing a summary of UK disability discrimination law which we use identify sources of direct and indirect discrimination. Our goal has been to go beyond just accessibility: instead we emphasize disability inclusion in a much broader sense, and articulate a range of steps that can be conducted in order to meet this.
Communication in the Changing Dyadic Interaction of Diverse Players BIBAFull-Text 613-623
  Mark Rice; Hong Huei Tay; Jamie Ng; Ranieri Koh
In this paper, we present the findings of a two month exploratory game study in which we compared the verbal and non-verbal communication practices of two independent groups of older adults. Among other factors, these groups differed in their education, technology literacy and physical functioning. Through observational measurements, we outline significant differences and trends in players' paired interaction, which progressively changed through prolonged exposure to the game. By comparing player performance both within and between groups, we raise questions and provide some insights as to how differences in the backgrounds of older players can influence dyadic interaction in collocated play.
Towards Mindfulness: Between a Detour and a Portal BIBAFull-Text 625-637
  Yoko Akama; Ann Light
Motivated by a concern with mindlessness in living and designing and how it might lead to outcomes that are poorly considered in their broader ecology, we ask: what if we imagine technology conceived with mindfulness in mind? To develop this thought, we examine two 'found designs' that have a cultural significance and are deeply embedded in everyday practices -- the cigarette and the torii gate. These objects are seen as somewhere between a detour or a portal for the authors in practicing mindfulness. Using these examples, we discuss the subtle space between designing for mindfulness, which we believe is unachievable, and being aware as designers that the tools we make can have this further potential use.
Captchat: A Messaging Tool to Frustrate Ubiquitous Surveillance BIBAFull-Text 639-646
  Paul Dunphy; Johannes Schöning; James Nicholson; Patrick Olivier
There is currently a widespread uncertainty regarding the ability of citizens to control privacy online in the face of ubiquitous surveillance. This is a huge and complex societal problem. Despite the multi-faceted nature of the problem, we propose that HCI researchers can still make a positive contribution in this space through the design of technologies that support citizens to engage with issues of surveillance. In this paper we describe the design of a messaging application called Captchat. Captchat enables people to send everyday messages embedded into images, with the added ability to apply visual distortions to the message to resemble an online CAPTCHA. We propose the chief benefit would be that Captchat messages (with potentially "one-time" distortions) can increase the difficulty for algorithms to index private messages and necessitate the involvement of much more costly human labor in the surveillance process. We developed a prototype and conducted a user study; the results suggest that people were likely to create Captchat messages that were difficult to index for an OCR package but still easy to understand by humans, even without explicit instructions to interact 'securely' with the application. While more work is still required to understand the limitations of Captchat, we hope it can open discussion on how HCI researchers can respond to the challenges faced from ubiquitous surveillance.

Case Studies: Industrial Innovation

12 Way Mirror: Reflecting on Window Displays BIBAFull-Text 647-654
  Lida Theodorou; Patrick G. T. Healey
Shop windows are the paradigmatic design environment for attracting and holding people's attention. They also provide a handy mirror in which people can check their appearance. The 12-way mirror project plays with this duality by building and testing an interactive installation that tracks people's reflections as they look into a shop window. Three versions of the installation are compared, one with static mirrors, one with moving mirrors and one with face-tracking mirrors. These were tested over a 5 day period in the window display of an Eyewear shop on a busy commercial road in East London. Data were collected on how many people looked in the window, for how long and what they did while looking. The results show that while movement attracts people's attention and stops them, their own reflection is most effective in keeping their interest.
Industry Is Changing, and So Must We BIBAFull-Text 655-661
  Umer Farooq; Joseph T. Munko
This case study is a call to action for research practitioners and academicians to revamp their skills and curriculum respectively. Failure to evolve will likely marginalize the user research discipline in industry.
BodyGuard: A Case Study of Telecare Product Innovation and Development BIBAFull-Text 663-670
  Andrea Taylor; Lorna Bernard; Hugh Pizey; Craig Whittet; Samantha Davies; David Hammond; Julian Edge
Telecare is personal and environmental sensors that support people to remain safe and independent in their own home for longer. Telecare plays an important role in addressing the challenges of an ageing population. However, many people do not wear the most common form provided, the community alarm, for reasons that include the way that it looks. In the UK, a contributing factor to this problem is that manufacturers cater to telecare service providers (e.g. local authorities) and as a result, service users are not involved in design processes. This paper describes a redesign of the community alarm by a leading manufacturer, involving participatory design activities with users and the wider public, and design internships. The main innovation of the new community alarm, called BodyGuard, is that it connects with the user's smartphone to enable it to work outside the home. We report insights and lessons learned during the innovation process, within the context of social care reforms giving people more control and choice over the services that they receive.
Volvo Single View of Vehicle: Building a Big Data Service from Scratch in the Automotive Industry BIBAFull-Text 671-678
  Pawel Wolniak; Robert Valton; Morten Fjeld
Big data analytics is a major trend affecting business today. Many organizations collect vast amounts of data simply to investigate if its market value can be identified. In this case study, we contribute a practical example of using the big data approach to create innovative services. We describe our work to identify and integrate data sources in order establish what data is available and who may benefit from it. We then show how we worked with users to communicate the vast possibilities created when many data sources are integrated, and participated in building a new big data service. Finally, we share a set of lessons we learned which can guide future big data inquiries. Our work was conducted in the context of the inspection, service, and sale of Volvo trucks, significantly aiding risk management for Volvo Used Trucks EMEA.

Case Studies: Art & Life

Artistic Distance: Body Movements as Launching Points for Art Inquiry BIBAFull-Text 679-686
  Kimiko Ryokai; Noriko Misra; Yoshinori Hara
How does the body matter in art observations? Do physical distances, movements, and perspectives influence the way one appreciates art? Do experts and novices use their body differently in engaging with art objects? We present results of our studies with 22 art experts and novices in two types of art, "Ikebana" (Japanese traditional flower arrangement) and abstract paintings. In both types of art, we observed that experts engaged with the art from multiple perspectives while exhibiting minimal movements around the art. Novices, in contrast, either hovered around the art looking for clues of interpretations or did not move at all due to lack of interest. We discuss implications for design of embodied systems that can support users with various levels of expertise.
TRANSFORM: Embodiment of "Radical Atoms" at Milano Design Week BIBAFull-Text 687-694
  Hiroshi Ishii; Daniel Leithinger; Sean Follmer; Amit Zoran; Philipp Schoessler; Jared Counts
RANSFORM fuses technology and design to celebrate the transformation from a piece of static furniture to a dynamic machine driven by streams of data and energy. TRANSFORM aims to inspire viewers with unexpected transformations, as well as the aesthetics of a complex machine in motion. This paper describes the concept, engine, product, and motion design of TRANSFORM, which was first exhibited at LEXUS DESIGN AMAZING 2014 MILAN in April 2014.
Moving on its Own: How do Audience Interacts with an Autonomous Moving Artwork BIBAFull-Text 695-702
  Florent Levillain; Sébastien Lefort; Elisabetta Zibetti
In contemporary art, a new type of artworks use motion as a material from which to create the illusion of life. These autonomous robotic artworks have a behavioral specificity; they tend to be perceived as living, and by some account intentional entities. To account for this behavioral specificity and how it affects the audience experience, we propose a data-driven approach to reveal specific visit patterns. Through a cluster analysis performed on visitors' path inside an installation involving autonomous objects, we highlight four different attitudes characterized by patterns of approach or withdrawal, passive observation and exploration.
Colormaps that Improve Perception of High-Resolution Ocean Data BIBAFull-Text 703-710
  Francesca Samsel; Mark Petersen; Terece Geld; Greg Abram; Joanne Wendelberger; James Ahrens
Scientists from the Climate, Ocean and Sea Ice Modeling Team (COSIM) at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are interested in gaining a deeper understanding of three primary ocean currents: the Gulf Stream, the Kuroshio Current, and the Agulhas Current & Retroflection. To address these needs, visual artist Francesca Samsel teamed up with experts from the areas of computer science, climate science, statistics, and perceptual science. By engaging an artist specializing in color, we created colormaps that provide the ability to see greater detail in these high-resolution datasets. The new colormaps applied to the POP dataset enabled scientists to see areas of interest unclear using standard colormaps. Improvements in the perceptual range of color allowed scientists to highlight structures within specific ocean currents. Work with the COSIM team members drove development of nested colormaps which provide further detail to the scientists.

Case Studies: Education & Work

Connective MOOC for K-12 Teacher Professional Development in Native American Pueblo Schools BIBAFull-Text 711-718
  Josephine Kilde; Lorenzo Gonzales
This case study describes preliminary work toward developing a teacher training project that is intended to increase STEM proficiency among elementary and high school teachers in Native American Pueblo schools in New Mexico. This project builds upon prior work that trained K-12 teachers to use investigative teaching, which in turn had a significant positive impact on the math and science proficiency of Native American and Hispanic students. The current project seeks to use Connectivist Massive Open Course (cMOOC) technology to capture and scale this professional development through the use of video, imagery, and community building in order to integrate Native American learning processes. The overall objective is to enable Pueblo teachers to more effectively teach STEM subject matter, as measured by an increase in both teacher and student content knowledge scores. If successful, the use of these technologies should facilitate rapid expansion of the program in all Native American reservation schools in USA, Canada, and Mexico.
Rapid Usability Assessment of an Enterprise Application in an Agile Environment with CogTool BIBAFull-Text 719-726
  Anil Shankar; Honray Lin; Hans-Frederick Brown; Colson Rice
Lab based user testing with participants quickly becomes a bottleneck for UX teams in the industry that exist in an Agile software development environment characterized by frequent release cycles and continually changing requirements. For such teams to reduce this testing time and to quickly glean usability insights we leverage human performance modeling via CogTool. Our work compares CogTool's expert user model's task time with actual user time from lab sessions in two user studies. In these two studies CogTool's task time estimates were statistically significantly lower when compared to lab based user times but the two task times were positively correlated. We leverage this correlation between CogTool task times and lab user times to build a predictive user model. Next, we apply this user model to rapidly evaluate two new designs without lab based user testing. Based on these results we provide recommendations for Agile UX teams to harness CogTool for enhancing user research efforts and thereby reduce the bottleneck of lab based user testing.
Testing the Effectiveness of iPad Math Game: Lessons Learned from Running a Multi-Classroom Study BIBAFull-Text 727-734
  Kristen Pilner Blair; Jay Pfaffman; Maria Cutumisu; Nicole Hallinen; Daniel Schwartz
Many educational products designed for young children go through extensive user testing, but rarely through a rigorous examination of whether they improve learning. We describe our experiences and lessons learned from conducting a multi-classroom study to examine learning from an iPad math app we developed for preschool and kindergarten children. Focusing on the research experience itself, we describe six common challenges to conducting learning research with technology and young children, as well as six principles to help mitigate the challenges. This paper is intended to help others who wish to assess learning from educational games for children.
Historical Research Using Email Archives BIBAFull-Text 735-742
  Sudheendra Hangal; Vihari Piratla; Chaiyasit Manovit; Peter Chan; Glynn Edwards; Monica S. Lam
Archives of letters and documents belonging to individuals provide valuable insights into history. In the digital age, such history is being captured in personal digital archives, especially in the form of email. Archival organizations have recognized the importance of email archives and often collect email when they acquire the papers of eminent donors; however they find it difficult to screen, process and provide access to email for research, due to its sheer volume. We describe the considerations we encountered with the email archives of two prominent individuals in the special collections of Stanford University Libraries. We have designed novel approaches to the challenges of (1) Reconciliation with authority records, (2) Making "finding aids" of the archive available to the general public, without revealing confidential information, and (3) Browsing an email archive when one may not know what exactly to look for. Our solutions have been implemented in a publicly available and open source system called ePADD. As a result, we enable donors and archival organizations to appraise, process and screen large-scale email archives, thereby unlocking the historical value embedded in them.

Case Studies: Observation & Interaction

The 6th Finger: Practical Challenges in the Design of a Multitouch Audio Appliance BIBAFull-Text 743-749
  Wolfgang Beer; Mario Winterer; Bernhard Schauer; Christian Salomon; Karl Putzhammer; Thomas Rechberger
Effective multitouch interaction does not reduce itself to a simple tracking of five fingers, there are several emerging effects that could prevent intuitive interaction in industrial appliances. This use-case describes practical challenges that were documented during the design and implementation of a holistic user interaction design in the domain of high-end audio equipments. The engineering process had to combine tangible user interface controls with state-of-the-art multitouch software fader panels in an intuitive way. This work also gives some background information about complex distributed audio routing equipment and user interaction along with technology and usability issues that appear during the design of a multitouch appliance. Several experiments were implemented in order to gain empiric data to substantiate our practical findings.
Photo Based Observation Method: How to Quickly Observe the Behavior of the User BIBAFull-Text 751-757
  HeeJeong Son; Hyunsoo Kim; Hyojung Kim
Although users are still important in ever-changing mobile market, the time for understanding needs of the users is limited. In this context, we have utilized photos in observing the users in PBO method (Photo Based Observation Method) with which the behavioral pattern of the users can be easily and quickly discovered. PBO method has a 5-step research process -- prediction, collection, classification, deduction and verification. Our 10 examiners, respectively, have taken photos of easily-witnessed user behaviors around each of them with their own smartphones for 7 days and we have collected and analyzed the photos. As a result, we found out 7 different patterns on how the users utilize their mobile devices. We expect such methodology to be useful in easily and quickly observing and collecting a common behavioral pattern of multiple users, providing us an opportunity to discover the users' needs through their natural actions.
Representation Strategies Adopted by Participants in a Population Stereotype Hunt: A Case Study for Icon Design BIBAFull-Text 759-764
  Avijit Sengupta; Klarissa T. T. Chang; Maffee Peng-Hui Wan; Wen Yong Chua
Population Stereotype tells interaction designers just one-half of the complete story. It informs them only about the level of general consensus regarding each representation generated by different participants. It does not provide answers to those questions, which ask how the representation is to be achieved. Identification of different representation strategies adopted by different participants can reveal the rest of the story. In the presence of more than one or no strong contenders (population stereotype), adoption of the right representation strategy can be really beneficial. As most of the representational strategies are complementary to each other, the combination of different representational strategies can lead towards a more representative icon development.
When Value is Greater than Money: a Micropayment System in Uganda BIBAFull-Text 765-772
  Rasmus Prentow; Rasmus Steiniche; Simone D. Johansen; Jeni Paay; Ivan Aaen; Jesper Kjeldskov
The Pay-E-Safe system is a token-based car battery powered electronic micropayment system for emerging markets in East Africa. This is the story of how it was developed with different ethnic groups in Kasese, Uganda, combining methods from HCI, software development, and business modeling. We created a system that is inexpensive to implement, sensitive to the Ugandan context (e.g. low incomes, unreliable power supplies and unstable Internet connections) and provides benefits to local vendors as well as added value to users and their families. Using observations, interviews and prototype evaluations with local Ugandans we studied people's spending behaviors and then explored alternative design solutions with them. Along the way, we discovered that a micropayment system could actually add value to the user experience beyond the exchange of money for services. This case study reports on how we designed the system and the additional value it afforded users.

Case Studies: Special Environments

Voice or Gesture in the Operating Room BIBAFull-Text 773-780
  Helena M. Mentis; Kenton O'Hara; Gerardo Gonzalez; Abigail Sellen; Robert Corish; Antonio Criminisi; Rikin Trivedi; Pierre Theodore
This case study represents our efforts to investigate the uses of voice control versus gestural control in the OR. We present a system we expressly built to allow for both gestural or voice control at the choice of the surgeon. We explain our deployment of this system in the context of cardiothoracic surgery and present a vignette on how the system was used in the moment by the attending surgeon. We learn that, in terms of design, its not just a question of saying voice is better for one type of functionality and gesture is better for another; rather, the benefits are circumstantial. Thus, there is a case for building in redundancy in control with both voice and gesture.
Can Androids Be Salespeople in the Real World? BIBAFull-Text 781-788
  Miki Watanabe; Kohei Ogawa; Hiroshi Ishiguro
The roles of robots in the real world have become more diverse depending on their bodily properties. In this study, we aim to determine the roles that androids, whose bodily properties resemble humans, could serve in the real world. Selling and purchasing are common human activities. Therefore, we proposed the use of an android as a salesperson with cognitive and affective strategies utilizing the advantages of online- and counter-selling methods. We conducted a field study to investigate whether androids could sell goods in a department store. As a result, our sales strategies worked well and the android could sell 43 sweaters that cost approximately 100 dollars each for 10 days. These results are important knowledge for determining how androids may serve new roles and communicate with humans in the real world.
An Outlook for Content UX in TV: The Emergence of Augmented Content BIBAFull-Text 789-796
  Sung Woo Kim; Eun Hye Park; Yae Eun Lee; Jong Sung Lee; Da Hee Lee; Eun Jin Kim
This case study describes the findings from our exploration on content user experience for next-generation live TV and VOD (Video-on-Demand) services. First, we introduce our background study on new trends in the TV industry. Based on this study, we list several keywords that characterize the content experience for next-generation TV. We then describe our interviews with six professionals working in content production. These interviews were conducted to verify our derived characteristics, and to collect the thoughts of these experts on the contribution of UX to future content production. Our study led us to a new research topic we call "Augmented Content," which we believe has significant potential to provide content UX for next-generation television services.
A Consensual and Non-ambiguous Set of Gestures to Interact with UAV in Infantrymen BIBAFull-Text 797-803
  Florent Taralle; Alexis Paljic; Sotiris Manitsaris; Jordane Grenier; Christophe Guettier
In the context of using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in hostile environments, gestures allow to free the operator of bulky control interfaces. Since a navigation plan is defined before the mission, only a few commands have to be activated during the mission. This allows a gestural symbolic interaction that maps commands to a set of gestures. Nevertheless, as gestures are not universal, this asks the question of choosing the proper gestures that are easy to learn memorize and perform. We propose a four step methodology for eliciting a gestural vocabulary, and apply it to this use case. The methodology consists of 4 steps: (1) collecting gestures through user creativity sessions, (2) extracting candidate gestures to build a catalogue, (3) electing the gesture vocabulary and (3) evaluating the non-ambiguity of it. We then discuss the relevance of the GV.

Keynote/Plenary Talks

Opening Keynote -- Crossing: HCI, Design and Sustainability BIBAFull-Text 805-806
  Yongqi Lou
Two great inventions that opened the era of human-computer interaction design-desktop and mouse-are now disappearing. Computers are becoming smaller and smaller, smarter and smarter. Everyone is now surrounded by many visible and invisible computers, which are all highly connected through the Internet ubiquitously. A new world of artificial intelligence is emerging. When the intelligence of human-being is expanded to his/her surroundings, condensed into a new kind of Intelligent life, the relationship between human-being and the rest of the world has been redefined. How to cross the boundaries and to enable the sustainable interaction between nature (the 1st system), human-beings (the 2nd system), artificial world (the 3rd system), and the cyber world (the 4th system), becomes an interesting proposition and merits new design. But before that, it's necessary to rethink the anthropocentric view and even design itself. The most attractive feature of design is optimistic. What makes a human being human, lies in that one is not leading a kind of life which merely has needs to be fulfilled, but can also use his/her subjective initiative to control and conduct his/her behavior for a certain common value. Today sustainability is not only a value of ethics, but a value of surviving. How to use and encourage a new kind of HCI design, to generate sustainable behaviors and social changes, further, to redesign the commensalism of the four systems mentioned above will be the main focus of my talk.
   Professor Dr. Lou Yongqi is Dean of the College of Design and Innovation at Tongji University in Shanghai. He is a full professor at Tongji, Visiting Professor at the School of Art, Design, and Architecture at Aalto University in Finland, and Visiting Professor at the School of Design of Politecnico di Milano in Italy. Lou has been the pioneer in China for design-driven innovation education that connects design, business, and technology. He advances these issues through his leadership of two institutions at Tongji University: the College of Design and Innovation, and the Sino-Finnish Centre. He also furthers this agenda through international collaboration.
   Prof. Lou is a leading figure in sustainable interdisciplinary design education, research, and practice. Lou was the first designer in China to connect social innovation and sustainable design thinking with rural development. This is the subject of his latest book, Design Harvests: An Acupunctural Design Approach Toward Sustainability. Lou's design works include the United Nations Pavilion of World Expo 2010, the LiangPing New Jindai Sustainable School funded by the China-US Center for Sustainable Development, and the TsingTao Horticultural Expo 2014.
   Prof. Lou is Vice President of CUMULUS, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design, and Media. He is Founding Executive Editor of She Ji -- the Journal of Design, Innovation, and Economics published by Tongji University and in cooperation with Elsevier. In 2014, the President of Finland honoured Lou with the Order of the Lion of Finland as a Knight, First Class.
Tuesday Keynote: UX Design in the IoT Era BIBAFull-Text 807-808
  Donghoon Chang
The current advancement of IoT technology has accelerated the era of hyper-connectivity in our lives. This has vastly driven convergence among different fields along with the expansion of our thoughts and behaviors. However, to provide meaningful experiences, these relational expansions and unprecedented possibilities opened up by IoT need to be founded on core human values. Furthermore, harmonious integration between technology and design is also essential. Today, I would like to talk about what must be done in order to foster the IoT as a human-centered innovation and how UX design can realize the well balanced and harmonious IoT environment.
   Donghoon Chang is Executive VP, Head of Design Strategy Team and UX Center in Corporate Design Center, Samsung Electronics. Since joining Samsung in 2006, he has played a critical role in establishing the company's design vision for the future which has gradually shifted from a focus on style and convenience to a holistic user experience design and has developed mid to long-term design strategies, including 'Design 3.0' which envisions design that delivers new meaning and delight to people and contributes to society by creating sustainable and innovative value.
   Chang received two MFA degrees from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago (Chicago, USA) and Seoul National University (Seoul, Korea). He worked for IBM Korea and Times; Space Tech inc. as a communications specialist and art director respectively. Before joining Samsung, he was a professor at EWHA Womans University (Seoul, Korea) where he taught visual design, information design as well as user experience design. He was selected as 'the 2nd most creative people in the world' by Fast Company in 2013.
ACM-W Athena Lecture -- Large-Scale Behavioral Data: Potential and Pitfalls BIBAFull-Text 809-811
  Susan T. Dumais
Over the last decade, the rise of web services has made it possible to gather traces of human behavior in situ at a scale and fidelity previously unimaginable. Large-scale behavioral data enables researchers and practitioners to detect adverse drug reactions and interactions, to understand how information diffuses through social networks, how people browse and search for information, how individual learning strategies are related to educational outcome, etc. Using examples from search, I will highlight how observational logs provide a rich new lens onto the diversity of searchers, tasks, and interactivity that characterize information systems today, and how experimental logs have revolutionized the way in which web-based systems are designed and evaluated. Although logs provide a great deal of information about what people are doing, they provide little insight about why they are doing so or whether they are satisfied. Complementary methods from observations, laboratory studies and panels are necessary to provide a more complete understanding of and support for search which is increasingly a core fabric of people's everyday lives. The CHI community should lead the way in shaping best practices and policy in behavioral log studies.
   Susan Dumais is a Distinguished Scientist at Microsoft and Deputy Managing Director of the Microsoft Research Lab in Redmond. Prior to joining Microsoft Research, she was at Bell Labs and Bellcore, where she worked on Latent Semantic Analysis, techniques for combining search and navigation, and organizational impacts of new technology. Her current research focuses on user modeling and personalization, context and search and temporal dynamics of information. She has worked closely with several Microsoft product groups (Bing, Windows Desktop Search, SharePoint, and Office Online Help) on search-related innovations. Susan has published widely in the fields of information science, human-computer interaction and cognitive science, and holds several patents on novel retrieval algorithms and interfaces. Susan is also an adjunct professor in the Information School at the University of Washington. She is Past-Chair of ACM's Special Interest Group in Information Retrieval (SIGIR), and serves on several editorial boards, technical program committees, and government panels. She was elected to the CHI Academy in 2005, an ACM Fellow in 2006, received the SIGIR Gerard Salton Award for Lifetime Achievement 2009, was elected to the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) in 2011, and received the ACM Athena Lecturer Award, and Tony Kent Strix Award in 2014.

Special Award Talks

SIGCHI Lifetime Practice Award BIBAFull-Text 815
  Susan M. Dray
The SIGCHI Lifetime Practice Award is presented to individuals for outstanding contributions to the practice and understanding of human-computer interaction. This award recognizes the very best and most influential applications of human-computer interaction. It is awarded for a lifetime of innovation and leadership and carries an honorarium of $5000. The criteria for the award are: Cumulative contributions to the field directly and through the leadership of others. Innovation and the stimulation of innovation through practice. Impact on the field, industry, and society. Influence on the work of others, and the growth of other HCI practitioners and researchers. Successful application of human-computer interaction to products, services, and systems. Reasonably active participant in the ACM SIGCHI community, although outstanding individuals active in other professional communities are considered.
SIGCHI Lifetime Research Award Talk: Thinking with Computers BIBAFull-Text 817
  James D. Hollan
We think with things, with our bodies, with marks on paper, and with other people. Thinking is a distributed, situated, and social activity that exploits the extraordinary facilities of language, representational media, and embodied interaction with the world. Today we increasingly think with computers. This includes desktop and laptop computers but more and more involves massive computer networks that deliver search results and provide access to a vast array of cloud-based services. At the same time, the monolithic computer of the recent past is coming apart and being reassembled in myriad new forms, including cell phones, tablets, digital pens, cameras that allow focusing after a picture is taken, glasses that can take a picture of what we see and tell us about it, sensors that capture our activity and support interaction by movement of hands and bodies as well as voice and eyes, and even cars that drive themselves.
   We are on the threshold of an era that is being described as the Internet of Things or, perhaps more accurately, as the Internet of Everything. The historical moment when people primarily worked in front of a single computer has passed. Computers are ubiquitous. They are being embedded in virtually every new device and the Internet and wireless communication enable their connection to each other and to ever-expanding information resources with previously unimaginable computational power. This is being accelerated by a radically changing cost structure in which the price is the same or less to use a thousand computers for a minute or a day than to use one computer for a thousand minutes or days. These and related developments are fundamentally changing the world in which we live and the ways we think, communicate, and interact within it.
   Yet for all their capacity and speed, using computers too often remains difficult, awkward, and frustrating. Even after six decades of design evolution there is little of the naturalness, spontaneity, and contextual sensitivity that characterize other activities nor is there the conviviality and flexibility of working with tangible media. Most time using computers is spent within applications, each designed to support specific functions and allowing interaction with information in only predetermined ways that are rarely sensitive to overall activity context or history of use and far too often we can look, but not touch, annotate, or personalize the information involved.
   Access to information needed to conduct daily life is spread across multiple applications and resources, resulting in fragmentation of activities and increased complexity. The rapidly expanding world of mobile apps, which are often walled off from each other and from other information sources, and the increasing use of multiple devices further fragments the ways we work and interact. Although we commonly use paper and digital work materials together, they remain elements of two distinct worlds.
   Disconnects between digital and physical worlds, lack of naturalness and context sensitivity, inability to tailor and personalize information and our interaction with it, and fragmentation of real activities across multiple applications and devices are systemic problems and unfortunately becoming accepted features of modern life.
   In this talk I argue that we need to challenge the legacy document- and application-centric view of information. We must design environments that move beyond simple metaphor-based imitation of static information entities to ones in which information is dynamic, operating according to cognitively-inspired physics that exploit human abilities, are sensitive to context and history, link the digital and physical worlds, and support web-scale information activities.
SIGCHI Social Impact Award BIBAFull-Text 821-822
  Leysia Palen
SIGCHI Social Impact Award is given to individuals who promote the application of human-computer interaction research to pressing social needs. The recipient will have past or current work within the HCI profession that demonstrates social benefit. Example criteria include: Facilitating use of computer and telecommunication technology by diverse populations. Increasing access to technology for those with limited educational opportunities. Reducing economic barriers for access to information and communication technologies. Promoting privacy, security, trust, and safety. Improving medical care, education, housing, water supplies, and nutrition. Supporting technologies for international development and conflict resolution. Improving human communication and reducing isolation. Reasonably active participant in the ACM SIGCHI community, although outstanding individuals active in other professional communities are considered.
   Crisis informatics addresses socio-technical concerns in large-scale emergency response. Additionally it expands consideration to include not only official responders (who tend to be the focus in policy and technology-focused matters), but also members of the public. It therefore views emergency response as a much broader socio-technical system where information is disseminated within and between official and public channels and entities. Crisis informatics wrestles with methodological concerns as it strives to develop new theory and support informed development of ICT and policy. Palen will describe the range of work her team has engaged in at CU-Boulder since 2006, and highlight the different branches of crisis informatics research through discussion of the multidisciplinary research they have conducted here.
   BIO: Leysia Palen is an Associate Professor of Computer Science at the University of Colorado Boulder. She is a faculty fellow with the ATLAS Institute and the Institute of Cognitive Science. She is also a Full Adjunct Professor at the University of Agder in Norway. Leysia Palen is a graduate of the University of California, San Diego with a BS in Cognitive Science, and of the University of California, Irvine with an MS and PhD in Information and Computer Science. Prof. Palen is a leader in the area of crisis informatics, an area she forged with her graduate students and colleagues at CU-Boulder. She brings her training in human-computer interaction (HCI), computer-supported cooperative work and social computing to bear on understanding and advancing socio-technical issues of societal import. Prof. Palen is the author of over 70 articles and a co-edited book in the areas of human computer interaction, computer supported cooperative work, mobility, and crisis informatics. She was awarded an NSF CAREER in 2006. She is an Associate Editor for the Human Computer Interaction Journal (Taylor and Francis) and for the Computer-Supported Cooperative Work Journal (Springer).


