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CHI Tables of Contents: 09-210-110-211-111-212-112-213-113-214-114-215-115-216-116-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 2014 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:CHI'14 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Matt Jones; Philippe Palanque; Albrecht Schmidt; Tovi Grossman
Location:Toronto, Canada
Dates:2014-Apr-26 to 2014-May-01
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-2474-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: CHI14-2
Links:Conference Website
  1. CHI 2014-04-26 Volume 2
    1. Keynote / Plenary Talks
    2. Workshop summaries
    3. Video showcase presentations
    4. Student design competition
    5. Student games competition
    6. Doctoral consortium abstracts
    7. Interactivity
    8. alt.chi: ways of knowing in HCI
    9. alt.chi: understanding interactions
    10. alt.chi: ways of creating in HCI
    11. alt.chi: limits and futures
    12. alt.chi: navel gazing
    13. alt.chi: intimate interfaces
    14. Case studies: realities of fieldwork
    15. Case studies: cross-perspective collaboration
    16. Case studies: creating methods
    17. Student research competition
    18. Courses
    19. Panel 102
    20. Special interest group: 111
    21. Works-in-progress

CHI 2014-04-26 Volume 2

Keynote / Plenary Talks

Technology and memory: from lifelogging to strategic reminiscence BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Steve Whittaker
We now have available huge amounts of data about our personal pasts in the form of photos, social media posts, communications, GPS locations, sensor data and so on. But what can we do with all this data? Is it useful to us or is it a problem? The Lifelogging vision argues that such data promotes 'total recall' addressing problems with everyday forgetting. I first show that Lifelogging doesn't live up to these claims, both overgenerating data and failing to focus on what is important. I then explore other problematic memory situations where people actively want to forget aspects of their past in the context of a relationship breakup, or when they have experienced other negative past events. Drawing on literature from psychological and social theories of memory, I describe how rich personal digital data about a breakup can prevent moving on, and present new designs that help people better deal with data relating to their breakup. Finally I explore new designs for technology mediated reflection; these designs promote demonstrable improvements in psychological well-being by helping us to actively process our pasts to understand our emotional patterns and habits.
Design: no longer an optional extra BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Gillian Crampton Smith
Mark Rettig said interaction design is designing the right thing and designing the thing right. With the recent emphasis on design thinking-finding the right thing to design-design doing-designing the thing right-has rather dropped from view. As a graphic designer in the early 80s, I realised, starting to program, that simple artist-designer graphic skills and knowledge could make interfaces work better-easier to understand, quicker to use. But with affordable colour graphic screens, designers could really make interfaces sing. They could become a pleasure to use and express character-the difference, for instance, between the Star interface-serious, as befits an office-and the Apple Mac-jaunty, irreverent, appropriate for the Californian college audience it targeted. It is accepted that designers are concerned with form-the optional cost of making something a bit more elegant-but Apple's unbending commitment to good design is persuading people that design is not an optional extra. However they often do not understand that design is not just about appearance. Apple knows that design is also about the aesthetic of function: a system's behaviour, its interactivity, which, as well as satisfyingly usable, must be elegant, poetic, maybe witty. Design also concerns the implicit meanings that subtly speak to us, that make the difference between a product that works and one that sings. This presentation will discuss how design works, how it flourishes, and how to grow young designers. As the digital increasingly shapes our world it is not just the profitability of a company that rides on good design. It is the quality of our lives as we experience them.
Design for user empowerment BIBAFull-Text 5-6
  Richard Ladner
Approaches to the design of technology for people with disabilities are surveyed. These include universal design, user centered design, participatory design, ability based design, and finally, design for user empowerment. A key feature of the latter is access to advanced education for disabled scientists and engineers to create the next generation of technology that will benefit them and others like them. AccessComputing, an alliance of more than thirty partners with the common goal of increasing the participation of people with disabilities in computing fields, is discussed.
Reasons to be cheerful, part 4 BIBAFull-Text 7-8
  Elizabeth F. Churchill
Reasons to be Cheerful, Part 3 was a song released by the UK's Ian Dury and the Blockheads in 1979. The song simply enumerates a series of reasons for being cheerful: Summer, Buddy Holly... 18-wheeler Scammels, Domenecker camels... The list includes sex, generosity and politeness, yellow socks, breakfast cereal, John Coltrane... and more.
   In 1979 when the song was released HCI was still in its infancy, starting its 'first wave'. Much focus was on efficiency and on communication as command. Satisfaction was noted, but not central. Frustration was acknowledged but not deeply theorized.
   Now, in 2014, in the third or perhaps even fourth wave of HCI, we talk about engagement, connection, emotion, enjoyment, delight and joy... Efficiency is still on the table but not dominant.
   In this talk, I reflect on cheer, on joy and the human capacity for optimism. I will update the Blockheads' list, to include some reasons I believe we should be cheerful about the emerging landscape of mediated interaction and social connection. My list will offer examples from my own collaborative work in the design and development of engaging Internet experiences.
A CHI story: past, present, and the next chapters BIBAFull-Text 9-10
  Scooter Morris
I became part of the CHI community in 1985, when I signed up to be the first AV Chair for the CHI conference. For the CHI 2014 conference I'm still the AV Chair (we call it "technology liaison" now). Along the way, I've co-chaired a CHI conference, served on the SIGCHI Conference Management Committee for many years, and I'm now the Vice President for Conferences for SIGCHI. What is it about CHI that would induce a bioinformatician and hard-core hacker to become passionate about HCI and devote a significant amount of time and energy to support the field of HCI through service to the CHI conference? In this brief talk, we'll look at the CHI conference through the eyes of a volunteer who has spent time in the lowest levels of conference operations, chaired the conference, and now is responsible for overseeing all of the SIGCHI conferences. I'll try to address some or all of the following questions:
   Where did we come from? What is CHI trying to achieve and have we been successful? If we have been successful, what are the key ingredients to that success? Where are going and how are we going to get there without losing what we currently have? And finally, why should you care? Oh, and along the way, it will probably become clear why I care?
Big data for social good BIBAFull-Text 11-12
  Nathan Eagle
Petabytes of data about human movements, transactions, and communication patterns are continuously being generated by everyday technologies such as mobile phones and credit cards. This unprecedented volume of information facilitates a novel set of research questions applicable to a wide range of development issues.
   In a collaboration involving 237 mobile operators across 102 countries, Jana's mobile technology platform can instantly poll and compensate 3.48 billion active mobile subscriptions. This talk will discuss how insights gained from living in Kenya became the genesis of a technology company currently working with global clients in over 50 countries, including P&G, Google, Unilever, Danone, General Mills, Nestle, Johnson & Johnson, Microsoft, the World Bank, and the United Nations. After providing an overview of the mobile and social media landscapes in emerging markets, it will conclude by emphasizing the value of consumer data in underserved and understudied regions of the world.
Robotics in my work and life BIBAFull-Text 13-14
  Margaret Atwood
Margaret Atwood is a giant of modern literature who refuses to rest on her laurels. She has anticipated, satirized, and even changed the popular pre-conceptions of our time, and is the rare writer whose work is adored by the public, acclaimed by the critics, and read on university campuses. On stage, Atwood is both serious minded and wickedly funny. A winner of many international literary awards, including the prestigious Booker Prize, Margaret Atwood is the author of more than thirty volumes of poetry, children's literature, fiction, and non-fiction. She is perhaps best known for her novels, which include The Edible Woman, The Handmaid's Tale, The Robber Bride, Alias Grace, The Blind Assassin, Oryx and Crake, and The Year of the Flood. Her non-fiction book Payback: Debt and the Shadow Side of Wealth, part of the Massey Lecture series, was recently made into a documentary. Her new book, Madaddam (the third novel in the Oryx and Crake trilogy), has received rave reviews: "An extraordinary achievement" (The Independent); "A fitting and joyous conclusion" (The New York Times).
   Atwood's work has been published in more than forty languages, including Farsi, Japanese, Turkish, Finnish, Korean, Icelandic and Estonian. In 2004, she co-invented the LongPen, a remote signing device that allows someone to write in ink anywhere in the world via tablet PC and the internet. She is also a popular personality on Twitter, with over 300,000 followers.
   Atwood was born in 1939 in Ottawa and grew up in northern Ontario, Quebec, and Toronto. She received her undergraduate degree from Victoria College at the University of Toronto and her master's degree from Radcliffe College.
The physical web BIBAFull-Text 15-16
  Scott Jenson
Too often when we discuss "interaction" we think of it as a desktop vs tablet vs mobile issue. However, with the plummeting cost of both processing and connectivity, our understanding of a 'smart device' is rapidly changing. The challenge is that this new, amazing category of devices will blind side us, requiring entirely new ways of interacting. This talk will discuss the exploding new area of smart devices, how the Internet of things is a UX disaster, and how we are on the verge of an entirely new way of interacting with devices.