Technology Transfer of HCI Research Innovations: Challenges and Opportunities BIBAFull-Text 823-828
  Parmit K. Chilana; Mary P. Czerwinski; Tovi Grossman; Chris Harrison; Ranjitha Kumar; Tapan S. Parikh; Shumin Zhai
There has been a longstanding concern within HCI that even though we are accumulating great innovations in the field, we rarely see these innovations develop into products. Our panel brings together HCI researchers from academia and industry who have been directly involved in technology transfer of one or more HCI innovations. They will share their experiences around what it takes to transition an HCI innovation from the lab to the market, including issues around time commitment, funding, resources, and business expertise. More importantly, our panelists will discuss and debate the tensions that we (researchers) face in choosing design and evaluation methods that help us make an HCI research contribution versus what actually matters when we go to market.
You've Been Acquired! BIBAFull-Text 829-832
  Iram W. Mirza; Justin Maxwell; Meng Chee; Mike Buzzard
Today's mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are increasingly focused on the user experience and design expertise they bring to the acquiring entity. This panel will share vignettes based on personal M&A experiences that provide suggestions and recommendations for user experience teams on both the acquiring and acquired side of the table. The areas of focus for the discussions will be team, culture and design assimilation and how M&As can impact designers' work and personal growth as individuals cross over into new organizations.
Transdisciplinary Interaction Design in Design Education BIBAFull-Text 833-838
  Eli Blevis; Ilpo K. Koskinen; Kun-Pyo Lee; Susanne Bødker; Lin-Lin Chen; Youn-kyung Lim; Huaxin Wei; Ron Wakkary
Transdisciplinary design which is the idea of design that transcends disciplinary boundaries has been proposed as a fourth design paradigm of interaction design education, scholarship, and practice alongside the technical, cognitive, and ethnographic paradigms. As an educational concern in particular, its aim is to teach students how to bring a values orientation to interaction design. Its focuses are design frameworks, values and ethics, design for important themes such as sustainability, equity, adaptation, justice, and social responsibility. This panel maps the state of the art in transdisciplinary interaction design education, considering also design scholarship and practice in relation to design education. The panel collects together a group of educators from chosen to provide a global perspective, with panelists from Canada, Denmark, Hong Kong, Korea, and Taiwan.
10 Years of alt.chi: Reflections and Outlook BIBAFull-Text 839
  Morgan G. Ames; Barry Brown; Sidney S. Fels; Silvia Lindtner; Daniela K. Rosner; Roel Vertegaal
To commemorate the tenth anniversary of alt.chi, two of this year's alt.chi chairs, Ames and Lindtner, will moderate a panel with chairs from previous years to reflect on the legacy of alt.chi in the broader CHI community and discuss where the track should be headed in the future. We intend the panel to be highly interactive, incorporating the audience in discussion and debate. We encourage those with thoughts on alt.chi as well as those who want to learn more about the track, to attend and actively participate. The following questions will start the discussion: 1. What is the role of alt.chi in the CHI community, and how has it shifted across the last decade? 2. What alt.chi research papers or themes have been particularly influential or provocative? 3. What is the state of critical discourse and reflection in alt.chi? Has alt.chi been a successful venue for such work? Should it be? 4. Where is alt.chi headed, what is missing, and how could it change?
How Mobile Devices are Revolutionizing User Interaction BIBAFull-Text 841-846
  Hwanyong Lee; Neil Trevett; Tom Olson; Victor Erukhimov; Alon Oh-bach
In the mobile device ecosystem, standardization is a key component of user interface, user interaction, and user experience development. Application Programming Interface (API) standards play an especially important role in connecting software to silicon, creating consistent development environments and accelerating media. The Khronos Group is a non-profit industry consortium creating open standards for the authoring and acceleration of parallel computing, graphics, dynamic media, computer vision, and sensor processing on a wide variety of platforms and devices. OpenGL, the graphics standard API from Khronos Group, is widely used for the foundation layer in GUI development in many types of projects: from personal devices including PC, iOS, and Android; to safety-critical applications such as avionics. OpenCL, the cross-platform parallel programming interface, is widely used for massive computation in fields such as machine intelligence and computer vision. Mobile devices require powerful new user interaction capabilities. Khronos open standard APIs enable applications to access capabilities such as the use of sensors to collect user and environment information, and processing power to manipulate and understand the sensor data. Recently, Khronos Group announced the release of new API standard, which can be used as the foundation layer for innovative user experience applications in the near future. This workshop is organized to discuss these new Khronos Group technologies, and to share the features and the UI/UX innovations that mobile devices may realize in the future.
Why Google cannot be the # 1 in Korea?: In Search for Critical Success Factors from Local User Experience BIBAFull-Text 847-852
  Jinsoo Kim; Sungeon Kim; Sungwon Beck; Kihyun Jung
Why foreign companies are not successful in portal business in Korean market? We believe that there are at least three reasons for the phenomenon. First, domestic firms have their own methods and skills to collect users' needs and wants. Second, the domestic firms have efficient internal process of fast implementation. Finally, the role and responsibility of domestic UX teams are rather peculiar to the contexts of domestic internet market. This panel will be presented by the UX professionals from the three major internet portals in Korea. The panel will be presided by the president of Korean Internet Professional Association. Korea Internet Professionals Association, an affiliate of 'Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning', which researches Internet technologies, services, planning, design, development, design, promotion, advertising, marketing, analysis, contracting, purchasing, procurement, testing, supervision, evaluation, inspection, management, consulting and education using wired and wireless Internet is a non-profit organization which consists of Internet companies and Internet experts.

SIG Meetings

CCI SIG: Interactive Childhood -- Crossing Cultures and Continents BIBAFull-Text 853-856
  Janet C. Read; Juan Pablo Hourcade; Allison Druin; Panos Markopoulos; Tilde Bekker; Ole Sejer Iversen
Child Computer Interaction is a community within CHI that has been steadily growing. It hosts its own annual IDC conference and is a highly recognizable and vibrant contributor to the ACM CHI conference. In 2015, the CCI SIG aims to take advantage of the positioning of CHI in Seoul to consider how it might, as an academic community, best direct its work to broaden to different cultures of play, education and activity.
   The CCI2015 SIG will therefore seek to examine its own work by asking what cultural assumptions underpin its main theories and practices. The CCI SIG at CHI will mix together a set of 5-minute cameo presentations -- each examining a highly cited CCI paper -- with a world café approach and will develop solutions and priorities. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference.
SIG: Gender-Inclusive Software: What We Know About Building It BIBAFull-Text 857-860
  Margaret M. Burnett; Elizabeth F. Churchill; Michael J. Lee
Recent research has shown that some software that is intended to be gender-neutral is not, in fact, equally inclusive to males and females. But little is known about how to design software in a gender-aware fashion, and existing research on gender differences relevant to software design is scattered across at least five different academic fields (e.g., psychology, computer science, education, communications, and women's studies). This research SIG will bring together female and male academics, industry researchers, and practitioners with three goals in mind: (1) to build community across research/practice boundaries; (2) to pool our knowledge on promising practices for design and evaluation of software from a gender perspective; and (3) to begin to build a shared, on-line research and literature base to support solid, well-informed progress on this important issue.
How and Why to Start and Run a SIGCHI Local Chapter BIBAFull-Text 861-864
  Tuomo Kujala
There is a vast and increasing interest towards local HCI communities around the globe and in particular on geographical areas in which HCI has only recently started to gain increasing interest by local industries as well as academic institutions. A SIGCHI Local Chapter is one of the ways a local HCI community can organize and get visibility and support for their activities. However, many active volunteers in this field might not be aware of this possibility. The main goal of the Chapters' SIG in CHI'15 is to inform interested parties of SIGCHI Local Chapters and to find ways in which SIGCHI could better support local HCI communities with their various needs all over the world.
Design for Online Deliberative Processes and Technologies: Towards a Multidisciplinary Research Agenda BIBAFull-Text 865-868
  Lu Xiao; Weiyu Zhang; Anna Przybylska; Anna De Liddo; Gregorio Convertino; Todd Davies; Mark Klein
There has been rapidly growing interest in studying and designing online deliberative processes and technologies. This SIG aims at providing a venue for continuous and constructive dialogue between social, political and cognitive sciences as well as computer science, HCI, and CSCW. Through an online community and a modified version of world cafe discussions, we contribute to the definition of the theoretical building blocks, the identification of a research agenda for the CHI community, and the network of individuals from academia, industry, and the public sector who share interests in different aspects of online deliberation.
Understanding Sports-HCI by Going Jogging at CHI BIBAFull-Text 869-872
  Florian Floyd Mueller; Joe Marshall; Rohit Ashok Khot; Stina Nylander; Jakob Tholander
More and more technologies are emerging that aim to support sports activities, for example there are jogging apps, cycling computers and quadcopters for sportspeople to videorecord their actions. These new technologies appear to become more and more popular, yet interaction design knowledge how to support the associated exertion experiences is still limited. In order to bring practitioners and academics interested in sports-HCI together and examine the topic "in the wild", we propose to go outside and jog around the CHI venue while using and discussing some of these new technologies. The goal is to investigate and shape the future of the field of sports-HCI.

WIP Theme: Accessibility

Understanding Interactive Interface Design Requirements for the Visually Impaired BIBAFull-Text 881-886
  Joongsin Park; Beomtaek Jeong; Seungjai Jeon; Sehyung Han; Jun-Dong Cho; JeongGil Ko
While taxies are widely considered as an easily accessible form of transportation to many, for the visually impaired, utilizing taxi services can be a significant challenge. In this paper we envision a system architecture where visually impaired people use GPS-enabled mobile computing devices to easily reserve and access taxi services. Specifically, as the first step in designing such a system, we try to understand the preferred interaction interface requirements of the visually impaired population using a set of interviews conducted over 28 visually impaired participants. Our results show that the smartphone usage rate of our interview participants is 60%; thus, smartphone-based applications should not be considered as the "everyone-will-use-platform" when interacting with the visually impaired. Results from an extensive set of questions reveal that interaction interfaces in the form of key chains and wrist watches can also be effective for various interactive applications.
DOWELL: Dwell-time Based Smartphone Control Solution for People with Upper Limb Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 887-892
  Hyunjin Ahn; Jaeseok Yoon; Gulji Chung; Kibum Kim; Jiyeon Ma; Hyunbin Choi; Donguk Jung; Joongseek Lee
This research suggests the use of DOWELL, a dwell-time-based smartphone control solution, for people with upper limb disabilities who are unable to interact with an interface. DOWELL is an application for smartphones that uses existing computer assistive devices and does not require additional assistive devices for smartphones. User interviews and task analysis results from eight participants with upper limb disabilities informed four design implications to create dwell-time software for smartphone so this have difference with solution for computer. Guardrail UI uses the edge of the mobile device to help people with upper limb disabilities. The use of various gestures on a smartphone without clicking is also suggested.
Touchology: Towards Interactive Plant Design for Children with Autism and Older Adults in Senior Housing BIBAFull-Text 893-898
  Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo; Annie Sungkajun; Jinkyo Suh
This paper presents Touchology, interactive plant projects that explore serenity and emotional attachment through meditative touch of plants with interactive audio-visualizations. Gardening is seen to improve mindfulness, memory and cognitive abilities. Those who are unable to benefit from this activity, such as the mentally and physically disabled are less prone to be exposed to the leisure. Due to simple technical setups, the projects presented here can be placed anywhere at the ease of the user. The pilot studies with target populations indicate that calming tangible interaction with plants can evoke mindfulness in a similar way to gardening related experiences.
The Elders Preference for Skeuomorphism as App Icon Style BIBAFull-Text 899-904
  Minji Cho; Soyoung Kwon; Nooree Na; Hyeon-Jeong Suk; KunPyo Lee
We explored the value of skeuomorphism as an icon style particularly for the elderly people. To identify the proper approach of skeuomorphism we articulated two factors such as degree of realism and level abstraction. We employed "call", "contact", and "camera" icons and created eight alternatives, four degrees of realism by two levels of abstraction for each. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 Korean elderly and asked about their preference and understandability depending on how the app icons are visualized. A conjoint analysis revealed that the degree of realism is more important for having an aesthetic satisfaction, whereas the abstraction level is more relevant for better understanding the function of an icon. Overall, the degree of realism is positively correlated with both preference and understandability. Moreover a direct metaphoric icon has an advantage to appeal more and to inform more efficiently, particularly for female or novice elderly users.
First Insights with a Vibrotactile Interface for Children with Multiple Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 905-910
  Cristina Manresa-Yee; Ann Morrison; Joan Jordi Muntaner
Designing and evaluating interactive systems for users with multiple disabilities is a challenge due to their cognitive, sensory, physical and behavioral conditions. Vibrotactile interfaces to motivate users' actions exist for users with hearing and sight impairments, but there are hardly any for users with multiple disabilities. We developed V-Sense, a vibrotactile interface that encourages children with multiple disabilities to move their arms by using vibrations and exploiting the saltation perceptual illusion. In this paper we describe our initial experience evaluating the interface with 5 children for 7 weeks and we discuss the first insights concerning the use of the interface and the difficulties encountered while conducting the evaluation sessions.
TopoTiles: Storytelling in Care Homes with Topographic Tangibles BIBAFull-Text 911-916
  Peter Bennett; Heidi Hinder; Seana Kozar; Christopher Bowdler; Elaine Massung; Tim Cole; Helen Manchester; Kirsten Cater
In this paper we present our initial ethnographic work from developing TopoTiles, Tangible User Interfaces designed to aid storytelling, reminiscence and community building in care homes. Our fieldwork has raised a number of questions which we discuss in this paper including: How can landscape tangibles be used as proxy objects, standing in for landscape and objects unavailable to the storyteller? How can tangible interfaces be used in an indirect or peripheral manner to aid storytelling? Can miniature landscapes aid recollection and story telling through embodied interaction? Are ambiguous depictions conducive to storytelling? Can topographic tangibles encourage inclusivity in group sharing situations? In this paper we share our initial findings to these questions and show how they will inform further TopoTiles design work.

WIP Theme: AI and HCI

Deploying AI Methods to Support Collaborative Writing: a Preliminary Investigation BIBAFull-Text 917-922
  Sebastian Gehrmann; Lauren Urke; Ofra Amir; Barbara J. Grosz
Many documents (e.g., academic papers, government reports) are typically written by multiple authors. While existing tools facilitate and support such collaborative efforts (e.g., Dropbox, Google Docs), these tools lack intelligent information sharing mechanisms. Capabilities such as "track changes" and "diff" visualize changes to authors, but do not distinguish between minor and major edits and do not consider the possible effects of edits on other parts of the document. Drawing collaborators' attention to specific edits and describing them remains the responsibility of authors. This paper presents our initial work toward the development of a collaborative system that supports multi-author writing. We describe methods for tracking paragraphs, identifying significant edits, and predicting parts of the paper that are likely to require changes as a result of previous edits. Preliminary evaluation of these methods shows promising results.
Be Informed and Be Involved: Effects of Uncertainty and Correlation on User's Confidence in Decision Making BIBAFull-Text 923-928
  Jianlong Zhou; Constant Bridon; Fang Chen; Ahmad Khawaji; Yang Wang
User's confidence in machine learning (ML) based decision making significantly affects acceptability of ML techniques. In this work, we investigate how uncertainty/correlation affects user's confidence in order to design effective user interface for ML-based intelligent systems. A user study was performed and we found that revealing of correlation helped users better understand uncertainty and thus increased confidence in model output. When correlation had the same trend with performance, correlation but not uncertainty helped users more confident in their decisions.
Effects of Agent Appearance on Customer Buying Motivations on Online Shopping Sites BIBAFull-Text 929-934
  Kazunori Terada; Liang Jing; Seiji Yamada
Although product recommendation virtual agents (PRVAs) are used in a large number of online shopping websites, the optimal types of agents in this context remain unclear. In the present study, we tested whether agent appearance affects people's buying motivations and analyzed the key factors in persuading people to buy products. The experimental results confirmed that recommendation effects vary according to agent appearance. Furthermore, we obtained a partial order ranking of the agent types, representing the effectiveness of their recommendations. The factor analysis results indicated that the perceptions of familiarity and intelligence in relation to appearance are the key factors in persuading people to buy products.
Ethics and Social Responsibility: Case Study of a Journal Cover Design Under Fire BIBAFull-Text 935-940
  Arisa Ema; Hirotaka Osawa; Hiromitsu Hattori; Naonari Akiya
Ethics and social responsibility is one of the hot topics in HCI research. This paper describes a case of a Japanese AI journal's cover design that evoked a huge public and academic discussion of its ethical and social implications in December 2013. The case implies a lack of dialogue and collaboration between the AI community and researchers in social sciences and humanities that may, in the long term, have a negative impact on the public perception of AI research. Although this is a case study in Japan, we expect that the case will serve as a warning for HCI researchers about the importance of being conscious about social and ethical research perspectives.

WIP Theme: Augmented Reality

AfterMath: Visualizing Consequences of Actions through Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 941-946
  Sang-won Leigh; Pattie Maes
Computing technology has advanced to a point where computers demonstrate better performance and precision in some analytical tasks than humans. As a result, we see a promising potential to significantly empower our decision-making process by providing relevant information just in time/space. In this paper, we present AfterMath, a user interface concept of predicting and visualizing consequences of a user's potential actions. We explore new possibilities through a prototypical system that harnesses physics simulation as a consequence-prediction method and uses augmented reality technology to visualize potential consequences. Finally, we suggest general guidelines for designing systems utilizing this concept.
Largibles: Large Tangible Interaction in Mobile Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 947-952
  Asier Marzo
Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) is a mature technology mainly owing to optical tracking libraries capable of determining the position and orientation of tangible markers. However, most of the applications employ only one marker or use them inside a limited interaction space. Here, we present two applications that try to go beyond these previous limits. Firstly, the PathMaker is a game in which a path in the real world is constructed with tangible markers. Meanwhile, virtual creatures will walk through the path requiring its exploration and maintenance. Secondly, TurtAR is a tangible programming language similar to Logo that uses as parameters several degrees of freedom from the markers. Finally, we present a simple algorithm that works on top of existing tracking libraries and supports multiple markers to track the device as well as to interact with the applications.
Parallel Web Browsing in Tangible Augmented Reality Environments BIBAFull-Text 953-958
  Mohammed AlSada; Tatsuo Nakajima
Parallel browsing is the behavior of concurrently visiting multiple web pages. Modern web browsers use multiple windows and tabs to support different parallel browsing users' tasks. Yet, multiple windows and tabs have significant flaws that hinder users' performance. Our approach attempts to support parallel browsing with an Augmented Reality web browsing environment that mainly relies on Tangible Interaction. To verify our approach, we developed a prototype and carried out a short user-study. In the short user-study, 70% of participants achieved a 21.37% decrease in the time required to complete a comparison task with our prototype. In addition, we found further advantages in flexibility of movement, learning time, and reduced memory load. Finally, we provided a short description about our future direction.
User Defined Gestures for Augmented Virtual Mirrors: A Guessability Study BIBAFull-Text 959-964
  Gun A. Lee; Jonathan Wong; Hye Sun Park; Jin Sung Choi; Chang Joon Park; Mark Billinghurst
Public information displays are evolving from passive screens into more interactive and smarter ubiquitous computing platforms. In this research we investigate applying gesture interaction and Augmented Reality (AR) technologies to make public information displays more intuitive and easy to use. We focus especially on designing intuitive gesture based interaction methods to use in combination with an augmented virtual mirror interface. As an initial step, we conducted a user study to identify the gestures that users feel are natural for performing common tasks when interacting with augmented virtual mirror displays. We report initial findings from the study, discuss design guidelines, and suggest future research directions.
OutsideMe: Augmenting Dancer's External Self-Image by Using A Mixed Reality System BIBAFull-Text 965-970
  Shuo Yan; Gangyi Ding; Zheng Guan; Ningxiao Sun; Hongsong Li; Longfei Zhang
External self-image is often used as an effective tool to enhance dancing technique, choreography, creativity, and expression. The traditional tools of presenting external image, such as mirrors or videos, are limited in their mobility, perspective, and immediacy. To address the issue, we present OutsideMe, a vision-sync mixed reality system that enables dancers see their body movements as external observers through a head-mounted display (HMD) device. This system captures dancer's posture and blends it into scenes from the dancer's original field of view in an interactive frame rate. The dancers can observe themselves without distracting their presence identities. In this research, we develop four work modes for supporting dancer's training, and carry out a feasibility study and a user study. The feedbacks from the participants performing various dancing styles are analyzed and discussed. The preliminary experimental results support our design.
Development of an Inexpensive Augmented Reality (AR) Headset BIBAFull-Text 971-976
  Daniela De Angeli; Eamonn J. O'Neill
We outline our work in developing an Augmented Reality (AR) headset with low purchase and maintenance costs. Similar to Google Cardboard, the headset uses a smartphone to provide the compute power, connectivity and display. Unlike Google Cardboard, our headset does not block the user's view of the world and is therefore suitable for AR applications. The headset uses the Pepper's Ghost illusion to display images from the phone's screen via a transparent sheet located in front of the user's eyes. During a pilot study, we confirmed that the headset is effective in settings with low to medium levels of ambient illumination: in these conditions we demonstrated the effectiveness of using a mobile phone's standard screen brightness settings to present a range of photos, 3D images, short texts and shapes.
Augmenting Affect from Speech with Generative Music BIBAFull-Text 977-982
  Gerhard Johann Hagerer; Michael Lux; Stefan Ehrlich; Gordon Cheng
In this work we propose a prototype to improve interpersonal communication of emotions. Therefore music is generated with the same affect as when humans talk on the fly. Emotions in speech are detected and conveyed to music according to music psychological rules. Existing evaluated modules from affective generative music and speech emotion detection, use cases, emotional models and projected evaluations are discussed.
On the Spot Information in Augmented Reality for Teams in the Security Domain BIBAFull-Text 983-988
  Stephan Lukosch; Heide Lukosch; Dragos Datcu; Marina Cidota
For operational teams in the security domain it is important to quickly and adequately exchange context-related information. This is necessary to develop distributed situational awareness and facilitate collaboration. Currently, information exchange is mainly based on oral communication. Oral communication can be misunderstood or ambiguous. This paper reports on different scenarios from the security domain in which augmented reality (AR) techniques are used to support information exchange. A combination of quantitative and qualitative evaluation showed that AR can improve the distributed situational awareness of a team.
Augmenting Indirect Multi-Touch Interaction with 3D Hand Contours and Skeletons BIBAFull-Text 989-994
  Ilya Efanov; Joel Lanir
This work in progress aims at making indirect multi-touch interaction more usable by providing 3D visualizations of the hands and fingers so the user can continuously know their positions before an interaction occurs. We use depth sensing cameras to track the user's hands above the surface and to recognize the point of interaction with a plain horizontal surface at a predefined height. This allows us to support various visual augmentation techniques such as visualizations of 3D hand contours, skeletons, and fingertips that provide visual cues for depth estimation when the hand is above the surface as well as cues for when touching the surface. The purpose is to provide the users with effective and intuitive indirect multi-touch interaction on a regular desktop PC.

WIP Theme: Children and Teens

GNomon: Enabling Dynamic One-Switch Games for Children with Severe Motor Disabilities BIBAFull-Text 995-1000
  Sebastian Aced Lopez; Fulvio Corno; Luigi De Russis
Nowadays, video games represent one of the most popular forms of structured play. They allow children to enjoy very entertaining game mechanics, a variety of game genres and novel modes of interaction. However, this is not always the case for children with severe motor disabilities that rely on one-switch interfaces to access electronic devices. This work in progress presents GNomon, a framework based on the NOMON interaction modality which enables the creation of dynamic, entertaining and complex one-switch video games for children with severe motor disabilities. The framework was designed in close collaboration with a team of speech therapists, physiotherapists and psychologists from one of the Local Health Agencies in Turin, Italy. We also report the design and implementation of two GNomon-based games, which have already been accepted by the health agency experts to be tested with a group of their assisted children.
TanProStory: A Tangible Programming System for Children's Storytelling BIBAFull-Text 1001-1006
  Yunfeng Qi; Danli Wang; Lan Zhang; Yining Shi
Object-oriented programming is easily accessible by beginners, since it allows for modeling real-world entities as software objects. Storytelling is a natural way to introduce the basic concepts behind object-oriented programming. To convey object-oriented programming concepts to children, such as object, attribute and etc., we present a new tangible programming tool -- TanProStory, for children in 1-3 grades. Children can tell a story by arranging programming blocks to initialize a character and construct a program controlling its action. TanProStory consists of three parts: Programming blocks, Animation Game and Sensor input module. Programming blocks in TanProStory are surface-sensitive, i.e. only the command on the top surface can be detected. We conducted a preliminary user study and analyzed the results, which can guide a better design of TanProStory.
Kids in Fairytales: Experiential and Interactive Storytelling in Children's Libraries BIBAFull-Text 1007-1012
  Seokbin Kang; Youngwoon Lee; Suwoong Lee
Mixed Reality (MR) has the potential to improve the quality of users' experience by immersing users in the virtual world, but the limitations of computer vision and 3D graphics techniques have made it difficult to bring up practical applications. In this paper we present a mixed reality application that combines a mixed reality experience and storytelling to motivate young children to engage more in reading. We describe system design from physical space to software implementation and share our findings from 4 years of deployment. Since the first prototype was deployed at a national children's library headquartered in Korea, the accumulated number of young visitors reached 15000 and 20 additional children's libraries have installed the system. Our results demonstrate that mixed reality applications create a pleasant and engaging user experience for young children combined with storytelling.
Supporting the Disney Method with an Interactive Feedback System BIBAFull-Text 1013-1018
  Sarah Tausch; Fabian Nußberger; Heinrich Hußmann
Collaborative creativity techniques such as brainstorming, the Six Thinking Hats or the Disney method are common ways to generate ideas in groups. The Disney method is based on three roles aiming at helping groups to consider different views on a topic. As it is difficult for novices to comply with the requirements of this technique, we developed an interactive system supporting groups using this method. Each group member is provided with a tablet to enter ideas and choose the role in which a contribution is made, represented by different colors. We conducted a user study with eight groups and compared two versions: a baseline without additional support and a version with an additional feedback mechanism providing functional feedback about the distribution of the roles. Our main contributions are: (1) a system using feedback to support the Disney method and (2) results indicating that functional feedback can help modest group members to engage more in the group process.

WIP Theme: Cognition in HCI

CogniMouse: On Detecting Users' Task Completion Difficulty through Computer Mouse Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1019-1024
  Marios Belk; David Portugal; Eleni Christodoulou; George Samaras
This paper presents a method for analyzing users' computer mouse interaction data with the aim to implicitly identify task completion difficulty while interacting with a system. Computer mouse motion streams and users' skin conductance signals, acquired via an in-house developed computer mouse, and users' feedback were investigated as reactions to task difficulty raising events. A classification algorithm was developed, producing real-time user models of user hesitation states. Preliminary results of a study in progress with seven older adults at work (age 56+) provide initial indications about links between mouse triggering states of user hesitation and task completion difficulty.
Interactive Mouse Stream as Real-Time Indicator of User's Cognitive Load BIBAFull-Text 1025-1030
  Syed Arshad; Yang Wang; Fang Chen
User interaction and multimodal behavior have been argued as viable indicators of cognitive load. We extend this idea by exploring interactive mouse data stream and implementing sliding windows technique to detect cognitive load variation in real-time. This work-in-progress reports successful load change detections resulting from applying our unique algorithm to data streams of mouse interactivity features from twenty seven subjects. Unique contribution here includes learning from mouse interactive stream and a sliding window technique for cognitive load detection in real-time. This technique is currently being enhanced to process learning from multimodal user interaction streams.
Working Memory and the Detection of Different Error Types: Novel Predictions for Error Detection BIBAFull-Text 1031-1036
  Sze-yuen Yau; Simon Y. W. Li
Previous error detection research focused on the effectiveness of different checking methods. In this paper, we focus on the psychological mechanisms on error detection. We conceptualize working memory (WM) as a critical cognitive component in error detection and two studies were carried out to investigate the effects of WM load and capacity on error detection performance and the detection of different error types. Study I found a significant interaction effect of WM load x capacity: low WM capacity participants performed significantly worse in higher WM load condition, however, high WM capacity participants' performances were unaffected by higher WM load. Study II employed think-aloud technique to gain insights into detectable error types and generated novel predictions about the effect of WM demands on detecting different errors. These predictions allow for a new research direction in error detection.
So, Who Exactly IS The HCI Professional? BIBAFull-Text 1037-1042
  Ann Austin; Jose Abdelnour Nocera
Little is known about the cognitive profile of the HCI practitioner or educator, or how their individual differences impact upon practice in the field or the classroom. To address this, we conducted surveys to collect the cognitive style of practitioners, educators, and those with both roles, followed these up by interviews. It was found that practitioners are more comfortable employing both analytical and intuitive approaches than the general population, and that the educator is able to suppress intuitive tendencies when performing analytical tasks. The profile of the educator who practices is different from the educator who does not practice, and the educator who does not practice is more evangelical about the subject. Recognising and accepting these differences is essential if we are to design a curriculum that supports the needs of the field.
Utilizing the Effects of Priming to Facilitate Text Comprehension BIBAFull-Text 1043-1048
  Katrin Angerbauer; Tilman Dingler; Dagmar Kern; Albrecht Schmidt
Due to the ever-growing amount of textual information we face in our everyday life, the skill of scanning and absorbing the essence of a piece of text is crucial. We cannot afford to read every text in detail, hence we need to acquire strategies to quickly decide on the importance of a text and how to grasp its content. Additionally, the sheer amount of daily reading makes it hard to remember the gist of every text encountered. Research in psychology has proposed priming as an implicit memory effect where exposure to one stimulus influences the response to a subsequent stimulus. Hence, exposure to contextual information can influence comprehension and recall. In our work we investigate the feasibility of using such an effect to visually present text summaries that are quick to understand and deliver the essence of a text in order to help readers not only make informed decisions about whether to read the text or not, but also to build out more cognitive associations that help to remember the content of the text afterward. In two focus groups we discussed our approach by providing four different visualizations representing the gist and important details of the text. In this paper we introduce the visualizations as well as results of the focus groups.