Workshop summaries

Critical making hackathon: situated hacking, surveillance and big data proposal BIBAFull-Text 17-20
  Karen Tanenbaum; Joshua G. Tanenbaum; Amanda M. Williams; Matt Ratto; Gabriel Resch; Antonio Gamba Bari
In this workshop we propose to explore issues around big data, data privacy, visualization, sensing, surveillance, and counter-surveillance, through a team-based Critical Making hackathon.
Curating the digital: spaces for art and interaction BIBAFull-Text 21-24
  David England; Jocelyn Spence; Celine Latulipe; Ernest Edmonds; Linda Candy; Thecla Schiphorst; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Kirk Woolford
This workshop intends to use the key strength of the CHI Community; research linked to practice, to design an Art Catalog for CHI. The workshop will start with an examination of current research in curating interactive art. The outcomes of the first phase of the workshop will then feed into Design Charrette exercises that will involve prototyping an Art Catalog and developing ideas for presenting a future Art Gallery event as part of the CHI conference. The results from the workshop will then form the basis of an agenda of a Spotlight SIG meeting where we will discuss the nature of the CHI Art Catalog. Workshop outcomes will also be disseminated to a wider audience.
Game jam: [4 research] BIBAFull-Text 25-28
  Menno Deen; Robert Cercos; Alan Chatman; Amani Naseem; Regina Bernhaupt; Allan Fowler; Ben Schouten; Florian Mueller
Recent years have witnessed a rise in Game Jams -- organized events to create playable prototypes in a very short time frame. Game Jams offer a unique and quick way to prototype games. Beyond that, we believe Game Jams can also be seen as a design research method, situated in the research-through-design tradition, to create knowledge in a fast-paced, collaborative environment. The goal of this Game Jam is thus twofold: first, participants will use the Game Jam approach to investigate a research question; second, participants can, through actual practice, identify advantages and disadvantages of Game Jams as a research method. Hereby the Game Jam workshop provides a unique opportunity for HCI practitioners and researchers to gain experience in applying game-oriented methods for research.
Interaction and architectural space BIBAFull-Text 29-32
  Nick Dalton; Keith Evan Green; Ruth Dalton; Mikael Wiberg; Christoph Hoelscher; Anijo Mathew; Holger Schnädelbach; Tasos Varoudis
For many in the field of HCI, location and space are synonymous; yet, as we move from the mobile era to the ubiquitous era, computing becomes entangled with notions of space. This workshop critically examines the role of space in human-computer interfaces. The objective is to bring together diverse perspectives of space, drawing from architecture, philosophy, art, geography, design, dance, spatial-cognition, mathematics, computing, and still other domains, towards foregrounding space in theoretical discussions and explorations within the CHI community. Expected outcomes are the reporting of fresh insights into the impact and role of space in the interaction process.
RepliCHI: the workshop II BIBAFull-Text 33-36
  Max L. Wilson; Ed H. Chi; Stuart Reeves; David Coyle
The replication or recreation of research is a core part of many disciplines. Yet unlike many other disciplines, like medicine, physics, or mathematics, we have almost no drive and barely any reason to consider investigating the work of other HCI researchers. Our community is driven to publish novel results in novel spaces using novel designs, and to keep up with evolving technology. Further, our community contains a broad spectrum of research styles, from those that would aim to investigate cultural phenomenon observed with ethnographic measures, to those who would validate or refute prior work with experimental methods. The aim of this workshop is to continue to facilitate a cultural shift towards our community naturally adopting replication techniques in situations that are considered worth investigating.
Autonomy in technology design BIBAFull-Text 37-40
  Rafael A. Calvo; Dorian Peters; Daniel Johnson; Yvonne Rogers
Issues of autonomy impact motivation, the user experience and even psychological wellbeing, yet many questions surrounding design for autonomy remain unanswered. This workshop will explore theory, issues and design strategies related to autonomy drawing on theoretical frameworks available in psychology and looking at autonomy from multiple levels. These include user autonomy within the context of software environments, technologies that increase autonomy in daily life, and how technologies might foster autonomy as a component of psychological development.
"Touch me": workshop on tactile user experience evaluation methods BIBAFull-Text 41-44
  Manfred Tscheligi; Katherine Isbister; Kristina Höök; Marianna Obrist; Marc Busch; Christina Anna Hochleitner
In this workshop we plan to explore the possibilities and challenges of physical objects and materials for evaluating the User Experience (UX) of interactive systems. These objects should face shortfalls of current UX evaluation methods and allow for a qualitative (or even quantitative), playful and holistic evaluation of UX -- without interfering with the users' personal experiences during interaction. This provides a tactile enhancement to a solely visual stimulation as used in classical evaluation methods. The workshop serves as a basis for networking and community building with interested HCI researchers, designers and practitioners and should encourage further development of the field of tactile UX evaluation.
Alternate endings: using fiction to explore design futures BIBAFull-Text 45-48
  Conor Linehan; Ben J. Kirman; Stuart Reeves; Mark A. Blythe; Joshua G. Tanenbaum; Audrey Desjardins; Ron Wakkary
Design research and practice within HCI is inherently oriented toward the future. However, the vision of the future described by HCI researchers and practitioners is typically utility-driven and focuses on the short term. It rarely acknowledges the potentially complex social and psychological long-term consequences of the technology artefacts produced. Thus, it has the potential to unintentionally cause real harm. Drawing on scholarship that investigates the link between fiction and design, this workshop will explore "alternate endings" to contemporary HCI papers. Attendees will use fictional narratives to envision long-term consequences of contemporary HCI projects, as a means for engaging the CHI community in a consideration of the values and implications of interactive technology.
Participatory design with people living with cognitive or sensory impairments BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  Karin Slegers; Pieter Duysburgh; Niels Hendriks
This workshop aims to exchange experiences with participatory design techniques that were designed for, or adapted to, people with impairments. More specifically, the first aim is to identify commonalities and differences in current practices. Second, based on the results of two previous workshops and on the experiences of the participants of this workshop, general guidelines and recommendations will be formulated for involving users with impairments affecting cognitive and sensory abilities in the design process.
Perspectives on gender and product design BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Susan M. Dray; Daniela K. Busse; Anke Marei Brock; Anicia N. Peters; Shaowen Bardzell; Allison Druin; Margaret M. Burnett; Elizabeth F. Churchill; Gayna Williams; Karen Holtzblatt; Diane Murray
Interactive technologies have a profound mediating effect on the way we obtain and contribute to knowledge, relate to each other and contribute to society. Often, "gender" is not a factor that is explicitly considered in the design of these technologies. When gender is considered, products are often designed with idealised models of gendered "users" -- designed for men, designed for women, designed for boys, designed for girls, or designed for the "average user" who could be male or female. However, the ways in which gender-bias or gender-neutrality are constructed in the design process and the resulting effect on the interactive artifacts that are produced is not well understood. This workshop will address what HCI is currently bringing, and can bring, to the table in addressing this issue.
Workshop: framing users' conceptual models BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Austin Henderson; Jeff A. Johnson
This is a one-day workshop, entitled "Users' Conceptual Models," at CHI 2014. Our purpose is to work toward providing a model and reference map for the area of Users' Conceptual Models (UCMs). We propose to aggregate the various concepts related to the notion of users' conceptual models, understand them and their distinctions and relationships, and propose a map of the space, including terminology.
Gesture-based interaction design: communication and cognition BIBAFull-Text 61-64
  Mary Lou Maher; Tim Clausner; Barbara Tversky; David Kirsh; Judy Kay; Andreea Danielescu; Kazjon Grace
This workshop explores and identifies the cognitive issues fundamental to the design of gestural interactive systems. To achieve this, a dialogue will be facilitated among researchers in the cognitive science of gesture and gestural interaction within the HCI community. During the workshop we will discuss the different methodologies and results within the study of gestural interaction, with a focus on how the use of bodily movement in an interface affects the cognition of users, groups, communities and societies. We invite participants from cognitive science, HCI, user experience design, educational technology and interactive installation art to present their work on gestural interfaces and discuss how that work has been observed to impact user perceptual or cognitive faculties. The workshop's material outcomes include a book on gestural interaction and cognition, while the research outcomes include methodologies, heuristics, design principles and hypotheses for the further design and investigation of gestural and tangible technologies.
Refusing, limiting, departing: why we should study technology non-use BIBAFull-Text 65-68
  Eric P. S. Baumer; Morgan G. Ames; Jed R. Brubaker; Jenna Burrell; Paul Dourish
In contrast to most research in HCI, this workshop focuses on non-use, that is, situations where people do not use computing technology. Using a reflexive pre-workshop activity and discussion-oriented sessions, we will consider the theories, methods, foundational texts, and central research questions in the study of non-use. In addition to a special issue proposal, we expect the research thread brought to the fore in this workshop will speak to foundational questions of use and the user in HCI.
Socially engaged arts practice in HCI BIBAFull-Text 69-74
  Rachel Elizabeth Clarke; Jo Briggs; Ann Light; Sara Heitlinger; Clara Crivellaro
Socially engaged methods are increasingly being used within HCI research, yet arts practice in this context has been little explored. HCI research that aligns with socially engaged arts practices encourages debate around societal challenges; for example discussion of issues surrounding the role of digital technology in sustainability, inclusion, community, identity and the politics of participation. Building on existing research, this workshop will bring together a diverse group of HCI researchers, artists and other creators whose work or interests align with socially engaged arts practice, to foster critical exploration and creative collaboration.
Designing speech and language interactions BIBAFull-Text 75-78
  Cosmin Munteanu; Matt Jones; Steve Whittaker; Sharon Oviatt; Matthew Aylett; Gerald Penn; Stephen Brewster; Nicolas d'Alessandro
Speech and natural language remain our most natural forms of interaction; yet the HCI community have been very timid about focusing their attention on designing and developing spoken language interaction techniques. While significant efforts are spent and progress made in speech recognition, synthesis, and natural language processing, there is now sufficient evidence that many real-life applications using speech technologies do not require 100% accuracy to be useful. This is particularly true if such systems are designed with complementary modalities that better support their users or enhance the systems' usability. Engaging the CHI community now is timely -- many recent commercial applications, especially in the mobile space, are already tapping the increased interest in and need for natural user interfaces (NUIs) by enabling speech interaction in their products. This multidisciplinary, one-day workshop will bring together interaction designers, usability researchers, and general HCI practitioners to analyze the opportunities and directions to take in designing more natural interactions based on spoken language, and to look at how we can leverage recent advances in speech processing in order to gain widespread acceptance of speech and natural language interaction.
Understanding teen UX: building a bridge to the future BIBAFull-Text 79-82
  Dan Fitton; Beth Bell; Janet C. Read; Ole Iversen; Linda Little; Matthew Horton
UX is a widely explored topic within HCI and has a large practitioners' community. However, the users considered in research and practice, are most often adults -- since adults represent the largest technology market share. However teenagers represent a growing market of unique users, and more needs to be understood about this population, from a UX perspective. The theme of this workshop is Building a Bridge to the Future and the aim is to gather together academics and UX practitioners, interested in teen users specifically, in order to discuss experiences, understandings, insights and methods that we can use to comprehend teen UX now and explore how this may lead to the creation of better interactive products in the future. The workshop will also foster new collaborations, and define new research agendas to grow the research and literature in this area.
Designing technology for major life events BIBAFull-Text 83-86
  Michael Massimi; Svetlana Yarosh; Madeline E. Smith; Joseph Jofish Kaye
Technology has become increasingly prominent in the ways that we orient towards major life events, yet there remains a focus on designing for "everyday" use that is generally agnostic towards, but inspired by, these events. This one-day workshop proposes to collect and explore research and design work that is focusing on technology during major life events such as births, weddings, deaths, divorces, residential moves, retirement, and so on. The outcomes of the workshop will include an edited collection of work that places various life events and their associated technologies in conversation with one another.
Workshop abstract: HCI research in healthcare: using theory from evidence to practice BIBAFull-Text 87-90
  Kate Sellen; Dominic Furniss; Yunan Chen; Svetlena Taneva; Aisling Ann O'Kane; Ann Blandford
Theory has an important place in HCI research in healthcare. However, resources on this area are spread across different multidisciplinary journals. It is timely for the community to reflect on the classic, modern, and contemporary theories they use, to map where strengths and weaknesses lie, and where emerging opportunities are unfolding. This workshop aims to encourage dialogue and exchange of ideas with examples of current and emerging theory in HCI and healthcare to support researchers and practitioners as they address the challenges and opportunities of this domain. We aim to produce a journal special issue to map the state of the art in this area.
Workshop on inconspicuous interaction BIBAFull-Text 91-94
  Diogo Marques; Luís Carriço; Tiago Guerreiro; Alexander De Luca; Pattie Maes; Ildar Muslukhov; Ian Oakley; Emanuel von Zezschwitz
Growing usage of interactive systems in the public space has highlighted the prevalence of conflicts between desired functionality and maintenance of privacy/social comfort. This has inspired researchers and practitioners, in communities concerned with usable security, wearable and mobile interfaces, natural user interfaces, accessibility and social interaction, to employ inconspicuous interaction styles. This workshop will bring these communities together to produce forward-looking insights that can shape the way users interact with tomorrow's computers, in interactive systems that account for the social nomadic contexts where they are bound to be used.
Beyond quantified self: data for wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 95-98
  Jochen Meyer; Steven Simske; Katie A. Siek; Cathal G. Gurrin; Hermie Hermens
Sustaining our health and wellbeing requires lifelong efforts for prevention and healthy living. Continuously observing ourselves is one of the fundamental measures to be taken. While many devices support monitoring and quantifying our health behavior and health state, they all are facing the same trade-off: the higher the data quality is the higher are the efforts of data acquisition. However, for lifelong use, minimizing efforts for the user is crucial. Nowadays, few devices find a good balance between cost and value. In this interdisciplinary workshop we discuss how this trade-off can be approached by addressing three topics: understanding the user's information needs, exploring options for data acquisition, and discussing potential designs for life-long use.
Peripheral interaction: shaping the research and design space BIBAFull-Text 99-102
  Saskia Bakker; Doris Hausen; Ted Selker; Elise van den Hoven; Andreas Butz; Berry Eggen
In everyday life, we are able to perform various activities simultaneously without consciously paying attention to them. For example, we can easily read a newspaper while drinking coffee. This latter activity takes place in our background or periphery of attention. Contrarily, interactions with computing technology usually require focused attention. With interactive technologies becoming increasingly present in the everyday environment, it is essential to explore how these technologies could be developed such that people can interact with them both in the focus and in the periphery of attention. This upcoming field of Peripheral Interaction aims to fluently embed interactive technology into everyday life. This workshop brings together researchers and practitioners from different disciplines to share research and design work and to further shape the field of Peripheral Interaction.
Workshop on assistive augmentation BIBAFull-Text 103-106
  Jochen Huber; Jun Rekimoto; Masahiko Inami; Roy Shilkrot; Pattie Maes; Wong Meng Ee; Graham Pullin; Suranga Chandima Nanayakkara
Our senses are the dominant channel for perceiving the world around us, some more central than the others, such as the sense of vision. Whether they have impairments or not, people often find themselves at the edge of sensorial capability and seek assistive or enhancing devices. We wish to put sensorial ability and disability on a continuum of usability for certain technology, rather than treat one or the other extreme as the focus.
   The overarching topic of the workshop proposed here is the design and development of assistive technology, user interfaces and interactions that seamlessly integrate with a user's mind, body and behavior, providing an enhanced perception. We call this "Assistive Augmentation".
   The workshop aims to establish conversation and idea exchange with researchers and practitioners at the junction of human-computer interfaces, assistive technology and human augmentation. The workshop will serve as a hub for the emerging community of assistive augmentation researchers.
Personalizing behavior change technologies BIBAFull-Text 107-110
  Gary Hsieh; Sean A. Munson; Maurits C. Kaptein; Harri Oinas-Kukkonen; Oded Nov
The Personalization in Behavior Change Technologies workshop will focus on how to design, build and study persuasive technologies to adapt to meet the individualized needs of target users. The goal of this workshop is to connect the diverse group of behavior change researchers and practitioners interested in personalization to share their experiences, ideas, and discuss how to move the field forward. We will identify the key challenges in this area and brainstorm solutions to tackle these issues. Discussion and ideas generated from this workshop will be archived online to be available to the larger research community. This workshop ties into a number of special interests for the CHI community, including health, sustainability, intelligent user interfaces, serious games, and persuasive technology.
#CHImoney: financial interactions, digital cash, capital exchange and mobile money BIBAFull-Text 111-114
  Jofish Kaye; Janet Vertesi; Jennifer Ferreira; Barry Brown; Mark Perry
Interactions around money and financial services are a critical part of our lives on and off-line. New technologies and new ways of interacting with these technologies are of huge interest; they enable new business models and ways of making sense of this most important aspect of our everyday lives. At the same time, money is an essential element in HCI research and design. This workshop is intended to bring together researchers and practitioners involved in the design and use of systems that combine digital and new media with monetary and financial interactions to build on an understanding of these technologies and their impacts on users' behaviors. The workshop will focus on social, technical, and economic aspects around everyday user interactions with money and emerging financial technologies and systems.
HCI and sports BIBAFull-Text 115-118
  Stina Nylander; Jakob Tholander; Florian Mueller; Joe Marshall
Sport is an area in which the number of available computing devices is growing rapidly. However, HCI has so far devoted rather little attention to the sports domain. This workshop aims to form a community around sports by gathering existing activity in the HCI domain, thus starting a discussion on what HCI can contribute to the sports domain, as well as what HCI can gain from studying sports.
Supporting children with complex communication needs BIBAFull-Text 119-122
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Franca Garzotto; Agata Rozga; Monica E. Tentori; Panos Markopoulos; Narcis Pares; Judith Good; Helen Pain; Meryl Alper
Many children face significant challenges communicating, expressing themselves, and sharing their creative thoughts and ideas with others. Interactive technologies are playing an increasing role in addressing these challenges. This workshop will be an opportunity to discuss design, implementation, and evaluation methods, the needs of specific communities, as well as experiences in previous and current projects.
Biological rhythms and technology BIBAFull-Text 123-126
  Mark Matthews; Erin Carroll; Saeed Abdullah; Jaime Snyder; Matthew Kay; Tanzeem Choudhury; Geri Gay; Julie Kientz
Biological rhythms enable living organisms to adapt and live with periodical environmental changes, such as variation in the relative position of the earth and the sun. Internal rhythms, like body temperature and sleep-wake cycle, are driven by numerous biological processes and can be maintained even in the absence of external environmental cues. These rhythms affect how we feel, think, and act. They are profoundly important for our health, quality of sleep, and mood. Yet the digital devices we use are ignorant of our biology. They respond uniformly to our touch and click. Recently there has been a considerable increase of research within the HCI community to support behavior change, personal insight, and increase productivity. This workshop will bring together researchers in sleep, wellbeing, and circadian rhythms to discuss the possibility of rhythm systems: technologies that play to the strengths of our biology. It will investigate how HCI can complement our biological rhythms and will focus on two areas: measurement and intervention.
Values & design in HCI education BIBAFull-Text 127-130
  Jes A. Koepfler; Luke Stark; Paul Dourish; Phoebe Sengers; Katie Shilton
The aim of this one-day workshop is to share existing research and practice, and to develop new strategies and tools, for teaching values and design in HCI. Through collaborative group discussions and exercises, participants will critique and create approaches for making personal, social, and technical values a pedagogical focus in both traditional learning environments, such as classrooms and conferences, and alternative learning spaces such as design labs and workplaces. This workshop will bridge current gaps in research and practice as well as lay the groundwork for future efforts in teaching values and design in HCI.
Learning innovation at scale BIBAFull-Text 131-134
  Joseph Jay Williams; René F. Kizilcec; Daniel M. Russell; Scott R. Klemmer
The rapid developments in online education raise new issues for the future of learning and universities, practical questions about what counts as good design, and new opportunities for research. This workshop brings together practitioners, learning platform innovators, and researchers who draw on a multi-disciplinary range of theory and methodology. We will share insights about the current state and next directions for research and practice in online learning and technology.
Developing a living HCI curriculum to support a global community BIBAFull-Text 135-138
  Elizabeth Churchill; Jennifer Preece; Anne Bowser
ACM SIGCHI supports research to understand the philosophies and practices that inform HCI education in order to support a broad community of students, academics, and industry practitioners around the globe. This workshop builds on 3 years of research and collaboration to engage the HCI community in developing a living curriculum for HCI. This includes selecting the platforms and tools required to support a community, defining the parameters of content generation and community participation, and identifying existing and new collaborators to support this ambitious work.
Enabling empathy in health and care: design methods and challenges BIBAFull-Text 139-142
  Anja Thieme; John Vines; Jayne Wallace; Rachel Elizabeth Clarke; Petr Slovák; John McCarthy; Michael Massimi; Andrea Grimes Grimes Parker
The role of empathy has come to prominence in HCI as the community increasingly engages with issues in medical, health and emotionally charged contexts. In such settings empathizing with others is crucial in understanding the experience of living with specific conditions, or in being sensitive to the concerns and emotions of potentially vulnerable participants. Researchers in these areas become implicated in designing new tools and technologies that support empathic relations. This workshop therefore aims to build an interdisciplinary community of researchers, designers and practitioners to share and discuss their work and the challenges they encountered when establishing empathic relationships within health or care contexts. We will work towards developing a richer conceptual and practical understanding of empathic engagement and design methods in this context to support and shape an agenda for future research.
What have we learned?: a SIGCHI HCI & sustainability community workshop BIBAFull-Text 143-146
  M. Six Silberman; Eli Blevis; Elaine Huang; Bonnie A. Nardi; Lisa P. Nathan; Daniela Busse; Chris Preist; Samuel Mann
The role and influence of HCI research in addressing the challenges of sustainability remains unclear despite ongoing interest. Sustainability-oriented paper authors, workshop participants, SIG attendees, and panelists have made ambitious predictions about the contributions of the CHI community and identified critical directions for the field. But have lessons from the past decade of HCI & Sustainability research been taken substantively into practice, within and beyond the CHI community? Have they had a significant positive influence on the vitality of the world's ecosystems? If not, how can we re-orient? This workshop is a venue for taking concrete action to integrate what we have learned about sustainability -- from within and beyond HCI -- into a common framework to guide the community toward more influential contributions and more rigorous evaluations of HCI & Sustainability research.
Player experience: mixed methods and reporting results BIBAFull-Text 147-150
  Veronica Zammitto; Pejman Mirza-Babaei; Ian Livingston; Marina Kobayashi; Lennart E. Nacke
The community of video game researchers has been rapidly evolving for the past few years, extending and modifying existing methodologies used by the HCI community to the environment of digital games. This one-day workshop investigates two areas that must be addressed to continue advancing the field: mixed method frameworks which integrate two or more techniques within a single study; and reporting as an integral part of the research process. The outcome of the workshop will be an archive of both the workshop submissions and the materials (posters and group productions). This will extend the discussion of topics beyond the workshop, and serve as a platform for future use and work. This one day workshop will bring together contributions from practitioners and academics in a yet untapped area of games user research.

Video showcase presentations

The secret life of computers BIBAFull-Text 151-152
  Jonathan Aceituno; Ludovic Potier
This video retraces our serendipitous discovery of a particular function of laptops and mobile devices: doing "computer music" by reusing and augmenting existing instrumental gestures. We illustrate the potential of portable devices for expressive musical control as wind and percussive instruments, first individually, then in a collective performance. Most uses of computers in music follow the traditional view that built-in input devices are vectors for graphical interaction, and while several attempts have reminded us that portable devices could be hijacked for direct musical performance, none have led to the degree of expressivity that is demonstrated here. This is the result of a design approach emphasizing musician-instrument interaction as an embodied activity. Besides confirming the adequacy of standard personal computing equipment for musical performance, this video shows a successful example of repurposing existing technologies.
Medi, human robot interaction in pediatric health BIBAFull-Text 153-154
  Setareh Aghel Manesh; Tanya Beran; Ehud Sharlin; Saul Greenberg
When children go through a medical procedure (e.g. a blood draw), they often experience increased levels of anxiety and stress. We believe that having an empathetic robot companion during the procedure can help children cope with pain and improve their overall experience. The robot makes use of a set of behaviors derived from pain management literature and modeled on human behaviors and cognitive behavioral therapy. In order to investigate the role of the robot as social companion, we are currently performing a Wizard of Oz study at a children's hospital. Our results are preliminary, but so far we have observed -- as illustrated in the video -- that the robot can improve the experience for children as long as they are not highly agitated.
Electronic kit with no current flow that uses projection mapping BIBAFull-Text 155-156
  Yoh Akiyama; Homei Miyashita
With this system, you can make electronic circuits using trial and error and learn how each element works. You can connect or disconnect circuits by finger tracing. What is special with this system is that LEDs and matrix LEDs appear to emit light because light is projected to the parts by projection mapping. No current is flowing in the parts! In addition to making LEDs emit light, you can also set off a buzzer. Further, you can turn a switch on or off by covering it with your hand. To make this system easy for beginners, all wires have the appropriate resistors, and this is the default setting of the system. However, you can change this system in such a way that the elements in the system can be damaged by excessive voltage and current.With this system, you can make electronic circuits using trial and error and learn how each element works. You can connect or disconnect circuits by finger tracing. What is special with this system is that LEDs and matrix LEDs appear to emit light because light is projected to the parts by projection mapping. No current is flowing in the parts! In addition to making LEDs emit light, you can also set off a buzzer. Further, you can turn a switch on or off by covering it with your hand. To make this system easy for beginners, all wires have the appropriate resistors, and this is the default setting of the system. However, you can change this system in such a way that the elements in the system can be damaged by excessive voltage and current.
   A tracing paper is placed on the touch panel display. A projector projects light onto the paper and a camera is used to detect motion. The tracing paper is used to balance the transmitted light from the touch panel and the projected light from the projector. By using the touch panel, you can drag wires to connect or disconnect them. The camera detects shielding of the switch, and AR markers are used for alignment of the optical system. The positions of the parts are not recognized by image recognition; rather, they are registered at the start of system.
   Since no current is flowing, you can use damaged elements or unopened parts. We believe this system is superior to breadboards because accidents such as breakage of elements and poor connection can be avoided. We are sure you will have a better touch feeling in this system than in breadboards or circuit simulators. Other related studies include HMMBB, which automatically compensate open wires and performs project mapping, and Visible Breadboard, which makes current visible.
How i found my research question BIBAFull-Text 157-158
  Halimat I. Alabi
This is a humorous video exploring how I found my research question, or rather, how it found me. The journey touches upon many aspects of computing including: ubiquitous computing, data mining, DIY culture, rapid prototyping, personal, learning, and visual analytics.
Is anyone looking?: mediating shoulder surfing on public displays (the video) BIBAFull-Text 159-160
  Frederik Brudy; David Ledo; Saul Greenberg
When a person interacts with a display in an open area, sensitive information becomes visible to shoulder-surfing passers-by. While a person's body shields small displays, shielding is less effective as display area increases. To mitigate this problem, we sense spatial relationships between the passerby, person and display. Awareness of onlookers is provided through visual cues: flashing screen borders, a 3D model mirroring the onlooker's position and gaze, and an indicator that illustrates their gaze direction. The person can react with a gesture that commands the display to black out personal windows, or to collect them on one side. Alternately, the display will automatically darken screen regions visible by the onlooker, but leaving the display area shielded by the person's body unaltered (thus allowing the person to continue their actions). The person can also invite the onlooker to collaborate with them via a gesture that reverses these protective mechanisms. This video illustrates these and other approaches to mitigate shoulder surfing.
Paper generators: harvesting energy from touching, rubbing and sliding BIBAFull-Text 161-162
  Joanna Maria Dauner; Mustafa Emre Karagozler; Ivan Poupyrev
We present a new energy harvesting technology that generates electrical energy from a user's interaction with paper-like materials. The energy harvesters are flexible, light, and inexpensive, and they utilize a user's gestures such as tapping, touching, rubbing and sliding to generate electrical energy.
   The harvested energy is then used to actuate LEDs, e-paper displays and various other devices to create novel interactive applications, such as enhancing books and other printed media with interactivity.
Plenopticon: video playback for dynamically adaptive depth-of-field BIBAFull-Text 163-164
  David Philip Green; Thomas Smith; Guy Schofield
Plenopticon is a system for video playback with dynamically adaptive depth of field, a technique allowing viewer control of the on-screen area of focus via a secondary input device such as a touchscreen or eyetracking device. Lightfield cameras allow still photographs to be re-focused once an image has been taken. This system is intended to showcase the potential of plenoptic video and provide insights into how storytelling techniques and novel interactive narrative experiences might be configured using this emerging technology.
Learning with CyberPLAYce, a cyber-physical learning environment for elementary students promoting computational expression BIBAFull-Text 165-166
  Arash Soleimani; Kyle Smith; Jiawei Zeng; Keith E. Green; Danielle Herro; Jessie Santiago; Surya Sharma; Manas Tonapi; Amith Vijaykumar; Ian Walker; Christina Gardner-McCune
CyberPLAYce is our novel, interactive-computational construction kit for elementary school children and their teachers. CyberPLAYce bridges the physical and digital worlds, allowing young students to bring their ideas, stories and class subjects to life through the construction of cyber-physical environments. The CyberPLAYce construction kit is comprised of hand-sized, magnetic modules integrating a variety of electronic components, and rectangular panels, nearly two-feet measured diagonally, that receive the modules and serve as physical building blocks for constructing cyber-physical environments imagined by children. Through play, children become comfortable with the working modules and panels; subsequently, they are provided matching non-electronic module cards allowing them to quickly compose pattern sequences to map ideas, stories and class content. Additionally, students are provided action and story cards to spark their imagination. CyberPLAYce merges play and learning in the physical world while transitioning students from consumers of virtual and digital-centric technologies into technological innovators and cyber-playful storytellers.
Touchsense: expanding touch input vocabulary using different areas of users' finger pads BIBAFull-Text 167-168
  Da-Yuan Huang; Ming-Chang Tsai; Ying-Chao Tung; Min-Lun Tsai; Yen-Ting Yeh; Liwei Chan; Mike Y. Chen; Yi-Ping Hung
We present TouchSense, a single-tap interaction method that enables fast switching between input modes using different areas on finger pads. It requires minimal touch input area making it especially ideal for wearable devices such as smart watches and smart glasses. For example, users of a calculator application on a smart watch could tap normally to enter numbers, and tap with the right side of their fingers to enter the operators (e.g. +, -, =). Results from two human-factor studies showed that users could tap a touchscreen with five or more distinct areas on their finger pads. Also, they were able to tap with more distinct areas closer to their fingertips. We developed a TouchSense prototype using a smart watch and IMU sensors, and developed two example applications: a calculator and a text editor. We also collected user feedback via an explorative study.
Augmented climbing: testing prototypes in wizard of oz experiment BIBAFull-Text 169-170
  Raine Kajastila; Perttu Hämäläinen
The video showcase describes our efforts in developing a novel augmented climbing wall illustrated. Our system combines projected graphics on an artificial climbing wall and body tracking using computer vision technology. The system is intended for accelerating motor skill learning or to make monotonous parts of the training fun by adding relevant goals and encouraging social collaboration. Video shows six initial prototypes and lessons learned from testing them with intermediate and experienced climbers in a Wizard of Oz experiment.
Draco: living illustrations BIBAFull-Text 171-172
  Rubaiat Habib Kazi; Fanny Chevalier; Tovi Grossman; Shengdong Zhao; George Fitzmaurice
Draco is a sketch-based interface that allows artists and casual users alike to add a rich set of animation effects to their drawings, seemingly bringing illustrations to life. While previous systems have introduced sketch-based animations for individual objects, our contribution is a unified framework of motion controls that allows users to seamlessly add coordinated motions to object collections. We propose a framework built around kinetic textures, which provide continuous animation effects while preserving the unique timeless nature of still illustrations. This enables many dynamic effects difficult or not possible with previous sketch-based tools, such as a school of fish swimming, tree leaves blowing in the wind, or water rippling in a pond.
SweatAtoms: understanding physical activity through material artifacts BIBAFull-Text 173-174
  Rohit Ashok Khot; Jeewon Lee; Larissa Hjorth; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
In this video, we present a novel approach of representing physical activity in the form of material artifacts. By designing such material representations, our aim is to understand what these artifacts might offer in terms of reflecting upon physical activity. For example, what types of affect do material artifacts, representing ones' physical activity over time create for the user? In order to advance this understanding, we have designed a system called SweatAtoms that transforms the physical activity data based on heart rate into 3D printed material artifacts and provides 5 different material representations of their physical activity. This video offers few reflections on designing material representations for physical activity. We hope that our work will inspire designers to consider new possibilities afforded by digital fabrication to support user's experience with physical activity by utilizing interactive technologies at our disposal.
Handyscope: a remote control technique using pull-out gesture BIBAFull-Text 175-176
  Takuro Kuribara; Takuto Yoshikawa; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
A large multi-touch tabletop has remote areas that the users might not reach by their hands. This forces users to walk around the tabletop. In this video, we present a novel remote control technique which we call HandyScope. This technique allows users to manipulate those remote areas. Moreover, users can transfer an object between the nearby area and the remote areas using a widget. In addition, users use pull-out, our own bimanual multi-touch gesture, both to invoke HandyScope, and to determine appropriate control-display ratio to point remote areas. This gesture allows multiple users to simultaneously manipulate remote areas without conflicting with other touch gestures.
Ziklo: bicycle navigation through tactile feedback BIBAFull-Text 177-178
  Brianna Jean Huxtable; Carlo Ka-Ho Lai; Johnson Wen Jun Zhu; Paulina Mun-Yee Lam; Yeseul Tracy Choi; Carman Neustaedter; Greg J. Corness
Ziklo is a tactile interface for wayfinding devices designed for cyclists. It is made up of two wristbands that vibrate to signal left and right turns. These wristbands are wirelessly connected to the user's mobile device via Bluetooth. An application on the mobile device hosts the wayfinding functionality and interface to control the wristbands. The wristbands consists of three vibration motors each, allowing for different vibration patterns and strengths to send different notifications. Ziklo's goal is to create an alternative interface for wayfinding devices that does not hinder the user's awareness when they are engaged in situations that demand their visual and/or auditory attention.
Loopo: a tangible programming game for kids BIBAFull-Text 179-180
  Paulina Mun-Yee Lam; Carlo Ka-Ho Lai; Yeseul Tracy Choi; Brianna Jean Huxtable; Jan Rainier Castro; Andrew Hawryshkewich; Carman Neustaedter
This project explores a method to incorporate computer programming into primary school education. Through researching into effective teaching methods and combining it with inspirations taken from existing educational computer programming projects, we developed Loopo. Loopo blends a specially designed tangible interface with a digital interface. The tangibility of Loopo encourages collaboration among the users and motivates them to learn together. To keep up with the increasingly earlier adoption of computer technology, Loopo's goal is to teach children the fundamentals of computer programming in a fun, relatable, and interesting way, while nurturing collaboration through an easily approachable system.
GaussBricks: magnetic building blocks for constructive tangible interactions on portable displays BIBAFull-Text 181-182
  Rong-Hao Liang; Liwei Chan; Hung-Yu Tseng; Han-Chih Kuo; Da-Yuan Huang; De-Nian Yang; Bing-Yu Chen
This work describes a novel building block system for tangible interaction design, GaussBricks, which enables real-time constructive tangible interactions on portable displays. Given its simplicity, the mechanical design of the magnetic building blocks facilitates the construction of configurable forms. The form constructed by the magnetic building blocks, which are connected by the magnetic joints, allows users to stably manipulate with various elastic force feedback mechanisms. With an analog Hall-sensor grid mounted to its back, a portable display determines the geometrical configuration and detects various user interactions in real time. This work also introduce several methods to enable shape changing, multi-touch input, and display capabilities in the construction. The proposed building block system enriches how individuals interact with the portable displays physically.
ShoeSoleSense: demonstrating a wearable foot interface for locomotion in virtual environments BIBAFull-Text 183-184
  Denys Matthies; Franz Müller; Christoph Anthes; Dieter Kranzlmüller
User input in a virtual environment (VE) is usually accomplished through simple finger interactions, such as walking in a 3D scene by pressing a button. These interactions are not very suitable for movement in VE. Moving through scenes such as a safety training applications by walking-in-place while forgoing hand or finger input for other purposes enables a more realistic feeling. Already existing solutions, such as multi-directional treadmills, are still expensive and need additional fixation of the body. Others, like using external tracking that are usually accomplished by using statically installed cameras in CAVE-like-installations, also have limitations in terms of occlusion. The built prototype -- an insole Directly measures the pressure under the feet and hence enables a detection of movements, which is wirelessly forwarded to the scene manager server.
L.IVE: an integrated interactive video-based learning environment BIBAFull-Text 185-186
  Toni-Jan Keith Palma Monserrat; Shengdong Zhao; Yawen Li; Xiang Cao
In this video, we introduce L.IVE: an online interactive video-based learning environment with an alternative design and architecture that integrates three major interface components: video, comment threads, and assessments. This is in contrast with the approach of existing interfaces which visually separate these components. Our study, which compares L.IVE with existing popular video-based learning environments, suggests advantages in this integrated approach as compared to the separated approach in learning.
faBrickation: fast 3D printing of functional objects by integrating construction kit building blocks BIBAFull-Text 187-188
  Stefanie Mueller; Tobias Mohr; Kerstin Guenther; Johannes Frohnhofen; Patrick Baudisch
We present a new approach to rapid prototyping of functional objects, such as the body of a head-mounted display. The key idea is to save 3D printing time by automatically substituting sub-volumes with standard building blocks -- in our case Lego bricks. When making the body for a head-mounted display, for example, getting the optical path right is paramount. Users thus mark the lens mounts as "high-resolution" to indicate that these should later be 3D printed. faBrickator then 3D prints these parts. It also generates instructions that show users how to create everything else from Lego bricks. If users iterate on the design later, faBrickator offers even greater benefit as it allows reprinting only the elements that changed. We validated our system at the example of three 3D models of functional objects. On average, our system fabricates objects 2.44 times faster than traditional 3D printing while requiring only 14 minutes of manual assembly.
Wrigglo: shape-changing peripheral for interpersonal mobile communication BIBAFull-Text 189-190
  Joohee Park; Young-Woo Park; Tek-Jin Nam
We introduce Wrigglo, a shape-changing smart phone peripheral that allows pairs of users to share wriggling movements with one another. Attached to a smart phone, Wrigglo captures the sender's motions and activates the receiver's Wrigglo which repeats the motion simultaneously. The result of our in-lab use observation with twelve couples showed that Wrigglo supported emotional and functional roles of body gestures and postures, creating vocabularies related to the motion of specific body parts and, to some extent, reflected the connected user's presence through the device's movement. Through its peripheral anthropomorphization, Wrigglo can deliver new forms of telepresence by embodied posturing and gesturing in mobile communication.
Paddle: highly deformable mobile devices with physical controls BIBAFull-Text 191-192
  Raf Ramakers; Johannes Schöning; Kris Luyten
Paddle is a highly deformable mobile device that leverages engineering principles from the design of the Rubik's Magic, a folding plate puzzle. The various transformations supported by Paddle bridges the gap between differently sized mobile devices available nowadays, such as phones, armbands, tablets and game controllers. Besides this, Paddle can be transformed to different physical controls in only a few steps, such as peeking options, a ring to scroll through lists and a book-like form factor to leaf through pages. These special-purpose physical controls have the advantage of providing clear physical affordances and exploiting people's innate abilities for manipulating objects in the real world. We investigated the benefits of these interaction techniques in detail in [1]. In contrast to traditional touch screens, physical controls are usually less flexible and therefore less suitable for mobile settings. Paddle, shows how mobile devices can be designed to bring physical controls to mobile devices and thus combine the flexibility of touch screens with the physical qualities that real world controls provide. Our current prototype is tracked with an optical tracking system and uses a projector to provide visual output. In the future, we envision devices similar to Paddle that are entirely self-contained, using tiny integrated displays.
A wearable text-reading device for the visually-impaired BIBAFull-Text 193-194
  Roy Shilkrot; Jochen Huber; Connie Liu; Pattie Maes; Suranga Chandima Nanayakkara
Visually impaired people report numerous difficulties with accessing printed text using existing technology, including problems with alignment, focus, accuracy, mobility and efficiency. We present a finger worn device, which contains a camera, vibration motors and a microcontroller, that assists the visually impaired with effectively and efficiently reading paper-printed text in a manageable operation with little setup. We introduce a novel, local-sequential manner for scanning text which enables reading single lines, blocks of text or skimming the text for important sections while providing real-time auditory and tactile feedback.
GestKeyboard: enabling gesture-based interaction on ordinary physical keyboard BIBAFull-Text 195-196
  Haimo Zhang; Yang Li
Stroke gestures are intuitive and efficient but often require gesture-capable input hardware such as a touchscreen. In this paper, we present GestKeyboard, a novel technique for gesturing over an ordinary, unmodified physical keyboard -- that remains the major input modality for existing desktop and laptop computers. We discuss an exploratory study for understanding the design space of gesturing on a physical keyboard and our algorithms for detecting gestures in a modeless way, without interfering with the keyboard's major functionality such as text entry and shortcuts activation. We explored various features for detecting gestures from a keyboard event stream. Our experiment based on the data collected from 10 participants indicated it is feasible to reliably detect gestures from normal keyboard use, 95% detection accuracy within a maximum latency of 200ms.