WIP Theme: Communities

The Gauntlet: The Design of a Community Challenge Platform BIBAFull-Text 1049-1054
  Daniel Hawkins; Clarissa Ishak; MaoYang Li; Jason Procyk; Carman Neustaedter; Serena Hillman
Many people in present culture have a desire to improve themselves in some way, be it increased physical fitness, healthy eating, better sustainable practices, etc. Yet it can often be difficult to follow through with self-improvement goals. To address this, we designed the Gauntlet, a platform for creating and sharing user-generated challenges that can be carried out in real-world settings. We describe the participatory design activity we used to inform our design followed by the final design of the Gauntlet user interface. We also propose how this platform can be used to support personal goal and community improvement.
BeWell: A Sentiment Aggregator for Proactive Community Management BIBAFull-Text 1055-1060
  Andreas Lindner; Margeret Hall; Claudia Niemeyer; Simon Caton
Granular, localized information can be unobtrusively gathered to assess public sentiment as a superior measure of policy impact. This information is already abundant and available via Online Social Media. The missing link is a rigorous, anonymized and open source artefact that gives feedback to stakeholders and constituents. To address this, BeWell, an unobtrusive, low latency multi-resolution measurement for the observation, analysis and modelling of community dynamics, is proposed. To assess communal well-being, 42 Facebook pages of a large public university in Germany are analyzed with a dictionary-based text analytics program, LIWC. We establish the baseline of emotive discourse across the sample, and detect significant campus-wide events in this proof of concept implementation, then discuss future iterations including a community dashboard and a participatory management plan.
Testing in the Field: Voice Based Interaction for Citizen Reporting in Uganda BIBAFull-Text 1061-1066
  Asreen Rostami; Valeriy Savinov; Louise Barkhuus
In developing countries where Internet is not readily accessible and literacy sometimes low, Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems have been shown to provide opportunities in a variety of civic activities. In this way, such systems can give the opportunity to more easily influence and participate in public affairs. However the lack of an efficient system of administration can delay delivering the collected reports to the relevant organizations or authorities. This paper presents a study of a citizen reporting system that was developed, implemented and tested in Uganda. This was done in collaboration with the Women of Uganda Network an organization to empower women using ICT. We studied an IVR system called U-Call that allows administrators to easily publish and tag audio reports over the Web (reported by citizen) using low generation mobile devices. We highlight a number of issues, including multiple authentication process that needs to be taken into account for future development. We emphasize the importance of field studies in understanding and designing for this user group and understanding the reality of the technical infrastructure available.
Bringing the Farmer Perspective to Agricultural Robots BIBAFull-Text 1067-1072
  Fiona Redhead; Stephen Snow; Dhaval Vyas; Owen Bawden; Ray Russell; Tristan Perez; Margot Brereton
The research reported in this paper explores autonomous technologies for agricultural farming application and is focused on the development of multiple-cooperative agricultural robots (AgBots). These are highly autonomous, small, lightweight, and unmanned machines that operate cooperatively (as opposed to a traditional single heavy machine) and are suited to work on broadacre land (large-scale crop operations on land parcels greater than 4,000m2). Since this is a new, and potentially disruptive technology, little is yet known about farmer attitudes towards robots, how robots might be incorporated into current farming practice, and how best to marry the capability of the robot with the work of the farmer. This paper reports preliminary insights (with a focus on farmer-robot control) gathered from field visits and contextual interviews with farmers, and contributes knowledge that will enable further work toward the design and application of agricultural robotics.
Passing On: Reader-Sourcing Gender Diversity in Wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 1073-1078
  J. Nathan Matias; Sophie Diehl; Ethan Zuckerman
This paper presents work in progress on "reader-sourcing," an approach to cooperative content creation through the reading behavior of crowds. We present the Passing On system, that reader-sources the creation and expansion of Wikipedia articles about women, aiming to support frame changes on women's representation and offer a counter-public for novice Wikipedians. In Passing On, browsing and searching creates Wikipedia content when reading about notable women not yet in Wikipedia. This paper presents the design goals, working system, and evaluation plan.
What Makes a Place More Familiar?: Implications of Geospatial Information Format and Content BIBAFull-Text 1079-1084
  Myeong Lee; Luis S. Santos; Wei Zhao; Preeti Lakhole; Brian S. Butler
Geo-local systems can significantly increase users' familiarity with new places. However, for these systems to be useful, geospatial information needs to be presented in ways that those systems can minimize users' difficulties of learning about a new place. This raises a fundamental question about what kinds and representations of geospatial information are effective in making a place more familiar, so that people can adjust to the place more easily even before visiting the unfamiliar world. This study focuses on modeling representations of geospatial information, and their effects on people's familiarity of places. The results show that content and format of geospatial information matter in their familiarity about a place in terms of their perceptions and knowledge. Designers and researchers of social computing systems can benefit from this study so that geospatial information can be more effectively distributed through online systems.
Perceived Risk and Self-Efficacy Regarding Internet Security in a Marginalized Community BIBAFull-Text 1085-1090
  Eunjin (EJ) Jung; Evelyn Y. Ho; Hyewon Chung; Mark Sinclair
As part of the ongoing CRISP project (Communicating Risk in Internet Security and Privacy), we conducted a user study in a marginalized community to better understand community members' interactions with computers and the Internet in terms of security and privacy. We used the Health Belief Model to understand what factors affect members' behavior when a potential attack is present. In particular, we focused on two factors, perceived risk and self-efficacy, and interviewed 44 participants about them. In this paper, we report our preliminary quantitative and qualitative findings.
Towards a Gender HCI Curriculum BIBAFull-Text 1091-1096
  Samantha Breslin; Bimlesh Wadhwa
The interaction between humans and computers, at the center of HCI research, embodies societal values and norms relating to gender and other forms of identity. However, there is limited knowledge and understanding among students and researchers regarding theories of and approaches to gender. We therefore argue for integrating Gender HCI as part of HCI curriculum and education. We also provide a brief outline of the core topics, learning outcomes, and possible activities and assessments a Gender HCI module should cover.
BudgetMap: Issue-Driven Navigation for a Government Budget BIBAFull-Text 1097-1102
  Nam Wook Kim; Chang Won Lee; Jonghyuk Jung; Eun-Young Ko; Juho Kim; Jihee Kim
We present BudgetMap, an interactive tool for navigating budgets of government programs through a lens of social issues of public interests. Our novel issue-driven approach can complement the traditional budget classification system used by government organizations by addressing time-evolving public interests. BudgetMap elicits the public to tag government programs with social issues by providing active and passive tagging methods. BudgetMap then facilitates visual exploration of the tagged budget metadata. Through a lab study, we show how the design of BudgetMap helps users develop awareness and understanding of budgetary issues while identifying issue-budget links. We also share lessons learned from a preliminary live deployment.
Every Little Helps: Understanding Donor Behavior in a Crowdfunding Platform for Non-profits BIBAFull-Text 1103-1108
  Aejin Song; Hong-in Lee; Minsam Ko; Uichin Lee
As crowdfunding platforms like Kickstarter have gained in popularity, many non-profits have begun to use 'crowdfunding for non-profits' to fundraise for their projects. However, many projects fail to achieve their goals. Understanding donor behavior is essential to make fundraising successful. In this paper, we analyze donor behavior by collecting large-scale data from HAPPYBEAN, the largest crowdfunding platform for non-profits in Korea. In this study, we classified donors into five groups and analyzed donor behavior based on the following criteria, i.e., activeness, self-expression, and topical interests. We found that donors who contribute small amount of money and only a few times are critical for the projects' success. Our findings produce insights about donor behavior in crowdfunding for non-profits.
Understanding the Needs of Pakistani Farmers and the Prospects of an ICT Intervention BIBAFull-Text 1109-1114
  Omar Mubin; Joshua Tubb; Mauricio Novoa; Mustafa Naseem; Samia Razaq
This paper describes initial efforts in the form of a user research phase as part of a larger project to provide ICT based interventions to farmers in Pakistan to facilitate information dissemination. We conducted face to face interviews with 9 Pakistani farmers and 3 agricultural experts. Our main results show that mobile technology is present but under utilized, a strong peer reliance network exists and most information and media modalities are inaccessible. We relate the results obtained to design implications and future work.

WIP Theme: Displays

HoVerTable: Dual-sided Vertical Mid-air Images on Horizontal Tabletop Display BIBAFull-Text 1115-1120
  Hanyuool Kim; Hiroki Yamamoto; Naoya Koizumi; Satoshi Maekawa; Takeshi Naemura
Tabletop displays have been used to share information among multiple users. However, there are two problems with current tabletop displays: The display area is limited to horizontal surfaces, and there is a lack of view-dependent appearance regarding displayed images. The aim of this paper is to overcome these limitations by adding dual-sided vertical mid-air images to a horizontal surface for a richer and more impressive visual presentation. For this purpose, we introduce a plate-shaped mid-air imaging optics as a tabletop surface and a diffusion control film for the projection of horizontal images. The proposed system, "HoVerTable," can display a combination of horizontal and vertical images for users facing each other. We have developed interactive applications on HoVerTable, including a card battle game and an application for the augmentation of physical objects.
Shape Display Shader Language (SDSL): A New Programming Model for Shape Changing Displays BIBAFull-Text 1121-1126
  Christian Weichel; Jason Alexander; John Hardy
Shape-changing displays' dynamic physical affordances have inspired a range of novel hardware designs to support new types of interaction. Despite rapid technological progress, the community lacks a common programming model for developing applications for these visually and physically-dynamic display surfaces. This results in complex, hardware-specific, custom-code that requires significant development effort and prevents researchers from easily building on and sharing their applications across hardware platforms. As a first attempt to address these issues we introduce SDSL, a Shape-Display Shader Language for easily programming shape-changing displays in a hardware-independent manner. We introduce the (graphics-derived) pipeline model of SDSL, an open-source implementation that includes a compiler, runtime, IDE, debugger, and simulator, and show demonstrator applications running on two shape-changing hardware setups.
StackTop: Hybrid Physical-Digital Stacking on Interactive Tabletops BIBAFull-Text 1127-1132
  Jan Riemann; Mohammadreza Khalilbeigi; Niloofar Dezfuli; Max Mühlhäuser
The concurrent use of digital and physical documents on interactive surfaces is becoming more and more common. However, the integration of both document types is limited, one example being the ability to stack documents. In this paper we propose StackTop, an integrated system supporting ordered hybrid digital/physical piling (hybrid stacking) on interactive surfaces. This allows for a tighter physical/digital integration in hybrid workspaces and provides a more consistent approach when working with hybrid document sets.
The Tickler: A Compliant Wearable Tactile Display for Stroking and Tickling BIBAFull-Text 1133-1138
  Espen Knoop; Jonathan Rossiter
We present the Tickler, a compliant wearable tactile display that creates natural-feeling stroking sensations. The current state-of-the-art of tactile devices relies primarily on vibrotactile stimulation, which limits the possible sensations that can be created. There is a wide range of applications for tactile devices mimicking the sensation created by human touch, including mediated social touch and also tactile feedback applications. The Tickler employs an array of parallel bars that slowly move laterally over the skin in different patterns. It is underactuated and compliant, so that it can move with the skin of the user. In this paper we describe the Tickler, consider possible applications and present a preliminary user study.
Biogotchi!: An Exploration of Plant-Based Information Displays BIBAFull-Text 1139-1144
  Jacqueline T. Chien; François V. Guimbretière; Tauhidur Rahman; Geri Gay; Mark Matthews
In this paper, we discuss the opportunity to use plants as living information displays. This work focuses on systematic plant manipulation for affective individual feedback. Building on centuries of explicit plant manipulation and recent work in HCI, we explore the combination of personal informatics and plant-mediated feedback. We argue that plant-based information displays could offer affective, multi-sensorial and sometimes ambiguous signs for users. We describe our plant manipulation system and report the results of four experiments in this novel design space. We provide guidelines and suggestions for how designers can incorporate plant-based information displays into their work and conclude by exploring specific domains where plant-based displays could be effective as information displays for personal behavior, harnessing their accepted use in everyday settings and affective affordances.
Atypical Visual Display for Monitoring Multiple CCTV Feeds BIBAFull-Text 1145-1150
  Serge Pelletier; Joel Suss; Francois Vachon; Sebastien Tremblay
Despite advances in surveillance technologies, security and command and control (C2) centers still rely strongly on human operators to detect critical events. Human factors-such as cognitive workload and limited attentional capacity-have been shown to affect operators' ability to detect critical incidents. The current standard surveillance environment comprises a large screen layout that simultaneously displays multiple camera feeds. Although having access to all sources of information at once seems intuitively appealing, there is ample evidence to suggest that it can, in fact, lead to poor detection performance. We propose a design solution that is based on principles grounded in cognitive psychology and user experience design. One key objective is to test empirically whether an atypical design pattern that is consistent with serial cognitive processes induces better performance than the current standard surveillance environment. Three variations of the alternative display pattern will be tested by comparing their effects on detection performance within a surveillance microworld.
Finding Satisfactory Transparency: An Empirical Study on Public Transparent Displays in a Shop Context BIBAFull-Text 1151-1156
  Heesun Kim; Bo Kyung Huh; Seung Hyen Im; Hae Youn Joung; Gyu Hyun Kwon; Ji-Hyung Park
This paper focuses on designing an affective user interface for public transparent displays in a shop context. In order to maintain harmonious view and satisfactory experience, the relationship between the information and transparency needs to be considered. Therefore, in this paper, we investigate different levels of transparency for determining their appropriateness with regard to user's proximity. Two user studies show that 25% transparency is more satisfactory in closer proximity while 50% transparency offers more harmonious view in a distant context. Our findings on satisfactory transparency can be applied to a basis of further investigation for public transparent displays, especially in a shop context.
Enabling Human Micro-Presence through Small-Screen Head-up Display Devices BIBAFull-Text 1157-1162
  Scott Greenwald; Pattie Maes; Mina Khan
One of the main ways that humans learn is by interacting with peers, in context. When we don't know which bus to take, how to prepare plantains, or how to use a certain app, we ask a nearby peer. If the right peer is not around, we can use a mobile device to connect to a remote peer. To get the desired answer, though, we need to find the right person, and have the right affordances to send and receive the relevant information. In this paper, we define a class of micro-presence systems for just-in-time micro-interactions with remote companions, and explore dimensions of the design space. Informed by theories of contextual memory and situated learning, we present TagAlong, a micro-presence system conceived for learning a second language in context with help from a remote native speaker. TagAlong uses a connected head-mounted camera and head-up display device to share images of the wearer's visual context with remote peers. The remote companion can convey knowledge using these images as a point of reference -- images are sampled, annotated and then sent back to the wearer in real time. We report on a quantitative experiment to determine the effectiveness of using visual cues that involve spatial and photographic elements as a means of "pointing" at things to draw the wearer's attention to them.
A Concept for 3D Interaction on a Curved Touch Display BIBAFull-Text 1163-1168
  Henri Palleis; Mirjam Mickisch; Heinrich Hussmann
The handling of 3D content increasingly permeates amateur activities and occurs spontaneously on public displays. The design of interaction techniques for such scenarios is subject to tensions between established expert user interfaces, 3D touch interaction and the requirements of the usage context. We present a novel concept for 3D touch interaction on a curved display targeted at non-expert and spontaneous interaction scenarios. We further present preliminary results from an experiment, during which we compared our interaction technique with an established one for different 3D interaction tasks. The results indicate that for the chosen tasks both techniques perform equally well and point out room for further improvement.

WIP Theme: Gaming

Therapeutic Gaming in Context: Observing Game Use for Brain Injury Rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 1169-1174
  Jinghui Cheng; Cynthia Putnam
Video games are often used in brain injury (BI) therapy sessions to help motivate patients to engage in rehabilitation activities. However, very little is known about contexts of game use in real-world rehabilitation settings. In this paper, we explore contexts of commercial game use in BI therapy through observation of inpatient therapy sessions. Based on a systematic analysis of the observation recordings, we found that (1) only 30% of session time was used for gameplay; (2) therapists needed to provide various kinds of cognitive and physical patient support during the play sessions; and (3) therapists adopted multiple strategies to reinforce the therapeutic values of the games. This study is helping us create decision and information sharing tools to support the use and creation of games for BI rehabilitation.
Toward Telemetry-driven Analytics for Understanding Players and their Avatars in Videogames BIBAFull-Text 1175-1180
  Chong-U Lim; D. Fox Harrell
A great deal of research has gone into understanding the relationships between social behaviors, player preferences, and identities in both real-world and virtual environments. In this works-in-progress report, we describe AIRvatar, a tool that telemetrically collects data such as session-based time durations and click events during the process of avatar customization within a videogame of our own creation. We present results from a user-study of 181 players, highlighting how social phenomena such as gender-related stereotypes of users can be revealed, particularly when players' self-identified real world genders contrast with the gender identities of their avatars.
How to Measure the Game Experience?: Analysis of the Factor Structure of Two Questionnaires BIBAFull-Text 1181-1186
  Florian Brühlmann; Gian-Marco Schmid
We describe and report the analysis of two widely used questionnaires to measure the player experience in digital games. In order to contribute to the further validation and meaningful application of the PENS and GEQ we examined the underlying factorial structure of both questionnaires. Four hundred and forty-seven participants played two different games and rated them on a set of various variables including the PENS and GEQ. Consistent with previous research we gained additional insight into optimization of both measurements. While the factor structure of the PENS appears to be consistent and invariant across two different games, the GEQ reveals weaknesses in fulfilling these requirements.
Having Fun Over a Distance: Supporting Multiplayer Online Ball Passing Using Multiple Sets of Kinect BIBAFull-Text 1187-1192
  Tiffany Y. Tang; Pinata Winoto; Relic Yongfu Wang
We present Alone Together, a collaborative virtual ball playing environment augmented with three sets of Microsoft Kinect. The play environment fulfills a 'sport over the distance' them via the attempt to mimic the real world ball-passing exercise (or rehabilitation sessions) except that the players can be miles away from each other, and they interact without a physical ball. Moreover, our system allows each player to see the other two and their physical environment respectively, which is a combination of the physical world where players are situated and the virtual world where they play with each other. Kinect sensors are used to map players' action into a virtual world including the passing of the virtual ball. The system prototype was tested with two groups of players; a revised version was pilot tested with 48 players and lead to the final version of the system. Pilot testing results were encouraging in that players reported collective fun and increased social bonding. Meanwhile, player anonymity increased players' willingness to play the virtual-ball game with a stranger, which indicates that the game might be more suitable for those with less social fluency.
"It Was Sad But Still Good": Gratifications of Emotionally Moving Game Experiences BIBAFull-Text 1193-1198
  Julia Ayumi Bopp; Elisa D. Mekler; Klaus Opwis
Players have increasingly become interested in emotional game experiences beyond simple "fun". Although previous research has identified several gratifications of fun experiences, still little is known about whether and what gratifications players derive from emotionally moving game experiences. Interviews with 12 Japanese and Western players revealed several gratifications, such as liking to experience strong emotions, whereas other players did not enjoy being emotionally moved, but appreciated that the emotional experience stimulated reflective thought or allowed them to engage more with the game. Based on these findings, we discuss opportunities for future research.
Designing Games with Procedural Content Generation: An Authorial Approach BIBAFull-Text 1199-1204
  Rui Craveirinha; Licinio Roque
This paper describes the design of a novel approach to procedural content generation, intent on supporting game design activities. The distinctive factor in this approach is that content generation is guided by a series of target experience indicators, which the designer can define freely according to his own agenda. We detail its underlying concepts and procedural logic, as well as its purported benefits, and outline early experiments in the design process of a prototype.
KidCraft: Co-Design within a Game Environment BIBAFull-Text 1205-1210
  Greg Walsh; Craig Donahue; Emily E. Rhodes
Co-design research with children is a field that continues to find new ground and expand as it explores new, and more effective ways to design. As children become more enveloped in a world of technology and video games, it follows to leverage these kinds of experiences for use in our design toolbox. In addition, continuing to explore how to include a larger global audience through distributed co-design can advance the design process. The study presented in this paper serves as a preliminary exploration of virtual sandbox game environments as a co-design tool. Utilizing a design inclusive research approach, we discuss what led us to explore this environment as a co-design tool, how it evolved over time, our success in using it to include those who could not attend in-person sessions, and our plans to expand on this research in the future.
Mind Reader: Designing for More Intimate Social Play in Video Games BIBAFull-Text 1211-1216
  Ryan Courtney; Lori L. Scarlatos
Socializing is one of the main reasons that people play games [14]. However, co-located video games often move the focus toward a visual display and personal input devices. This paper looks at how we can bring the focus back on the co-players providing for more intimate social play without losing the advantages of digital games and visual display. Such games may provide social/relational benefits and increased enjoyment as well as may be of use for social learning, teambuilding, and therapy. The design of our game, Mind Reader, attempts to both learn from non-digital games as well as exploit the potential of mobile devices to create a more social form of video game. The game was built around two main features: face-to-face play and a shared physical space designed to promote social gameplay. We then present a way to test this new form of gameplay against traditional mobile gaming to determine its effect on social interaction.
Leaderboard Position Psychology: Counterfactual Thinking BIBAFull-Text 1217-1222
  Emily Sun; Brooke Jones; Stefano Traca; Maarten W. Bos
One of the main principles of gamification is the use of social comparison. Leaderboards are commonly used to allow players to compare their performance against others'. We sought to examine how leaderboard ranking affected satisfaction with a game and desire to play a game again. In our study, individuals in a second, fourth, or seventh position on the leaderboard reported higher satisfaction than individuals in other positions on the leaderboard. Our results support a potential mechanism that might contribute to game satisfaction from leaderboard position: counterfactual thinking. Future work and implications for the design of leaderboards are discussed.

WIP Theme: Gesture and Multimodal

Cutting Edge Vision: Metal Embedded Optics for Smart Knives BIBAFull-Text 1223-1228
  Amit Zoran; Nan-Wei Gong; Roy Shilkrot; Shuo Yan; Pattie Maes
We present a novel technique for embedding optic fibers into a metal blade to sense objects that the knife is cutting. In particular, we present a design for a kitchen knife with fiber optics between the edge of the blade and the handle, with a skin-color sensor that overcomes the complex conditions in the kitchen. Hoping this design will lead to future work on minimizing cooking injuries, our handheld device also includes a simple finger-protection mechanism in the form of a retracting blade. We present our novel hardware design, an initial study of imaging capabilities, and a discussion of future directions.
Marionette: a Multi-Finger Tilt Feedback Device for Curvatures and Haptic Images Perception BIBAFull-Text 1229-1234
  Diana Krusteva; Deepak Sahoo; Asier Marzo; Sriram Subramanian; David Coyle
Marionette is a haptic device designed to explore touch perception limits between real and device induced shapes. Its novelty resides in the support for 2D exploration over a flat surface and multi-finger capabilities. Marionette is able to apply inclination to four fingers with two degrees of freedom while the user moves the device as if it were a mouse. The device is aimed at enabling a new set of haptic user studies. Preliminary results suggest that the limit of curvature perception in 2D curves is mainly determined by the inclination information while touching with both one and four fingers. Additionally, Marionette supports haptic images such as maps, time changing functions and haptically enhanced telepresence.
Multi-finger AR Typing Interface for Mobile Devices Using High-Speed Hand Motion Recognition BIBAFull-Text 1235-1240
  Masakazu Higuchi; Takashi Komuro
In this paper, we propose a new user interface designed to improve the usability of mobile devices. The interface overlays a virtual keyboard on real images captured by a camera attached to the back of a mobile device and recognizes user's hand motions by using optical flow information. The user can operate the virtual keyboard with his/her multiple fingers in the space behind the mobile device. The interface recognizes only hand motions and does not recognize poses of a hand or fingers, which enables high-speed stable recognition without complicated processing. The experimental system recognized hand motions with a processing time of about 8.33 [ms/frame] (about 120 [fps]). We implemented a keyboard application using our interface on the experimental system and evaluated the performance. The result of a simple user study showed that typing speed became faster as a trial is repeated.
Single-Pixel Eye Tracking via Patterned Contact Lenses: Design and Evaluation in HCI Domain BIBAFull-Text 1241-1246
  Ioannis Rigas; Oleg V. Komogortsev
This paper presents a preliminary study of an eye tracking technique suitable for use in devices with low-power consumption demands, e.g. Google Glass. The method uses a patterned contact lens and a single-pixel imaging sensor. Its applicability is explored via a semi-simulated user study, where real eye movements from 50 subjects are used to animate a 3-D graphics replica of an eye wearing a patterned contact lens. An accurate single-pixel camera simulator is used to perform gaze estimation via capturing of the imprinted pattern. The results show the promising potential of the technique in the field of eye tracking and eye gesture recognition.
StreetSauce: Taste Interaction and Empathy with Homeless People BIBAFull-Text 1247-1252
  Markéta Dolejšová; Tereza Lišková
Food is an attractive communication tool, which can draw public attention to various social issues. In our project we try to explore such an issue over taste interactions and empathy inscribed in food. We have designed 'StreetSauce', an interactive service with edible interface that conveys public engagement in the problem of female homelessness. Within this paper, we present preliminary results of our research related to the StreetSauce project. The data sampled so far come from interviews, participant observation at design probes, and online questionnaire. We aim to examine the applicability of food and human-computer interaction (HCI) convergence for the support of social engagement.
Shop-i: Gaze based Interaction in the Physical World for In-Store Social Shopping Experience BIBAFull-Text 1253-1258
  Mirae Kim; Min Kyung Lee; Laura Dabbish
Gaze-based interaction has several benefits: naturalism, remote controllability, and easy accessibility. However, it has been mostly used for screen-based interaction with static information. In this paper, we propose a concept of gaze-based interaction that augments the physical world with social information. We demonstrate this interaction in a shopping scenario. In-store shopping is a setting where social information can augment the physical environment to better support a user's purchase decision. Based on the user's ocular point, we project the following information on the product and its surrounding surface: collective in-store gazes and purchase data, product comparison information, animation expressing ingredient of product, and online social comments. This paper presents the design of the system, the results and discussion of an informal user study, and future work.
Pretty Pelvis: A Virtual Pet Application That Breaks Sedentary Time by Promoting Gestural Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1259-1264
  Deedee A. Min; Yaejin Kim; Sung A. Jang; Keun Young Kim; Su-Eun Jung; Ji-Hyun Lee
Prolonged sitting can be detrimental to our postures which can cause spinal and pelvic problems. It may also lead to a shortened lifespan due to its adverse impact on cardio metabolic health. One way of preventing and mitigating these risks is to break sedentary time. We find it difficult, however, to actively monitor ourselves and commit to making these breaks in the middle of studying or working. The work presented in this paper proposes a motivational smartphone application that connects to a sensor-equipped seat device to track sitting behavior. The application's distinguishing feature is its interactive virtual pet, which acts as a motivational factor to promote healthier sitting habits. The application analyzes sensor readings from the seat device and prompts users with their virtual pet to take physical action. Our prototype is the outcome of a thorough investigation of user needs.
User Eye Fatigue Detection via Eye Movement Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1265-1270
  Evgeniy Abdulin; Oleg Komogortsev
In this study we propose and evaluate a novel approach that allows detection of physical eye fatigue. The proposed approach is based on the analysis of the recorded eye movements via what is called behavioral scores. These easy-to-compute scores can be obtained immediately after a calibration procedure, via processing of such basic eye movements as fixations and saccades extracted from the raw eye positional data recorded by an eye tracker. The results, based on the data from 36 volunteers indicate that one of the behavioral scores, Fixational Qualitative Score, is more sensitive to the onset of eye fatigue than already established methods based on saccadic characteristics only.
Glance Awareness and Gaze Interaction in Smartwatches BIBAFull-Text 1271-1276
  Deepak Akkil; Jari Kangas; Jussi Rantala; Poika Isokoski; Oleg Spakov; Roope Raisamo
Smartwatches are widely available and increasingly adopted by consumers. The most common way of interacting with smartwatches is either touching a screen or pressing buttons on the sides. However, such techniques require using both hands. We propose glance awareness and active gaze interaction as alternative techniques to interact with smartwatches. We will describe an experiment conducted to understand the user preferences for visual and haptic feedback on a "glance" at the wristwatch. Following the glance, the users interacted with the watch using gaze gestures. Our results showed that user preferences differed depending on the complexity of the interaction. No clear preference emerged for complex interaction. For simple interaction, haptics was the preferred glance feedback modality.
Use of Sound to Provide Occluded Visual Information in Touch Gestural Interface BIBAFull-Text 1277-1282
  BoYu Gao; HyungSeok Kim; Hasup Lee; Jooyoung Lee; Jee-In Kim
Direct touch gestures are getting popular as an input modality for mobile and tabletop interaction. However, the finger touch interface is considered as not accurate compared with pen-based interface. One of the main reasons is that the visual feedback of the finger touch is occluded because of the size of fingertip. It has made difficult for perceiving and correcting errors. We propose to utilize another modality to provide information on occluded area. Spatial information on visual channel is transformed to temporal and frequency information on another modality. We use sound modality to illustrate the proposed trans-modality. Results show that performance with additional modality is better for drawing where the visual information is important than only with the visual feedback.
BESIDE: Body Experience and Sense of Immersion in Digital Paleontological Environment BIBAFull-Text 1283-1288
  Ryuichi Yoshida; Ryohei Egusa; Machi Saito; Miki Namatame; Masanori Sugimoto; Fusako Kusunoki; Etsuji Yamaguchi; Shigenori Inagaki; Yoshiaki Takeda; Hiroshi Mizoguchi
We are developing an immersive learning support system for a paleontological environment within a museum. The system measures the physical movement of the learner using a Kinect sensor, and provides a sense of immersion in the paleontological environment by adapting the surroundings according to these movements. As the first stage of this project, we have developed a prototype system that allows learners to experience the paleontological environment. Here, we evaluate the operability of the system, degree of learning support, and sense of immersion for primary schoolchildren. This paper summarizes the current system and describes the evaluation results.
InTouch Tactile Tales: Haptic Feedback and Long-Distance Storytelling BIBAFull-Text 1289-1294
  Elaine Massung; Sarah Dickins; James Torbett; James Holmes; Kirsten Cater; Victoria Bates
The squeeze of an arm during a tense moment in a story -- an absentminded caress on the back of the hand while listening to an engaging tale -- the physical presence and interpersonal touch of a loved one can be an important part of reading to a child. However the thrill of the tale is often lost and the intimacy diluted when separated families have to resort to the flatness of a video-call or mobile app to share a bedtime story with their loved one. This project is setting out to create a physical story portal, a magical object which uses technologies to link teller and listener through sound, light and touch to help bridge this gap when families are separated. While the development of the InTouch reading system is still in the preliminary stages, a prototype handheld device has been created to allow adults and children to share touch-based messages during story time. It has been trialled with several families in the lab, and the initial results have pointed to both guidance and design considerations that should be taken into account for such a system to be successfully deployed.
Transture: Continuing a Touch Gesture on a Small Screen into the Air BIBAFull-Text 1295-1300
  Jaehyun Han; Sunggeun Ahn; Geehyuk Lee
In order to cope with usability problems of touch gestures caused by the small touchscreen size of a smartwatch, we propose a concept, named Transture, which relaxes the spatial constraints of touch gestures on the small screen by allowing them to continue beyond the screen border into the air. We designed three Transture examples for panning, zooming, and menu. We conducted a preliminary user study to verify its feasibility and collect design issues for improving Transture designs for future work.
Express Driver's Emotion with Emoticons in Driving Contexts BIBAFull-Text 1301-1306
  Haechan Kim; Kun-Pyo Lee
Drivers often feel various kinds of emotions in the context of driving. This research was conducted due to the difficulty of expressing the emotions in driving contexts. At first, throughout driver observation and survey it was found that existing interface in car is not enough to express drivers' emotion to other drivers. Also most representative emotions drivers want to express while driving were identified, which were made into emoticons. Interactive prototypes which display emoticons were installed in the front and back of vehicles so that drivers can express their emotions while driving. Experiments were conducted to verify whether drivers' stress was reduced when the prototype was installed in the vehicle, thereby enabling them to share their feelings with other drivers. The results showed that stress was indeed reduced in drivers compared to their original state.
Multimodal Frustration Detection on Smartphones BIBAFull-Text 1307-1312
  Esther Vasiete; Tom Yeh
Detecting user's frustration on a smartphone could have a significant impact on applications such as intelligent tutoring systems or app testing systems. Our goal is to provide a multimodal frustration detection system using data exclusively retrieved from a smartphone; motion sensor readings, touch gestures and face videos recorded from the smartphone's front camera.
ViLimbs: Improving Phantom Limb Treatment Through Multisensory Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1313-1318
  Esteban Correa-Agudelo; Andres M. Hernandez; Carlos Ferrin; Juan D. Gomez
Each year, anti-personnel mines contribute to a vast number of amputated victims due to the current conflict in Colombia. The recovery of such victims, includes psycho-motor therapies to reduce neuromuscular aftermaths, such as phantom limb pain (PLP). Therefore, improving rehabilitation strategies can potentially have a large positive impact in the recovery outcomes for long-term treatments. ViLimbs is a Virtual-Reality-based (VR) system aimed at enhancing classical mirror therapy for amputees using an immersive video-wall that renders the patient himself with a superimposed virtual limb. The patient-virtual-limb interaction is achieved by means of brain computer interfaces (BCI) and myoelectric signals read from the remaining part of the limb. Thus, voluntary movements get naturally transferred from patients to virtual limbs. Last but not least, patients sense of ownership over an alien virtual limb is enhanced through multisensory feedback (cardio-visual), which tends to lessen rehabilitation times.
An Open Catalog of Hand Gestures from Sci-Fi Movies BIBAFull-Text 1319-1324
  Lucas S. Figueiredo; Mariana G. M. Gonçalves Maciel Pinheiro; Edvar X. C. Vilar Neto; Veronica Teichrieb
In Science Fiction (Sci-Fi) movies, filmmakers try to anticipate trends and new forms of interaction. Metaphors are created allowing their characters to interact with devices and futuristic environments. These devices and metaphors may be target of research considering they have proven to be useful before, as for example the Star Trek communicator (1966) similarity to the Motorola StarTAC phone (1996). Moreover, the impact of the new interfaces on the audience may indicate their expectations regarding future gesture interactions. Thus, the goal of this work is to collect and expose a compilation of hand interactions in Sci-Fi movies, providing an open catalog to researchers as resource to future discussions. The data visualization and analysis is facilitated through an open-source web application. Additionally, we classify the collected data according to a series of established criteria and our own knowledge.
Towards Extraction of Subjective Reading Incomprehension: Analysis of Eye Gaze Features BIBAFull-Text 1325-1330
  Ayano Okoso; Takumi Toyama; Kai Kunze; Joachim Folz; Marcus Liwicki; Koichi Kise
One way to optimize learning processes is to clearly inform the learner about problematic areas. Recent work on gazebased CHI showed that a reader's language skill can be inferred by gaze analysis. However, only few approaches have been proposed to identify those document parts a reader finds problematic. Our goal is to develop a computational method for reading incomprehension extraction. As preliminary work for such a method, we analyze which eye gaze features are useful for such part-based reading incomprehension extraction at three levels of document structure: paragraphs, segments and words.
Using Cr-Y Components to Detect Tongue Protrusion Gestures BIBAFull-Text 1331-1336
  Chris S. Crawford; Stephen W. Bailey; Carmen Badea; Juan E. Gilbert
This work in progress paper presents a method of detecting tongue protrusion gestures by utilizing the tongue's color and texture characteristics. By taking advantage of recent advances in computer vision, the presented implementation enables real-time tongue gesture detection using only the video stream provided by a standard web camera. Tongue gesture detection functionality has the potential to supplement user interaction and provide for an immersive experience in applications such as games or video communication applications. It could also aid communication for mobility-impaired users. In this paper we describe the process of using YCbCr color space manipulation and a support vector machine to detect left, right, and downward tongue protrusions in real-time.
Towards Accurate Automatic Segmentation of IMU-Tracked Motion Gestures BIBAFull-Text 1337-1342
  Sven Kratz; Maribeth Back
We present our ongoing research on automatic segmentation of motion gestures tracked by IMUs. We postulate that by recognizing gesture execution phases from motion data that we may be able to auto-delimit user gesture entries. We demonstrate that machine learning classifiers can be trained to recognize three distinct phases of gesture entry: the start, middle and end of a gesture motion. We further demonstrate that this type of classification can be done at the level of individual gestures. Furthermore, we describe how we captured a new data set for data exploration and discuss a tool we developed to allow manual annotations of gesture phase information. Initial results we obtained using the new data set annotated with our tool show a precision of 0.95 for recognition of the gesture phase and a precision of 0.93 for simultaneous recognition of the gesture phase and the gesture type.
ShowMe: A Remote Collaboration System that Supports Immersive Gestural Communication BIBAFull-Text 1343-1348
  Judith Amores; Xavier Benavides; Pattie Maes
ShowMe is an immersive mobile collaboration system that allows a remote user to communicate with a peer using video, audio and hand gestures. We explore the use of a Head Mounted Display and depth camera to create a system that (1) enables a remote user to be immersed in another user's first-person's point of view and (2) offers a new way for the remote expert to provide guidance through three dimensional hand gestures and voice. Using ShowMe both users are present in the same physical environment and can perceive real-time communication from one another in the form of 2-handed gestures and voice.
A Crowdsourced Alternative to Eye-tracking for Visualization Understanding BIBAFull-Text 1349-1354
  Nam Wook Kim; Zoya Bylinskii; Michelle A. Borkin; Aude Oliva; Krzysztof Z. Gajos; Hanspeter Pfister
In this study we investigate the utility of using mouse clicks as an alternative for eye fixations in the context of understanding data visualizations. We developed a crowdsourced study online in which participants were presented with a series of images containing graphs and diagrams and asked to describe them. Each image was blurred so that the participant needed to click to reveal bubbles -- small, circular areas of the image at normal resolution. This is similar to having a confined area of focus like the human eye fovea. We compared the bubble click data with the fixation data from a complementary eye-tracking experiment by calculating the similarity between the resulting heatmaps. A high similarity score suggests that our methodology may be a viable crowdsourced alternative to eye-tracking experiments, especially when little to no eye-tracking data is available. This methodology can also be used to complement eye-tracking studies with an additional behavioral measurement, since it is specifically designed to measure which information people consciously choose to examine for understanding visualizations.
Illusion of Surface Changes Induced by Tactile and Visual Touch Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1355-1360
  Katrin Wolf; Timm Bäder
The work presented here aims to enrich material perception when touching interactive surfaces. This is realized through simulating changes in the perception of various material properties, such as softness and bendability. The thereby created perceptual illusions of surface changes are induced using electrotactile stimuli and texture projection as touch/pressure feedback. A metal plate with an embedded electrode was used to provide the user with electrotactile stimuli when touching the surface with a finger that is also equipped with an electrode. The distortion of material textures projected on the touched surface was used to visually simulate surface deformations. We show through an experiment that both, electrotactile and visual feedback can induce the illusion of surface deformation when provided separately. When tactile and visual touch feedback is presented at the same time, the perception of surface changes does not increase compared to just using one feedback modality only.
3D Virtual Hand Selection with EMS and Vibration Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1361-1366
  Max Pfeiffer; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
Selection is one of the most basic interaction methods in 3D user interfaces. Previous work has shown that visual feedback improves such actions. However, haptic feedback can increase the realism or also help for occluded targets. Here we investigate if 3D virtual hand selection benefits from electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) and vibration. In our experiment we used a 3D version of a Fitts' task to compare visual, EMS, vibration, and no feedback. The results demonstrate that both EMS and vibration are reasonable alternatives to visual feedback. We also found good user acceptance for both technologies.
Same-side Hand Interactions with Arm-placed Devices Using EMG BIBAFull-Text 1367-1372
  Frederic Kerber; Pascal Lessel; Antonio Krüger
We present a preliminary evaluation of an approach utilizing eyes-free, same-side hand interactions with arm-placed devices based on electromyography (EMG). We hypothesize that the approach is well-suited for situations that do not allow for opposite-side hand interactions, e.g. while carrying something. In contrast to other methods such as speech input, it does not depend on external factors such as surrounding noise. In our pilot study in a laboratory setting, we compared same-side hand interactions using EMG against traditional opposite-side hand touch interactions to control a music player on a smartwatch. The results indicate that the same-side hand interaction approach is in general feasible for the envisaged type of interactions.