Student design competition

Oris: enhance social self-awareness for visually impaired people BIBAFull-Text 197-202
  Xuan Luo; Yu Xu; Clark Mullen
People with visual impairments rely on various technologies to alleviate daily physiological and psychological challenges. In order to introduce our design focus, we first describe our contextual inquiry with target users who are visually impaired. We then study existing technologies that help people with visual impairment to overcome physical limitations. Finally, we propose a potential solution (Fig. 1) to help people who are visually impaired gain self-awareness in social contexts by using body data (facial and gesture) recognition technologies. We also describe future strategies in developing a collaborative platform to help this community further.
MAES:TRO: a practice system to track, record, and observe for novice orchestral conductors BIBAFull-Text 203-208
  Ekaterina Ivanova; Lulu Wang; Yihe Fu; Jeffrey Gadzala
Conductors use their entire bodies to communicate with an orchestra to guide musicians through a piece of music. Currently, novice conductors learn basic conducting techniques through solo practice, which lacks factors that exist in a live orchestra rehearsal. We propose MAES:TRO: a conducting practice room that provides an immersive rehearsal experience and utilizes hand gestures, body orientation, and eye-gaze directions to directly alter a musical score. With the use of auditory/visual feedback and a report of incorrect beat, tempo, and instrumental emphasis, conductors are able to self-reflect and improve basic techniques. Our user testing of a low-fidelity prototype showed the system's potential to improve the effectiveness of novice conductor's solo practice.
Knee: an everyday wearable goniometer for monitoring physical therapy adherence BIBAFull-Text 209-214
  David Muñoz; Andy Pruett; Graceline Williams
Care practice in physical therapy consists of in-person sessions combined with an exercise plan for patients to follow. Physical therapists rely on self-reporting and in-clinic observations to assess recovery, but lack reliable measures for between visits. We present a fully realized wearable device that passively captures knee movement data. We discuss how consultation with physical therapists guided the design of this prototype to support the existing patient-provider relationship.
Sisyphorest: maintenance goal support by responding to trends BIBAFull-Text 215-220
  William Saunders; Filip Krynicki; Valerie Sugarman
The stage-based model of personal informatics [4] defines a long-term maintenance phase during which a person tries to maintain a behavior change. Literature review and a survey of long-term goal trackers inspired us to create Sisyphorest, a goal-tracking system for the maintenance phase that supports the user by transforming its visualization in response to trends in data. We describe the system and discuss a preliminary evaluation.
Beam: a mobile application to improve happiness and mental health BIBAFull-Text 221-226
  Joyce Sakata; Mengdi Zhang; Shi Pu; Jianqi Xing; Kritika Versha
In this paper, we present beam, a mobile application that uses random acts of kindness to analyze and improve the mental health of its users. The concept was developed using an iterative, user-centered design process that included contextual inquiry, surveys, low and high-fidelity prototypes, and usability testing. Based on our initial research findings, we found that users tend to be pessimistic and focus on stress and negativity. We designed a mobile application that focuses on positive action and self-reflection to improve individual mental health. We used a combination of theory, design, and user research to influence users to become more optimistic -- linking the use of the application with mental health and mood improvements.
NeckGraffe: a postural awareness system BIBAFull-Text 227-232
  Rushil Khurana; Elena Marinelli; Tulika Saraf; Li Shan
Common, complex, and burdensome to individuals and society alike, neck pain is estimated to affect more than 70% of the population at some point in life and between 12-34% of the population at a given time, with one study finding that 45.5% of office workers experienced neck pain in a 12-month period [1]. We plan to build a system that would give real time alert to the user, each time they maintain an unhealthy neck posture. The system would give a visual data analysis of the amount of time the user maintains an unhealthy neck posture and provide feedback to assume a healthy posture; and the threats involved with maintaining unhealthy posture over a long time.
Innomotion: a web-based rehabilitation system helping patients recover and gain self-awareness of their body away from the clinic BIBAFull-Text 233-238
  Luxi Chen; Ni Yan; Miranda Kiang; Anna S. Muth; Kruthi Sabnis Krishna
In the physical therapy or occupational therapy rehabilitation process, patients often perform routine exercises away from the clinic. Being away from the eyes of a professional can undermine a patient's confidence and impede recovery if the patient is not performing the exercises correctly. We propose InnoMotion, a system designed to aid in recovery away from the clinic. We conducted research to determine what aspects of the rehabilitation process are crucial to successful recovery. We designed a web-based system that works in tandem with motion-sensing technology (e.g., Leap Motion) to allow patients to perform rehabilitation exercises in their home, while collecting performance data. This data is used to guide the patient through a successful recovery.
Fitnamo: using bodydata to encourage exercise through google glass™ BIBAFull-Text 239-244
  Edward Nguyen; Tanmay Modak; Elton Dias; Yang Yu; Liang Huang
Current mobile health apps allow users to track and monitor their fitness statistics and enjoy exercise. As the next generation of mobile devices arrives, new apps must be developed to improve upon current exercise experiences. We introduce Fitnamo, a mobile health app designed for Google Glass. Fitnamo offers entertaining exercise routines through the use of augmented reality games and uses a novel motivational nudging system to encourage users to be active.
Bloom: fostering healthy and peaceful pregnancies with personal analytics BIBAFull-Text 245-250
  Max S. Wenger; Jarad Bell; Peter McEvoy; Cherie Yamaguchi; Auriana Shokrpour
Bloom aims to foster healthy and peaceful pregnancies by motivating expectant mothers to sustain beneficial habits and behaviors. It minimizes risk factors by providing daily goals that adapt to the changing needs of the expectant mother over the course of pregnancy and maximizes peace of mind by offering tools that augment self-awareness and facilitate enriched communication between the medical and expectant mother communities. The present study details an iterative research and design process that explored how persuasive design characteristics could be employed to encourage self-monitoring and motivationally sustain healthy behavior in expectant mothers.
DAYA: a system for monitoring and enhancing children's oral hygiene BIBAFull-Text 251-256
  Kejia Shao; Jiye Huang; Huaying Song; Runze Li; Jinxi Wu
Oral diseases are major public health problems that impact people from early childhood. However, children's oral hygiene in China remains a severe problem due to inadequate education on oral hygiene behavior and parents' lack of knowledge about their children's dental condition. To address these problems, we propose DAYA, a system consisting of a tooth-brushing game for children and a monitoring application for parents. The game is designed to enhance the efficacy and experience of tooth-brushing in children, and the application leverages data collected in tooth-brushing to help parents monitor children's dental health and behavior.
Nuwa: enhancing the pregnancy experience for expectant parents BIBAFull-Text 257-262
  Yuan Gao; Xinying Li; Yu-Hsuan Lin; Xin Liu; Lin Pang
Pregnancy is a complicated and special process with many bodily changes, discomforts, and possibilities of complications. Partners of expectant mothers share a close relationship and often play an important role during pregnancy. To support a better pregnancy experience, we present Nuwa, a system that enhances self-awareness of health condition and also facilitates the communication between expectant mothers and their partners. The system is based on expectant mothers' health conditions. It provides a way for expectant parents to track and understand the maternal health, and encourages the partners to provide better support. Our study results support our design ideas and argue for the feasibility and expandability of Nuwa in helping expectant parents to have better experiences during pregnancy.
Baby lucent: pitfalls of applying quantified self to baby products BIBAFull-Text 263-268
  Kevin Gaunt; Júlia Nacsa; Marcel Penz
Quantified Baby products are a new area for the application of Quantified Self. Such products primarily focus on measuring infant's body data and vital signals. Our Baby Lucent system is a prediction of how Quantified Baby products may evolve in the near future and illustrates what dilemmas designers ought to overcome when devices are being designed to measure the body data of those that cannot decide for themselves. We intend to raise these questions and propose three design qualities that all Quantified Baby products should avoid: raising parental anxiety; inhibiting parental intuition; increasing distance between parent and child.

Student games competition

Disguise: a game that evaluates visualization algorithms BIBAFull-Text 269-272
  Nafees U. Ahmed
"Disguise" is an arcade action survival game that was designed with an intent to explore the possibilities of using purpose driven games as an alternative method to existing techniques of visualization evaluation. We designed Disguise as a proof of concept that such technique can indeed provide significant help for both scientific and information visualization research.
Find the jackalop: a game enhancing young children's spatial thinking BIBAFull-Text 273-276
  George Kalmpourtzis
Spatial thinking is an important human ability which contributes to mathematical thinking. The importance of developing skills related to spatial thinking, such as mental representations, orientation and navigation, starting from the early childhood is great also for other mathematical competencies, such as geometry. In addition to this, the continuous research interest on the impact of video games on student motivation [3], [4], [5] raises interesting questions on the capabilities of a game based learning environment for spatial thinking in the early childhood. "Find the Jackalop" is a video game designed specifically for this purpose, using a variety of different technologies, enabling their collaboration towards the optimum gaming experience and learning impact.
Chorlody: a music learning game BIBAFull-Text 277-280
  Yang Liu; Ni Yan; Dili Hu
In this document, the authors present the design and educational potentials of Chorlody, a rhythm action game intended to help music learners develop abilities in recognizing chord progression.
Mute robot: cooperative gameplay through body language communication BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Chun-Yen Hsu; Ying-Chao Tung; Wei-Han Wang; Han-Yu Wang
Body language is an expressive form of communication that transcends language barriers, and can range from subtle to outrageous. We have designed Mute Robot, a game in which 2 players must cooperate to solve a series of puzzle challenges by communicating through body language only. Kinect devices are used to capture players' posture and movement, which are then shared between two partners who are playing at two different physical locations. Mute Robot is designed to connect people across the globe who otherwise would not be able to communicate via a common language. Our 16-person user study showed that body language is practical and entertaining, with 2/3 of the players reported that they could understand the other player's body language well.
I-dentity: concealing movement representation associations in games BIBAFull-Text 285-288
  Jayden Garner; Gavin Wood
This paper details the design of i-dentity, a collaborative movement-based game where the game design deliberately conceals the players' associations to a digital representation. While movement-based digital games typically make it clear whose movement representation belongs to which player, we explore how making it ambiguous whose movement controls which representation can facilitate engaging play experiences. We call this "innominate movement representation" and explore this opportunity through our game "i-dentity". The game's setup has each player in a group hold Sony Move controllers, with one of the players' movements controlling all of the Move controller lights. Gameplay involves the group of players with Move controllers trying to perform movements together at the same time in order to conceal from other players whose movements are represented. With i-dentity, we aim to extend the range of multiplayer games with a novel and engaging approach to digital representation of player movement.
Drunken ed: a balance game for public large screen displays BIBAFull-Text 289-292
  Alexander Biskupski; Andreas R. Fender; Tiare M. Feuchtner; Marcel Karsten; Jonas D. Willaredt
Drunken Ed is a 2D balance game specifically designed for public displays in which the player has to balance a swaying drunkard with her body pose. We show that this casual game is well suited for public context and that camera based body tracking offers convenient interaction techniques for large screen displays. The game setting with its drunken protagonist Ed was well received by the players. This single player game uses the angle of the player's torso in relation to the ground to help Ed keep balance in a wobbling world. Ed's body pose reflects the player's pose, creating a very direct form of control. Results of our evaluation show that this form of control mapping is very easy to learn and the short play sessions meet the requirements of a casual game in public environment. Furthermore, we have designed our level selection menu to fulfill the double purpose of a gameplay tutorial, which was found to be well suited for games on public displays.
Foot motion sensing: augmented game interface based on foot interaction for smartphone BIBAFull-Text 293-296
  Zhihan Lv; Shengzhong Feng; Muhammad Sikandar Lal Khan; Shafiq Ur Réhman; Haibo Li
We designed and developmented two games: real-time augmented football game and augmented foot piano game to demonstrate a innovative interface based on foot motion sensing approach for smart phone. In the proposed novel interface, the computer vision based hybrid detection and tracking method provides a core support for foot interaction interface by accurately tracking the shoes. Based on the proposed interaction interface, wo demonstrations are developed, the applications employ augmented reality technology to render the game graphics and game status information on smart phones screen. The players interact with the game using foot interaction toward the rear camera, which triggers the interaction event. This interface supports basic foot motion sensing (i.e. direction of movement, velocity, rhythm).
Volcano salvation: interaction through gesture and head tracking BIBAFull-Text 297-300
  Sheila Christian; Júlio Alves; André Ferreira; Dinarte Jesus; Rúben Freitas; Nelson Vieira
Volcano Salvation is an innovative computer game that combines two input modalities: hand gestures to lift, move, and manipulate objects, and head tracking to change perspective within the game world. The two input devices are a webcam and a Leap Motion controller. Volcano Salvation is an immersive strategy game that contributes to the field of game design by offering players novel challenges that require coordinating complex head and hand orientations, which it achieves through the game's unique use of these two touchless input devices.

Doctoral consortium abstracts

A beep, a flash, a rumble?: evaluating multimodal displays for drivers BIBAFull-Text 303-306
  Ioannis Politis
Multimodal displays should alert drivers in effective ways without distracting. They have a great potential for improving the driving task and even preventing in-juries that can result from critical events. This work investigates the design and use of such displays to alert drivers about events of varying importance. The goal is to assess responses based on urgency, situation on the road, driver workload, as well as driver characteristics. This will form the basis for designing an algorithm that will utilize multimodal displays to inform drivers.
Making bare hand input more accurate BIBAFull-Text 307-310
  Chat Wacharamanotham
To enable seamless interaction with both virtual and physical worlds, computers need to reliably distinguish intended input from other hand movements. Accurately classifying this input can reduce mode switches needed between interacting with computers and with physical objects in the environment. I aim to investigate the influence of proprioception and interaction context on hand postures and movements. Preliminary studies suggest consistent relationships that potentially allow for a more accurate prediction of users' intentions.
Digital naturalism: designing holistic ethological interaction BIBAFull-Text 311-314
  Andrew Quitmeyer
Digital Media can empower the traditionally technologically neglected exploration and outreach components of an ethologist's process. A digitally holistic scientific process holds implications for empowering both fields of ethology and digital media.
Supporting teaching and learning of situational empathy by technology BIBAFull-Text 315-318
  Petr Slovák
Detecting and supporting interpersonal and emotional aspects of behaviour is a growing area of research within HCI. However, most of this work is still based primarily on single persons' data, and there is little research on supporting complex interpersonal aspects such as empathy. To address this gap, the goal of my PhD work is to explore ways in which technology can facilitate learning and teaching of situational empathy, with particular focus on counselling students.
Investigating the adoption of local online communities BIBAFull-Text 319-322
  Claudia López
While Internet researchers have largely investigated worldwide information sharing, less attention has been paid to the effect of the Internet on how place-based communities share locally relevant information. My PhD work aims to provide a deeper understanding of the interplay of communities' characteristics and systems' design decisions that affects the adoption, sustainability and impact of local online information systems. My research combines analysis of neighborhoods' publicly available data, user surveys and interviews, content analysis of archival online data, and field experiments. In my dissertation, I will investigate e-Democracy.org, which is one of the oldest and most sustainable attempts to provide virtual spaces for neighborhoods.
Happy is pink: designing for intuitive use with color-to-abstract mappings BIBAFull-Text 323-326
  Diana Löffler
My research aims to provide a theory of how abstract, intangible information is linked to specific color attributes in order to deliver guidelines that facilitate the design of intuitive human-computer interaction in abstract domains. The theory predicts which color attributes induce information processing and behavior that is consistent with these color-to-abstract mappings. As a result, designers do not need to rely on exploratory research but can systematically use color as a means to design for intuitive interaction.
The development of novel eyes-free exercise technologies using participatory design BIBAFull-Text 327-330
  Kyle Rector
People who are blind or low-vision may have a harder time participating in exercise classes due to inaccessibility, travel difficulties, or lack of experience. My dissertation research will attempt to lower the barrier between people who are blind or low-vision and exercising independently. Two new fitness technologies will be developed: Eyes-Free Yoga and Eyes-Free 7 Minute Workout. Eyes-Free Yoga will be examined in further detail with a longitudinal study. In addition, I will collaborate with the visually impaired and those who are involved in their fitness. This will materialize into a focus group and a list of priorities for Eyes-Free Exercise Technology. So far, I completed the development and pilot evaluation of Eyes-Free Yoga and have begun formative work toward the longitudinal study of Eyes-Free Yoga and development on Eyes-Free 7 Minute Workout. With participatory design, my contributions are the design, development, and evaluation of technologies that will be beneficial for blind and low-vision wellness.
Persistent workplace plug-load energy savings and awareness through energy dashboards: eco-feedback, control, and automation BIBAFull-Text 331-334
  Ray Yun
The goal of this study is to investigate design strategies: feedback, control and automation to increase energy conservation and awareness in the workplace. This paper presents a summary of the research background, the system prototype, the pilot study findings, and the plans for the rest of the research.
User experience and the human spirit BIBAFull-Text 335-338
  Elizabeth A. Buie
People use interactive technology in many ways to support spirituality. HCI, however, has little design knowledge to support "techno-spiritual" experiences and practices. This project considers the "human spirit" as the part of us that feels a deep connection with something larger than ourselves and that seeks meaning and purpose in life. This qualitative research explores the design of interactive technology to facilitate spiritual experiences, investigating ways in which technology can facilitate feelings of awe, wonder, transcendence and mindfulness. It aims to lay foundations for techno-spiritual design knowledge.
Intelligent sketching interfaces for richer mid-air drawing interactions BIBAFull-Text 339-342
  Paul Taele
Intelligent user interfaces that can understand the content of what we draw in mid-air can enable for exciting novel sketching applications, and for creating more creative designs and engaging content. Currently, existing interaction techniques have primarily focused on raw sketching interactions, while related sketch and gesture recognition techniques remain largely unexplored beyond surface spaces and constrained by limited symbolic gesture input vocabularies, respectively. The current dissertation work focuses on developing intelligent sketching user interfaces for enabling richer mid-air drawing interaction spaces. The goals of this work thus involve investigating recognition techniques for better understanding sketches made in the air, and interaction techniques for more optimal interaction cues to sketch more intuitively in the air. Preliminary work shows the potential of adapting existing surface recognition techniques for mid-air interaction spaces with low-level primitive shapes.
The afterlife of digital identity BIBAFull-Text 343-346
  Jed R. Brubaker
The death of a user challenges many of the assumptions we hold for social network sites, social media, and digital identity architecture. Death provides a natural breaching experiment that violates core design assumptions about the relationship between users, their accounts, and related data. By studying death in the context of social media, my work aims to understand how people interact with and experience digital identity systems. It demonstrates limitations and provides insight into how social computing systems can better support the entirety of our lives -- including when those lives come to an end.
Human interaction with assistive free-flyers BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  Daniel J. Szafir
Small aerial robots represent a novel platform that appears uniquely suited to assist humans in exploratory, surveillance, inspection, and telepresence tasks across a variety of domains. Such tasks will require "assistive free-flyers" (AFFs) to effectively interact and collaborate with humans in close proximity. For AFFs to successfully work and collaborate with colocated humans, designers must account for human perceptions of AFFs acting within human environments. Humans, who do not generally interact with free-flying physical embodiments, may not feel safe or may have trouble working near AFFs given their functional morphology and unconstrained, three-dimensional flight capabilities. The goal of my dissertation is to investigate the design space of proximal AFF interactions, specifically by examining how AFFs might effectively communicate with colocated humans as well as gain an understanding regarding the ecological fit of AFFs within human workspaces. This research takes a two-phase approach towards examining proximal AFF interactions: (1) examining AFF communication mechanisms including motion, body language, and electronic signals, and (2) developing an understanding of user mental models and social expectations for flying robots, including an examination of spontaneous AFF interactions. My work will inform the design of future AFF systems and aid in understandings regarding how AFFs can reach their potential as collaborators within human environments.
Theory-driven design for healthy eating BIBAFull-Text 351-354
  Jinghui Hou
This project follows the nudging perspective with a persuasive technology approach. I propose that integrating extremely simple attributes into the interfaces of technology platforms, as inspired by theories of behavioral economics, social psychology, as well as literature on healthy eating, can have a substantial impact on users' behavior and potentially help them achieve their ends.
Fashion thinking and sustainable HCI BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Yue Pan
Fashion exists in many aspects of our lives, not only in the way we dress, but also in many other areas such as food, furniture, automobiles, and even our ways of thinking. At the same time, the emerging concern around environmental issues is prompting more reflections on human attitudes and behaviors within our environment. Thus, the motivation of my PhD research comes from the demanding need for more dedicated efforts in informing sustainable design practices in the context of HCI research, as well as the idea of utilizing the concept of fashion to influence HCI design and research towards sustainability goals.
EngageME: a tool to simplify the conveyance of complicated data BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Shelby Solomon S. Darnell
EngageMe is a visualization tool geared towards supporting teachers in understanding how they are connecting with their students and how their pedagogical strategies can be modified to meet the individual needs of a diverse student population. The goal of this application is two-fold: 1) To support instructors in their efforts to create the best possible learning environment for each student, and 2) To provide a tool with which to experiment with different pedagogical strategies. In this abstract, I describe the collaborative and iterative process of developing the graphical interface for this tool with middle school educators before detailing my plans for moving this research forward.