WIP Theme: Healthcare and Wellbeing

Detecting and Characterizing Mental Health Related Self-Disclosure in Social Media BIBAFull-Text 1373-1378
  Sairam Balani; Munmun De Choudhury
Self-disclosure is an important element facilitating improved psychological wellbeing in individuals with mental illness. As social media is increasingly adopted in health related discourse, we examine how these new platforms might be allowing honest and candid expression of thoughts, experiences and beliefs. Specifically, we seek to detect levels of self-disclosure manifested in posts shared on different mental health forums on Reddit. We develop a classifier for the purpose based on content features. The classifier is able to characterize a Reddit post to be of high, low, or no self-disclosure with 78% accuracy. Applying this classifier to general mental health discourse on Reddit, we find that bulk of such discourse is characterized by high self-disclosure, and that the community responds distinctively to posts that disclose less or more. We conclude with the potential of harnessing our proposed self-disclosure detection algorithm in psychological therapy via social media. We also discuss design considerations for improved community moderation and support in these vulnerable self-disclosing communities.
Designing a Music-controlled Running Application: a Sports Science and Psychological Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1379-1384
  Christine Bauer; Anna Kratschmar
Music has long been acknowledged for its effects on participants in sports and exercise. For casual runners music may act as a motivator and distractor of physical strain. It may also serve as a training guide, when sensing technology is used as an enabler for adapting music to a runner's situation in real-time. While many effects of music are known from sports science and psychology, application designers lack a consolidated knowledge base that guides them in designing a running application. This work synthesizes findings from the involved disciplines and provides 7 requirements for an application that increases casual runners' motivation and controls training.
NLG-Based Moderator Response Generator to Support Mental Health BIBAFull-Text 1385-1390
  Mohammed Sazzad Hussain; Rafael A. Calvo; Louise Ellis; Juchen Li; Laura Ospina-Pinillos; Tracey Davenport; Ian Hickie
The global need to effectively address mental health problems and wellbeing is well recognised. Today, online systems are increasingly being viewed as an effective solution for their ability to reach broad populations. As online support groups become popular the workload for human moderators increases. Maintaining quality feedback becomes increasingly challenging as the community grows. Tools that can automatically detect mental health problems from social media posts and then generate smart feedback can greatly reduce human overload. In this paper, we present a system for the automation of interventions using Natural Language Generation (NLG) techniques. In particular, we focus on 'depression' and 'anxiety' related interventions. Psychologists evaluated the quality of the systems' interventions and results were compared against human (i.e. moderator) interventions. Results indicate our intervention system still has a long way to go, but is a step in the right direction as a tool to assist human moderators with their service.
EdiPulse: Supporting Physical Activity with Chocolate Printed Messages BIBAFull-Text 1391-1396
  Rohit Ashok Khot; Ryan Pennings; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
Designing to support physical activity is a growing field of interest in interaction design. However, existing explorations in this area have mostly focused on using screens to graphically report physical activity data such as heart rate. The use of edible mediums such as 3D printed food for representing such data opens up new possibilities and challenges to push the field forward. Supporting this, we present EdiPulse that 3D prints in chocolates, personalized cheerful messages and emoticons, displaying heart rate data from physical activity session. By varying the thickness of the printed letters and emoticons, the system also supports abstract visualization of the heart rate data, while the printed chocolate incentivizes participation in physical activity. Ultimately, with this work, we aim to inspire and guide design thinking on food printing and edible quantified self representations, which we believe opens up new interaction possibilities to support the physical activity experience.
Using Accelerometer Data to Estimate Surface Incline and Its Walking App Potential BIBAFull-Text 1397-1402
  Ilyas Uyanik; Ashik Khatri; Dinesh Majeti; Muhsin Ugur; Dvijesh Shastri; Ioannis Pavlidis
Walking is a fundamental human activity and its diminution a potential morbidity factor. Recent developments in mobile computing have enabled ubiquitous monitoring of walking activity via the smartphone accelerometers. Typically, walking apps map accelerometer values to caloric values through a calibration algorithm. However, these calibration algorithms assume a flat surface, which is not always true and can introduce significant errors. In this paper, we outline a novel calibration method that estimates surface inclination for uphill walking, thus, improving the caloric estimation in mobile walking apps.
Forget Me Not: Connecting Palliative Patients and Their Loved Ones BIBAFull-Text 1403-1408
  Torben Wallbaum; Janko Timmermann; Wilko Heuten; Susanne Boll
Interpersonal social interaction, building relationships and the communication with others are key needs of every human being. In particular, people who are suffering from a serious illness will often experience a strong desire to communicate how they feel, their worries and sorrows, or important experiences to gain support from people they trust like friends & relatives. In this work we discuss the requirements for the design of unobtrusive technologies to support the communication between patients and their relatives. We also present design concepts and prototypes based on these requirements. These devices are especially useful when illness inhibits the patient from using conventional methods of communication or if the patient doesn't wish to burden their loved ones with the depth of intimacy they crave.
Exploring Motivations of Young Adults to Participate in Physical Activities BIBAFull-Text 1409-1414
  Tara Capel; Johanna Frederike Schnittert; Stephen Snow; Dhaval Vyas
This paper investigates the motivations of young adults aged 18 to 24 years to participate in physical activities and how technology might best support this motivation. Motivational factors were studied through contextual interviews, an adapted cultural probe activity and a survey with a group of young adults currently active in sports. From our preliminary findings we determine that staying healthy, achieving specific goals and socialising represent key motivational factors for young adults to be active in sports, but also, that exercise is not considered a high priority in their daily lives. A link between the motivation of achieving specific goals and a technology to measure and track activities was established. The study concludes with three implications for the design of technology to motivate young adults to participate in sports.
HHeal: A Personalized Health App for Flu Tracking and Prevention BIBAFull-Text 1415-1420
  Na Li; Changkun Zhao; Eun Kyoung Choe; Frank E. Ritter
We report a new mobile application, HHeal, that integrates individuals' flu risk information and flu-preventive behaviors. The app provides a personal flu risk bar that rises when the user is near someone with flu-like symptoms and drops when the user finishes one of the suggested flu-preventive behaviors. Preliminary results show that participants favored the personal flu risk bar design. Participants had positive experiences when their personal risk bars dropped. They were motivated to initiate flu-preventive behaviors when their personal risk bars rose. Our next step includes studying reward strategies, users' motivations to share personal health information, and building a more accurate model of flu risk.
Exploring Physical Activities in an Employer-Sponsored Health Program BIBAFull-Text 1421-1426
  Dhaval Vyas; Zachary Fitz-walter; Erica Mealy; Alessandro Soro; Jinglan Zhang; Margot Brereton
This work brings a perspective from an employer-sponsored health and wellness program called Global Corporate Challenge (GCC) to the 'quantified self' research. We present preliminary findings from a study with 17 university employees who participated in the GCC. We aimed to explore how participants derived meaningfulness from their self-tracking experiences. Our findings echo the growing body of work that advocates for conceptualizing activity tracking beyond the rationalistic, data-oriented perspectives and supporting more social and lived experiences.
Personal Counseling on Smart Phones For Smoking Cessation BIBAFull-Text 1427-1432
  Jeni Paay; Jesper Kjeldskov; Mikael B. Skov; Nirojan Srikandarajah; Umachanger Brinthaparan
The unhealthy consequences of smoking cigarettes are well known and yet people still continue to smoke. Recent research involving technology to help people quit smoking has had limited success. Personal face-to-face counseling has historically proven the most successful and effective means to help people quit, but most people are reluctant or too busy to attend counseling sessions. As a potential solution to this problem, we explore providing personal counseling to users via their mobile phones. The advice, written by experts, is based on data about the user and their actual smoking habits collected through smart phones. From a prototype deployment with users in real life context, we found that this type of personal counseling is influential in changing peoples' smoking behaviors for the better. In addition, being made aware of actual smoking habits helps people form strategies that improve their ability to quit.
Design Self-Diagnosis Applications for Non-Patients BIBAFull-Text 1433-1438
  Jason Chen Zhao; Ngai-Man Cheung; Ricardo Sosa; Dawn Chin-Ing Koh
Self-diagnosis applications refer to a type of accessible healthcare systems that help users detect illness at the early stages. Unlike self-monitoring applications, users of self-diagnosis applications are non-patients -- people who do not have the explicit awareness of their potential diseases or health problems. It is not clear how to incentivize usage, how to best present results, and how to sustain habit formation for periodic long-term use. We conduct an exploratory case study to investigate the special design challenges of such systems. From our findings, we recommend self-diagnosis applications should: 1) be designed with less perceived harmfulness; 2) state the risk of diagnosed disease explicitly; 3) show the implicit diagnosis result with percentage; and 4) present the rationale behind the diagnosis result.
Action Health Self-Efficacy Assessment Tool Development for Online Cancer Support Groups BIBAFull-Text 1439-1444
  Elisabeth Joyce
This Work in Progress constitutes the development of an Action Health Self-Efficacy (AHSE) Assessment Tool for online cancer support groups that will permit assessment of individual AHSE while avoiding direct interventions in vulnerable communities. Benefits accrue to participants in online health support groups, but few individuals contribute even once. Those with higher levels of AHSE have been shown to persist longer and with more effort in online groups, and AHSE levels can be increased in those not demonstrating it. However, determining levels of AHSE requires direct intervention in groups. This tool for assessing AHSE supports non-invasive measurement through behavior patterns and text analysis.
Designing a Motivational Agent for Behavior Change in Physical Activity BIBAFull-Text 1445-1450
  Toshikazu Kanaoka; Bilge Mutlu
People find behavior change particularly long-lasting change in habits regarding physical activity to be difficulty. While new technologies such as mobile applications that help individuals measure, log, and reflect on their activities hold great promise, they rely on individuals already having the motivation to change their behaviors. How can technology motivate people in increasing their level of physical activity? We explore this question through the design, development, and evaluation of an automated assistance system that draws on a counseling method called motivational interviewing (MI) and utilizes a humanlike robot as a motivational agent. Through dialogue and nonverbal engagement, the agent enables individuals to talk about and reflect on underlying reasons for their lack of motivation regarding physical activity in order to increase intrinsic motivation for behavior change. In this work-in-progress, we describe our system design and discuss findings from a preliminary study that evaluated the impact of the robot's use of MI on user motivation and behavior.

WIP Theme: Learning

Automatically Adjusting the Speed of E-Learning Videos BIBAFull-Text 1451-1456
  Sunghyun Song; Jeong-ki Hong; Ian Oakley; Jun Dong Cho; Andrea Bianchi
Videos are becoming a commonplace way for students to view instructional material. Although current technology allows customization of default playback speeds to cater to individual students' desired pace, we highlight a need for more dynamic or reactive control systems capable of varying playback in response to viewer needs or activities (e.g. slowing down during note-taking). This article instantiates this idea by describing a system that tracks a user's head position in order to infer and respond to their activities whilst watching an educational video. We describe the design and implementation of the system and a user study that highlights usage patterns and shows automatic tracking and playback speed adjustment can effectively lower users' workload.
Explanation Activities with a Pedagogical Agent in an Online Task: Lexical Network Analysis BIBAFull-Text 1457-1460
  Yugo Hayashi
The study investigates learning activities of students making explanations about a key concept in an online system with a Pedagogical Conversational Agent providing (1) facilitation on learners' explanations from various views and (2) social facilitation prompts of other members in the classroom. A total of 314 learner's explanation activities were collected and their input messages were analyzed by conducting a lexical network analysis which enables to capture the diversity of the learners explanations. The results of the analysis showed that those using the PCAs with social feedback about other members, described the key concept more sufficiently using various categorical explaining words. The results provide implications on how to design online tutoring systems based on social facilitation and how massive textual data can be analyzed using network analysis.
FeedLearn: Using Facebook Feeds for Microlearning BIBAFull-Text 1461-1466
  Geza Kovacs
Many long-term goals, such as learning a language, require people to spend a small amount of time each day to achieve them. At the same time, people regularly browse social news feeds in their spare time. Our system, FeedLearn, teaches vocabulary in the context of Facebook feeds, by showing users interactive quizzes they can answer without leaving their feeds. It is implemented as a Chrome extension, as Facebook's API does not currently allow developers to insert interactive content into feeds. In our preliminary user study, we compared Japanese vocabulary learning rates when interactive quizzes were inserted directly into feeds, versus inserting links that lead them to quizzes. Our results suggest that users learn more and engage more with microlearning tasks when quizzes can be done without leaving their feeds.
Playful Sounds From The Classroom: What Can Designers of Digital Music Games Learn From Formal Educators? BIBAFull-Text 1467-1472
  Pieter Duysburgh; Karin Slegers; Karen Mouws; Marije Nouwen
In this paper, formal music education is seen as a starting point to understand how digital music games can further innovate to heighten their educational potential. In the paper, seven opportunities for innovation of digital music games are presented. These are the result of observations of music lessons, and interviews and stimulated recall sessions with music educators. During the data analysis, the researchers looked at the strategies used by the educators and compared these to an overview of digital music games they had made, in order to formulate the suggestions for innovation for digital music games.
CourseMIRROR: Enhancing Large Classroom Instructor-Student Interactions via Mobile Interfaces and Natural Language Processing BIBAFull-Text 1473-1478
  Xiangmin Fan; Wencan Luo; Muhsin Menekse; Diane Litman; Jingtao Wang
Interactions between students and instructors are crucial to the success of learning and teaching. However, such interactions are limited in large classrooms (e.g. STEM courses and MOOCs). We present CourseMIRROR (Mobile In-situ Reflections and Review with Optimized Rubrics), a mobile system that prompts students' self-reflection and in-situ feedback to enhance the interactions. CourseMIRROR uses automatic text summarization techniques to aggregate students' feedback and present the most significant ones to both the instructors and the students to help them understand both difficulties and misunderstandings encountered. In two semester-long pilot deployments involving 20 participants, we received positive feedback from both students and instructors. We highlight major findings as well as the lessons learned.
Designing Interactive Query Interfaces to Teach Database Systems in the Classroom BIBAFull-Text 1479-1482
  Lilong Jiang; Arnab Nandi
Database systems have often been considered an unexciting topic for undergraduate curricula. To remedy this, we describe a novel interactive electronic textbook for teaching undergraduate database systems courses. Designed for touch-driven tablets, the textbook embeds a fully capable database. Expressions, figures and explanations in the textbook are live, interactive elements. In contrast to canned illustrations and animations, students can interact with each textbook element. The rapid feedback loop with the database allows the user to explore and understand the full scope of valid and invalid queries to the database. Wireless connectivity allows the instructor to track classroom performance in real-time, merging textbook instruction with in-class demonstrations, allowing for the scaling out of classrooms. We discuss the design of this concept, and share a preliminary evaluation of a prototype implementation used in the classroom.

WIP Theme: Lifestyle

Supporting Energy Management as a Cooperative Amateur Activity BIBAFull-Text 1483-1488
  Hanna Hasselqvist; Cristian Bogdan; Mario Romero; Omar Shafqat
There is increasing concern regarding current energy feedback approaches as they focus on the individual level, and mostly on household electricity, while the bulk of energy use often lies in heating and cooling. The aim is typically to change user routines, which does not bring a long-lasting impact. In our case study, we address these concerns for apartment buildings by looking at housing cooperatives, the dominant form of apartment ownership in the Nordic countries. These cooperatives manage the heating costs in common and therefore have a large potential for energy saving through long-lasting improvements and investments. We also emphasize the amateur nature of energy work within such cooperatives and consider the implications of our field study findings, interpreted through these amateur and cooperative perspectives, for the design of interactive artifacts.
HabitStar: An Interactive Ambient Lighting to Help Users Improve Habits BIBAFull-Text 1489-1494
  Jinsu Eun; Yeonjoo Lee; Joonhwan Lee; Joohyeon Lee; Woon Seong Lee; Zune Lee
In this research, we suggest an interactive ambient lighting called HabitStar that helps users improve habits. HabitStar is a star-shaped lighting that can connect with the HabitStar mobile application. The lighting is synchronized with the app by the network server. The user can interact with both the lighting and the app to manage their habits. It helps the user recognize their goals by making them self-record their trials. It also encourages minimum approach for changing habits by providing the norm data as an indicator for practical goals. The lighting can help the user stay motivated by its ambient visualization.
'Close the Loop': An iBeacon App to Foster Recycling Through Just-in-Time Feedback BIBAFull-Text 1495-1500
  Diego Casado-Mansilla; Derek Foster; Shaun Lawson; Pablo Garaizar; Diego López-de-Ipiña
Contemporary micro-location technologies such as Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) show promise in enabling new experiences when interacting with physical spaces. An emerging BLE technology is iBeacons, with the retail sector pioneering their use to enhance shopping experiences. There is scope for the HCI sustainability community to explore the use of iBeacons to raise awareness around sustainability issues, particularly in public and communal spaces. This work presents embryonic research exploring the design of a prototype iBeacon-based sustainability application called 'Close-the-Loop'. The application builds on previous sustainability and just-in-time feedback research to encourage end-users to engage in recycling behaviours in a large university canteen space. Findings from a focus group and short ethnographic study provide design insights to further develop the prototype to increase engagement with appropriate recycling practices.
Promote Energy Conservation in Automatic Environment Control: A Comfort-Energy Trade-off Perspective BIBAFull-Text 1501-1506
  Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Yun Gong; Yi-Bo Dai; Chieh Cheng
Recent study reported that users were shutting down their smart thermostat due to the poor performance in comfort and energy saving. This study aims to explore how automation in energy conservation system should be designed from a new perspective: comfort-energy trade-off. Scenario-based survey was conducted with 106 participants. Results showed that monitored control (high level of automation) was most satisfied in energy-saving-motivated control scenario and consensual control (low level of automation) was most satisfied in comfort-motivated control scenario. Users perceived the same sense of control in consensual control and monitored control as in manual control (no automation) in most scenarios. Thus, the results indicated that automatic environment control should not always be the same, but adaptively designed in accordance with specific comfort-energy trade-off situations, considering different control scenario, personal requirement and culture.
Travel Q: Questifying Micro Activities Using Travel Photos to Enhance Travel Experience BIBAFull-Text 1507-1512
  Yoojung Kim; Changhoon Oh; Taeyoung Lee; Donghun Lee; Joongseek Lee; Bongwon Suh
Travel is a series of micro activities. With the proliferation of digital cameras and smartphones, it is now common for travelers to record their micro activities in fine detail by taking photos without ever missing a moment. However, how to enhance the travel experience by utilizing such recorded micro activities has not been determined. Thus, we aim to 1) investigate how travelers record micro activities in photos through a user study and 2) design a system to enhance travel experiences utilizing travel photos. Based on the user study, we devise a "questification" strategy that motivates travelers to change their photos into quests. We implement a research prototype, Travel Q, a community platform that allows users to share their micro activities through photos. The results of a field study with the prototype suggest that questification is an applicable strategy for enhancing travel experiences.
Towards an Interactive Dance Visualization for Inspiring Coordination Between Dancers BIBAFull-Text 1513-1518
  Carla F. Griggio; Mario Romero; Germán Leiva
In this work in progress we present early results in the process of understanding how interactive dance visualizations can inspire coordinated dance moves between dancers in informal contexts. Inspired by observations at nightclubs and parties with DJs, we designed an interactive dance visualization prototype called "Canvas Dance" and evaluated it in a user study with 3 small groups of people. We conclude by offering a set of design considerations for future work on interactive dance visualizations for non-professional dancers in informal contexts.
'Electric City': Uncovering Social Dimensions and Values of Sharing Renewable Energy through Gaming BIBAFull-Text 1519-1524
  Abhigyan Singh; Hylke W. van Dijk; Bard O. Wartena; Natalia Romero Herrera; David Keyson
With the advent of Smart Energy Systems and Energy Cooperatives in Netherlands and elsewhere, sharing of renewable energy within neighbourhoods is likely to gain wide prominence in the near future. Today the concept of 'Energy Sharing' is often limited to householders 'selling' their surplus of locally generated energy to the energy grid. Rather than shared locally, transporting energy back to the grid results in a loss of energy through the power lines. The research aims to understand present and future social dimensions and values of energy sharing from a people's perspective. In this paper the Energy Management game 'Electric City', is presented and results from gaming sessions. The game serves as a platform for informants to reflect upon values and expectations associated with Energy Sharing.

WIP Theme: Mobile Interactions

Motorcycle Ride Care Using Android Phone BIBAFull-Text 1525-1530
  Bo-Han Chen; Sai-Keung Wong; Wei-Che Chang
We propose an Automatic Motorcycle Turn Signal (AMTS) system to assist motorcyclists to automatically signal turns. The AMTS system utilizes the gyroscope sensor of the Android phone to detect the turning direction of a motorcycle and then the system turns on the light and sound accordingly. We have evaluated the proposed AMTS system in indoor and outdoor environments. The evaluation results indicate that the AMTS system could be useful to automatically signal turns. We also conducted a survey of the questionnaire. The survey result shows that the AMTS system is highly appreciated by the motorcyclists.
The Heroes' Problems: Exploring the Potentials of Google Glass for Biohazard Handling Professionals BIBAFull-Text 1531-1536
  Jack Shen-Kuen Chang; Michael J. Henry; Russ Burtner; Oriana Love; Courtney Corley
In "white powder incidents" or other suspicious and risky situations relating to deadly diseases or chemicals (e.g., Ebola investigation), those who handle the potentially hazardous materials are the heroes who spearhead the first responder's operations. Although well trained, these heroes need to manage complex problems and make life-or-death decisions while handling the unknown and dangerous. We are motivated to explore how Google Glass can facilitate those heroes' missions. To this end, we conducted contextual inquiry on six biohazard-handling, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)-wearing professionals. With an inductive thematic analysis, we summarized the heroes' workflow and four groups of "Heroes' Problems". A unique "A3 Model" (Awareness, Analysis, Action) was generated to encapsulate our qualitative findings and proposed Glass features. The findings serve as the groundwork for our future development.
CrowdFound: A Mobile Crowdsourcing System to Find Lost Items On-the-Go BIBAFull-Text 1537-1542
  Emily Harburg; Yongsung Kim; Elizabeth Gerber; Haoqi Zhang
We present CrowdFound, a mobile crowdsourcing system to find lost items. CrowdFound allows users to input lost item descriptions on a map and then sends notifications to users passing near tagged areas. To assess the system's efficacy, we conducted interviews and user testing on CrowdFound. Our results show that users were able to find lost items when using a combination of the notification, map, and item description features. In addition, users were willing to deviate off path to look for lost items, particularly when exercising. Our findings also suggest socio-technical features to promote more effective on-the-go crowdsourced help on microtasks. This research builds our understanding of physical crowdsourcing as a tool for solving societal problems and suggests broader implications for utilizing mobile crowds.
Dwelling and Fleeting Encounters: Exploring Why People Use WeChat -- A Mobile Instant Messenger BIBAFull-Text 1543-1548
  Yang Wang; Yao Li; Jian Tang
WeChat is a popular mobile instant messenger (MIM) in China with hundreds of millions of users. Recent literature suggested that MIMs can support users to "dwell" together with their close relationships by constantly exchanging tidbits of their lives. In this paper, we present an interview study to investigate why and how people use WeChat, particularly focusing on its three novel opportunistic social features: Shake, Drift Bottle, and Look Around. Drawing from 25 interviews, our results suggest that WeChat usage was motivated by a wide range of user needs. Notably, we found these social features supporting fleeting encounters among strangers. The seemingly conflicting practices of dwelling with close people and fleeting encounters with strangers vividly co-existed in the WeChat social space. These results suggest that MIMs as a rich design space for supporting divergent social interactions.
Personal Photo Preservation for the Smartphone Generation BIBAFull-Text 1549-1554
  Maria K. Wolters; Elaine Niven; Mari Runardotter; Francesco Gallo; Heiko Maus; Robert H. Logie
Preserving photos for future generations is difficult in the digital age, as both storage media and storage formats become obsolete within decades. In order to inform the design of a photo preservation service, we are currently collecting information about relevant practices in a large survey. In this paper, we report intermediate results from a sample of 236 European students aged between 18 and 34. 76% of our participants are keen to preserve their photos for future generations, but far fewer report photo management practices that support preservation. We discuss implications for design and outline three groups of users that can be distilled into personas.
Projectagami: A Foldable Mobile Device with Shape Interactive Applications BIBAFull-Text 1555-1560
  Dominique Tan; Maciej Kumorek; Andres A. Garcia; Adam Mooney; Derek Bekoe
Projectagami is a foldable mobile device that leverages simple 2D origami form to give applications new affordances: enabling rapid customization of the device shape. This bridges the gap between differently sized touch screen devices, and enables a novel and mobile form of split screen touch interaction that deviates from traditional rectangular form. We show how a flexible mobile device with unrestricted folding can create more realistic and augmented experiences: building on people's existing abilities to manipulate real world objects. We demonstrate this with shape enhanced "Wizard of Oz" demo applications including a book, online shopping, a board game, street navigation, and a dynamic browser. Our prototype is tracked with a Kinect and uses a projector for visual output. In the future, we envision devices like Projectagami to be self-contained and extended to 3D form.
Lock n' LoL: Mitigating Smartphone Disturbance in Co-located Social Interactions BIBAFull-Text 1561-1566
  Minsam Ko; Chayanin Wong; Sunmin Son; Euigon Jung; Uichin Lee; Seungwoo Choi; Sungho Jo; Min H. Kim
We aim to improve the quality of time spent in co-located social interactions by encouraging people to limit their smartphone usage together. We present a prototype called Lock n' LoL, an app that allows co-located users to lock their smartphones and limit their usage by enforcing users to ask for explicit use permission. From our preliminary study, we designed two modes to deal with the dynamics of smartphone use during the co-located social interactions: (1) socializing mode (i.e., locking smartphones to limit usage together) and (2) temporary use mode (i.e., requesting/granting temporary smartphone use). We conducted a pilot study (n = 20) with our working prototype, and the results documented the helpfulness of Lock n' LoL when used in socializing.
Mobile System Design for Scratch Recognition BIBAFull-Text 1567-1572
  Jongin Lee; Dae-ki Cho; Seokwoo Song; SeungHo Kim; Eunji Im; John Kim
Various conditions can result in scratching behavior and severe itching conditions such as atopic dermatitis can significantly impact on one's quality of life. Because the management of many itching conditions is not necessarily about curing the condition but instead about properly maintaining or controlling the condition, a proper understanding of these types of conditions and accurate recognitions of scratching behavior are important. In particular, a clear understanding of scratching behaviors can be difficult for young children or for those who engage in nocturnal itching while sleeping. In this work, we design a prototype system with two smartwatches which recognize scratching motions and validate the results using an infrared camera to provide the ground truth. We classify scratching motions with the C4.5 algorithm and analyze the data to understand the scratch patterns and to validate our system. Our initial results from the sleep data of three healthy participant show that the proposed method can provide accuracy that exceeds 90%.
Face Me! Head-Tracker Interface Evaluation on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 1573-1578
  Maria Francesca Roig-Maimó; Javier Varona Gómez; Cristina Manresa-Yee
The integration of front cameras on mobile devices and the increase on processing capacity has opened the door to head-tracker interfaces on mobile devices. However, research mostly focus on the development of new interfaces and their integration into prototypes without analyzing human performance. In this work, we present a head-tracker interface for mobile devices and its evaluation from the point of view of Human-Computer Interaction. Nineteen participants performed position-select tasks using their nose's movement. User performance was measured with different device orientations and combining different gain and target width. Based on the obtained results, two design recommendations were made for those designers using the developed interface. In addition, we confirmed that device orientation, a particular feature for mobile devices that does not affect desktop computers, has no effect on the user's performance.
TUIs in the Large: Using Paper Tangibles with Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 1579-1584
  Katrin Wolf; Stefan Schneegass; Niels Henze; Dominik Weber; Valentin Schwind; Pascal Knierim; Sven Mayer; Tilman Dingler; Yomna Abdelrahman; Thomas Kubitza; Markus Funk; Anja Mebus; Albrecht Schmidt
Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) have been proposed to interact with digital information through physical objects. However being investigated since decades, TUIs still play a marginal role compared to other UI paradigms. This is at least partially because TUIs often involve complex hardware elements, which make prototyping and production in quantities difficult and expensive. In this paper we present our work towards paper TUIs (pTUIs) -- easily makeable interactive TUIs using laser-cut paper, brass fasteners, metal bands, mirror foils, and touch screen devices as platform. Through three examples we highlight the flexibility of the approach. We rebuilt the seminal work URP to show that pTUIs can replicate existing TUIs in DIY manufacturing. We implemented tangible Pong being controlled by paper rackets to show that pTUIs can be used in highly interactive systems. Finally, we manufactured an interactive Christmas card and distributed it to 300 recipients by mail to show that pTUIs can be used as apparatus to explore how pTUIs are used outside the lab in real life.
Initiating Moderation in Problematic Smartphone Usage Patterns BIBAFull-Text 1585-1590
  Hancheol Park; Gahgene Gweon
An increase in smartphone use has also led to an increase in overuse or undesirable use in inappropriate settings. As a first step towards moderating these types of problematic smartphone usage, we conducted an exploratory study on the efficacy of using a decisional balancing exercise. The exercise is designed to consider a user's motivation level in terms of intention and readiness to change his/her behavior. Despite a short trial period and small sample size, our results show that users who participated in the decisional balancing exercise were more likely to be receptive to their own intervention methods designed to moderate their smartphone use than those who did not participate. Thus, the results suggest that employing decisional balance exercise has the potential to moderate problematic smartphone usage.
SocialKeyboard: Proofreading Everyday Writings in Mobile Phones BIBAFull-Text 1591-1596
  Jin-woo Lee; Joohyun Kim; Uichin Lee; Jae-Gil Lee
The flood tide of professional proofreading services has exceeded the market demand, but many pioneering competitors seem to be torn between quality and cost. Furthermore, proofreading of everyday writings has received little attention thus far, which is important for non-native speakers. In this paper, we propose SocialKeyboard that uses mobile crowd workers that can be contacted in a mobile environment. By embedding proofreading features into existing mobile keyboards, SocialKeyboard also achieves easy access anytime and everywhere in mobile environments. Moreover, it aims to induce faster responses by implementing 1) Push based task assignment to mobile crowd workers, 2) Real-time track changes, and 3) Synchronous task chaining of proofreading and verification. We present a first working prototype of SocialKeyboard and describe the interplay between Requester, Proofreader, and Verifier. Our preliminary evaluation showed promising results in terms of task speed, and we plan to perform a large-scale study in the near future.

WIP Theme: Novel Interfaces and Interaction Techniques

Palette: Enhancing E-Commerce Product Description by Leveraging Spectrophotometry to Represent Garment Color and Airiness BIBAFull-Text 1597-1602
  Shogo Yamashita; Adiyan Mujibiya
We present Palette, a method to objectively quantize material color and airiness to provide representative description of a product in online shopping scenarios. Photos and keywords are often used to describe color, texture, and airiness of products. However consumer photos are usually taken under uncontrolled realistic imaging conditions, whereas keywords are fuzzy and highly subjective. Palette leverages active spectrophotometry approach that involves synchronized illumination to measure the reflection and transmission properties of a material as a function of wavelength. We use a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) sensor equipped camera to capture visible light and near-infrared light intensity. We show that by analyzing the obtained light spectrum, we are able to provide a metric to represent material color and airiness. In this paper, we describe the details in principle of operation and proof-of-concept prototype implementation, as well as reporting results of our analysis using 4 types of garments. To the best of our knowledge, Palette is the first work to exploit spectrophotometry to represent garment color, texture, and airiness; as an effort to enrich user experience in online shopping.
Transporters: Vision & Touch Transitive Widgets for Capacitive Screens BIBAFull-Text 1603-1608
  Florian Heller; Simon Voelker; Chat Wacharamanotham; Jan Borchers
Tangible widgets are one possible answer to the lack of haptic feedback on touch screens and tabletops. In this publication, we focus on tangibles that provide input and output channels by spatially relocating a part of the touch input and visual output area from the touch screen onto their own arbitrarily shaped surface. Optical fibers that transmit light between the widget's base and its surface can be used for this purpose, but input on such tangibles only works on vision based, not on capacitive touch screens, and it forces input and output to be co-located on the surface of the tangible, excluding designs with spatially separated input and output channels, for example, back-of-device interaction. We propose Transporter tangibles that exploit the technological separation of input and output channels in current capacitive touch screens. By integrating thin conductive wires into optical fiber based widgets, we can apply independent spatial transformations to both channels. This technique allows us to create tangible widgets in which the arrangement, scale, and shape of the input and output surfaces on the tangible can be designed independently and flexibly. A series of use cases illustrates the possibilities of this technology. We also explore the space of construction parameters for widgets that reliably transmit touch.
Linked-Stick: Conveying a Physical Experience using a Shape-Shifting Stick BIBAFull-Text 1609-1614
  Ken Nakagaki; Chikara Inamura; Pasquale Totaro; Thariq Shihipar; Chantine Akikyama; Yin Shuang; Hiroshi Ishii
We use sticks as tools for a variety of activities, everything from conducting music to playing sports or even engage in combat. However, these experiences are inherently physical and are poorly conveyed through traditional digital mediums such as video. Linked-Stick is a shape-changing stick that can mirror the movements of another person's stick-shape tool. We explore how this can be used to experience and learn music, sports and fiction in a more authentic manner. Our work attempts to expand the ways in which we interact with and learn to use tools.
Enhanced Depth Discrimination Using Dynamic Stereoscopic 3D Parameters BIBAFull-Text 1615-1620
  Arun Kulshreshth; Joseph J., Jr. LaViola
Most modern stereoscopic 3D applications (e.g. video games) use optimal (but fixed) stereoscopic 3D parameters (separation and convergence) to render the scene on a 3D display. However, keeping these parameters fixed does not provide the best possible experience since it can reduce depth discrimination. We present two scenarios where the depth discrimination could be enhanced using dynamic adjustments to the separation and the convergence parameters based on the user's look direction obtained from head tracking data.
A Tabletop Projector-camera System for Remote and Nearby Pointing Operation BIBAFull-Text 1621-1626
  Shun Sekiguchi; Takashi Komuro
In this paper, we propose a pointing interface that can be easily installed and that enables remote and nearby operations with high recognition accuracy. We use a system put on a table consisting of multiple projectors and depth cameras. The system projects a shared screen and a personal screen per each user on a projection screen and on a table respectively and enables interaction according to the user's hand motion. A personal screen can be operated by touch operations and a shared screen can be operated by pointing with fingers. Touch and pointing direction are recognized from the depth image and the confidence map obtained by a depth camera. We developed an early prototype system for verification and implemented a presentation application that supports collaborative work to the system. This application allows a user to move a window between the shared screen and the personal screen and to perform various operations on the slides.
AtmoSPHERE: Representing Space and Movement Using Sand Traces in an Interactive Zen Garden BIBAFull-Text 1627-1632
  Ruofei Du; Kent R. Wills; Max Potasznik; Jon E. Froehlich
A Zen garden, also known as Japanese rock garden or Ryoanji garden, creates a peaceful way to visualize space and tranquility. In this paper, we introduce AtmoSPHERE, a new method for automatically imbuing a Zen garden with properties of its surrounding space and occupants. AtmoSPHERE uses a Microsoft Kinect to monitor and extract movement in a room and then visualizes representations of this movement physically via sand traces on a custom built XY sandbox table. We present our prototype system, the design process and interaction modes, feedback from a preliminary deployment, and a discussion of future work.
Tilting the Tablet: The Effect of Tablet Tilt on Hand Occlusion BIBAFull-Text 1633-1638
  Emily B. Moore
During use of touch-screen tablet devices, the user's hand can occlude regions of the screen. Here, we present results from an exploratory study of hand orientation and occlusion among American primary school students using a touch-screen tablet device. We investigated hand orientations, amount of occlusion, and the effects of tablet tilt angle (flat or tilted) on students preferred hand orientations when using a touch-screen tablet device. From 18 interviews with 5th-7th grade students using interactive science simulations, we found five common hand orientations corresponding to a range from high to low occlusion. Tablet tilt angle considerably impacted students preferred hand orientations. Based on these results, we suggest that encouraging students to work on tablets with a moderate tilt angle (30-45 degrees), rather than lying flat on a table, could significantly decrease occlusion and increase the effectiveness of touch-screen tablet devices for learning.
Flex-Beam: A Versatile Video Projection Interface for Digital Performance BIBAFull-Text 1639-1644
  Dae gun Jang; Yi-Kyung Kim; Seunghun Kim
We present Flex-Beam, a novel projection system designed to enhance and simplify the process of creating projections for digital performances. This system features a motorized reflector to move the projection image as being mounted on a projector and a mobile application to control the system easily without complex interfaces. We evaluated the usefulness and competence of Flex-Beam through three examined interactions for actual live performances: control of the projection position, utilization as a dynamic stage lighting, and creation of a real-time interactive image in motion. The results present that Flex-Beam as an easy-to-use and affordable alternative in digital performances can cover the wide display area with only a projector and create a moving stage lighting/scene regardless of the configuration of a theatre space.
Effects of Sound Type on Recreating the Trajectory of a Moving Source BIBAFull-Text 1645-1650
  Graham Wilson; Stephen Brewster; Hector Caltenco; Charlotte Magnusson; Sara Finocchietti; Gabriel Baud-Bovy; Monica Gori
The ABBI (Audio Bracelet for Blind Interaction) device is designed for visually impaired and blind children to wear on the wrist and produce sound based on the movement of the arm through space. The primary function is to inform a child (or adult) about his/her own movements to aid spatial cognition rehabilitation. However, the device could also be worn by friends and family and be used to inform the visually impaired person of others' movement in the environment. In this paper, we describe an initial experiment that measured how well blindfolded sighted individuals could track a moving sound source in 2D horizontal space and then walk the same route to the same end position. Six sounds, including natural sounds, abstract sounds, Earcons and speech, were compared to identify which type of sound produced more accurate route recreation.
HoverLink: Joint Interactions using Hover Sensing Capability BIBAFull-Text 1651-1656
  Takuro Kuribara; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
Users often connect two mobile devices at close range to transfer files such as pictures and movies from one device to another. In this paper, we present HoverLink, a new form of joint interactions on two mobile touchscreen devices such as smartphones and tablets using hover sensing capability. HoverLink allows users to connect two devices, manipulate the data on the devices, and disconnect them in a simple and continuous manner. We also describe HoverLink's applications: transferring data, and a menu interface.
Sounds Like it Works: Music-based Navigation to Improve the Cleanroom Experience BIBAFull-Text 1657-1662
  ilhan Aslan; Barbara Weixelbaumer; Bernhard Maurer; Daniela Wurhofer; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Manfred Tscheligi
Listening to music is an everyday practice that is appreciated for its pleasant effect. Beside the fact that music can be experienced as motivating or rewarding, it is mainly associated with leisure time. Thus, consuming music in work settings is often perceived critically. In this paper, we present research that explores how the positive 'side effects' of music can be combined in design with meaningful auditive navigation suggestions to improve the experience of employees in strictly constrained workplaces. Moreover, we describe results gained from an Experience Prototyping experiment, which we conducted to explore ways to counteract mental and physical discomfort that is experienced in cleanrooms.
Toward Designing a New Virtual Keyboard When All Finger Movements Are Known BIBAFull-Text 1663-1668
  Daewoong Choi; Hyeonjoong Cho; Joono Cheong
Compared with the physical QWERTY keyboards, the virtual keyboards are slow, inaccurate, and inconvenient because they simply imitate the traditional QWERTY keyboard. To improve the virtual keyboards, we focus on two observations. First, all alphabetic keys are already allocated to each finger of skilled typists. Second, non-touching fingers move in correlation with a touching finger because of the intrinsic structure of the human hand. Based on the first observation, we suggested a new virtual keyboard that restricts each finger to enter the pre-allocated keys only. Then, we statistically proved the second observation in our experiment. Through this experiment, we found the significant correlations between a touching and some of the other non-touching fingers. Finally, we discussed how these correlations can help to improve the performance of the virtual keyboards.
Automatically Freezing Live Video for Annotation during Remote Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 1669-1674
  Seungwon Kim; Gun A. Lee; Sangtae Ha; Nobuchika Sakata; Mark Billinghurst
Drawing annotations on shared live video has been investigated as a tool for remote collaboration. However, if a local user changes the viewpoint of a shared live video while a remote user is drawing an annotation, the annotation is projected and drawn at wrong place. Prior work suggested manually freezing the video while annotating to solve the issue, but this needs additional user input. We introduce a solution that automatically freezes the video, and present the results of a user study comparing it with manual freeze and no freeze conditions. Auto-freeze was most preferred by both remote and local participants who felt it best solved the issue of annotations appearing in the wrong place. With auto-freeze, remote users were able to draw annotations quicker, while the local users were able to understand the annotations clearer.
Jorro Beat: Shower Tactile Stimulation Device in the Bathroom BIBAFull-Text 1675-1680
  Keisuke Hoshino; Masahiro Koge; Taku Hachisu; Ryo Kodama; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
We present a shower-type tactile device, named "Jorro Beat". It enriches the music experience in the bathroom by providing tactile stimulation synchronized with music to a wide area of the skin by controlling the water flow of the shower. Our prototype device consists of a showerhead with a mechanical switch, a microcontroller, a motor driver, a DC motor and a cam that is connected to mechanical switch on the showerhead. We conducted an experiment to evaluate the performance of the device, namely bandwidth, latency and operating volume, and showed that the device has sufficient capacity for an enriching music experience, with up to 2100 beats per minute and around 54 dBA operating volume.
Beyond Command & Control: Sketching Embodied Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1681-1686
  Cumhur Erkut; Anu Rajala-Erkut
We present an approach for teaching and designing embodied interaction in collaboration with a contemporary dance choreographer. Our approach is based on the felt qualities of movement, and provides a shared experience, vocabulary for self-expression, and appreciation for movement as a design material for interaction design practitioners. We present a workshop, where after movement sessions, interactive sketches were generated and implemented by motion tracking. Subsequently, we have investigated whether or not these activities guided the participants from the prevailing notion of command/control in embodied interaction towards experiences related to the felt qualities of movement. While in idea generation, our approach has provided a better foundation for participants, compared to the approaches that focus only on technologies, this effect wore off and final implementations focused on command & control. We currently experiment with new tools and techniques, integrating material interactions into the process.
The Cage: Towards a 6-DoF Remote Control with Force Feedback for UAV Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1687-1692
  Charlie Anderson; Benji Barash; Charlie McNeill; Denis Ogun; Michael Wray; Jarrod Knibbe; Christopher H. Morris; Sue Ann Seah
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) require complex control and significant experience for piloting. While these devices continue to improve, there is, as yet, no device that affords six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) control and directional haptic feedback. We present The Cage, a 6-DoF controller for piloting an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The Cage is comprised of a handle suspended by eight lines, each coupled to a vertex, within a physical cuboid cage. Each line in turn is connected to a stepper motor, allowing the pilot to move and rotate the handle freely to control the UAV whilst obtaining accurate directional force feedback. This feedback can both subtly and absolutely constrain the control of the UAV to within the flight area thus preventing the pilot from hazard collisions. We define 4 modes of force feedback and a range of application areas. We then provide details of a proof-of-concept device and suggest areas for future work.
TellTale: Adding a Polygraph to Everyday Life BIBAFull-Text 1693-1698
  Thomas Charlesworth; Helena Ford; Luke Milton; Thomas Mortensson; James Pedlingham; Jarrod Knibbe; Sue Ann Seah
TellTale is a wearable device that seeks to augment communication with subconscious emotion information. By sensing a user's heart rate and galvanic response, two major biological indicators of physiological state, TellTale can provide insight into true physiological and emotional response. In this way, TellTale acts as a playful, wearable polygraph or lie-detector. Through abstracted visualisations of the physiological data, we aim to position TellTale in-line with the learned skills of communication. In this paper, we motivate the design of TellTale, detail a prototype device and pilot study and present future areas for TellTale's exploration.
SIGCHI: Magic Mirror -- Embodied Interactions for the Quantified Self BIBAFull-Text 1699-1704
  Hariharan Subramonyam
Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous advancement in fitness tracking systems such as pedometers and heart rate monitors; and collecting and interacting with personal health or wellness data, is a growing research topic within the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) community. While fitness tracking systems have advanced into on-body sensing modalities, the process of data reporting and intervention is still largely done through mobile and web applications, using traditional methods of data visualization such as graphs and charts. This has resulted in a disconnect between data and its context. This work-in-progress, "Magic Mirror", explores how to retrieve and visualize health data using the body as a reference frame.
PicLight: User-Centered Lighting Control Interface for Residential Space BIBAFull-Text 1705-1710
  Jeongmin Lee; Kyungah Choi; Hyeon-Jeong Suk
This study aims to develop PicLight, a user-centered lighting control interface based on the behavior of photo editing as an analogy for controlling light. The PicLight application allows users to takes photos of a space, then uses those photos to display simulations of lighting scenarios through filter effects, providing users with guidance for easy selection of optimal lighting conditions. We formed 20 lighting presets each of that engages user activity, affection. In order to determine whether the presets were suitable, we conveyed a validation test and validated context-based presets are effective features for designing lighting control interfaces.
Embodied Technology: Unraveling Bodily Action with Normative Types BIBAFull-Text 1711-1716
  Laurens Boer; Robb Mitchell; Agnese Caglio; Andrés Lucero
Interactive artifacts are normative, as they materialize the norms of their designers in order to guide human action in a use-context. A better understanding of how interactive artifacts transmit norms can support designers and users to critically reflect about appropriate human and designed artificial behavior in context. In this paper we introduce 'normative types', which are artifacts that disable, guide, or empower people's bodily actions, in order to deliberately address and explore what is normative physical action in context. We present four design explorations of normative types, named 'Petal Table', 'Toilet Companion', 'Keep-Up-With-Me Table', and the 'Ring Fork'. Based on initial field trials we suggest that socially (in)appropriate bodily action can be imposed, exposed, juxtaposed, or opposed by normative types. We suggest that these modes of intention can aid designers in developing a critical self-reflective and contextually informed design approach.
Evaluating Stereoscopic 3D for Automotive User Interfaces in a Real-World Driving Study BIBAFull-Text 1717-1722
  Nora Broy; Stefan Schneegass; Mengbing Guo; Florian Alt; Albrecht Schmidt
This paper reports on the use of in-car 3D displays in a real-world driving scenario. Today, stereoscopic displays are becoming ubiquitous in many domains such as mobile phones or TVs. Instead of using 3D for entertainment, we explore the 3D effect as a mean to spatially structure user interface (UI) elements. To evaluate potentials and drawbacks of in-car 3D displays we mounted an autostereoscopic display as instrument cluster in a vehicle and conducted a real-world driving study with 15 experts in automotive UI design. The results show that the 3D effect increases the perceived quality of the UI and enhances the presentation of spatial information (e.g., navigation cues) compared to 2D. However, the effect should be used well-considered to avoid spatial clutter which can increase the system's complexity.
Hover Cursor: Improving Touchscreen Acquisition Of Small Targets With Hover-enabled Pre-selection BIBAFull-Text 1723-1728
  Anna Ostberg; Nada Matic
Even with highly-sensitive touchscreens and emphasis on "designing for touch", small target selection remains difficult. Good touch performance cannot solve the "fat-finger" problem, which results from occlusion and the size disparity between fingers and targets. We propose Hover Cursor, a method to improve small target selection using hover-sensing over a touchscreen. Using a capacitive touch sensor that also provides hover data, the hover position of the user's finger is displayed with a cursor, and selection is performed with a tap. In a Fitts' study, we compared Hover Cursor with direct-touch selection. Users made fewer selection errors with Hover Cursor. Hover Cursor was slower overall, but faster and more accurate for small targets.
Delegation Impossible?: Towards Novel Interfaces for Camera Motion BIBAFull-Text 1729-1734
  Axel Hoesl; Julie Wagner; Andreas Butz
When watching a movie, the viewer perceives camera motion as an integral movement of a viewport in a scene. Behind the scenes, however, there is a complex and error-prone choreography of multiple people controlling separate motion axes and camera attributes. This strict separation of tasks has mostly historical reasons, which we believe could be overcome with today's technology. We revisit interface design for camera motion starting with ethnographic observations and interviews with nine camera operators. We identified seven influencing factors for camera work and found that automation needs to be combined with human interaction: Operators want to be able to spontaneously take over in unforeseen situations. We characterize a class of user interfaces supporting (semi-)automated camera motion that take both human and machine capabilities into account by offering seamless transitions between automation and control.
Director: A Remote Guidance Mechanism BIBAFull-Text 1735-1740
  Liam Betsworth; Matt Jones
When using a mobile device as a navigation aid, we are used to receiving computer-generated routes and directions. Remote guidance, however, remains an underexplored design space in mobile interaction design. In this paper, we introduce Director, a novel, remote guidance mechanism for the positioning of people in outdoor spaces using mobile devices. We conducted a study to test our novel positioning technique, testing its guiding accuracy and effect on Preferred Walking Speed (PWS). Our results suggest that Director offers users a fun and playful experience, and that our novel guidance technique is a very accurate remote mechanism.
The Appropriation Paradox: Benefits and Burdens of Appropriating Collaboration Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1741-1746
  Sangseok You; Lionel P., Jr. Robert; Soo Young Rieh
We report on a preliminary study of information-sharing practices within software teams. We identified behavioral and technological misalignments in the sharing of information between individuals. Individuals appropriate different collaboration technologies to mitigate these misalignments. We also discovered that appropriation at the individual level makes it difficult to share information at the team level. We refer to this as the paradox of appropriation. Theoretical and design implications drawn from our findings will be discussed.
Beyond Binary Gestures: Exploring Documents using Touch Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1747-1751
  Ziqi Huang; Juan Felipe Beltran; Azza Abouzied; Arnab Nandi
As keyboard-less devices such as tablets and smartphones become more important in daily life, searching and exploring documents has become an increasingly important task. Traditional document exploration interfaces require multiple keywords to be typed in, which is cumbersome and time-consuming using a touch-driven device. We present BigGo -- an interface for exploration of documents using touch gestures. Our interface goes beyond common binary touch gestures as "like" or "dislike": the user is given a chance to not just provide binary feedback, but also explain why they like or dislike a certain document. Since the feedback is richer, it allows BinGo to provide a better recommendation of documents, and aid exploration of the documents. The ability to provide richer feedback improves the exploration experience and decreases the overall gesture cost for targeting the proper document set. User studies and the results show that BinGo outperforms binary gestural interfaces on recommendation quality while maintaining the usability on traditional like / dislike exploration mechanism on touch interfaces.

WIP Theme: Productivity and Awareness

The Do Not Disturb Challenge: A Day Without Notifications BIBAFull-Text 1761-1766
  Martin Pielot; Luz Rello
We asked 12 people to disable notification alerts for 24 hours on all computing devices. We collected data through open post-hoc interviews and analyzed the qualitative data using Open Coding. The participants showed very strong and polarized opinions towards notification alerts. During work, some participants felt less stressed and more productive thanks to not being interrupted, however outside of the work context, some became stressed and anxious because they were afraid of missing important information and violating expectations of others. This is the first holistic approach to notifications studying their effect across services, devises and work and private life. In contrast to previous studies, some participants acted upon the positive experiences and turned notifications of some applications off.
Beyond "Geofencing": Specifying Location in Location-Based Reminder Applications BIBAFull-Text 1767-1772
  Yao Wang; Manuel A. Perez-Quinones
Location-based reminders (LBRs) use people's physical location to trigger reminders. Today's advanced mobile technology has made LBRs commonplace. In this paper we report of a short study to evaluate the specification of location in a commercially available LBR. The study was followed by a survey to collect typical to-do tasks that include location information. Our findings suggest that location-based reminders are more complicated than what current LBR software supports. Based on our results, we propose a classification of different uses of location in to-do tasks. The different uses of locations, as per our classification, has implications for the design of future LBRs.
Tipper: Contextual Tooltips that Provide Seniors with Clear, Reliable Help for Web Tasks BIBAFull-Text 1773-1778
  Yibo Dai; George Karalis; Saba Kawas; Chris Olsen
Most senior citizens in the U.S. use the Internet on a regular basis yet frequently run into basic issues they cannot solve themselves. We conducted contextual inquiry with 6 participants and an online survey with 25 participants to determine the difficulties and frustrations these users face. From the research findings we designed Tipper, a browser-based system to provide contextual help for seniors on the Web. Usability testing shows Tipper to be a simple yet powerful solution to make seniors more competent and comfortable on the Web. This paper reports the current progress of Tipper and indicates our future direction.
Automatic Delivery Timing Control of Incoming Email based on User Interruptibility BIBAFull-Text 1779-1784
  Yasumasa Kobayashi; Takahiro Tanaka; Kazuaki Aoki; Kinya Fujita
To relieve the cognitive impact of interruptions caused by email delivery notifications, we propose an automatic email delivery mediation system based on the user interruptibility, which is estimated from the PC operation activity. A prototype system has been developed to be compatible with existing email clients and to deliver emails at higher estimated interruptibility times, especially at application switching moments that are considered as breakpoints in PC tasks. Trial use by eight participants in ordinary working environments suggested that email notifications were delivered at moments with lower levels of operation activity and the feelings of hindrance were decreased. Further study is to be conducted to investigate the effect of automatic email delivery mediation on the cognitive cost and work efficiency.
Task Lockouts Induce Crowdworkers to Switch to Other Activities BIBAFull-Text 1785-1790
  Sandy J. J. Gould; Anna L. Cox; Duncan P. Brumby
Paid crowdsourcing has established itself as a useful way of getting work done. The availability of large, responsive pools of workers means that low quality work can often be treated as noise and dealt with through standard data processing techniques. This approach is not practical in all scenarios though, so efforts have been made to stop poor performance occurring by preventing satisficing behaviours that can compromise result quality. In this paper we test an intervention -- a task lockout -- designed to prevent satisficing behaviour in a simple data-entry task on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Our results show that workers are highly adaptable: when faced with the intervention they develop workaround strategies, allocating their time elsewhere during lockout periods. This suggests that more subtle techniques may be required to substantially influence worker behaviour.
Tag & Link: Supporting Regional and Relational Tagging in Images with Direct Annotation BIBAFull-Text 1791-1796
  Hsing-Lin Tsai; Cheng-Hsien Han; En-Hsin Wu; Chi-Lan Yang; Hao-Chuan Wang
Image tagging is crucial to the use of digital photos and value-added applications. We present Tag & Link, a tagging interface featured direct annotations to collect fine-grained descriptions of image content that can be hard to obtain otherwise. Tag & Link provides a set of drawing tools, allowing users to directly specify regions of interest (ROIs), and the relations between different ROIs on an image. Through a crowdsourcing study, we show that Tag & Link enhances tagging productivity and helps collect annotations on small objects and behaviors embedded in images. We demonstrate the value of direct annotation on the elicitation of fine-grained human knowledge of image content.