The CBC newsworld holodeck BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Martha Ladly; Gerald Penn; Cathy Pin Chun Chen; Pavika Chintraruck; Maziar Ghaderi; Bryn A. Ludlow; Jessica Peter; Ruzette Tanyag; Peggy Zhou; Siavash Kazemian
For the past 73 years, the CBC has disseminated a unique Canadian perspective across the world, producing a phenomenally rich multimedia record of the country and our social, political and cultural heritage and news. This project utilizes visualization and sonification of portions of an enormous historical CBC Newsworld data corpus to enable an "on this day" experience for viewers. The digitized collection of 24-hour news videos spans a 24-year period (1989-2013) within an immersive multiscreen environment, to enable gesture-driven context-aware browsing, information seeking, and segment review. Employing natural language processing technologies, the interface displays keywords and key phrases identified in the transcripts, enabling serendipitous video search and display and offering a unique browsing opportunity within this rich "big data" corpus.
Interaction opportunities around helmet design BIBAFull-Text 367-370
  Wouter Walmink; Alan Chatham; Florian Mueller
People wear helmets to protect themselves in case of accidents. We are asking: what other purposes could a helmet serve? Our answer LumaHelm turns the helmet into a display for communication, expression and play. LumaHelm allows us to explore how to support cyclists' safety, skateboarders' self-expression and riders' communication of heart rate. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of helmets as platform for mounting interactive technology. It also highlights a new interaction technique, possible when the data on wearable displays is available to others nearby, but not to the wearer. With our work, we aim to inspire fellow design researchers to consider how safety gear like helmets can use interactivity technology to support the activities in which they are used.
zPots: a virtual pottery experience with spatial interactions using the leap motion device BIBAFull-Text 371-374
  A Vinayak; Karthik Ramani; Kevin, Jr. Lee; Raja Jasti
We present zPots, an application for gesture-free hand-based design of virtual pottery enabled by the Leap Motion device. With zPots, a user can shape and color 3D pots by moving bare hands in the air with minimal or no training. Unlike large-space hand-and-body movements required by depth cameras such as the Kinect, the use of the Leap motion device facilitates close range 3D interactions collocated with the personal computer. We demonstrate our application as a synergistic combination of novel spatial interactions and tool metaphors that cater to engaging and realistic experiences while supporting creativity in 3D shape conceptualization and modeling.
i-dentity: innominate representation as engaging movement game element BIBAFull-Text 375-378
  Jayden Garner; Gavin Wood; Sebastiaan Pijnappel; Martin Murer; Florian Mueller
Movement-based games typically make it clear whose movement representation belongs to which player. In contrast, we argue that concealing whose movement controls which representation can be a resource to facilitate engaging play experiences. We call this "innominate movement representation" and explore this opportunity through our game "i-dentity", where participants have to guess which player makes everyone's controller light up based on this player's movements. We report on participants' play experiences of i-dentity. With our work we hope to expand the range of digital movement games.
Text blaster: a multi-player touchscreen typing game BIBAFull-Text 379-382
  Keith Vertanen; Justin Emge; Haythem Memmi; Per Ola Kristensson
Text Blaster is a multi-player shoot 'em up game based on players typing sentences on a mobile device's touchscreen keyboard. Players attempt to be the last player standing by using the speed, precision, and timing of their typing to annihilate competing players. Our game utilizes a sentence-based decoding approach in which users type an entire sentence before our auto-correction algorithm infers the most likely text. Text Blaster provides an engaging and competitive game for use in investigating performance and design aspects of touchscreen text entry interfaces.
The muses of poetry BIBAFull-Text 383-386
  Diana Arellano; Volker Helzle
The Muses of Poetry is an interactive installation that combines dynamically generated character animation, semantic analysis, natural voice interaction and affect in poetry. Motivated by the subjectivity and imaginative character of this form of art, we intend to enhance and accentuate a poetry recital by providing a set of virtual characters the possibility to "understand" and manifest the emotional content of the poems through facial expressions and affective speech. It is our aim with this installation to bring people closer to poetry, while creating a playful, interactive and surprising experience for the user.
Exploring the design space of ambient light displays BIBAFull-Text 387-390
  Andreas Löcken; Heiko Müller; Wilko Heuten; Susanne CJ Boll
In this paper, we present an approach to explore the design space for ambient light displays with the help of software simulation. This allows researchers and practitioners to collect valuable information on the design space before making implementation decisions. In our interactivity users will be able to compare both software simulation and hardware prototype of an ambient light display for off-screen points of interest (POI).
Scopophobic kitties in wonderland: stories behind the scene of a gaze contingent environment BIBAFull-Text 391-394
  Mon-chu Chen; Kuan-Ying Wu; Yi-Ching Huang
This installation showcases an office desk, an imaginary wonderland, where a group of diligent kitties live happily and work industriously to make artifacts react to users' eye gaze. Kitties are shy about being seen, but determined to keep everything in the wonderland moving after they hide behind.
   The desk environment consists of two paper objects augmented by video projections and two devices with digital displays as well as other office stationaries. One desktop eye tracker was carefully setup in order to track gaze in the 3D physical space. Users sit in front of the desk and work as a normal office worker while objects and devices behave in different ways upon the presence and absence of eye gaze of users.
SonicExploratorium: an interactive exhibit of sonic discovery BIBAFull-Text 395-398
  Berto Gonzalez; Alexander Travis Adams; Celine Latulipe
In this paper, we describe SonicExploratorium, an interactive exhibit where participants use bimanual interaction to explore various sonic qualities. Participants use two Sphero Robotic Balls to interact with combinations of 4 different audio controls, such as attack, delay, sustain, reverb, etc. Tonal qualities are mapped to colors that are displayed on Geospectral Meters (part of the UI) as well as the Spheros. SonicExploratorium bridges together elements of movement, color, emotion, and sound in a soma-chroma-affective polyphony.
Scale: human interactions with broken and discarded technologies BIBAFull-Text 399-402
  Laewoo Kang; Taezoo Park; Steven Jackson
Scale is an interactive art project created from the detritus of broken and discarded technologies. When the audience steps on a repurposed scale in front of the installation, this not-so-broken world is set in motion, triggering odd functionalities, surprising connections, and sometimes eerie or troubling forms of beauty. Our project explores values and consequence of broken and obsolete technologies -- and the human relationships we form them -- that are often lost under functional and design-centered traditions of HCI research. This paper introduces the background, experience, and technical details of the project.
Using mobile tools in immersive environments to support science inquiry BIBAFull-Text 403-406
  Michelle Lui; Alex Kuhn; Alisa Acosta; Maria I. Niño-Soto; Chris Quintana; James D. Slotta
Digitally augmented physical spaces (e.g. smart classrooms) offer opportunities to engage students in novel and potentially transformative learning experiences. This paper presents an immersive rainforest simulation and a mobile inquiry platform where co-located students collect observational data from the environment and explore their peers' data using large visualizations displayed at the front of the room. This is relevant to the design of educational experiences, immersive and physical-digital spaces.
Rafigh: a living media interface for learning games BIBAFull-Text 407-410
  Foad Hamidi; Melanie Baljko
Digital games can engage children in therapeutic and learning activities. Incorporating living media in these games can create feelings of empathy and caring in users and add more motivation and involvement to the gameplay. We present, Rafigh, a living media interface designed to motivate children to play learning games that involve repetitive and sometimes boring tasks. In the current implementation the interface is used for speech intervention games. During gameplay, children practice their speech and care for a living mushroom colony in the process. The mushroom's growth is used to communicate how much speech is used, as an indicator of degree of speech practice, during interaction.
Game of tones: learning to play songs on a piano using projected instructions and games BIBAFull-Text 411-414
  Linsey Raymaekers; Jo Vermeulen; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
Learning to play a musical instrument such as the piano requires a substantial amount of practice and perseverance in learning to read and play from sheet music. Our interactivity demo allows people to learn to play songs without requiring sheet music reading skills. We project a graphical notation on top of a piano that indicates what key(s) need to be pressed and create a feedback loop that monitors the player's performance. We implemented The Augmented Piano (TAP), which is a straightforward combination of a physical piano with our alternative notation projected on top. Piano Attack (PAT) extends TAP with a shooting game that continuously provides game-based incentives for learning to play the piano.
Haptic turk: a motion platform based on people BIBAFull-Text 415-418
  Lung-Pan Cheng; Patrick Lühne; Pedro Lopes; Christoph Sterz; Patrick Baudisch
Motion platforms are used to increase the realism of virtual interaction. Unfortunately, their size and weight is proportional to what they actuate. We present haptic turk, a different approach to motion platforms that is light and mobile. The key idea is to replace motors and mechanical components with humans. All haptic turk setups consist of a player who is supported by one or more "human-actuators". The player enjoys an interactive experience, such as a flight simulation. The motion in the player's experience is generated by the actuators who manually lift, tilt, and push the player's limbs or torso. To get the timing and force right, timed motion instructions in a format familiar from rhythm games are displayed on actuators' mobile devices, which they attach to the player's body. We also present an immersive set-up based on a head-mounted display.
The new pCubee: multi-touch perspective-corrected cubic display BIBAFull-Text 419-422
  Yichen Tang; Ian Stavness; Sidney S. Fels
We present the latest revision of our personal perspective-corrected hand-held cubic display, pCubee, featuring a complete hardware redesign and novel interaction mechanisms. The OLED panels introduce improved visual experience for users, and allow a lightweight and compact design that makes the system easy to manipulate. Users can interact with virtual objects in the display through various methods including real-time physics simulation, directly-mapped stylus and cross-screen multi-touch input. Applications of the technology include visualization for static or dynamic contents, 3D object manipulation and tangible entertainment.
Adapting games from literature: game verbs for player behavior BIBAFull-Text 423-426
  Lindsay Grace
This case study outlines a methodology for adapting digital games from literature. The process maps key narrative events to human computer interactions via game verbs. Game verbs are distinct player actions that help the player accomplish their in-game goal. Through the use of tightly coupled narrative events and game verbs, the game engenders the spirit of Edgar Allen Poe's short story The Tell Tale Heart. Like the story's protagonist, players move from controlled actions to erratic behavior as they manipulate their device. Players are required to propel the narrative through accelerometer and touch-based actions. The resulting game's physicality is designed to match the narrative's drive toward madness.
Rainbowfish: visual feedback on gesture-recognizing surfaces BIBAFull-Text 427-430
  Tobias Grosse-Puppendahl; Sebastian Beck; Daniel Wilbers
In recent years, gesture-based interaction methods are supported by a wide variety of devices, such as capacitive trackpads and capacitive 3D gesture recognition systems. Capacitive interaction systems are often integrated into laptops, but can also be installed ubiquitously under any kind of non-conductive surface -- for example under a table. When interacting with such proximity-sensing surfaces, users often face the challenge that the affordances are often not directly apparent. Moreover, most devices have no ability to provide feedback, which is often only displayed on a complementary screen, not in the area in which the interaction takes place. In order to solve these problems, we present an approach which combines a semi-transparent capacitive proximity-sensing surface with an LED array. The LEDs are used to visually indicate possible gestural movements and provide feedback on the current interaction status.
HeartiSense: a novel approach to enable effective basic life support training without an instructor BIBAFull-Text 431-434
  Yeram Kwon; Sungwon Lee; Jihoon Jeong; Wonjoon Kim
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for a CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) education system that enables more precise and effective learning even without a trainer. The proposed system provides trainees with simulated virtual scenarios and an interactive mannequin that has been modified to provide a more realistic experience. Visual and auditory feedback is continuously provided to promote interaction during the course of training, and assessments from various simulated situations based on practice results are provided. Based on experiments, the educational effectiveness of the proposed system is verified. We expect that our system can also be implemented in other fields of medical education to derive better performance.
Transwall: a transparent double-sided touch display facilitating co-located face-to-face interactions BIBAFull-Text 435-438
  Heejeong Heo; Hyung Kun Park; Seungki Kim; Jeeyong Chung; Geehyuk Lee; Woohun Lee
Today, transparent display technologies are becoming quite ubiquitous. However, until now, transparent displays have been used from only one side of the display in limited application areas. In this paper, we propose TransWall, a transparent display that can be used from both sides in order for people to experience co-located, face-to-face interactions. We describe the properties and new interaction design factors, and explore the possible scenarios that may emerge from them.
Computational creativity for culinary recipes BIBAFull-Text 439-442
  Florian Pinel; Lav R. Varshney
Computational creativity is an emerging branch of artificial intelligence that places computers in the center of the creative process. This demonstration shows a computational system that creates flavorful, novel, and perhaps healthy culinary recipes by drawing on big data techniques. It brings analytics algorithms together with disparate data sources from culinary science, chemistry, and hedonic psychophysics.
   In its most powerful manifestation, the system operates through a mixed-initiative approach to human-computer interaction via turns between human and computer. In particular, the sequential creation process is modeled after stages in human cognitive processes of creativity.
   The end result is an ingredient list, ingredient proportions, as well as a directed acyclic graph representing a partial ordering of culinary recipe steps.
Swing sound: experiencing the golf swing through sound BIBAFull-Text 443-446
  Stina Nylander; Alex Kent; Jakob Tholander
SwingSound is a system that creates an audio mirror of your golf swing in real time, in order to explore various dimensions of interaction design in sports, such as feedback, representation, and multimodality. At CHI interactivity we will allow the audience to practically try out this system by hitting golf balls into a net, thereby re-experiencing their golf swing in a new modality.
Comp*Pass: a compass-based drawing interface BIBAFull-Text 447-450
  Ken Nakagaki; Yasuaki Kakehi
Down the ages, people have been utilizing various stationeries to draw precise figures by own hands. On the other hand, as technology developed, CAD software has enabled us to draw such figures easily on the display. In this paper, we present a compass-based drawing interface, "COMP*PASS", which integrates advantages of digital control to manual works. By focusing on the tool compass, we developed a novel drawing interface that can draw not only circles but also other kinds of figures under physical environment. In concrete, the radius of the interface is regulated according to the rotation of the device therefore the user only needs to twist the interface to draw a specific figure. The interface is composed of a rotary encoder which detects the rotation angle, and a servomotor which regulates the radius of the drawing. In this paper, we discuss the system of the interface and an evaluation.
Muzlog: instant music transcribing system for acoustic guitarists BIBAFull-Text 451-454
  Han-Jong Kim; Tek-Jin Nam
Although recent interactive technologies have been introduced to support musical experiences, they cannot capture the rich musical experience and subtle interactions of analog, acoustic instruments. We attempted to apply behavior logging and instant representation to acoustic guitar performance. We present a real-time music transcribing system called Muzlog. This system enhances users' experiences with instant logging of music-playing activities. It writes musical scores with tablature that contains fingerings and strokes as behavioral information. Muzlog shows new potential in logging meaningful musical activity through capturing behaviors of users during the performance.
Intentradar: search user interface that anticipates user's search intents BIBAFull-Text 455-458
  Tuukka Ruotsalo; Jaakko Peltonen; Manuel J. A. Eugster; Dorota Glowacka; Aki Reijonen; Giulio Jacucci; Petri Myllymäki; Samuel Kaski
We introduce IntentRadar, an interactive search user interface that anticipates user's search intents by estimating them from user interaction. The estimated intents are represented as keywords and visualized on a radial layout that organizes the keywords as directions in the information space. IntentRadar assists users to direct their search by allowing to target relevance feedback on keywords by manipulating the position of the keywords on the radar. The system then learns and visualizes improved estimates of intents and retrieves documents corresponding to the present search intent estimate. IntentRadar has been shown to significantly improve users' task performance and the quality of retrieved information without compromising task execution time.
The talking plants: an interactive system for grassroots urban food-growing communities BIBAFull-Text 459-462
  Sara Heitlinger; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Janis Jefferies
We describe The Talking Plants, an accessible, intuitive and enjoyable interactive system for learning about plants: how to care for and prepare them, their medicinal and health qualities, and their histories. It was developed at Spitalfields City Farm, a community farm in inner east London. Visitors can approach the plants and use a watering-can augmented with RFID technology to hear them talk. The plant voices come from staff and volunteers, reflecting the diversity of the farm. The Talking Plants was developed as part of a wider research project that looks at sustainable HCI within the context of grassroots urban food-growing communities.
Object and ARM shadows: visual feedback for cross device transfer BIBAFull-Text 463-466
  Guillaume Besacier; Julie Tournet; Nippun Goyal; Frank Cento; Stacey D. Scott
Rekimoto's Pick-and-Drop (PND) cross-device transfer technique is commonly used to support multi-surface object transfer, for instance, between a multi-touch tabletop and tablet, due to its easily understood metaphor that emulates object movement in the physical world. Current multi-surface implementations of PND provide little to no feedback during the transfer process, creating confusion during transfer. This paper investigates two visual feedback techniques, Object Shadow (OS) and Object-plus-Arm Shadow (O+AS), designed to address this issue by visually representing the transferred object and its "owning" user during the transfer process.
Tastybeats: making mocktails with heartbeats BIBAFull-Text 467-470
  Rohit Ashok Khot; Jeewon Lee; Helmut Munz; Deepti Aggarwal; Florian Floyd Mueller
The heart not only represents love and emotions. Its measurement is also essential to evaluate fitness. However, visualizing heart rate so far has been limited to virtual screens with restrictive interaction, thus providing us an opportunity to develop a new interactive visualization scheme. With the PumpSpark Fountain Development Kit, we see an opportunity to create a personalized drink using the measured heartbeat data of an individual during physical activity. We describe a prototype system called TastyBeats where one or two participants engage themselves in a fluidic spectacle of creating a mocktail that matches their heartbeats. Our work expands the view of visualizing physical activity beyond virtual screen by providing a real-time and interactive visualization of heart beat data. The TastyBeats induces an active engagement of the player with representation of personal heartbeat in the form of a mocktail created by mixing different flavors together.
Step kinnection: a hybrid clinical test for fall risk assessment in older adults BIBAFull-Text 471-474
  Jaime Andres Garcia; Yusuf Pisan; Chek Tien Tan; Karla Felix Navarro
In this paper, we describe Step Kinnection, an interactive step training system for the elderly that incorporates mechanisms to simultaneously perform a hybrid clinical test for fall risk assessment. The interactivity demonstration includes a simple stepping task along with three voice-enabled cognitive activities allowing for the assessment of stepping performance under the dual-task paradigm. CHI attendees can try out both scenarios to physically experience the interference caused by a higher cognitive load while stepping.
PaperDude: a virtual reality cycling exergame BIBAFull-Text 475-478
  John Bolton; Mike Lambert; Denis Lirette; Ben Unsworth
In this paper, we present a Virtual Reality cycling based exergame system inspired by the arcade game Paperboy. We implemented our system using an Oculus Rift VR headset, a Trek FX bicycle attached to a Kickr power trainer, and a Microsoft Kinect camera, to allow for gesture input. Users bike down a virtual suburban street attempting to throw newspapers into neighbourhood mailboxes. The user's pedaling speed is tracked by the power trainer and controls the speed of the virtual bike. The user's upper body is tracked using the Kinect Camera and detects when a user throws a newspaper. Our demonstration shows how head mounted virtual reality and exergaming can be combined to increase immersion and provide novel gaming input methods that are natural to the user, while reducing motion sickness associated with Virtual Reality.
Bidirectional feedback in motor imagery BCIs: learn to control a drone within 5 minutes BIBAFull-Text 479-482
  Nataliya Kos'myna; Franck Tarpin-Bernard; Bertrand Rivet
Brain Computer Interface systems rely on lengthy training phases that can last up to months due to the inherent variability in brainwave activity between users. We propose a BCI architecture based on the co-learning between the user and the system through different feedback strategies. Thus, we achieve an operational BCI within minutes. We apply our system to the piloting of an AR.Drone 2.0 quadricopter. We show that our architecture provides better task performance than traditional BCI paradigms within a shorter time frame. We further demonstrate the enthusiasm of users towards our BCI-based interaction modality and how they find it much more enjoyable than traditional interaction modalities.
How far is up?: encouraging social interaction through children's book app design BIBAFull-Text 483-486
  Betty Sargeant; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
Historically picture books have been a social medium, an item understood by a combination of child and adult readers. Book apps are a new format for picture books. These items do not commonly require an adult co-reader; the audio narration 'reads' the text to the child. How Far is UP? is a children's book app designed to foster social engagement. Through interacting with the work users uncover text that contains different information to the audio narration. Pre-literate audience will not be able to comprehend the textual aspect of the narrative. Children will require an adult to read the text aloud and to discuss the content so that together they can formulate deeper narrative meaning. This study draws on children's literary theory with the view to uncovering ways in which interactive digital storybooks can entertain, educate and foster meaningful social, intergenerational bonding.