WIP Theme: Search and Infoviz

TaskAmbient: A Study in Personal Task Management Visualization BIBAFull-Text 1797-1802
  Sheriff Jolaoso; Manuel A. Perez-Quinones
In the lifecycle of a personal to-do, the task is susceptible to failure at various stages. One of these stages is the intention retention stage, in which a person has to stay vigilant of the task and recognize when it can be carried out. Within the retention process there is the need to maintain groupings of tasks based on one's areas of responsibility as well. To aid in task retention overall, external memory aids are often used. Still, there are occasions where intentions are not retained when external memory aids are used due to the aid's inability to convey task information or cue execution of a task. In our work, we look to design an external memory aid that supports retention of individual task knowledge as well as retention of task knowledge in a user's different areas of responsibility. With this tool we will observe its use to verify or deny its ability to support these two activities. We have conducted a survey of task management practices and results from the survey, along with related work, have aided in our initial design.
Usable Transparency with the Data Track: A Tool for Visualizing Data Disclosures BIBAFull-Text 1803-1808
  Julio Angulo; Simone Fischer-Hübner; Tobias Pulls; Erik Wästlund
We present a prototype of the user interface of a transparency tool that displays an overview of a user's data disclosures to different online service providers and allows them to access data collected about them stored at the services' sides. We explore one particular type of visualization method consisting of tracing lines that connect a user's disclosed personal attributes to the service to which these attributes have been disclosed. We report on the ongoing iterative process of design of such visualization, the challenges encountered and the possibilities for future improvements.
Towards a Novel Issue Tracking System for "Industry 4.0" Environments BIBAFull-Text 1809-1814
  Pascal Lessel; Marc Müller; Antonio Krüger
In this paper we describe the concept and system design of a novel tracking system for deviations and disturbances in a production environment. We motivate the need for such a system by reporting our observations of two production systems of German manufacturing companies. Our envisioned system focuses on helping and motivating people to digitally document the problems, potential causes and steps to overcome the issues more thoroughly and provide capabilities that make these easily accessible at the point in time when they are needed. Such a functionality is not only helpful for problem solving in the general production system itself, but can also be used for other specific aspects of it, e.g. errors requiring documentation in the manual end-assembly that can also profit from the same strategies.
Bicentric Diagrams: Design of a Graph-Based Relational Set Visualization Technique BIBAFull-Text 1815-1820
  Hyunwoo Park; Rahul C. Basole
Visualizations can help amplify human cognition. In an era where networks are becoming increasingly complex, the desirability of tools to compare and contrast sets, relationships, and reach is significant. Motivated by a practical need articulated by corporate decision makers, this research presents our journey in designing and implementing bicentric diagrams, a novel graph-based set visualization technique. A bicentric diagram enables simultaneous identification of sets, set relationships, and set member reach in integrated egonetworks of two focal entities. Our technique builds on the well-established theory of tie strength to visually group and position nodes. We illustrate the applicability of bicentric diagrams with an example from technology co-occurrence in press releases. We assess the value of our technique using an expert-based value-driven evaluation approach.
Towards Text Search for Information Visualization Retrieval BIBAFull-Text 1821-1826
  Romain Vuillemot; Mehmet Akmanalp
We investigate the use of text search to retrieve information visualizations. This is important as the body of available visualizations on the web is growing. And it the meantime, they are difficult to find as they don't have an immediate textual description. Our approach is first to create a taxonomy of textual terms to describe visualizations, both in a general and in a specific way using economics visualization as application domain. Then we designed and implemented a search engine to query this vocabulary on a real website, The Atlas of Economic Complexity, using economics data. Results from an exploratory study informed us on the types of tasks to support and on the visual design of the search box, such as showing recommendations similar to Google results. Those early and promising results pave the way for a more diverse and complex vocabulary that exploits the full wealth of information that graphical elements can contain. Such a search feature has wide ranging applicability, from making visualizations more accessible for less technical users, to using other input modalities such as voice.
Exploring the Effect of Word-Scale Visualizations on Reading Behavior BIBAFull-Text 1827-1832
  Pascal Goffin; Wesley Willett; Anastasia Bezerianos; Petra Isenberg
We studied how the integration of small visualizations (word-scale visualizations) into a sentence affects reading speed and memorization during a brief reading task. In particular, we were interested in how different placement types with their inherent text appearance and layout changes affect readers. We designed a quantitative study in which we gave sentences with or without visualizations for participants to read. Then, we invited them to answer questions on the sentences. We found that the information encoded in the visualizations is more prominent and easily remembered than information in the written text, but that different placement options had little to no effect on reading performance, even if participants had different preferences.
Ariadne's Thread: Interactive Navigation in a World of Networked Information BIBAFull-Text 1833-1838
  Rob Koopman; Shenghui Wang; Andrea Scharnhorst; Gwenn Englebienne
This work-in-progress paper introduces an interface for the interactive visual exploration of the context of queries using the ArticleFirst database, a product of OCLC. We describe a workflow which allows the user to browse live entities associated with 65 million articles. In the on-line interface, each query leads to a specific network representation of the most prevailing entities: topics (words), authors, journals and Dewey decimal classes linked to the set of terms in the query. This network represents the context of a query. Each of the network nodes is clickable: by clicking through, a user traverses a large space of articles along dimensions of authors, journals, Dewey classes and words simultaneously. We present different use cases of such an interface. This paper provides a link between the quest for maps of science and on-going debates in HCI about the use of interactive information visualisation to empower users in their search.
Design Implications of Casual Health Visualization on Tangible Displays BIBAFull-Text 1839-1844
  Sandy Claes; Jorgos Coenen; Karin Slegers; Andrew Vande Moere
This paper reports on a case study that investigated the potential of tangible displays as a means to communicate data-driven facts to lay people. We developed an interactive application that communicated health-related correlations on a set of Sifteo displays, and compared it to a traditional screen-based graphical interface conveying identical information. Our user experience and insight analysis study showed that the tangible interface allowed for more personal, reflective insights, whereas the graphical user interface was considered more efficient in time. These findings were confirmed during an in-the-wild observation study in a hospital waiting room. We therefore formulated a set of design implications for the future interaction design of casual, tangible visualizations on small screens.
Using Space: Effect of Display Size on Users' Search Performance BIBAFull-Text 1845-1850
  Lars Lischke; Sven Mayer; Katrin Wolf; Niels Henze; Albrecht Schmidt; Svenja Leifert; Harald Reiterer
Due to advances in technology large displays with very high resolution started to become affordable for daily work. Today it is possible to build display walls with a pixel density that is comparable to standard office screens. Previous work indicates that physical navigation enables a deeper engagement with the data set. In particular, the visibility of detailed data subsets on large screens supports the user's work and understanding of large data. In contrast to previous work we explore how users' performance scales with an increasing amount of large display space when working with text documents. In a controlled experiment, we determine participants' performance when searching for titles and images in large text documents using one to six 50" 4K monitors. Our results show that the users' visual search performance does not linearly increase with an increasing amount of display space.
Detecting and Visualizing Filter Bubbles in Google and Bing BIBAFull-Text 1851-1856
  Tawanna R. Dillahunt; Christopher A. Brooks; Samarth Gulati
Despite the pervasiveness of search engines, most users know little about the implications of search engine algorithms and are unaware of how they work. People using web search engines assume that search results are unbiased and neutral. Filter bubbles, or personalized results, could lead to polarizing effects across populations, which could create divisions in society. This preliminary work explores whether the filter bubble can be measured and described and is an initial investigation towards the larger goal of identifying how non-search experts might understand how the filter bubble impacts their search results.
Understanding Requirements of Place in Local Search BIBAFull-Text 1857-1862
  Karen Church; Henriette Cramer
We present an online survey (N=306) focused on understanding what factors of location are important when choosing a target place of interest in a local search scenario. Using descriptions of location requirements from a restaurant search as our use case, we provide a characterization of the factors of location that influence decision-making in local search tasks. We highlight the complexity of end-users' location constraints, especially for shared local search scenarios, i.e. scenarios involving others. Even in a relatively mundane scenario, we demonstrate significant gaps in the handling of place requirements in existing location-based services as compared to identified user requirements. Our results point to a number of implications for improving location-based search.
Visual Characteristics' Inherent Impact on People's Strategic Orientation BIBAFull-Text 1863-1868
  Therese Dries-Tönnies; Axel Platz; Michael Burmester; Magdalena Laib; Nathalie Blanc
Digitally mediated tasks are becoming an indispensable part of our daily life. However, they often suppose different kinds of strategies to be solved with success (e.g., creativity, accuracy). The strategies people use to for task solving might unintentionally be influenced by graphic user interfaces' (GUI) visual characteristics. The present research investigates this topic by focusing on impacts related to isolated colors and forms. First, a word association test showed that specific color and form characteristics are associated to ideas of threat or, on the contrary, of comfort. An anagram-solving test then demonstrated that color and form stimuli influence performance differently depending on these associations: Participants solved comfort-related anagrams faster when presented in combination with visual stimuli associated to comfort ideas (i.e., orange, round forms). Conversely, vigilance-related anagrams were solved faster when presented in association with visual stimuli associated to threat. These findings strongly suggest that color and form elements used in GUIs can impact user's approach and sensitivity to specific information. Depending on the kind of tasks (e.g., demanding creativity or accuracy), the effects can either support solving or impair it. Further researches should transfer the present results to concrete computer mediated tasks.
Quarry: Picking From Examples to Explore Big Data BIBAFull-Text 1869-1874
  Rhema Linder; Eunyee Koh
Analysts use scripts, visualization tools, and spreadsheets as they process and understand data. We focus on two phases of analysts' work: discovery, where the field definitions are understood, and profiling, where assumptions are tested by searching, observing, and running counts on data. Lack of data exploration and understanding can lead to faulty assumptions and misinterpretation. In practice, analysts use SQL queries and scripts to subset big data, reducing it for visualization or spreadsheet pivots. However, due to large-size and high-dimensional data, it is challenging to determine precise subsets of interest without thorough data exploration and discovery. We reduce the cost of previewing subsets by combining search with an information rich visualization of high-dimensional data. To enable discovery and profiling, Quarry supports (1) rapid query generation and visualized search; and (2) defining and previewing subsets of data for potential export for further processing. This work presents the design of Quarry and results from a formative study involving 11 analysts/data scientists and a dataset with 80 columns and 15 million rows.

WIP Theme: Social Computing

Generating Narratives from Personal Digital Data: Triptychs BIBAFull-Text 1875-1880
  Matthew P. Aylett; Elaine Farrow; Larissa Pschetz; Thomas Dickinson
The need for users to make sense of their growing mass of personal digital data presents a challenge to Design and HCI researchers. There is a growing interest in using narrative techniques to support the interpretation and understanding of such data. In this early study we explore methods of selecting images from personal Instagram accounts in the form of a triptych (a sequence of three images) in order to create a sense of narrative. We present a brief description of the algorithms behind image selection, evaluate how effective they are in creating a sense of narrative, and discuss the wider implications of our work. Results show that semantic tagging, a dynamic programming algorithm, and a simple narrative structure produced triptychs which were significantly more story-like, with a significantly more coherent order, than a random selection, or a neutral sequence of images.
PicThru: a Mobile Application to Foster Creative Thinking with Pictures and Social Mechanics BIBAFull-Text 1881-1886
  Oscar Ardaiz; Oleh Kudinov; Asier Marzo
PicThru is an application for smart phones to exercise creative thinking. Its game play is based on the combination technique. Players must take new pictures related to images from previous levels and evaluate other players' pictures. PicThru was designed as a social app since groups with heterogeneous participants stimulate divergent thinking. Additionally, it incorporates other social and competitive mechanics.
Ranking Designs and Users in Online Social Networks BIBAFull-Text 1887-1892
  Biplab Deka; Haizi Yu; Devin Ho; Zifeng Huang; Jerry O. Talton; Ranjitha Kumar
This work-in-progress presents a new algorithm that leverages social network structure to rank designs and users in online design communities. The algorithm is based on the intuition that the importance of a design should depend on the rank of the users that created and promoted it, and the importance of a user should depend on the rank of the designs he creates and promotes in turn. The algorithm produces design rankings that are positively correlated with existing social metrics such as number of likes, but also allows designs with second-order social import to rise through the ranks. We demonstrate that the algorithm converges, and analyze the rankings it produces on both simulated and scraped social design networks.
The Price of the Priceless: Understanding Estimated Costs of Work in Friendsourcing BIBAFull-Text 1893-1898
  Joey Chiao-Yin Hsiao; Mei-Hua Pan; Hao-Chuan Wang; Jane Yung-Jen Hsu
Friendsourcing, or outsourcing tasks to one's online and offline friends, is increasingly common and versatile. As regular crowdsourcing, friendsourcing requesters needs to incentivize potential workers (i.e., friends) to actually engage and complete the requested tasks. However, it is unclear how to effectively motivate friendsourcing workers and what incentives, which may include both social and monetary ones, are considered feasible in friendsourcing, especially by taking social relations between requesters and workers as part of the calculation. In an exploratory study, we asked participants to report their estimations of feasible payment as a requester, and reward as a worker in friendsourcing. We compare the estimated costs of friendsourcing to regular crowdsourcing, and find that there exists a gap between requesters' and workers' expected costs. Individuals would like to pay more as a requester, and expect to receive less as a worker in friendsourcing. Consideration of social transaction and relationship maintenance is involved. We discuss the implications for designing friendsourcing systems.
Exploring Embedded Haptics for Social Networking and Interactions BIBAFull-Text 1899-1904
  Ali Israr; Siyan Zhao; Oliver Schneider
Haptic feedback is frequently used for user interactions with mobile devices, wearables, and handheld controllers in virtual reality and entertainment settings. We explore the use of vibrotactile (VT) feedback for social and interpersonal communication on embedded systems, particularly in a mobile context. We propose an architecture that supports compact packet communication between devices and triggers expressive VT patterns in a typical messenger application. We present a communication API, haptic vocabularies, and an interface for receiving and authoring haptic messages. Finally, we conclude with an informal survey for using haptics in a social setting.
Using Socio-ecological Model to Inform the Design of Persuasive Applications BIBAFull-Text 1905-1910
  Hazwani Mohd Mohadis; Nazlena Mohamad Ali
Diverse persuasive applications that aim for behavioural changes have been developed. However, the method in which particular persuasive design principles are chosen over others remains unclear. Meanwhile, the use of socio-ecological model has been widely utilized in clinical research, as a basis to understand the factors in the entire ecological system that influences behavioural patterns. Because persuasive technology aims to change the behaviour and attitudes of users, we believe that the use of socio-ecological model would be beneficial to inform the design of persuasive applications. Accordingly, in this paper, we attempt to demonstrate the mapping of the socio-ecological factors and persuasive design principles by conducting interviews and expert reviews. Based on our approach, 12 socio-ecological factors that influence physical activity behaviour, and corresponding relevant persuasive design principles to deal with these factors, are identified.
Understanding Perceived Social Support through Communication Time, Frequency, and Media Multiplexity BIBAFull-Text 1911-1916
  Donghee Yvette Wohn; Wei Peng
We asked people (N=476) about their perceived social support from three groups of friends based on how they communicate with them: those whom they communicate only face to face, only through technology, or both. We found that communication time, frequency, and the number of channels they use to communicate (multiplexity) were related to their perceived social support from each of those groups. Applications with voice (Skype, telephone) were significantly related to emotional support.
From the Deposit to the Exhibit Floor: An Exploration on Giving Museum Objects Personality and Social Life BIBAFull-Text 1917-1922
  Mark T. Marshall; Nick Dulake; Daniela Petrelli; Hub Kockelkorn
Museum objects have fascinating stories but are often presented in a detached, objective way that tends to keep visitors at a distance. In a collaborative research we have explored a different way to present museum objects: fifteen exhibits from the museum deposit compete for one of the four display cases on the exhibit floor. Objects are given a personal voice and a character and they talk directly to the visitor: those that capture visitors' interest as physical presence or Twitter conversation stay on display; the lower scorer is replaced. We report the co-design and preliminary evaluation carried out in the museum with both museum professionals and casual visitors.
Collaborative Video Challenges: A Playful Concept of Proximity-Based Social Interaction BIBAFull-Text 1923-1928
  Susanna Paasovaara; Ekaterina Olshannikova; Thomas Olsson
Mobile proximity-based networking technologies like Wi-Fi Direct enable applications that allow interaction between co-located users and device-to-device transfer of large amounts of data. To explore new ways of utilizing such enablers, we designed a concept that allows users to create collaborative video challenges, and further spread them device-to-device via Wi-Fi direct. The concept offers means for proximity-based playful social interaction, mediated by collaboratively created stories consisting of several clips. We present a preliminary user study to gather early feedback on the concept and to identify main hindrances. Our analysis shows promising results: the concept is considered as fun and playful, and there is high interest to follow how the challenges proceed. We discuss various opportunities and challenges as well as present ideas for further research.
"I Like This Shirt": Exploring the Translation of Social Mechanisms in the Virtual World into Physical Experiences BIBAFull-Text 1929-1934
  Ladan Najafizadeh; Seokbin Kang; Jon E. Froehlich
Over the past decade, technologies that mediate and support human-to-human interactions (e.g., social networks) have become integral tools for a range of lightweight social interactions. With a single click to 'favorite' or 'like', social media users can demonstrate their interest in a specific person, event, or piece of content. In our research, we are exploring the translation of these lightweight social interactions into the physical world as design provocations. In this paper, we introduce one example called "I Like This Shirt", a tangible manifestation of the ubiquitous Like button embedded in an interactive t-shirt. The shirt responds to physical touches, which indicate "likes" and tracks and visualizes the "like count" in real-time on the shirt itself. We describe our design and the results of a preliminary deployment.
Frustrations with Pursuing Casual Encounters through Online Dating BIBAFull-Text 1935-1940
  Douglas Zytko; Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Quentin Jones
Many users of online dating systems have a multitude of relationship goals including casual encounters. However, most studies of online dating systems have focused exclusively on users' abilities to find long-term relationships. This has restricted our understanding of how to design systems for users that have multiple relationship goals. To address this gap in understanding we explored how people use online dating systems in regards to casual encounters. We did this through an interview study with users of a popular online dating system in the USA and a study of online dating coaches who give behavioral advice specific to the pursuit of casual encounters. Findings highlight how users subtly disguise and probe for openness to casual encounters, while coaches try to overcome ambiguities in user intentions through a series of targeted dating methods.
Exploring Tag-based Like Networks BIBAFull-Text 1941-1946
  Kyungsik Han; Jin Yea Jang; Dongwon Lee
The emergence of social media has had a significant impact on how people communicate, interact, and socialize. People engage in social media in different ways by not only adding content such as photos, texts, and videos, but also adding tags, Likes, comments, and following others. Through these activities, people form and develop social connections and networks. In this paper, we present a two-dimensional Like network formed and developed by people who have a same tag in their photos. Based on the dataset consisting of 51K photos posted by 36K users in Instagram, we present the structural and relational aspects of tag-based Like networks. Our study results highlight that Like networks have different sizes and degrees of network components depending on a tag type. We also found that a large portion of Likes came from random users for all networks.
A Taxonomy for Classifying Questions Asked in Social Question and Answering BIBAFull-Text 1947-1952
  Zhe Liu; Bernard J. Jansen
The rapid advancement of Web2.0 technologies has made social networking sites, such as Facebook and twitter, important venues for individuals to seek and share information. As understanding the information needs of users is crucial for designing and developing tools to support their social Q&A behaviors, in this paper, we present a new way of classifying questions from a design perspective, with the aim of facilitating the development of question routing systems according to individual's information need. As an attempt to understand the questioner's intent in social question and answering environments, we propose a taxonomy of questions posted on Twitter, called ASK. Our taxonomy uncovers three different kinds of questions: accuracy, social, and knowledge. In addition, to enable automatic detection on these three types of information needs, we measured and reported on the differences in ASK types of questions reflected at both lexical and syntactic levels.

WIP Theme: Trust, Privacy and Emotions

SmileTracker: Automatically and Unobtrusively Recording Smiles and their Context BIBAFull-Text 1953-1958
  Natasha Jaques; Weixuan 'Vincent' Chen; Rosalind W. Picard
This paper presents a system prototype designed to capture naturally occurring instances of positive emotion during the course of normal interaction with a computer. A facial expression recognition algorithm is applied to images captured with the user's webcam. When the user smiles, both a photo and a screenshot are recorded and saved to the user's profile for later review. Based on positive psychology research, we hypothesize that the act of reviewing content that led to smiles will improve positive affect, and consequently, overall wellbeing. We conducted a preliminary user study to test this hypothesis, as well as to gather feedback on the initial design.
Laughin' Cam: Active Camera System to Induce Natural Smiles BIBAFull-Text 1959-1964
  Ryohei Fushimi; Shogo Fukushima; Takeshi Naemura
When taking a photo, such verbal prompts as "cheese" or "smile" are often used by photographers to get natural smiles from their subjects. However, since the obtained smiles usually look forced or resemble a grimace, capturing a natural smile is difficult. We propose an active camera system called "Laughin'Cam" that obtains natural-looking portraits by eliciting spontaneous smiles by presenting the sound of laughter. The proposed system utilizes an emotional contagion effect, which is the tendency of emotional behavior to spread from person to person. We conducted an evaluation experiment with our proposed system using computer vision and also performed a subjective experiment. Our results suggested that our system could efficiently induce naturally-looking and spontaneous smiles.
Factors Related to Privacy Concerns and Protection Behaviors Regarding Behavioral Advertising BIBAFull-Text 1965-1970
  Donghee Yvette Wohn; Jacob Solomon; Dan Sarkar; Kami E. Vaniea
Research on online behavioral advertising has focused on users' attitudes towards sharing and what information they are willing to share. An unexplored area in this domain is how users' knowledge of how to protect their information differs from their self-efficacy about executing privacy protection behavior. The results of a 179-participant online study show that knowledge explains privacy concerns, but self-efficacy explains protection behaviors. Perceived behavioral control was related to both concerns and behavior.
Somebody Is Peeking!: A Proximity and Privacy Aware Tablet Interface BIBAFull-Text 1971-1976
  Huiyuan Zhou; Vinicius Ferreira; Thamara Alves; Kirstie Hawkey; Derek Reilly
As smartphones and tablets are now widespread, accessing or even sharing sensitive content in public areas has become commonplace. This applies to both personal contexts (e.g. checking banking information in a coffee shop) and professional contexts (e.g. sharing patient information in a hospital ward). It is important to explore ways to support visual privacy that are appropriate for mobile device use in public settings and in dynamic workflows. In this paper we present the design, prototype implementation, and ongoing evaluation of a range of privacy notifications and privacy control mechanisms for tablets. Preliminary results show that: 1) spatial information such as distance and orientation can be used to mediate privacy management for tablet interfaces. 2) Privacy notifications and control mechanisms should be designed to complement our existing physical awareness and protection mechanisms. 3) Selecting a specific design is highly context-dependent.
A Study Relating Computational Textile Textural Expression to Emotion BIBAFull-Text 1977-1982
  Felecia Davis
Material expression has always been an important non-verbal, sensual method for designers to communicate with users of a designed object. A critical non-verbal mode of communicating is rooted in the expression of emotion which directly relates bodies to the environment. [1, 3, 6, 7, 8] Computational textiles which transform through electronic commands over time augment the choices and expressions possible for designers to communicate with people using these textiles. The problem is what exactly is communicated emotionally to people through the transforming textural expressions of the material? The author presents a study which relates communication of emotion to people via the aesthetic textural expression of computational textiles or textiles which transform through electronic commands over time. The author presents the preliminary results of the study as one of many methods which when combined with other design methods from architectural design will be used to fabricate a computational textile that can express a range of emotions through its textural transformations.
Lexical Representation of Emotions for High Functioning Autism (HFA) via Emotional Story Intervention using Smart Media BIBAFull-Text 1983-1988
  Minkyeong Jeong; YoungTae Kim; Dongsun Yim; SeokJeong Yeon; Seokwoo Song; John Kim
Children with High-Functioning Autism (HFA) have difficulty understanding and using emotional expressions. A variety of smart media, such as tablet PCs and robots, are being used to train children with autism spectrum disorders on emotional vocabulary use through language therapy. In this work, we explore the effectiveness of robot-based intervention (compared with PC-based intervention) on children with HFA; in particular, we evaluate the impact of using emotional stories to understand how intervention impacts the total number (and the diversity) of words to express their emotions. Our initial results revealed that children with HFA showed significantly higher performance when using robot intervention than PCs, in terms of the total number of emotional words used. Our study thus suggests that robot-based intervention can be used as a potential therapeutic tool for training children with HFA to increase their ability to use words to express their emotions.
Using Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to Measure Trust and Cognitive Load in the Text-Chat Environment BIBAFull-Text 1989-1994
  Ahmad Khawaji; Jianlong Zhou; Fang Chen; Nadine Marcus
Exchanging text messages via software on smart phones and computers has recently become one of the most popular ways for people to communicate and accomplish their tasks. However, there are negative aspects to using this kind of software, for example, it has been found that people communicating in the text-chat environment may experience a lack of trust and may face different levels of cognitive load [1, 11]. This study examines a novel way to measure interpersonal trust and cognitive load when they overlap with each other in the text-chat environment. We used Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), a physiological measurement, to collect data from twenty-eight subjects at four gradients and overlapping conditions between trust and cognitive load. The findings show that the GSR signals were significantly affected by both trust and cognitive load and provide promising evidence that GSR can be used as a tool for measuring interpersonal trust when cognitive load is low and also for measuring cognitive load when trust is high.
Emotion Evoked by Texture and Application to Emotional Communication BIBAFull-Text 1995-2000
  Yurika Ebe; Hiroyuki Umemuro
The tactile sense is direct and intuitive, and considered appropriate for communicating emotional information. It is expected that emotional communication will be richer when including the use of the tactile sense. This study focuses on textures as tactile stimuli and investigates relationships between texture and emotion that can be evoked or conveyed by the textures as communication media. Results show which emotion is evoked in association with each of the texture characteristics, and that these textures could be used to convey emotional information.
Creating the Mood: Design for a Cognitive Meeting Room BIBAFull-Text 2001-2006
  Maryam Ashoori; Rachel K. E. Bellamy; Justin D. Weisz
Mood affects the decisions we make and our attitudes toward work and the people with whom we work. The availability of peripheral and focal information also affects the quality and speed of decision-making processes. We are exploring ways to use ambient lighting, music, and images over the course of group meetings in order to understand how these ambient elements affect the quality of meetings, people's attitudes, and the decisions made.
CoSense: Creating Shared Emotional Experiences BIBAFull-Text 2007-2012
  Sudhanshu S. D. P. Ayyagari; Kunal Gupta; Matt Tait; Mark Billinghurst
In this paper we describe a prototype wearable interface that shares a user's first person view and their current emotional state with a remote user in order to create a shared emotional experience. A user evaluation was conducted to explore which interface cues best helped a remote user understand what the local user was feeling. The results showed simple visual cues provided a significantly enhanced experience over no cues at all, or a more detailed data representation.
Self-Defining Memory Cues: Creative Expression and Emotional Meaning BIBAFull-Text 2013-2018
  Corina Sas; Scott Challioner; Christopher Clarke; Ross Wilson; Alina Coman; Sarah Clinch; Mike Harding; Nigel Davies
This paper explores how people generate cues for capturing personal meaningful daily events, which can be used for later recall. Such understanding can be explored to inform the design and development of personal informatics systems, aimed to support reflection and increased self-awareness. We describe a diary study with six participants and discuss initial findings showing the qualities of daily meaningful events, the value of different types of cues and their distinct contents for supporting episodic recall.
Seamless And Always-on Security in a Bring-Your-Own-Application World BIBAFull-Text 2019-2024
  Paulo Hecht; Sidney Fels; Junia Anacleto
This paper describes a usable security experiment with xmail, a prototype that enhances Gmail's webmail client security with end-to-end encryption making user content unreadable by the service provider. The prototype follows a seamless and always-on approach requiring minimal changes to the Gmail user interface and task flow. Many studies have pointed out problems with email security usability, but they usually take an adversarial context as reference. The focus of this work is on peacetime information disclosure with service providers when adopting third party web applications. This context is a remarkable characteristic in the trending Bring-Your-Own-Application phenomenon and raises many privacy and confidentiality concerns. Although users could successful benefit from the security approach and protect their messages without much extra work, many long-term adoption obstacles were detected in informal user observations.
Emotional Interaction and Notification of Flexible Handheld Devices BIBAFull-Text 2025-2030
  Jung Min Lee; So Yon Jeong; Da Young Ju
In this paper, we propose that personification of flexible hand-held devices is one of the key human-computer interaction methods that allow future users to interact more intuitively with their devices, providing emotional feedback to the users. We basically aim to answer two questions, first, personification of flexible devices can standardize emotional experience to the users and second, how valid would it be to intuitively use personified flexible device that changes its shape on notifying purpose. Through conducting a user study on 60 participants, we find that flexible devices that express emotion through personification can be standardized, and it is applicable to use these flexible personified devices to communicate with the users by notifying the users, allowing them to use the device more intuitively.
Understanding User's Behavior for Developing Webtoon Rating System Based on Laugh Reaction Sensing through Smartphone BIBAFull-Text 2031-2036
  SungHyuk Yoon; Soyoung Kwon; KunPyo Lee
In this work-in-progress study, we aim to understand the users' behavior for developing the webtoon (web cartoon) rating system using with users' laugh reactions when they read webtoons by smartphones. First, we conducted an online survey in order to understand general reading environment of a webtoon. Second, we executed a pilot experiment in lab based environment to observe which reactions come from readers and which sensors can use for detecting laugh reactions. Lastly, we exploited an observation experiment to sense participants' laugh reactions and evaluate with manual rating scores of each webtoon episode. For the preliminary finding, we analyzed the laugh reactions from randomly selected 20 sample data out of 1300 episodes, and it exhibits significantly correlated with the manual score.
Growth, Change and Decay: Plants and Interaction Possibilities BIBAFull-Text 2037-2042
  Cameron Steer; Simon Robinson; Matt Jones
Our work explores using plants as an interaction material to extend and disrupt existing notions of HCI. We focus in particular on how the affordances and properties of plants can be utilised for enhanced physical and emotional interaction between people and computers, with our core motive being to find methods of enriching user engagement. Moreover, we investigate whether plants could offer a new dimension of interaction and emotional attachment to computer interfaces. We conducted a study to observe people's interactions with prototype plant-based systems, and also interviewed them about future usage of plants in HCI. Our early findings indicate that using a plant-based interface triggered emotive connections, making interactions more enjoyable. In this work-in-progress, we discuss the results of this study, and consider the future potential for using plants as an interaction medium.

WIP Theme: Ubicomp, Robots and Wearables

ApplianceReader: A Wearable, Crowdsourced, Vision-based System to Make Appliances Accessible BIBAFull-Text 2043-2048
  Anhong Guo; Xiang 'Anthony' Chen; Jeffrey P. Bigham
Visually impaired people can struggle to use everyday appliances with inaccessible control panels. To address this problem, we present ApplianceReader -- a system that combines a wearable point-of-view camera with on-demand crowdsourcing and computer vision to make appliance interfaces accessible. ApplianceReader sends photos of appliance interfaces that it has not seen previously to the crowd, who work in parallel to quickly label and describe elements of the interface. Computer vision techniques then track the user's finger pointing at the controls and read out the labels previously provided by the crowd. This enables visually impaired users to interactively explore and use appliances without asking the crowd repetitively. ApplianceReader broadly demonstrates the potential of hybrid approaches that combine human and machine intelligence to effectively realize intelligent, interactive access technology today.
Ethnographic Design Research With Wearable Cameras BIBAFull-Text 2049-2054
  Katja C. Thoring; Roland M. Mueller; Petra Badke-Schaub
This paper presents a novel ethnographic research approach based on a wearable camera that automatically takes pictures according to sensor changes within the wearer's environment. The opportunities and challenges that are raised by such technologies are investigated and discussed. We describe an exemplary application of the approach and point out the arising possibilities and limitations. As the main contribution we present a method for evaluating the ethnographic research data that is being produced through this kind of research approach. Furthermore, we propose a set of frameworks for analyzing the resulting images and related metadata. This method is considered a first attempt to facilitate the analysis process of the produced qualitative and quantitative data and is subject to further investigation and development.
Listen to Your Footsteps: Wearable Device for Measuring Walking Quality BIBAFull-Text 2055-2060
  Sungjae Hwang; Junghyeon Gim
In this paper, we present a low-cost context-aware technique for determining a user's walking quality. This is achieved by filtering and analyzing the acoustic signal generated when users walk. To extract the acoustic values of footsteps, we implemented a simple wearable device attached on the user's ankle. To verify our approach, we conducted a preliminary test using several pattern classification algorithms. The results show that our system achieves an 89.6% average for three different walking styles (best, good, and bad) and 86.9% for four different real-world ground sets (carpet, asphalt, sand, and wood). We believe that our technique can be applied to existing context-aware techniques as well as various unexplored domains in wearable devices.
EM Package: Augmenting Robotic Intimate Space Interaction Using EM Field Fluctuation Sensing BIBAFull-Text 2061-2066
  Ryo Kodama; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
While seamless switching between the accompanying and handling modes for an outdoor personal robot is required, a lack of sensors that can robustly detect the proximity and touch of the user has hindered its practical development. In this study, a novel sensing technology using electromagnetic field fluctuation is presented. The experiment, using a suitcase with the sensor, showed that the area surrounding the user, as well as the direct touch of the user can be separately detected.
Understanding the Elders' Interaction with Smart Home in Korea BIBAFull-Text 2067-2072
  Hyang Sook Kim; Hyo Chang Kim; Yong Gu Ji
Smart Home is an application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in living environment. The concept of smart home has received interests as future solution for the elders and disabled to enhance quality of life. The long-term objective of this study is to design accessible Smart Home for the elders. And a key element to design accessible Smart Home is in-depth understanding of interaction between users and system. In this work-in-progress paper, we present two-phase study to obtaining better understand interaction between the elders and Smart Home. As results we present preliminary insights from diary study and interview on the elders living in built-in Smart Home in Korea. The results will contribute to improve convenience and satisfaction of the elders by making practical use of their interaction characteristics in their daily residential environment.
Wearable Health Information: Effects of Comparative Feedback and Presentation Mode BIBAFull-Text 2073-2078
  Hoyoun Cho; Hongsuk Yoon; Ki Joon Kim; Dong-Hee Shin
Wearable devices with health monitoring and activity tracking functions are experiencing increasing popularity and allow users to become more aware of their health-related behavior. To find more effective ways of delivering health information to users, this study examined the psychological effects of forms of health feedback (comparative vs. non-comparative) and presentation modes (text vs. image) on users' tendencies toward health conservation. Results from a between-subjects experiment (N = 40) revealed that health information in a comparative and textual format was more effective in encouraging health conservation in participants than identical information presented in a non-comparative and image format. In addition, participants' level of health consciousness emerged as a significant predictor. The implications of the key findings are discussed.
SuperVision: Spatial Control of Connected Objects in a Smart Home BIBAFull-Text 2079-2084
  Sarthak Ghosh; Gilles Bailly; Robin Despouys; Eric Lecolinet; Rémi Sharrock
In this paper, we propose SuperVision, a new interaction technique for distant control of objects in a smart home. This technique aims at enabling users to point towards an object, visualize its current state and select a desired functionality as well. To achieve this: 1) we present a new remote control that contains a pico-projector and a slider; 2) we introduce a visualization technique that allows users to locate and control objects kept in adjacent rooms, by using their spatial memories. We further present a few example applications that convey the possibilities of this technique.
Interactive Radio: A New Platform for Calm Computing BIBAFull-Text 2085-2090
  Matthew P. Aylett; Yolanda Vazquez-Alvarez; Lynne Baillie
Interactive radio is proposed as a platform for Weiser's calm computing vision. An evaluation of CereProc's MyMyRadio is presented as a case study to highlight the potential and challenges of an interactive radio approach: the difficulty of transitioning between passive and active modes of interaction, and the challenge of designing such services. The evaluation showed: 1) A higher workload for MyMyRadio for active tasks compared to default applications (e.g. Facebook app); 2) No significant difference in workload for passive tasks (e.g. listening to audio rendered RSS updates vs Browser app); 3) A higher workload when listening to music within MyMyRadio vs iTunes; and 4) A preference for RSS feed content compared to content from social media. We conclude by discussing the potential of interactive radio as a platform for pervasive eyes-free services.
WatchMe: A Novel Input Method Combining a Smartwatch and Bimanual Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2091-2095
  Wouter Van Vlaenderen; Jens Brulmans; Jo Vermeulen; Johannes Schöning
Smartwatches can facilitate several tasks that are performed on mobile devices. However, due to their limited size, touch interaction can be cumbersome. Although alternative input modalities such as speech input could be used, these can also introduce other issues regarding privacy or ease of use. Consequently, HCI researchers have been exploring novel input techniques for smartwatches. In this paper, we introduce WatchMe, a smartwatch application that uses the smartwatch camera and image processing techniques to allow for providing input on a drawing canvas composed of everyday objects and surfaces. We rely on a cloud OCR engine to retrieve text from captured images. Combining these characteristics, we illustrate some scenarios in which WatchMe could be used, such as a novel method for two-factor authentication.
Subgroup Formation in Teams Working with Robots BIBAFull-Text 2097-2102
  Lionel P., Jr. Robert; Sangseok You
Teams are increasingly adopting robots to accomplish their work. Despite this, more research is needed to understand what makes these teams effective. One such topic not fully explored is the formation of subgroups in teams that work with robots. We conducted a pilot study to explore this topic. The study examined 15 teams of 2 people, each team member working with a robot to accomplish a team task. Results of the pilot study showed that subgroups formed between humans and their robots were negatively correlated with various team outcomes. Although our results are preliminary, we believe our findings can initiate future research on the topic of subgroup formation in teams working with robots.
Exploring the Use of Google Glass in Wet Laboratories BIBAFull-Text 2103-2108
  Grace Hu; Lily Chen; Johanna Okerlund; Orit Shaer
We present results from an exploratory field study of using Google Glass for training future scientists in wet laboratory work. Our goal is to investigate the potential of Glass for mitigating challenges of laboratory work and for increasing the confidence and efficiency of novice researchers. Our findings indicate how Glass is used in laboratory settings and highlight potential uses for Glass including hands-free interaction with experimental protocols and process documentation. We also discuss technical and usability limitations of using Glass in laboratory settings.
HomeRules: A Tangible End-User Programming Interface for Smart Homes BIBAFull-Text 2109-2114
  Luigi De Russis; Fulvio Corno
A considerable amount of research has been carried out towards enabling average users to customize their smart homes through trigger-action ("if... then...") programming. However, inhabitants of such smart environments keep having problems understanding, administering, troubleshooting, and deriving benefits from the technologies employed in their homes. By synthesizing a broad body of research on end-user programming in smart homes with observations of commercial products and our own experiences, we provide a set of guidelines for designers of future interfaces and tools. Stemming from them, we present the design and the initial evaluation of HomeRules, a mobile and tangible application for end-user programming in smart homes.
Vi-Bros: Tactile Feedback for Indoor Navigation with a Smartphone and a Smartwatch BIBAFull-Text 2115-2120
  Hyunchul Lim; YoonKyong Cho; Wonjong Rhee; Bongwon Suh
Vi-Bros is a new interface that simultaneously utilizes two mobile devices, a smartphone and a smartwatch, to provide users with intuitive guidance during indoor navigation. We evaluate the validity of the dual device interaction with the tactile feedback and provide insights for user experience via two experiments; one from a controlled environment and the other from the field. We present the core insights and potential design space for developing multi-device interaction.
SynKu: Exploring the Production of Sensory Objects BIBAFull-Text 2121-2126
  Ankur Agrawal; Wenvi Hidayat; Aravind Ravi; Mark Stamnes; Meishen Yin; Daniela Rosner
This paper describes SynKu, a mobile application that merges audio and image processing with human interpretation to speculate on the production of sensory objects. Sensory objects are representations of sensory phenomena interpreted and used by both people and software. We discuss how the SynKu application enables us to explore how algorithms help to change and legitimate the reconstruction of sensory phenomena across self-tracking platforms.
CueSense: A Wearable Proximity-Aware Display Enhancing Encounters BIBAFull-Text 2127-2132
  Pradthana Jarusriboonchai; Thomas Olsson; Vikas Prabhu; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Wearable technology has been envisioned, amongst other things, to enhance face-to-face social interaction. For example, the visibility of wearable devices to other people (e.g. a wearable display) could augment the wearer's appearance by displaying public and socially relevant information about them. Such information could increase nearby people's awareness of the wearer, thus serve as tickets-to-talk and, ideally, enhance their first encounters. We present the design of CueSense, a wearable displays that shows textual content from the wearer's social media profiles, determined by the level of proximity to another user and match-making between their contents. We report the findings from a preliminary user study with 18 participants, followed by discussion as well as ideas for future research and further refinement of the concept.
Smartwatches: the Good, the Bad and the Ugly? BIBAFull-Text 2133-2138
  Marta E. Cecchinato; Anna L. Cox; Jon Bird
Wearable computers are expected to become the next big thing but popular press is divided on whether they will be successful. In this paper we review the existing literature on one type of wearable -- smartwatches -- and extend their definition, in addition to highlighting the need to understand users' everyday appropriation of these technologies. We present initial findings from an on going interview study with ten early adopters that is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to investigate why and how people use smartwatches in real life. We describe everyday use of smartwatches, highlight the added value seen by users, and identify the limitations to mass adoption as expressed by current users.
Minimal Requirements of Realism In Social Robots: Designing for Patients with Acquired Brain Injury BIBAFull-Text 2139-2144
  Robert A. Paauwe; David V. Keyson; Johan F. Hoorn; Elly A. Konijn
In healthcare, the number of patients is increasing while available staff declines. Technology such as social robots becomes a likely solution for providing care. Realism plays an important role in how these social robots are perceived. We designed Polygon, a robot with a minimal amount of realism to explore whether it is possible to yield acceptable design opportunities with minimal means. This study evaluated 3 focus groups (N=34, 23 patients diagnosed with acquired brain injury (ABI), 11 healthcare professionals). Results indicate that patients with ABI are struggling with their independence and loneliness. Additionally, social robots designed with a minimal approach to realism could play a role as acceptable solutions for these patients.
Exploring the Design of a Wearable Device to Turn Everyday Objects into Playful Experiences BIBAFull-Text 2145-2150
  Judith Amores; Xavier Benavides; Roger Boldu; Pattie Maes
In this paper we present a wearable device in the form of a bracelet that turns everyday objects into interactive physical gameplay. We combine physical exploration and interactive entertainment by providing real-time audio and light feedback without the need to be in front of a screen. In contrast with today's computer, video and smartphone games, our system has the potential to enhance children's physical, social and outdoor play. We designed a set of playful applications that seamlessly integrate technology with outdoor game play, music, sports and social interactions.
"It's kind of like an extra screen for my phone": Understanding Everyday Uses of Consumer Smart Watches BIBAFull-Text 2151-2156
  Steven Schirra; Frank R. Bentley
The CHI, Ubicomp, and UIST communities have been studying watch-based interactions for many years. While much of this work has been technical or focused on interaction techniques in the lab, now smart watch devices are available directly to consumers from a variety of manufacturers. However, little has been studied as to why people adopt these devices and the real-world problems that they are solving in their lives. We set out to explore current smart watch use in an interview-based study of five diverse participants. We will use data from this study to help design and develop new smart watch applications.
Design of a Smart TV Logging System Using Beacons and Smartphones BIBAFull-Text 2157-2162
  Jehwan Seo; Daesik Kim; Bongwon Suh; Joongseek Lee
In this paper, a smart TV logging system comprising a beacon system and smartphones is proposed. To investigate the feasibility of our strategy, we designed and implemented a prototype system and conducted a trial study. The study results show that the prototype can unobtrusively capture viewers' various events embedded in TV viewing behavior. The results of the study also suggest that the proposed method allows more robust and accurate data to be collected than do the TV viewing behavior analysis approaches used in existing qualitative research studies, such as surveys and interviews.
Connichiwa: A Framework for Cross-Device Web Applications BIBAFull-Text 2163-2168
  Mario Schreiner; Roman Rädle; Hans-Christian Jetter; Harald Reiterer
While Mark Weiser's vision of ubiquitous computing is getting closer to reality, a fundamental part of it -- the interconnection of devices into a "ubiquitous network" -- is not achieved yet. Differences in hardware, architecture, and missing standardizations are just some reasons for this. We think that existing research is not versatile enough and too tailored to either single applications, hardware, or location. We contribute Connichiwa -- a versatile framework for creating web applications across multiple devices. We base Connichiwa on four key goals: integration of existing devices, independence of network infrastructure, versatility of application scenario, and usability of its API. Connichiwa runs web applications on off-the-shelf consumer devices. With no external dependencies, such as a server, it enables a great variety of possible scenarios. We tested the technical feasibility of Connichiwa in seven example applications and plan to evaluate the framework and the usability of its API in a one-week Hackathon.

WIP Theme: Users and UI Design

Exploring the Potential for Cross Disciplinary Working with Archives and Records Management BIBAFull-Text 2169-2174
  Jenny Bunn
This paper explores the potential of cross disciplinary working and collaboration between HCI and archives and records management. It highlights an emerging interest in personal digital archiving and sees this as a fruitful area for more transformative forms of cross disciplinary working. A study is described in which an attempt is made to expose and actively engage UK based archivists and records managers with a selection of literature and research about personal digital archiving taken from the ACM Digital Library. The aim of the study was to see what, if anything, could be learnt through this process and whether, and in what way, such interaction might engender new insight and innovation. Although little new insight and innovation were so engendered, the study still makes a contribution as a provocation to reflect on cross disciplinary working and its importance for shaping new fields of study such as personal digital archiving.
Is Interpretation of Artificial Subtle Expressions Language-Independent?: Comparison among Japanese, German, Portuguese, and Mandarin Chinese BIBAFull-Text 2175-2180
  Takanori Komatsu; Rui Prada; Kazuki Kobayashi; Seiji Yamada; Kotaro Funakoshi; Mikio Nakano
Up until now, several studies have shown that a speech interface system giving verbal suggestions with beeping sounds that decrease in pitch conveyed a low system confidence level to users intuitively, and these beeping sounds were named "artificial subtle expressions" (ASEs). However, all participants in these studies were only Japanese, so if the participants' mother tongue has different sensitivity to variations in pitch compared with Japanese, the interpretations of the ASEs might be different. We then investigated whether the ASEs are interpreted in the same way as with Japanese regardless of the users' mother tongues; specifically we focused on three language categories in traditional phonological typology. We conducted a web-based experiment to investigate whether the ways speakers of German, Portuguese (stress accent language), Mandarin Chinese (tone language) and Japanese (pitch accent language) interpret the ASEs are different or not. The results of this experiment showed that the ways of interpreting did not differ, so this suggests that these ways are language-independent.
A Noticeboard in "Both Worlds" Unsurprising Interfaces Supporting Easy Bi-Cultural Content Publication BIBAFull-Text 2181-2186
  Alessandro Soro; Anita Lee Hong; Grace Shaw; Paul Roe; Margot Brereton
We describe the design of a digital noticeboard to support communication within a remote Aboriginal community whose aspiration is to live in "both worlds", nurturing and extending their Aboriginal culture and actively participating in Western society and economy. Three bi-cultural aspects have emerged and are presented here: the need for a bi-lingual noticeboard to span both oral and written language traditions; the tension between perfunctory information exchange and social, embodied protocols of telling in person and the different ways in which time is represented in both cultures. The design approach, developed iteratively through consultation, demonstration and testing led to an "unsurprising interface" aimed at maximizing use and appropriation across cultures by unifying visual, text and spoken contents in both passive and interactive displays in a modeless manner.
DinerRouge: Bringing Wealth and Income Inequality to the Table through a Provocative UX BIBAFull-Text 2187-2192
  Adrian Holzer; Bruno Kocher; Denis Gillet; Samuel Bendahan; Boris Fritscher
Income and wealth inequality is one of the important social issues of the last decade. Nevertheless, it is rarely discussed through the lense of Human Computer Interaction. In this paper, we aim at investigating how a provocative user experience can contribute to engaging users when it comes to issues about wealth and income inequality. More precisely, we present the design of DinerRouge, a novel mobile application that can spark income inequality discussion by providing a provoking way to split the bill in restaurants based on income. We conducted a preliminary evaluation of DinerRouge with 78 participants which convey the fact that DinerRouge is usable, provocative and informative. Finally, we present open research question to guide future investigations.
Taking into Account User Appropriation and Development to Design Energy Consumption Feedback BIBAFull-Text 2193-2198
  Myriam Frejus; Dominique Martini
This paper reports on a study of the long-term appropriation of home energy displays. We hypothesize that learning underlies the sustained use of these devices and that it is therefore important to consider how user needs and competence develop over time to design engaging and appropriable systems. Our preliminary results show that displays prompt reflexivity about energy issues and, as questions emerge, they need to be addressed by a range of adapted systems (eco-feedback systems, control systems and relational programs).
Using Digital Watch Practices to Inform Smartwatch Design BIBAFull-Text 2199-2204
  Kent Lyons
Smartwatches have seen a recent resurgence with several manufacturers entering the market. While there has been research on technical feasibility and novel interactions for smartwatches, there has been little work on what user-centered values a smartwatch might offer to its wearer. We present a user study designed to uncover usage practices of traditional digital watches and report results from a qualitative survey of 50 everyday digital watch wearers. We discuss patterns found in perception of features, aesthetics, and patterns of wearing a watch. Using this data, we discuss possible applications and the implications these of these findings for designing smartwatches.
Real Time Detection and Intervention of Poorly Phrased Questions BIBAFull-Text 2205-2210
  Igor A. Podgorny; Matthew Cannon; Chris Gielow; Todd Goodyear
Answer helpfulness in Intuit's TurboTax AnswerXchange can be predicted with reasonable accuracy based on the attributes of the question alone. The ability to predict the likelihood of a good answer provides an opportunity to help the asker craft better formulated questions. Towards this goal, this paper presents a new concept of question-asking experience that address the following business cases: (1) transforming a "knowledge" question into a "closed-ended" question, (2) converting a search query into a grammatically correct question, and (3) converting "unanswerable" and rhetorical questions to well-formed questions. We also present a "Question Optimizer" interface system that prompts the asker with personalized instructions created dynamically based on real time analysis of their question's structure and semantics.
A User Interface for Encoding Space Usage Rules Expressed in Natural Language BIBAFull-Text 2211-2216
  Pavel Andreevich Samsonov; Johannes Schöning; Brent Hecht
Our interactions with the spaces around us are frequently defined by space usage rules (SURs) like "no smoking", "no dogs allowed", and "stay on the trail". These rules are important public health tools and help protect the environment, among other applications. However, despite their importance, no large-scale database of SURs currently exists. This prevents online/mobile maps from presenting these rules to users, as their traditional paper counterparts have been shown to do regularly. The lack of a SUR database also prevents developers from building novel SUR-based applications, e.g. mobile apps that inform users where they can smoke or walk their dog. In this paper, we present an in-development user interface to support the semi-automatic encoding of SURs expressed in natural language in documents such as laws, city ordinances, park rules, and institution FAQ pages. Our system will allow an untrained user to easily enter complex rules into a spatial data format compatible with OpenStreetMap.
SNAP: Sensor Aid Prototyping Tool for Designers BIBAFull-Text 2217-2222
  Tony Soo Kim; Sungjae Hwang; Junghyeon Gim
Prototyping is essential part in the initial state of the software development process, especially for design exploration. However, most designers feel it difficult to prototype dynamic interactions rather than designing static UIs, since they do not have sufficient programming experiences. Moreover, it is even harder to communicate regarding interactions with developers. To address this issue, we presented a novel prototyping tool, called SNAP, which enables designers to implement sensor-based interactions easily. Our concept was drawn from a natural language programming and microinteraction model. Hence, it does not require any programming skills or schemes. We believe that our approach will shed a light on prototyping works in the design process.
Video-Recording Your Life: User Perception and Experiences BIBAFull-Text 2223-2228
  Daniel Buschek; Michael Spitzer; Florian Alt
Video recording is becoming an integral part of our daily activities: Action cams and wearable cameras allow us to capture scenes of our daily life effortlessly. This trend generates vast amounts of video material impossible to review manually. However, these recordings also contain a lot of information potentially interesting to the recording individual and to others. Such videos can provide a meaningful summary of the day, serving as a digital extension to the user's human memory. They might also be interesting to others as tutorials (e.g. how to change a flat tyre). As a first step towards this vision, we present a survey assessing the users' view and their video recording behavior. Findings were used to inform the design of a prototype based on off-the-shelf components, which allows users to create meaningful video clips of their daily activities in an automated manner by using their phone and any wearable camera. We conclude with a preliminary, qualitative study showing the feasibility and potential of the approach and sketch future research directions.
Augmented Miniature Prototyping Toolkit for UX in Interactive Space BIBAFull-Text 2229-2234
  Han-Jong Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
It is challenging to envision the user experience (UX) within an interactive and ubiquitous computing space in the early phases of a design process due to the large scale and complex interactivity among multiple people and agents. To address the limitations of existing tools, we present miniStudio, a prototyping toolkit for interactive and ubiquitous computing environments larger than human scale. It consists of software and hardware kits for constructing miniature physical spaces and testing dynamic interactions in them through a combination of paper models and Lego. It also supports prototyping for interactivity using projection-based augmented reality with invisible markers and a pro-cam system in instantly created miniature spaces. We applied Adobe Photoshop as an interactivity authoring environment since it is one of the most popular design tools. From the preliminary evaluation with junior designers, miniStudio showed the potential to support the iterative exploration of interactive spaces in the early phases of the design process.
iHIP: Towards a User Centric Individual Human Interaction Proof Framework BIBAFull-Text 2235-2240
  Christos Fidas; Heinrich Hussmann; Marios Belk; George Samaras
A Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA) is a widely used Human Interaction Proof mechanism to protect on-line services against automated software agents. Nowadays, there is a consensus among researchers, practitioners and users that current design approaches of CAPTCHA need to be improved in order to provide a fair trade-off solution between security and usability. In this paper, we propose a shift from a generic Human Interaction Proof (HIP) to a more user-friendly Individual Human Interaction Proof (iHIP) approach by incorporating a dynamic and extendable human and technology factor based user-centric framework. Such an approach provides an alternative point of view to current state of the art practices aiming to deliver the best-fit CAPTCHA to each individual by taking into consideration contextual and behavioral interaction data.
Personality Traits Predict Music Taxonomy Preferences BIBAFull-Text 2241-2246
  Bruce Ferwerda; Emily Yang; Markus Schedl; Marko Tkalcic
Music streaming services increasingly incorporate additional music taxonomies (i.e., mood, activity, and genre) to provide users different ways to browse through music collections. However, these additional taxonomies can distract the user from reaching their music goal, and influence choice satisfaction. We conducted an online user study with an application called "Tune-A-Find," where we measured participants' music taxonomy choice (mood, activity, and genre). Among 297 participants, we found that the chosen taxonomy is related to personality traits. We found that openness to experience increased the choice for browsing music by mood, while conscientiousness increased the choice for browsing music by activity. In addition, those high in neuroticism were most likely to browse for music by activity or genre. Our findings can support music streaming services to further personalize user interfaces. By knowing the user's personality, the user interface can adapt to the user's preferred way of music browsing.
Evaluating the Effects of Interface Feedback in MT-embedded Interactive Translation BIBAFull-Text 2247-2252
  Hsing-Lin Tsai; Hao-Chuan Wang
Individuals in global collaboration face the challenge to exchange messages across language boundaries. To bridge different languages, interactive translation that involves non-experts to iterate the inputs of machine translation (MT) for better translations can be useful. However, there is a design issue on how to provide feedback of estimated translation quality to support workers' iterative editing actions. In a lab study, we evaluated the effects of different types of interface feedback (back translation, numeric score of estimated translation quality, and anthropomorphic social messages). The results confirmed the utility of using numeric score and social messages as feedback, and shed light on the design of MT interface and cross-lingual communication support.
Interaction Design Processes to Facilitate Changing Business Models in the Newspaper Industry: A Case Study of vk.se BIBAFull-Text 2253-2258
  Thomas Mejtoft; Sara Mejtoft; Anna Palmér; Viktor Östin; Anna Viklund; Sofia Papworth; Mikaela Berg; Robert Johansson
This case study illustrates and analyzes the process of redesigning one of the largest news media site in Sweden during a cooperation between the Interaction Design Study Program at Umeå University and VK Media using a customer centric open approach. The results show that the design process used, both provided new insights for the industry and produced an appreciated website that facilitated the transition into a new revenue model using a paywall for digital content.
Craft Consciousness: The Powerlessness of Traditional Embroidery BIBAFull-Text 2259-2264
  Yu-Shin Wang; Yuan-Yao Hsu; Wei-Lin Chen; Han Chen; Rung-Huei Liang
Our research aims to comprehend Taiwanese traditional embroidery culture and the traditional embroidery operators' general consciousness about their own jobs through interviews and field research. We learned that there is a sense of "powerlessness" in the traditional embroidery industry. The sense of "powerlessness" comes from not only the operators themselves but also the general mentality in Taiwan. Drawing on this phenomenon, we designed interactive artifacts with sounds, trying to stimulate peoples' existing imagination on cultural consciousness. Until now, we have completed a prototype, which integrates embroidery and interactive audio. Finally, we will use conductive thread as our design material to create our final artifact and hold an exhibition to demonstrate it, encouraging people to make reflection and discourse upon this issue.
Text Mining Emergent Human Behaviors for Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 2265-2270
  Ethan Fast; Pranav Rajpurkar; Michael S. Bernstein
People engage with thousands of situations, activities, and objects on a daily basis. Hand-coding this knowledge into interactive systems is prohibitively labor-intensive, but fiction captures a vast number of human lives in moment to moment detail. In this paper, we bootstrap a knowledge graph of human activities by text mining a large dataset of modern fiction on the web. Our knowledge graph, Augur, describes human actions over time as conditioned by nearby locations, people, and objects. Applications can use this graph to react to human behavior in a data-driven way. We demonstrate an Augur-enhanced video game world in which non-player characters follow realistic patterns of behavior, interact with their environment and each other, and respond to the user's behavior.
Fixing the Alignment: An Exploration of Budgeting Practices in the Home BIBAFull-Text 2271-2276
  Stephen Snow; Dhaval Vyas
Budgeting is an important means of controlling ones finances and reducing debt. This paper outlines our work towards designing more user centred technology for individual and household budgeting. Based on an ethnographically informed study with 15 participants, we highlight a misalignment between people's actual budgeting practices and those supported by off-the-shelf budgeting aids. In addressing this misalignment we outline three tenets that may be incorporated into future work in this area. These include (1) catering for the different phases of engagement with technology; (2) catering for the practices of hiding and limiting access to money, and; (3) integrating materiality into technical solutions.
Designing for User and Brand Experience via Company-wide Experience Goals BIBAFull-Text 2277-2282
  Virpi Roto; Yichen Lu; Harri Nieminen; Erdem Tutal
Although user experience is a prominent topic in the field of human-computer interaction, designing for user experiences that are in line with the corporate brand identity is rare. In this paper, we discuss the relation of brand experience and user experience, and suggest combining the forces of experience designers and marketing people to deliver a consistent, strong experience in all touch points between the company and its external stakeholders. We report a work-in-progress case from one company as an example of how company-wide experience goals can be defined for enabling consistent experience in all touch points. We propose experience design researchers to pay more attention to brand experience and to all touch points.
Facets In HCI: Towards Understanding Eudaimonic UX -- Preliminary Findings BIBAFull-Text 2283-2288
  Livia J. Müller; Elisa D. Mekler; Klaus Opwis
In recent years, researchers aimed to understand different facets of positive experiences with technology. Positive psychology, and recently also HCI, makes use of a hedonia/ eudaimonia distinction. Hedonia is understood as providing enjoyable experiences, whereas eudaimonia is associated with meaningful experiences. However, it is not clear how eudaimonia manifests in the HCI context. The aim of this explorative study is to provide empirical evidence for eudaimonia in HCI and outline what characterizes hedonic and eudaimonic user experiences. Results indicate that hedonic and eudaimonic user experiences often seem to occur at the same time. Preliminary analysis of user narratives show rich data and experiences with a huge range of different devices are described. Based on these findings further implications and research possibilities are discussed.
Evaluation for Evaluation: Usability Work during Tendering Process BIBAFull-Text 2289-2294
  Kimmo Tarkkanen; Ville Harkke
In large-scale IT implementations the iterative system development and system tailoring to organization-specific needs begins after a tendering process is over. In the tendering process a procuring organization defines usability requirements, evaluation procedures and selection criteria, while IT vendors try and build and propose solutions that best fulfill these requirements. Existing usability research has instructed the procuring organizations on how usability should be included in the request for proposals, in order to ensure the usability of the selected system. However, the IT vendor perspective on request for proposals and related usability work during the tendering process remain unexplored. This paper grasps the issue with an empirical study on large-scale IT procurement. The preliminary findings give practical advice to vendors planning usability work and buyers writing request for proposals.
GiantSteps: Semi-Structured Conversations with Musicians BIBAFull-Text 2295-2300
  Kristina Andersen; Florian Grote
This paper describes an initial interview session involving users in the imagination and exploration of working creatively with electronic music. The underlying concern for this process is to not just improve existing user interfaces, but rather to aim for interface structures developed in direct peer collaborations with expert users, with an aim to provide increased flow and unbroken periods of concentration and creativity. This work-in-progress paper describes the theoretical concerns informing the process and the results from the first round of interviews.
Understanding Users' Creation of Behavior Change Plans with Theory-Based Support BIBAFull-Text 2301-2306
  Jisoo Lee; Erin Walker; Winslow Burleson; Eric B. Hekler
The goal of this project is to develop tools that support users' creation of their own behavior-change plans. We conducted two formative user studies to explore people's creation of plans for their own behavioral goals. Users were provided with minimal support to facilitate goal-setting, use of behavior-change techniques, and self-monitoring. In this paper, we present insights on how to further facilitate personalization of behavior-change plans.
Circuit Eraser: A Tool for Iterative Design with Conductive Ink BIBAFull-Text 2307-2312
  Koya Narumi; Xinyang Shi; Steve Hodges; Yoshihiro Kawahara; Shinya Shimizu; Tohru Asami
Recent advances in materials science have resulted in a range of commercially viable and easy-to-use conductive inks which many practitioners are now using for the rapid design and realization of interactive circuits. Despite the ease with which hobbyists, educators and researchers can construct working circuits, a major limitation of prototyping with conductive ink is the difficulty of altering a design which has already been printed, and in particular removing areas of ink. In this paper we present Circuit Eraser, a simple yet effective tool which enables users to 'delete' existing conductive patterns. Through experimentation we have found an effective combination of materials which result in the removal of only the thin surface layer composed of ink particles, with minimal damage to the surface coating of the paper. This important characteristic ensures it is possible to re-apply conductive ink as part of an on-going design iteration. In addition to a lab-based evaluation of our Circuit Eraser which we present here, we have also used our technique in several practical applications and we illustrate one of these, namely the iterative design of a radio-frequency antenna.