LinearDragger: a linear selector for one-finger target acquisition BIBAFull-Text 487-490
  Oscar Kin-Chung Au; Xiaojun Su; Rynson Lau
Touch input is increasingly popular nowadays. The human finger has considerably large fingertip size and finger input is imprecise. Acquiring small targets on a touch screen is still a challenging task. In this extended abstract, we present the LinearDragger, a new and integrated one-finger target acquisition technique for small and clustered targets. It allows users to select targets in dense clustered groups easily with a single touch-drag-release operation and maps the 2D selection problem into a more precise 1D selection problem, which is independent of the target distribution. Besides, it also avoids finger occlusion and does not create visual distraction. LinearDragger is particularly suitable for applications with dense targets and rich visual elements.
BeFaced: a casual game to crowdsource facial expressions in the wild BIBAFull-Text 491-494
  Chek Tien Tan; Hemanta Sapkota; Daniel Rosser
Creating good quality image databases for affective computing systems is key to most computer vision research, but is unfortunately costly and time-consuming. This paper describes BeFaced, a tile matching casual tablet game that enables massive crowdsourcing of facial expressions to advance facial expression analysis. BeFaced uses state-of-the-art facial expression tracking technology with dynamic difficulty adjustment to keep the player engaged and hence obtain a large and varied face dataset. CHI attendees will be able to experience a novel game interface that uses the iPad's front camera to track and capture facial expressions as the primary player input, and also investigate how the game design in general enables massive crowdsourcing in an extensible manner.
Billboard: interacting with personal public displays BIBAFull-Text 495-498
  Lisa Kleinman; Amy Carney; Ashley Ma
Billboard is an app we developed for people to create connections with others in the same physical space by posting digital content on a dual-screen laptop (a laptop with an additional screen on the cover). Our Windows 8 app lets people quickly display text and images to the external-facing screen to be viewed by collocated others. Those people in the same proximity can interact with that content digitally, or, walk up to the person posting and begin a conversation. This installation explores how people can interact across both the digital and physical, encouraging dynamic communication through expression on a personal public display.
AirAuth: a biometric authentication system using in-air hand gestures BIBAFull-Text 499-502
  Sven Kratz; Md Tanvir Islam Aumi
AirAuth is a biometric authentication technique that uses in-air hand gestures to authenticate users tracked through a short-range depth sensor. Our method tracks multiple distinct points on the user's hand simultaneously that act as a biometric to further enhance security. We describe the details of our mobile demonstrator that will give Interactivity attendees an opportunity to enroll and verify our system's authentication method. We also wish to encourage users to design their own gestures for use with the system. Apart from engaging with the CHI community, a demonstration of AirAuth would also yield useful gesture data input by the attendees which we intend to use to further improve the prototype and, more importantly, make available publicly as a resource for further research into gesture-based user interfaces.
CopyMe: an emotional development game for children BIBAFull-Text 503-506
  Natalie Harrold; Chek Tien Tan; Daniel Rosser; Tuck Wah Leong
Proper emotional development is important for young children, especially those with psychological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), whereby early intervention becomes crucial. However, traditional paper-based interventions are mostly laborious and difficult to employ for carers and parents, whilst current computer-aided interventions feel too much like obvious assistive tools and lack timely feedback to inform and aid progress. CopyMe is an iPad game we developed that allows children to learn emotions with instant feedback on performance. A pilot study revealed children with ASDs were able to enjoy and perform well in the game. CopyMe also demonstrates a novel affective game interface that incorporates state-of-the-art facial expression tracking and classification. This will be particularly interesting for CHI attendees working in the domain of affective interfaces and serious games, especially those that target children.
Interacting with the kiwi move: a platform for motion-based applications BIBAFull-Text 507-510
  Ashley Beattie; Daniel Chen; John David Chibuk; Olivier Mayrand; Zaki Patel
The Kiwi move is an internet-enabled motion-sensing device used to track activity, trace motion, automate homes, and secure valuables. By using the Kiwi Application Programming Interface (API) developers can build motion-based applications on our sensor platform, satisfying multiple use cases while avoiding the details of hardware implementation.
Glance: enabling rapid interactions with data using the crowd BIBAFull-Text 511-514
  Walter S. Lasecki; Mitchell Gordon; Steven P. Dow; Jeffrey P. Bigham
Behavioral coding is a common technique in the social sciences and human computer interaction for extracting meaning from video data [3]. Since computer vision cannot yet reliably interpret human actions and emotions, video coding remains a time-consuming manual process done by a small team of researchers. We present Glance, a tool that allows researchers to rapidly analyze video datasets for behavioral events that are difficult to detect automatically. Glance uses the crowd to interpret natural language queries, and then aggregates and summarizes the content of the video. We show that Glance can accurately code events in video in a fraction of the time it would take a single person. We also investigate speed improvements made possible by recruiting large crowds, showing that Glance is able to code 80% of an hour-long video in just 5 minutes. Rapid coding allows participants to have a "conversation with their data" to rapidly develop and refine research hypotheses in ways not previously possible.
Move your phone: spatial input-based document zoom & pan on mobile displays revisited BIBAFull-Text 515-518
  Martin Spindler; Martin Schuessler; Marcel Martsch; Raimund Dachselt
We present a document navigation technique for mobile displays that relies entirely on principles of spatial manipulation, such as lifting the display up/down to zoom. While the underlying concepts are not new, the goal of this interactivity is to demonstrate the potential of spatial input-based navigation on state-of-the-art mobile displays. For this purpose, we implemented two carefully optimized prototypes using popular consumer hardware (iPhone and iPad). We originally developed these prototypes for a comprehensive user study [4], in which we found overwhelming proof that spatial manipulation can -- if designed and implemented properly -- outperform conventional multi-touch-based 2D document navigation. These findings could be of interest for future interaction designs of mobile devices. With this interactivity, we want to share our hands-on experiences with the CHI community.
Fishtank Fitts: a desktop VR testbed for evaluating 3D pointing techniques BIBAFull-Text 519-522
  Robert J. Teather; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger; Andriy Pavlovych
We present a desktop or "fish tank" virtual reality system for evaluating 3D selection techniques. Motivated by the successful application of Fitts' law to 2D pointing evaluation, the system provides a testbed for consistent evaluation of 3D point-selection techniques. The primary design consideration of the system was to enable direct and fair comparison between 2D and 3D pointing techniques. To this end, the system presents a 3D version of the ISO 9241-9 pointing task. Targets can be displayed stereoscopically, with head-coupled viewing, and at varying depths. The system also supports various input devices, including the mouse as well as 3D trackers in direct touch and remote pointing modes.
Plant guild composer: an interactive online system to support back yard food production BIBAFull-Text 523-526
  Juliet Norton; Sahand Nayebaziz; Sean Burke; B. Jack Pan; Bill Tomlinson
Motivated by climate change and food insecurity in the U.S., we built a prototype of an online computer aided design tool to support the design and creation of back yard agricultural ecosystems. The goal of the project is to help people grow their own food. The demonstration at CHI 2014 highlights the full interaction flow of the user experience.
faBrickation: fast 3D printing of functional objects by integrating construction kit building blocks BIBAFull-Text 527-530
  Stefanie Mueller; Tobias Mohr; Kerstin Guenther; Johannes Frohnhofen; Kai-Adrian Rollmann; Patrick Baudisch
We present a new approach to rapid prototyping of functional objects, such as the body of a head-mounted display. The key idea is to save 3D printing time by automatically substituting sub-volumes with standard building blocks -- in our case Lego bricks. When making the body for a head-mounted display, for example, getting the optical path right is paramount. Users thus mark the lens mounts as "high-resolution" to indicate that these should be 3D printed. faBrickator then 3D-prints only these parts. It also generates instructions that show users how to create everything else from Lego bricks. If users iterate on the design later, fa-Brickator offers even greater benefit as it allows re-printing only the elements that changed. We validated our system at the example of three 3D models of functional objects. On average, our system fabricates objects 2.44 times faster than traditional 3d printing while requiring only 14 minutes of manual assembly.
Engaging with virtual characters using a pictorial interaction language BIBAFull-Text 531-534
  Birgit Endrass; Lynne Hall; Colette Hume; Sarah Tazzyman; Elisabeth Andre; Ruth Aylett
Providing fun, engaging child-centric approaches to interaction is challenging. The Pictorial Interaction Language was developed for children to communicate and interact with virtual characters in a serious game, MIXER. The design and development of the Pictorial Interaction Language is briefly outlined. Results highlight that children found interacting fun and were highly positive about the Pictorial Interaction Language.
Paperfold: a shape changing mobile device with multiple reconfigurable electrophoretic magnetic display tiles BIBAFull-Text 535-538
  Antonio Gomes; Roel Vertegaal
We present PaperFold, a novel shape changing mobile device with multiple reconfigurable touch sensitive thin-film electrophoretic magnetic display tiles. PaperFold explores the perceived benefits of having multiple computing devices combined into a single mobile device featuring multiple detachable displays. In PaperFold, each display tile can act independently or as part of a single system. Advantages include better support for performing tasks that traditionally require multiple devices, as well as physical manipulation and sharing of views. Touch and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors embedded in each display tile allow users to dynamically manipulate content.
Did you pack your keys?: smart objects and forgetfulness BIBAFull-Text 539-542
  Christine Farion; Matthew Purver
There is little attention given to forgetfulness in a healthy population. However, forgetfulness is not only associated with feelings of embarrassment and shame, but is also a cause for concern when it begins to affect our daily lives. Many people describe it as having an 'off' day. We explore augmenting everyday objects to assist us in our daily routines, ultimately to examine the question: Can a smart object alleviate those negative feelings and lead us to a less stressful life?
Creating physical visualizations with MakerVis BIBAFull-Text 543-546
  Saiganesh Swaminathan; Conglei Shi; Yvonne Jansen; Pierre Dragicevic; Lora Oehlberg; Jean-Daniel Fekete
An increasing variety of physical visualizations are being built, for purposes ranging from art and entertainment to business analytics and scientific research. The creation of physical visualizations is however a laborious process and demands expertise in both data visualization and (digital) fabrication. We illustrate one of the currently many possible ways of creating a physical visualization through a case-study. We then present our prototype system, MakerVis. It is the first tool that integrates the entire workflow, from data selection to digital fabrication using additive or subtractive techniques. We demonstrate the usage of MakerVis through a complete scenario of how an end-user would construct a physical visualization.
Metatravels and metalonsdale: iPad apps for percussive improvisation BIBAFull-Text 547-550
  Charles Martin; Henry Gardner; Ben Swift
Percussionists are unique among instrumentalists in that their artistic practice is defined by an approach to interaction rather than their instruments. While percussionists are accustomed to exploring non-traditional objects to create music, these objects have yet to encompass touch-screen computing devices to any great extent. The proliferation and popularity of these devices now presents an opportunity to explore their use in combining computer-generated sound together with percussive interaction in a musical ensemble.
   This interactivity demonstration presents two iPad-instruments developed in collaboration with Ensemble Metatone, a group formed to explore the "infiltration" of iPad apps into a free-improvisation percussion ensemble. The apps encourage the performers' exploration through percussive gestures and use network features to support cohesive improvisation.
Interactive experiences designed for agricultural communities BIBAFull-Text 551-554
  Rax Chun Lung Suen; Klarissa T. T. Chang; Maffee Peng-Hui Wan; Yeow Chuan Ng; Bernard C. Y. Tan
With the rapid development of technology, smartphone and Internet adoption in the rural areas will continue to increase in the coming years. These technologies can easily support multimedia elements and are strong platforms to deliver added value. However, constraints faced by the rural population, including low literacy level and lack of exposure to electronic devices must be considered in order to develop suitable solutions. This paper introduces VillageTree, a unique suite of intelligent pest management solutions with the integration of analytical capabilities with simplicity in usability, to meet the needs of agricultural communities in developed and developing countries.
BackPat: improving one-handed touchscreen operation by patting the back of the device BIBAFull-Text 555-558
  Karsten Seipp; Kate Devlin
We present BackPat: A technique for supporting one-handed smartphone operation. Using pats of either the index finger or middle finger or thumb on the back or side of the device, the user can extend one-handed use in a variety of difficult tasks. We explain the principle behind the technique and make a first attempt at examining its usability and versatility by implementing it into four applications, covering text selection, reaching distant targets, multiple file selection, and map and image zoom. An initial user study has shown a high grade of acceptance, verified the interaction logic and highlighted improvements in task-completion time over non-enhanced interaction. This way we hope to encourage discussion about its usefulness and potential.
Ingrid: interactive grid table BIBAFull-Text 559-562
  Mounia Ziat; Josh Fridstrom; Kurt Kilpela; Jonathan Fancher; James J. Clark
In this paper, we discuss the concept of embodied space that led to the design of InGrid, an Interactive Grid table. InGrid offers several affordances [1] to the user that could not only interact with tangible and intangible objects but also with other users.
OJAS: open source bi-directional inductive power link BIBAFull-Text 563-566
  Jussi Mikkonen; Ramyah Gowrishankar; Miia Oksanen; Harri Raittinen; Arto Kolinummi
We present the design of a bi-directional inductive power transfer circuit for prototyping purposes in the watt-range. Our device does not require any configuration and is intended for the development of wearable and tangible systems. Our approach allows a bi-directional power flow without any change in the circuit, such that the same circuit can be used for charging and discharging a battery. The contribution of this work is an enabling technology for researchers and practitioners in the fields of Wearable Electronics, Ubiquitous Computing and Human-Computer Interaction interested in exploring new interactions powered by watt-range inductive links. It enables smaller battery sizes, and therefore lighter devices, as the power can be distributed in a way that has not been feasible before.
Twitterradio: translating tweets into music BIBAFull-Text 567-570
  Fabio Morreale; Aliaksei Miniukovich; Antonella De Angeli
TwitterRadio is an interactive installation designed to explore the social world of Twitter through music. The idea behind this project is to access the musical domain to display information about the latest trends and news. The system automatically generates tonal compositions that are supposed to match the emotional contents of the tweets, as well as their frequency. TwitterRadio, being an audio-only interactive system, offers more passive enjoyment compared to traditional Interactivity demos. However, the interaction with TwitterRadio can span across a couple of levels, according to their involvement degree. Visitors can limit themselves to listening to the generated music and experience the tweets mood, or enter new hashtags.
HamsaTouch: feel the world through your palm BIBAFull-Text 571-574
  Hiroyuki Kajimoto; Masaki Suzuki; Yonezo Kanno
We developed a novel tactile vision substitution system (TVSS) for the people with visual impairments. The system is composed of an electro-tactile display with 512 electrodes, the same number of optical sensors beneath each electrode, and a smartphone with a camera and an LCD. The smartphone acquires the surrounding view, conducts image processing and displays the image on the LCD. The image is captured by the optical sensors and converted to a tactile image by the electro-tactile display. While the concept of the TVSS is classic, combining the commonly available mobile device and electro-tactile display enables a low cost yet powerful and compact system. Furthermore, optical communication architecture enables an open development environment, and it can be independently used as a paper-reading tool without the smartphone.
Imaginary reality basketball: a ball game without a ball BIBAFull-Text 575-578
  Patrick Baudisch; Henning Pohl; Stefanie Reinicke; Emilia Wittmers; Patrick Lühne; Marius Knaust; Sven Köhler; Patrick Schmidt; Christian Holz
We present imaginary reality basketball, i.e., a ball game that mimics the respective real world sport, i.e., basketball, except that there is no visible ball. The ball is virtual and players learn about its position only from watching each other act and a small amount of occasional auditory feedback, e.g., when a person is receiving the ball. Imaginary reality games maintain many of the properties of physical sports, such as unencumbered play, physical exertion, and immediate social interaction between players. At the same time, they allow introducing game elements from video games, such as power-ups, non-realistic physics, and player balancing. Most importantly, they create a new game dynamic around the notion of the invisible ball.
Draco: bringing life to illustrations BIBAFull-Text 579-582
  Rubaiat Habib Kazi; Fanny Chevalier; Tovi Grossman; Shengdong Zhao; George Fitzmaurice
Draco [4] is a sketch-based interface that allows artists and casual users alike to add a rich set of animation effects to their drawings, seemingly bringing illustrations to life. While previous systems have introduced sketch-based animations for individual objects, our contribution is a unified framework of motion controls that allows users to seamlessly add coordinated motions to object collections. We propose a framework built around kinetic textures, which provide continuous animation effects while preserving the unique timeless nature of still illustrations. This enables many dynamic effects difficult or not possible with previous sketch-based tools, such as a school of fish swimming, tree leaves blowing in the wind, or water rippling in a pond. A user study with professional animators and casual users demonstrates the variety of animations, applications and creative possibilities our tool provides.
Runright: real-time visual and audio feedback on running BIBAFull-Text 583-586
  Stina Nylander; Mattias Jacobsson; Jakob Tholander
RunRight is a system that gives two different kinds of feedback for runners. First, it creates a visualization of the running movement based on acceleration in vertical and horizontal direction. Second it gives audio feedback on the rhythm. These two types of feedback are valuable when exploring how to design technology that supports athletes in learning how a desired movement should feel.
Gaussbricks: magnetic building blocks for constructive tangible interactions on portable displays BIBAFull-Text 587-590
  Rong-Hao Liang; Liwei Chan; Hung-Yu Tseng; Han-Chih Kuo; Da-Yuan Huang; De-Nian Yang; Bing-Yu Chen
This work describes a novel building block system for tangible interaction design, GaussBricks, which enables real-time constructive tangible interactions on portable displays. Given its simplicity, the mechanical design of the magnetic building blocks facilitates the construction of configurable forms. The form constructed by the magnetic building blocks, which are connected by the magnetic joints, allows users to stably manipulate with various elastic force feedback mechanisms. With an analog Hall-sensor grid mounted to its back, a portable display determines the geometrical configuration and detects various user interactions in real time. This work also introduce several methods to enable shape changing, multi-touch input, and display capabilities in the construction. The proposed building block system enriches how individuals interact with the portable displays physically.
Cushionware: a practical sitting posture-based interaction system BIBAFull-Text 591-594
  Guanqing Liang; Jiannong Cao; Xuefeng Liu; Xu Han
Sitting posture-based interaction is to leverage user's sitting posture as an input for interaction. In order to realize it, user's sitting posture needs to be recognized accurately. However, existing works on sitting posture recognition either use intrusive wearable/visual sensors or rely on expensive high-resolution pressure sensor array, and thus hindering the widespread adoption. In this work, we introduce Cushionware, a practical sitting posture recognition system that is based on sparse pressure sensor array. Pressure sensor array is placed within the chair cushion to collect pressure data while user is sitting. After collecting the data, we first model sitting posture by extracting a set of user-invariant features and then identify the sitting posture using machine learning method. To demonstrate the utility of Cushionware, we develop two applications including video game playing and wheelchair motion control.
Mechanical force redistribution floor tiles BIBAFull-Text 595-598
  Alex M. Grau; Charles Hendee; Arti S. Karkar; Huapeng Su; Michael Cole; Ken Perlin
We present Mechanical Force Redistribution (MFR) Floor Tiles: a method of sensing which creates a seamless, anti-aliased image of forces applied to a floor. This technique mechanically focuses the force from a surface onto adjacent discrete forcels (force sensing cells) by way of protrusions (small bumps or pegs), allowing for high-accuracy interpolation between adjacent discrete forcels. By minimizing active materials and computational complexity, MFR makes large-format floor tiles possible and economically feasible.
Wrigglo: shape-changing peripheral for interpersonal mobile communication BIBAFull-Text 599-602
  Joohee Park; Young-Woo Park; Tek-Jin Nam
In this paper, we introduce Wrigglo, a shape-changing smart phone peripheral that allows pairs of users to share wriggling movements with one another. It can send 4-way bending, shrinking motion to a connected user not only with the joystick but also by touching the Wrigglo itself. Attached to a smart phone, Wrigglo captures the sender's motions and activates the receiver's Wrigglo which repeats the motion simultaneously. Wrigglo has potentials for playing emotional and functional roles of body gestures and postures, and, to some extent, reflecting the connected user's presence through the device's movement during our conventional video call or instant messaging time.
Interacting with the vocal chorder: re-empowering the opera diva BIBAFull-Text 603-606
  Carl Unander-Scharin; Åsa Unander-Scharin; Kristina Höök; Ludvig Elblaus
With The Vocal Chorder, a large interactive instrument to create accompaniment, opera singers can get more power over the performance. The device allows performers to interactively accompany themselves through pushing, leaning on, and bending steel wires. The design was guided by the unique needs of the solo-singer, explored through autobiographical design and material explorations on stage, and later tested by other singers. Through our designerly exploration, we arrived at a device that offered (1) a tool for singers to appropriate and take control over the rhythmical pace and overall artistic and aesthetic outcome of their performances, (2) an enriched sense of embodiment between their voice and the overall performance; and (3) a means to empower opera singers on stage.