Workshop Summaries

Chinese CHI Symposium in CHI 2015 BIBAFull-Text 2313-2315
  Hao-Chuan Wang; Gary Hsieh; Xiaojun Bi; Henry Duh; Yihsiu Chen
The extended abstract describes the background, goals and organization of the Third International Symposium of Chinese CHI (Chinese CHI 2015) as one of the Asian symposia of CHI 2015.
Asean CHI Symposium: Crossing HCI for Development in Asia Pacific BIBAFull-Text 2317-2320
  Eunice Sari; Bimlesh Wadhwa; Adi Tedjasaputra; Masitah Ghazali; Anirudha Joshi
The Asia Pacific region is unique and diverse. Due to its characteristics, defining what will work in the Asia Pacific region might be the hardest challenge. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) can provide guidance on how technology should be designed and adopted. On the other hand, there is a big gap on the awareness and understanding on the importance of HCI to improve the design and development of technology for living.
   We welcome both academia and industry and provide an excellent opportunity to exchange ideas and information on HCI. Under the big conference theme "Crossings", this symposium aims to bring about cross exchange of information and transfer of knowledge in this multidisciplinary environment and multi-socio-economic aspects of research in HCI.
Japanese HCI Symposium: Emerging Japanese HCI Research Collection BIBAFull-Text 2321-2324
  Jun Kato; Hiromi Nakamura; Yuta Sugiura; Taku Hachisu; Daisuke Sakamoto; Koji Yatani; Yoshifumi Kitamura
This symposium showcases the latest work from Japan on interactive systems and user interfaces that address under-explored problems and demonstrate unique approaches. In addition to circulating ideas and sharing a vision of future research in human-computer interaction, this symposium aims to foster social networks among young researchers and students and create a fresh research community.
Japanese HCI Symposium: Japanese Culture and Kansei BIBAFull-Text 2325-2328
  Hisao Shiizuka; Masaaki Kurosu; Michiko Ohkura
Psychologically, "Kansei" is related to emotion and cognition and sociologically is related to culture and tradition. Historically, as a Japanese term, the origin of the concept of "Kansei" goes back to "Aesthesis" by Aristotle and "Aesthetics" concepts by Baumgarten and Kant. When this concept was imported to Japan in Meiji era, about 150 years ago, the concept was translated as "Bigaku" or the science of beauty as well as was translated as "Kansei" or the concept with the connotation including sensitivity, sensibility, emotion and feeling. Hence Kansei is related to the science of beauty in its historical background in Japan. JSKE (Japan Society of Kansei Engineering) started a series of KEER (Kansei Engineering and Emotion Research) conference in the latter sense of aesthetics. This is a peculiar situation of the Japanese language and its academic culture. Similarly, The term "Kansei" can be interpreted differently from country to country, and from culture to culture. This workshop is organized to discuss the concept of "Kansei" from different cultural perspectives. For example, "kawaii" is now used internationally as can be found in Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawaii). At the same time, this workshop aims not only to differentiate the differences among various cultures, but also expects to find out the common aspects based on the fact that we are all the human beings with the emotional system and the cognitive system.
Art.CHI BIBAFull-Text 2329-2332
  David England; Linda Candy; Celine Latulipe; Thecla Schiphorst; Ernest Edmonds; Younghui Kim; Sean Clark; Andruid Kerne
At CHI2014 our two day workshop "Curating the Digital: Space for Art and Interaction", led to a set of recommendations to the SIGCHI Executive for future two day workshops at CHI2015 and CHI2016, in which interactive artworks would be the focus of presentation and discussion. The Executive and the chairs of the upcoming conferences accepted these recommendations. In this proposal we set out how we will attract and select appropriate artworks for the CH2015 workshop, and how we will run the workshop to explore the themes that the art works raise. Additionally we will discuss how we will involve South Korean partners to highlight local culture and impacts of South Korean interactive artists and provide opportunities for deep cross-cultural dialogs.
Designing Alternative Systems for Local Communities BIBAFull-Text 2333-2336
  Vasillis Vlachokyriakos; Rob Comber; Clara Crivellaro; Nick Taylor; Stacey Kuznetsov; Andrea Kavanaugh; Christopher A. Le Dantec; B. Joon Kim
Alternative systems ranging from self-organized skill sharing to alternative micro-economies have been critical channels of community engagement and bonding. Technology is increasingly playing a role in the way people connect to these services at the (hyper)local level. While there has been considerable research on designing technology to support conventional, established systems of community organization and governance; mobile and ubiquitous technologies offer strong potential for alternative systems to be established in the local level. Do It Yourself (DIY) and maker movements are enabling grassroots activist groups to develop their own technologies or to hack existing tools to support bottom-up systems of self-organization, democracy and commerce. Based on these trends and the recent worldwide economic, political and societal crisis, this workshop will bring together researchers, practitioners and activists to re-envision how HCI tools can support alternative systems of local civic engagement.
Between the Lines: Reevaluating the Online/Offline Binary BIBAFull-Text 2337-2340
  Sarah Vieweg; Oliver L. Haimson; Michael Massimi; Kenton O'Hara; Elizabeth F. Churchill
Scholarly debate within the HCI community has acknowledged that the concepts of "online" and "offline" are merely handy descriptors for different environments and contexts. However, when it comes to designing technologies, this binary is still frequently invoked In this workshop, our goal is to address what issues arise when we invoke this binary uncritically, and how we can better understand people's everyday experiences of their on- and offline self-representations and interactions. When, how and why do people invoke or exploit notions of online versus offline? When does this notional "seam" dissolve? We will articulate a broadened agenda for understanding behavior across contexts. We aim to continue and update discussions of on- and offline with a deeper focus on people's practices and experiences around the creation and maintenance of a sense of "self" and identity and discuss designers' and developers' roles and responsibilities in enabling and supporting those practices.
Beyond Personal Informatics: Designing for Experiences with Data BIBAFull-Text 2341-2344
  Chris Elsden; David Kirk; Mark Selby; Chris Speed
A data-driven life is increasingly possible, yet research and previous workshops have tended to focus on the utility of personal informatics -- especially for behaviour change -- rather than 'lived informatics' as experienced. This workshop proposes to engage participants in conversation, scenario building and conceptual design that deeply and critically examines the multiple roles personal informatics can play in people's everyday lives and map out novel design opportunities and challenges.
Collaborating with Intelligent Machines: Interfaces for Creative Sound BIBAFull-Text 2345-2348
  Florian Grote; Kristina Andersen; Peter Knees
This workshop brings together researchers, designers and instrument builders to explore how we can reframe the way we design "machines" for creative expression. For the purpose of this event, we are focussing on the case of music, but the outcomes will be useful to the broader field of instruments and interfaces for creative work. Three opportunities/challenges are presenting themselves: The disappearing computer is putting embodiment back in the center of our concerns; intelligent agents are reaching a level of complexity, where it is feasible for an interface to provide suggestions based on your own work practices; and finally, creative work is increasingly done in collaboration reminiscent of the classic image of musicians playing in a group. Together, this opens up new possibilities to rethink how we "collaborate with machines" in our creative work. The workshop is focussed on charting these new possibilities and constraints.
Crossing Domains: Diverse Perspectives on Players BIBAFull-Text 2349-2352
  Gareth R. White; Joonhwan Lee; Daniel Johnson; Peta Wyeth; Pejman Mirza-Babaei
This one-day workshop brings together researchers and practitioners to share knowledge and practices of how players are understood, treated and evaluated in specific disciplines and sub-disciplines throughout the diverse field of HCI. Participants from academia and industry will engage in dialogue across these numerous interdisciplinary areas to critically reflect on the current state of the research and practice, and to identify potentially productive ways to collaborate together on future work. The outcomes from the workshop will include an archive of participants' initial position papers along with the materials created during the session, including a summary of the principle contributions and gaps in knowledge and a sketch of possible links between different areas. This will serve as snapshot of current practices and a roadmap for future research and collaboration across the field.
Crossing HCI and Health: Advancing Health and Wellness Technology Research in Home and Community Settings BIBAFull-Text 2353-2356
  Marilyn Lennon; Lynne Baillie; Jettie Hoonhout; Judy Robertson; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
The ubiquity of mobile technology and advances in wearable health and well-being technologies offer exciting opportunities for technology supported home and community care. But are we ready for digitally enabled self-care? How can the CHI community share best practices and methods in order to continue to advance research that crosses methodological and cultural boundaries between Health and HCI? This workshop will bring together key researchers working in and across both HCI and Health to share these existing challenges and opportunities for digital health research and practice and to continue to build capacity in the crossings between HCI and health.
Designing for Sharing in Local Communities BIBAFull-Text 2357-2360
  Lone Malmborg; Ann Light; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Victoria Bellotti; Margot Brereton
The Sharing Economy has brought new attention to the everyday practice of sharing. Digital tools are changing both what we can do together across neighbourhoods and how we think about sharing our time, materials and skills. It is possible to design to boost resource management, economic wellbeing and social resilience by fostering sharing practices, but do different designs speak to different priorities in design for sharing?
Developing HCI Education Crossing Asia BIBAFull-Text 2361-2364
  Anind K. Dey; Yuanchun Shi; Feng Tian; Shiwei Cheng
As ACM SIGCHI supports Asian countries to develop their HCI education curricula, we propose to organize an international workshop to explore HCI curricula, teach methods and discuss Masters or PhD programs, and courses for undergraduates. We describe the topics, goals, organizers' background, and detailed plans of all the stages for the workshop.
Embarrassing Interactions BIBAFull-Text 2365-2368
  Sebastian Deterding; Andrés Lucero; Jussi Holopainen; Chulhong Min; Adrian Cheok; Annika Waern; Steffen Walz
Wherever the rapid evolution of interactive technologies disrupts standing situational norms, creates new, often unclear situational audiences, or crosses cultural boundaries, embarrassment is likely. This makes embarrassment a fundamental adoption and engagement hurdle, but also a creative design space for human-computer interaction. However, research on embarrassment in HCI has remained scattered and unsystematic so far. This workshop therefore convenes researchers and practitioners to assemble and advance the current state of research on embarrassing interactions.
Ethical Encounters in HCI: Research in Sensitive Settings BIBAFull-Text 2369-2372
  Jenny Waycott; Hilary Davis; Anja Thieme; Stacy Branham; John Vines; Cosmin Munteanu
With HCI researchers conducting studies in increasingly sensitive and difficult settings, ethics is emerging as a key concern for the HCI community. New technologies are now being designed and evaluated in settings that involve vulnerable or marginalized participants and that can be emotionally challenging for researchers. Research in these settings can produce complex ethical dilemmas that are often emergent, diverse, and highly contextualized. In addition, there may be discrepancies between the realities of HCI fieldwork and the formal and often rigid processes of obtaining ethics approval in research institutions. Given these issues, it is important for researchers to communally reflect on ethical encounters in HCI research. This workshop will provide a forum for researchers to share experiences about ethical challenges they have faced. These discussions will be used to develop a handbook of practical lessons representing the breadth and depth of ethical issues emerging in HCI research in sensitive settings.
Expanding the Boundaries: A SIGCHI HCI & Sustainability Workshop BIBAFull-Text 2373-2376
  Adrian K. Clear; Chris Preist; Somya Joshi; Lisa P. Nathan; Samuel Mann; Bonnie A. Nardi
Following a challenge issued to the Sustainable HCI (SHCI) community to broaden its boundaries to increase breadth and depth of impact [16] this workshop will explore 5 key questions to encourage SHCI research to play a broader role in tackling global sustainability issues and to support the societal change that this will require. Out of this, it will produce a map of existing and future research agendas, and a collaborative position statement. It will also provide an environment of support and challenge to allow individuals working in this research area to consider their personal practice and the difficulties (both practical and emotional) they may encounter.
Smart for Life: Designing Smart Home Technologies that Evolve with Users BIBAFull-Text 2377-2380
  Sarah Mennicken; Amy Hwang; Rayoung Yang; Jesse Hoey; Alex Mihailidis; Elaine M. Huang
As sensing and actuation technologies grow more widespread, smart home infrastructures will become both feasible and flexible in supporting multiple applications. The development of these "smart home technologies" have been investigated by diverse fields spanning technical, sociological, and health-oriented disciplines, attempting to meet varying users' needs from technology savvy, "mass market", and functionally declining older adult populations. In an effort to promote human-centred knowledge exchange and design expertise between these communities, this workshop aims to explore interaction design for intended smart home users at and transitioning between successive life stages. Ultimately, we will aim to address how smart home technologies can be designed to evolve with their users over the life course. By uniting researchers and designers from various backgrounds, we hope to stimulate both actionable insights and design artifacts that better capture the evolutionary nature of users and their home contexts, which participants can then apply in their own research and design work going forward.
Text Entry on the Edge BIBAFull-Text 2381-2384
  James Clawson; Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Stephen Brewster; Mark Dunlop; Per Ola Kristensson; Antti Oulasvirta
The primary focus of our workshop is to challenge the expanding text entry community to move beyond the mobile phone and start exploring novel and emerging technologies, designing systems for non-traditional users, and expand into unexplored domains and contexts of use. We hope to engage in setting a new agenda for our research community through the identification, collection, and presentation of text entry edge cases. As such, our workshop has two specific foci. First, to strengthen the text entry community by bringing text entry researchers working in various disciplines together in hopes of sharing knowledge across disciplines and establishing a set of best practices that can be used to build our community. Second, to set a research agenda around these edge cases that can be used to drive the field forwards and unite the field in a common direction so that our combined efforts can help bring novel and impactful text entry solutions to new and emerging technologies as well as underserved communities of users and research domains.
What to Study in HCI? BIBAFull-Text 2385-2388
  Kasper Hornbæk; Antti Oulasvirta; Stuart Reeves; Susanne Bødker
The question "What to Study in HCI" has two parts. First it asks how HCI researchers think about the research challenges they tackle: how do they decide what problems to engage with and how to study them? Second, the question also asks what is the subject of HCI: which challenges should researchers address and, ultimately, what makes us unique as a discipline? While there have been intermittent discussions on this topic in HCI, the present workshop emphasizes this question and explore some possible answers among a group of seasoned researchers. One reason is our belief that researchers can benefit from addressing these questions so as to develop their practical understanding (e.g., "tricks of the trade") of how to tackle the complexity of selecting "what to study". Second, we argue that researchers can benefit from thinking about the epistemological grounds upon which they base their everyday work, that is, thinking about what HCI is. The workshop results in publicly available key readings and position papers on "What to Study in HCI".
Design-Led Inquiry for Mobile Lives BIBAFull-Text 2393-2396
  Konstantinos Kazakos; David Kirk; Abigail Durrant; David Chatting; Paulina Yurman; Jo-Anne Bichard; Jaemin Paik
Mobile living and working has become a feature of everyday experience and interaction with others, mediated by digital, Internet-enabled technology. Such patterns of interaction in 'mobile lives' pose new opportunities and challenges for people and societies. We argue that design-led inquiry has a potentially transformative role to play in addressing these opportunities and challenges of mobile living and working, in future HCI research. This workshop aims to bring together design researchers and practitioners in an effort to critically explore the use of design-led inquiry within HCI research on mobile lives, for conceptual and empirical investigation, and for forms of stakeholder and partner engagement.
Developing Skills for Social and Emotional Wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 2397-2400
  Petr Slovák; Greg Wadley; David Coyle; Anja Thieme; Naomi Yamashita; Reeva Lederman; Stefan schutt; Mia Doces
Positive social and emotional wellbeing are essential for peoples' general health and quality of life. This workshop will bring together an inter-disciplinary community of wellbeing researchers, designers and practitioners to explore how digital technology can increase wellbeing by enabling users to develop new skills, build on existing personal strengths or social support, and promote self-efficacy more generally. We will jointly reach a better understanding of the opportunities that technology can bring for skills development across a broad range of contexts. Our aim is to consider how digital technology can support wellbeing skills for the general public and also for specific, at-need groups including the care givers of people coping with irreversible loss of mental or physical capacity and psycho-education for people experiencing mental health difficulties.
Ecological Perspectives in HCI: Promise, Problems, and Potential BIBAFull-Text 2401-2404
  Eli Blevis; Susanne Bødker; John Flach; Jodi Forlizzi; Heekyoung Jung; Victor Kaptelinin; Bonnie Nardi; Antonio Rizzo
The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of "ecology" and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts.
End-User Development in the Internet of Things Era BIBAFull-Text 2405-2408
  Daniel Tetteroo; Panos Markopoulos; Stefano Valtolina; Fabio Paternò; Volkmar Pipek; Margaret Burnett
The paradigm of end-user development enables ordinary end-users of computer systems to engage in the modification, extension and even creation of software artifacts. Technology, organization and context are all important aspects that influence end-users' decisions to engage in end-user development. With this workshop, we invite researchers and practitioners to discuss and exchange their experiences on the role of these aspects for end-user development across various domains.
Everyday Telepresence: Emerging Practices and Future Research Directions BIBAFull-Text 2409-2412
  Irene Rae; Bilge Mutlu; Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson; Leila Takayama; Gina Venolia
As network availability becomes ubiquitous, users are leveraging this access to establish their presence in remote locations through the use of commercially available telepresence technologies. With the increasing adoption of systems, new questions are emerging about how these technologies affect user interactions and relationships. Our goal for this workshop is to bring an interdisciplinary group of telepresence researchers together to trade perspectives, fostering new opportunities for collaboration and to facilitate discussion on how to advance the field.
Experiencing Autonomous Vehicles: Crossing the Boundaries between a Drive and a Ride BIBAFull-Text 2413-2416
  Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Manfred Tscheligi; Dalila Szostak; Rabindra Ratan; Roderick McCall; Ioannis Politis; Sven Krome
Autonomous vehicles have gained attention recently since research organizations and companies have presented (semi-) autonomous vehicles driving in public traffic. This workshop covers the crossover between driving/riding in (semi-) autonomous vehicles and user experience (UX) research. The focus lies in an in-depth discussion on challenges and potentials for UX in autonomous vehicles. We will explore various areas such as, user experience factors, interaction design issues, entertainment potentials, social driving, and methodological issues. Additionally, we envision building a bridge between the automotive community and the human-robot-interaction community, since we believe autonomous vehicles can be regarded as a very specific kind of a robot. The overall aim of the workshop is to discuss the future landscape for research within and across each of these areas.
Exploring the Challenges of Making Data Physical BIBAFull-Text 2417-2420
  Jason Alexander; Yvonne Jansen; Kasper Hornbæk; Johan Kildal; Abhijit Karnik
Physical representations of data have existed for thousands of years. However, it is only now that advances in digital fabrication, actuated tangible interfaces, and shape-changing displays can support the emerging area of 'Data Physicalization' [6]: the study of computer-supported, physical representations of data and their support for cognition, communication, learning, problem solving and decision making. As physical artifacts, data physicalizations can tap more deeply into our perceptual exploration skills than classical computer setups, while their dynamic physicality alleviates some of the main drawbacks of static artifacts by facilitating their crafting, supporting adaptation to different data, and encouraging sharing between different users.
Gamifying Research: Strategies, Opportunities, Challenges, Ethics BIBAFull-Text 2421-2424
  Sebastian Deterding; Alessandro Canossa; Casper Harteveld; Seth Cooper; Lennart E. Nacke; Jennifer R. Whitson
From social sciences to biology and physics, gamified systems and games are increasingly being used as contexts and tools for research: as "petri dishes" for observing macro-social and economic dynamics; as sources of "big" and/or ecologically valid user behavior and health data; as crowdsourcing tools for research tasks; or as a means to motivate e.g. survey completion. However, this gamification of research comes with significant ethical ramifications. This workshop therefore explores opportunities, challenges, best practices, and ethical issues arising from different strategies of gamifying research.
How WEIRD is HCI?: Extending HCI Principles to other Countries and Cultures BIBAFull-Text 2425-2428
  Christian Sturm; Alice Oh; Sebastian Linxen; Jose Abdelnour Nocera; Susan Dray; Katharina Reinecke
A large majority of articles published at prominent HCI venues such as CHI and CSCW reports on studies with WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic) participants, ignoring that the results might not apply to other subject populations. This workshop aims to have the following two main outcomes: (1) A list of major principles that HCI researchers often build on and that are unlikely to apply to users in other countries and cultures. (2) An action plan that describes how we can extend these previous findings, such as by collaborating across countries and cultures, conducting large-scale online experiments, or creating a culture of replications and extensions with more diverse subject populations. Furthermore, the workshop aims to establish an interest group with the goal to improve the external validity of HCI research and to inform the design of further research studies in this area.
Knowledge Production in Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 2429-2432
  Kristina Höök; Peter Dalsgaard; Stuart Reeves; Jeffrey Bardzell; Jonas Löwgren; Erik Stolterman; Yvonne Rogers
Research in HCI involves a wide variety of knowledge production bringing forth theories, guidelines, methods, practices, design case studies / exemplars, frameworks, concepts, qualities and so on. This workshop is about mapping out the spaces, forms and potentials of such knowledge production in interaction design research.
Leveraging and Integrating Eastern and Western Insights for Human Engagement Studies in HCI BIBAFull-Text 2433-2436
  Effie Lai-Chong Law; Chaklam Silpasuwanchai; Xiangshi Ren; Jeffrey Bardzell; Torkil Clemmensen; Yan Liu
Human engagement is at the heart of every interactive technology. However, a concrete framework for synergizing the capabilities of humans and technologies to allow fully engaging interactions to happen is yet to be developed. We posit that such a framework should be grounded in a deeper understanding of human nature (e.g., mind-body relations), which in the field of HCI has primarily been built upon the Western philosophies. There are scattered, underexplored Eastern philosophies (e.g., Yijing, Zen) that may provide new lens and tools to analyze how humans interact with resources in their environments, including technological artefacts. Discussions of leveraging and possibly integrating Eastern and Western insights for human engagement studies will be an exciting and a radical forum for the HCI community.
Mobile Collocated Interactions: From Smartphones to Wearables BIBAFull-Text 2437-2440
  Andrés Lucero; James Clawson; Kent Lyons; Joel E. Fischer; Daniel Ashbrook; Simon Robinson
Mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets were originally conceived and have traditionally been utilized for individual use. Research on mobile collocated interactions has been looking at situations in which collocated users engage in collaborative activities using their mobile devices, thus going from personal/individual toward shared/multiuser experiences and interactions. However, computers are getting smaller, more powerful, and closer to our bodies. Therefore, mobile collocated interactions research, which originally looked at smartphones and tablets, will inevitably include ever-smaller computers, ones that can be worn on our wrists or other parts of the body. The focus of this workshop is to bring together a community of researchers, designers and practitioners to explore the potential of extending mobile collocated interactions to the use of wearable devices.
Principles, Techniques and Perspectives on Optimization and HCI BIBAFull-Text 2441-2444
  Per Ola Kristensson; Xiaojun Bi; Andrew Howes; Antti Oulasvirta; Roderick Murray-Smith; Harold Thimbleby; John Williamson; Shumin Zhai
We propose a workshop on the rapidly emerging topic of optimization and computational design in human-computer interaction (HCI). The workshop will tackle the following perspectives: defining and eliciting optimality criteria, optimizing at scale, optimization and user models, optimization for safety, optimization and design practice, optimization and users' perception of performance, and critical perspectives.
Supporting Children to Engage in Play for Wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 2445-2448
  Kevin Marshall; Gavin Wood; Janet C. Read; Svetlana (Lana) Yarosh; Madeline Balaam; Jung-Joo Lee
Engaging children in play for wellbeing is coming to prominence in HCI as the community increasingly engages with issues to do with health, care and therapy. To date, research in this area has primarily focused on engaging children with special needs or who suffer from mental health problems in organized play to improve their self-efficacy or support therapeutic treatment. However, play could be more broadly beneficial for all children and their wellbeing. This workshop aims to build an interdisciplinary community of researchers, designers, and practitioners to share and discuss their work. Additionally, it seeks to explore the interaction between play and wellbeing in the context of interaction design and children and to identify directions for future research.

Course Overviews

Designing Websites for Adults 55+: Toward Universal Design BIBAFull-Text 2449-2450
  Jeff A. Johnson
This course describes age-related factors that affect ability to use the Web, and presents Web design guidelines that reflect the capabilities, usage patterns, and preferences of older Web users. The course also explains the value of testing websites on older adults.
   If a significant percentage of a website's target audience includes older adults, certain aspects of the site's design become even more important. Simply having access to the Web does not mean that older people will be able to use it effectively. This course describes age-related factors that affect ability to use the Web, and presents web design guidelines that reflect the capabilities, usage patterns, and preferences of older Web users. We also describe the value of testing Web sites on older adults.
Design and Adaptation for Cross-Device, Context-dependent User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 2451-2452
  Fabio Paternò
This tutorial aims to help user interface designers and developers to understand the issues involved in multi-device, context-dependent interactive applications, which can be accessed through wearable, mobile and stationary devices even exploiting different interaction modalities. It will provide a discussion of the possible solutions in terms of concepts, techniques, languages, and tools, with particular attention to Web environments. The tutorial will deal with the various strategies in order to adapt, distribute, and migrate the user interface according to the context of use.
Cross-channel Conceptual Design: A Methodology BIBAFull-Text 2453-2454
  Avi Parush
Taking the leap from research and requirements to product design is an age-old challenge. This course provides a proven strategy for transforming your research into a Conceptual Model. It provides an iterative process that allows you to build the essential foundation for a successful interactive system, taking into consideration the users' mental model. It provides one with a framework for envisioning how users perceive, understand, and experience their tasks and processes in the context of your product. This way, one can mold the model to facilitate users' understanding of their tasks and processes and positively influence their experience, including: functionality -- what they do; configuration -- where; and navigation -- how they go from one place to another within the system.
Design for Searching & Finding BIBAFull-Text 2457-2458
  Daniel M. Russell; Jaime Teevan; Meredith Ringel Morris; Marti Hearst; Ed H. Chi
Modern user interfaces often contain a search or find components so the user can search for content in the context of the application. While there are common practices, what actually works best in these situations? What kinds of search tasks are the users actually trying to accomplish when they do a search? In this course, we'll review the search and findability issues that users confront in the course of their tasks, and ways in which information can be found. We'll also discuss the ways in which users seek information in social settings. You will learn several key design principles for creating your own search interfaces, as well as coming to understand what is driving people to search.
Introduction to Human-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2459-2460
  Jonathan Lazar; Simone D. J. Barbosa
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. In addition to introducing basic concepts, the course will provide enough structure to help understand how the advanced material in the CHI 2015 technical program fits into the overall field.
Actionable Inexpensive Games User Research BIBAFull-Text 2461-2462
  Lennart E. Nacke; Steve Engels; Pejman Mirza-Babaei
This course will allow people to understand the intricacies of rapid games user research methods. For this we will weave together playtesting exercises and help participants turn player feedback into actionable design recommendations. The course is designed from a user experience (UX) perspective and should allow for people unfamiliar with rapid iteration and user testing to playtesting and basic user research skills.
Interaction Design for Online Video and Television BIBAFull-Text 2463-2464
  David Geerts; Pablo Cesar
This course will teach attendees how to design and evaluate interaction with online video and television. It provides attendees a pragmatic toolset, including techniques and guidelines, which can be directly applied in practice. The different tools will be contextualized based on current developments, giving participants a complete overview of the state of the art and industry.
Designing and Assessing Interactive Systems Using Task Models BIBAFull-Text 2465-2466
  Philippe Palanque; Célia Martinie
This two-part course takes a practical approach to introduce the principles, methods and tools in task modelling. Part 1: A non-technical introduction demonstrates that task models support successful design of interactive systems. Part 2: A more technical interactive hands-on exercise of how to "do it right", such as: How to go from task analysis to task models? How to assess (through analysis and simulation) that a task model is correct? How to identify complexity of user tasks?
Learn to Sketch (Even if You Can't Draw): Hands-on Sketching Course BIBAFull-Text 2467-2468
  Stephanie Foehrenbach
Sketching as a technique to quickly draw something on a piece of paper can be used to explore and communicate ideas. Practitioners can make use of their ability to draw sketches from an early phase of a project on. It can be valuable not only for the exploration of ideas but also for gathering feedback from stakeholders and to foster a common understanding of requirements and concepts. This course introduces basic sketching techniques and a visual language which participants can immediately apply. It is a hands-on course which allows participants to do a lot of sketching during the session.
Research Methods for Child Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 2469-2470
  Janet C. Read; Shuli Gilutz
In this course participants will learn about theory and practice of conducting research in children's HCI. The course is divided into two sessions: basic principles and theory, and best practices. The instructors have multiple years of experience designing, conducting, and analyzing children-computer interaction (CCI) studies, in the UK, USA, and Israel.
Practical UX Research Methodologies BIBAFull-Text 2471-2472
  Sarah E.