alt.chi: ways of knowing in HCI

Running an HCI experiment in multiple parallel universes BIBAFull-Text 607-618
  Pierre Dragicevic; Fanny Chevalier; Stephane Huot
We experimentally evaluated a haptic touch slider in 8 parallel universes. The results were overall similar but exhibited surprisingly high variability in terms of statistical significance patterns. We discuss the general implications of these findings for empirical HCI research.
Reliability of NIRS-based BCIs: a placebo-controlled replication and reanalysis of brainput BIBAFull-Text 619-630
  Megan Strait; Cody Canning; Matthias Scheutz
Previously, we contributed to the development of a brain-computer interface (BCI), Brainput, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Initially Brainput was found to improve performance on a human-robot team task by adapting a robot's autonomy using NIRS-based classifications of the user's multitasking states [15, 16]. However, the failure to find any performance improvements in a follow-up study prompted reinvestigation of the original system via a reanalysis of Brainput's signal processing on a larger NIRS dataset and a placebo-controlled replication using random (instead of NIRS-based) state classifications. This reinvestigation revealed confounds in the original study responsible for the initial performance improvements, thus indicating that further work in signal processing is necessary to achieve reliable NIRS-based BCIs.
A path to understanding the effects of algorithm awareness BIBAFull-Text 631-642
  Kevin Hamilton; Karrie Karahalios; Christian Sandvig; Motahhare Eslami
The rise in prevalence of algorithmically curated feeds in online news and social media sites raises a new question for designers, critics, and scholars of media: how aware are users of the role of algorithms and filters in their news sources? This paper situates this problem within the history of design for interaction, with an emphasis on the contemporary challenges of studying, and designing for, the algorithmic "curation" of feeds. Such a problem presents particular challenges when, as is common, neither the user nor the researcher has access to the actual proprietary algorithms at work.
Building castles in quicksand: blueprint for a crowdsourced study BIBAFull-Text 643-652
  Arne Renkema-Padmos; Melanie Volkamer; Karen Renaud
Finding participants for experiments has always been a challenge. As technology advanced, running experiments online became a viable way to carry out research that did not require anything more than a personal computer. The natural next step in this progression emerged as crowdsourcing became an option. We report on our experience of joining this new wave of practice, and the difficulties and challenges we encountered when crowdsourcing a study. This led us to re-evaluate the validity of crowdsourced research. We report our findings, and conclude with guidelines for crowdsourced experiments.

alt.chi: understanding interactions

Mining online software tutorials: challenges and open problems BIBAFull-Text 653-664
  Adam Fourney; Michael Terry
Web-based software tutorials contain a wealth of information describing software tasks and workflows. There is growing interest in mining these resources for task modeling, automation, machine-guided help, interface search, and other applications. As a first step, past work has shown success in extracting individual commands from textual instructions. In this paper, we ask: How much further do we have to go to more fully interpret or automate a tutorial? We take a bottom-up approach, asking what it would take to: (1) interpret individual steps, (2) follow sequences of steps, and (3) locate procedural content in larger texts.
HCI over multiple screens BIBAFull-Text 665-674
  Andy Brown; Michael Evans; Caroline Jay; Maxine Glancy; Rhianne Jones; Simon Harper
Mobile devices are playing an increasingly important role in leisure activities, including TV viewing. Broadcasters see this as an opportunity to enhance a TV programme through the provision of additional information to the 'second screen', but determining how to optimise this experience is one of the grand challenges currently facing content providers. Addressing this issue requires a detailed understanding of interaction with both the TV and the secondary device, but this new form of HCI, as much about passive consumption as active interaction, is not well represented by typical task-based paradigms. This paper describes experiments that use eye tracking to understand one of the key components of this new area of study -- determining which device is currently receiving the user's attention -- and discusses the considerable challenge of accurately monitoring attention while maintaining ecological validity.
A funny thing happened on the way to the website: telling about browsing BIBAFull-Text 675-684
  John Fass
This paper describes an approach to the narrative organisation and experience of browser history. It can be difficult to remember where you have been online and consequently hard to get a sense of how much time you have spent, what you did, and why. Web browsers are limited to bookmarks and browser history for retrospective examination. This study is focused specifically on a narrative construction of browser history and the resolution of the resulting experience. The paper establishes a methodological and theoretical connection between expressions of browsing activity and the tradition of narrative enquiry and suggests a range of experimental outputs.
Translation from text to touch: touching a "Japanese old tale" BIBAFull-Text 685-694
  Yasuhiro Suzuki; Rieko Suzuki; Junji Watanabe
The character display and interface through visual and auditory senses have been the focus of the Computer Human Interaction and also tactile sense interface has been studied. We propose a method for integrating character information and tactile sense, by focusing on the structure of texts and phonetic aspects of language. By using this method, we extract the tactile elements of "The Tale of the Heike", which has been handed down in Japan over a thousand years. Also, we extract the tactile elements of the English version of the tale and a passage from Hamlet and compare their tactile characteristics.

alt.chi: ways of creating in HCI

Abba-dabba-ooga-booga-hoojee-goojee-yabba-dabba-doo: stupidity, ignorance & nonsense as tools for nurturing creative thinking BIBAFull-Text 695-706
  Dimitris Grammenos
Despite the present abundance of approaches and information related to creative thinking, three basic human traits have been completely overlooked although that, if cautiously used, can considerably contribute to the creative process. Not coincidentally, these traits are also the ones that education has traditionally demonized and designated as its major enemies: stupidity, ignorance and nonsense. The aim of this paper is to shed light on the positive aspects of these defamed traits but also provide practical advice on how they can be used for sparking and nurturing creative thinking and innovative design.
Gamified co-design with cooperative learning BIBAFull-Text 707-718
  Gabriella Dodero; Rosella Gennari; Alessandra Melonio; Santina Torello
Co-design is an ideal approach to design with mixed teams that include learners and teachers. However, in modern learning contexts, learning and engagement are both key goals, and that poses several challenges to co-design. This paper investigates such challenges after outlining co-design and situating it in current user experience design trends. Then the paper uses the challenges to derive requirements for co-design, and shows how to meet requirements, fostering engagement as well as learning, by blending co-design with gamification and cooperative learning. It ends by showcasing a study that uses the blended co-design approach, and by outlining how this led to novel challenges and work.
Teaching digital craft BIBAFull-Text 719-730
  Michael Nitsche; Andrew Quitmeyer; Kate Farina; Samuel Zwaan; Hye Yeon Nam
At the overlap of maker culture, ubiquitous computing, critical making, and novel interfaces, digital craft emerges as a new research and teaching domain. It offers new opportunities in interaction design but it also poses particular challenges to academic curricula. This paper first discusses the value and challenges connected to digital craft. Then, based on our experience with exploring digital craft in a research university's teaching environment, we highlight viable approaches and teaching practices in this new field. It closes with a discussion of the prototype results achieved in those classes.
Designing for the internet of things: prototyping material interactions BIBAFull-Text 731-740
  Tom Jenkins; Ian Bogost
The Internet of Things (IoT) offers fertile ground to consider the nature of electronic prototyping, especially in building systems from the lowest level. While constructing artifacts to interact directly with everyday materials and contexts, we've found it important to approach the IoT from the very lowest levels of hardware to avoid both abstracting away from real knowledge of the platform itself as well as to reduce implementation cost for massive deployment.
   Building new, inexpensive platforms that augment everyday objects in minimal ways is our proposal for an alternative to top-down control of IoT devices. We intend to move towards interactions among and between things as a bottom-up design study into ubiquitous small-scale computing and its potential aesthetic applications.

alt.chi: limits and futures

Never mind the bollocks, I wanna be anarCHI: a manifesto for punk HCI BIBAFull-Text 741-748
  Conor Linehan; Ben Kirman
This paper presents two fingers to the HCI establishment. We reject the status quo that defines what language and forms are appropriate "contributions" for this staid "community" of quasi-scientific poseurs. We argue that CHI in particular is a tool that serves to reinforce the political and ideological status quo, favouring sell-out researchers wielding arcane verbiage and p-values, all paid for by corporate and government interests that reward the building of systems that distract, subdue and subjugate. We present our manifesto for Punk HCI, which celebrates principles of anarchy and freedom in exploring the impact of technology on human culture, values, social structures and psychology. We encourage research motivated by passion and dissent over patents.
None of a CHInd: relationship counselling for HCI and speech technology BIBAFull-Text 749-760
  Matthew P. Aylett; Per Ola Kristensson; Steve Whittaker; Yolanda Vazquez-Alvarez
It's an old story. A relationship built on promises turns to bitterness and recriminations. But speech technology has changed: Yes, we know we hurt you, we know things didn't turn out the way we hoped, but can't we put the past behind us? We need you, we need design. And you? You need us. How can you fulfill a dream of pervasive technology without us? So let's look at what went wrong. Let's see how we can fix this thing. For the sake of little Siri, she needs a family. She needs to grow into more than a piece of PR, and maybe, if we could only work out our differences, just maybe, think of the magic we might make together.
CHI 2039: speculative research visions BIBAFull-Text 761-770
  Eric P. S. Baumer; June Ahn; Mei Bie; Elizabeth M. Bonsignore; Ahmet Börütecene; Oguz Turan Buruk; Tamara Clegg; Allison Druin; Florian Echtler; Dan Gruen; Mona Leigh Guha; Chelsea Hordatt; Antonio Krüger; Shachar Maidenbaum; Meethu Malu; Brenna McNally; Michael Muller; Leyla Norooz; Juliet Norton; Oguzhan Ozcan; Donald J. Patterson; Andreas Riener; Steven I. Ross; Karen Rust; Johannes Schöning; M. Six Silberman; Bill Tomlinson; Jason Yip
This paper presents a curated collection of fictional abstracts for papers that could appear in the proceedings of the 2039 CHI Conference. It provides an opportunity to consider the various visions guiding work in HCI, the futures toward which we (believe we) are working, and how research in the field might relate with broader social, political, and cultural changes over the next quarter century.
The minimal effective dose of reminder technology BIBAFull-Text 771-780
  Maria K. Wolters
Remembering to take one's medication on time is hard work. This is true for younger people with no chronic illness as well as older people with many co-morbid conditions that require a complex medication regime. Many technological solutions have been proposed to help with this problem, but is more IT really the solution? In this paper, I argue that technological help should be limited to the minimal effective dose, which depends on the person and their living situation, and may well be zero.

alt.chi: navel gazing

Reflections on a synergistic format for disseminating research through design BIBAFull-Text 781-792
  Jayne Wallace; Joyce S. R. Yee; Abigail Durrant
Research through design as a form of research inquiry is becoming a more common approach within HCI and Design. However, questions as to how research generated through this approach is validated, disseminated and perceived are of current debate. This paper describes the ethos and approach of a recent conference (Research Through Design (RTD)), which introduced a novel format foregrounding the research artifact through both exhibition and dialogical round-table discussion sessions. We document critical reflections from organizers and delegates, which demonstrate how this format offers a more synergistic approach for the dissemination of 'research through design', and discuss key practical and philosophical challenges therein, contributing to a broader discussion of what it means to practice research through design as a form of inquiry.
Quantification in Alt.CHI open review: liking and ticking on a likert scale BIBAFull-Text 793-804
  Razvan Rughinis; Cosima Rughinis; Alina Petra Marinescu Nenciu
We analyze quantification in the open review process of Alt.Chi panels. We find that reviewers differ systematically regarding their activity patterns. We distinguish 'critical', 'supportive', 'discerning' and 'keen' reviewers, with distinctive contributions for two resources of meaningful numeric evaluation: intersubjectivity and intra-personal commensurability. The acceptance decision is associated with the average paper grade and, to a lesser extent, with the number of paper reviews. We identify four categories of articles that reflect the article distribution of reviewer types.
QnDReview: read 100 CHI papers in 7 hours BIBAFull-Text 805-814
  Ji Soo Yi
In 2013, 392 research papers and notes were published in the CHI conference (The ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems) and even more papers in the domain of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) are constantly published in various conferences and journals. It is quite arduous, if not impossible, to read all of these papers. One approach to deal with this information deluge is to focus on skimming through lots of papers in a short period of time, so that one can more wisely choose what to read before investing time in them. In order to teach such a skimming technique, I have taught a technique, called "Quick and Dirty Review (QnDReview)," in a graduate-level HCI course. The method has been employed in the course for five semesters, and students' responses were collected and analyzed. Results showed that students spent, on average, 4.3 minutes per paper and believed that they got the gist of each paper. However, the largest benefit I noticed is that students get the overall pictures of the fields while exposing themselves to various new ideas through this approach.
Hot topics in CHI: trend maps for visualising research BIBAFull-Text 815-824
  Stefano Padilla; Thomas S. Methven; David W. Corne; Mike J. Chantler
The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method of identifying and visualising research trends in an automated, unbiased way. The output of this we call a 'Trend Map', and in this paper we use it to present an at-a-glance overview of the CHI research area, showing which areas are 'hot', 'cold', and 'stable'. This specimen Trend Map was created using the past five years of CHI publications as our only input. We hope that providing this at-a-glance overview of the recent CHI area will encourage introspection and discussion within the community.

alt.chi: intimate interfaces

Fifty shades of CHI: the perverse and humiliating human-computer relationship BIBAFull-Text 825-834
  Laura Buttrick; Conor Linehan; Ben Kirman; Dan O'Hara
This paper presents a critical lens on the nature of the relationship between people and contemporary technology. Specifically, the form and language of erotic BDSM romance fiction, a genre that deals specifically with the nature of power in relationships, and which has proved extremely popular recently, are used as a means for provoking reflection on the nature of power in the human-computer relationship. Three sexually explicit scenarios are presented, in which technology is portrayed in a dominant and controlling role, highlighting the often subservient and apologetic nature of human interaction with technology. We suggest that readers offended by graphic and explicit descriptions of sexual behaviour do not read further than this abstract.
Brave new interactions: performance-enhancing drugs for human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 835-844
  Henning Pohl
In sports, some athletes resort to performance enhancing drugs to gain an advantage. Similarly, people use pharmaceutical drugs to aid learning, dexterity, or concentration. We look at how such drugs could potentially be used to enhance interactions. We envision that in the future, people might take pills along with their vitamins in the morning to improve how they can interact over the day. In addition to performance boosts this, e.g., could also include improvements in enjoyment or fatigue.
A three-dimensional mirror augmented by medical imaging: questioning self-portraying at the limit of intimacy BIBAFull-Text 845-854
  Tom Giraud; Matthieu Courgeon; Marion Tardieu; Alexandra Roatis; Xavier Maitre
With the rapid developments of medical imaging, our personal inner body can be unveiled as never before. Medical images are usually considered as ordinary objects and their potential intimate value is never really considered. In this paper, we present an exploratory installation which anticipates prospective issues when medical and self-images interfere with each other. Primary Intimacy of being acts as a digital mirror reflecting the users' bodies with three-dimensional avatars, which are computed in real time from three medical imaging modalities (Fig. 1). A first evaluation reveals individual differences between users with respect to their personal privacy concerns while interacting with the installation. Thereafter, these issues may be probed in the scope of self-portraying.
Concordance: design ideal for facilitating situated negotiations in out-of-clinic healthcare BIBAFull-Text 855-864
  Naveen L. Bagalkot; Erik Grönvall; Tomas Sokoler
Healthcare HCI research has explored various designs that encourage people to follow prescribed treatments, mostly adopting compliance and adherence as design ideals. However, within the medical sciences the notion of concordance also exists. Concordance promotes negotiation between the patient and healthcare professional for forging a therapeutic alliance. However, the HCI community has still not adopted concordance as a design ideal. This paper revisits four old design-cases to explore the role of concordance in out-of-clinic healthcare. We argue that concordance, as a design ideal, can guide new designs that promote a more active patient-role both at the clinic and beyond.

Case studies: realities of fieldwork

Challenges at the bottom of the pyramid: an ethnographic study of south African mobile users BIBAFull-Text 865-868
  Susan M. Dray
In this case study, I present some of the challenges that are inherent in large, complex international ethnographic field research studies. This case describes a study of people from the "bottom of the pyramid" in both urban and rural South Africa. The team encountered some predictable and many unpredictable challenges. This case study covers both what the challenges were and also how I addressed them.
Quick and participatory: adopting users' designs to improve a mobile app BIBAFull-Text 869-872
  Kate Sangwon Lee; Sun Lee; Hyojung Kim
When improving small area or minor functions in mobile app, user research is often skipped or dismissed. In our approach, we suggest a method which combines cafe study and participatory design to capture users' needs quickly and clearly. We have conducted a 3-day user research with 44 participants in local cafes and asked them to make prototype UI of their ideal design. As a result of the research, we have found 3 patterns in users' designs and developed prototyping with those concepts. We expect that this method would be useful when improving specific features with limited time and resources.
User-centered design for more efficient drill rig control system BIBAFull-Text 873-876
  Katri Koli; Tuula Kärkkäinen; Jaakko Lehikoinen; Tuomo Pirinen; Sami Hanski; Juha Lassila; Mikko Loimusalo
This case study describes the methods and results from a user-centric research project developing new control system functionality for drill rigs. During the project we conducted contextual inquiries in an operative mine and structured usability tests with a drill rig simulator. As a result, an automatic control mode was developed to meet the rig operators' needs and will be available in 2014.

Case studies: cross-perspective collaboration

HCI interventions with nonprofit organizations: tactics for effective collaboration BIBAFull-Text 877-880
  Vicki Moulder; Lorna R. Boschman; Ron Wakkary; William Odom; Stacey Kuznetsov
Thirty HCI practitioners participated in a CHI 2011 workshop [7], intending to directly engage with the processes, goals, and challenges of six Vancouver area nonprofit organizations. Analysis of the workshop documentation allowed us to track instances of reciprocal interaction between stakeholders. Findings revealed that various design tactics were productive in enabling collaborators to improve their focus on addressing key challenges in the 2-day workshop. This case study contributes new knowledge -- tactics to conduct and evaluate HCI Design Interventions with nonprofits, as well as helping to expand the emerging intersection of political computing and human-computer interaction.
Redefinition of requirements in the design and development of the project Mapocci: from digital art to HCI research BIBAFull-Text 881-884
  Lilia B. Villafuerte; Laura Malinverni
Mapocci is a robotic companion for children, created in the juncture of digital art and HCI practices. It was developed during an art residency program at Telefonica R+D. The dynamics of negotiation and collaboration with the R+D team transformed the objectives and methods of the art project. This case study shows this transformation process as well as the contribution that the digital art methods brought to the R+D team framework and vice versa in the HCI project.
An extended case study methodology for investigating influence of cultural, organizational, and automation factors on human-automation trust BIBAFull-Text 885-888
  Kolina Koltai; Nhut Ho; Gina Masequesmay; David Niedober; Mark Skoog; Walter Johnson; Artemio Cacanindin; Joseph Lyons
This paper describes the utilization of an extended case methodology to reveal foundational lessons and best practices from real world perspectives about how cultural, organizational, and automation factors influence human-automation trust development. The Air Force Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto-GCAS) was used as the context for this case study. The study employs an eclectic set of qualitative and quantitative methodologies including a literature review for secondary data on the history of Auto-GCAS, field observations, surveys, and interviews for primary data. This paper also discusses how our methodologies and methods were adapted to the limited access, and uniqueness of, the participant groups while taking advantage of emerging opportunities. We also discuss lessons learned about the required qualities of the research team, particularly those related to cultural and technical competence, political sensitivity, and trust relationship with participants.

Case studies: creating methods

Online microsurveys for user experience research BIBAFull-Text 889-892
  Victoria Schwanda-Sosik; Elie Bursztein; Sunny Consolvo; David A. Huffaker; Gueorgi Kossinets; Kerwell Liao; Paul McDonald; Aaron Sedley
This case study presents a critical analysis of microsurveys as a method for conducting user experience research. We focus specifically on Google Consumer Surveys (GCS) and analyze a combination of log data and GCSs run by the authors to investigate how they are used, who the respondents are, and the quality of the data. We find that such microsurveys can be a great way to quickly and cheaply gather large amounts of survey data, but that there are pitfalls that user experience researchers should be aware of when using the method.
Measuring product "coolness": developing a measurement instrument BIBAFull-Text 893-896
  Carol Farnsworth; Karen Holtzblatt; Shantanu Pai; Theo Held; Sally Lawler Kennedy; Eli Wylen; Pallavi Kutty; Kelley Wagg
Cool products provide a leap in value and they increase a company's market share. The widespread adoption of iOS and Android devices resulted in a radical change in the role of technology in people's lives. And anecdotally people exclaimed about how "cool" their devices were; "I can't go back" to what I had before and "I can't stop talking about it -- it's so cool!".
   In 2010 InContext Design launched The Cool Project to understand the underlying principles which make a product "cool." The research goal was to discover the core drivers of the cool user experience. This consumer research used qualitative research to identify seven core constructs associated with "coolness" that appeared independently of device or software or even technology product. In 2011 SAP became interested in developing a metric to measure "coolness" and in a joint research effort with InContext Design validated the constructs with business users and co-designed a cool metric. The final result is a repeatable process for measuring cool through a quick survey, the results of which provide implications to product teams on how to improve their products to increase "coolness".
   This case study outlines the process of using qualitative data to design a valid quantitative measure.
Greybox scheduling: designing a joint cognitive system for sustainable manufacturing BIBAFull-Text 897-900
  Connor W. Upton; Fergus R. Quilligan
The aims of this work were to investigate how decision making in production planning happens, to understand how energy efficiency could be included as a manufacturing goal and to design a decision support system that integrates into current work practices. This case study describes the research, design and development this system. An interactive visualisation provides an interface to a flexible optimisation engine and allows experts to interpret, amend and augment system inputs and outputs without the need for programming knowledge. This approach supports collaboration between automated and human agents, working as a joint cognitive system.

Student research competition

Cassandra: a crowdsourced testbed for content assessment of potential social media posts BIBAFull-Text 903-908
  Himel Dev
Content assessment of posts before broadcasting them in social media has become crucial for many social media users. Primary reasons include online reputation management, avoiding awkwardness in social media, preventing cyber-bullying, preventing unintentional false news propagation. We observe that, such content assessment of a proposed post requires human evaluation or feedback regarding different aspects of the post in order to assist the associated user in deciding whether or not s/he should broadcast the post in social media. In this paper, we address this issue and propose a crowdsourced testbed that allows a social media user to get an evaluation of his/her proposed post before broadcasting it in actual social media, based on the feedback of specialists associated with the topics of the post. This assessment of a proposed post includes a positive/negative recommendation indicating whether or not the post should be broadcasted in social media.
Flying display: a movable display pairing projector and screen in the air BIBAFull-Text 909-914
  Hiroki Nozaki
We developed Flying Display, a novel movable public display system which can provide information to the people anywhere at anytime. This system consists of two UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) with a projector and a screen. Flying Display achieves moving freely and keeping stable in 3-D space. Flying Display moves closer to people and gives information directly to them. To evaluate performance of Flying Display, we performed two experiments for adapting a flying control algorithm. We also showed the stability of Flying Display systems by trajectories of each UAV. This paper highlights the performance of Flying Display and discusses the Flying Display's potential for public displays in physical space.
Shoulder surfing susceptibility of bend passwords BIBAFull-Text 915-920
  Sana Maqsood
The emergence of flexible displays provides us with an opportunity to explore new forms of user authentication on mobile devices. In prior work, we developed an authentication scheme utilizing bend interaction on flexible displays. A common concern among users was that this scheme may be susceptible to shoulder surfing attacks. In this paper, we evaluate the susceptibility of our scheme to such observation. We found that bend passwords are extremely difficult to observe and replicate, with only one participant correctly guessing a single password. This contradicts users' initial impressions and suggests that bend passwords are secure against shoulder-surfing.
Digital classroom magazines: design considerations for young learners BIBAFull-Text 921-926
  Jeff Stern
We conducted a comparative analysis of young students' interactions with digital and print versions of an informational magazine. Using mixed-methods design, fourth- and fifth-grade students were exposed to two magazine articles, one on a tablet and the other on paper. The students were surveyed on their preference of medium, engagement with the articles and retention of the information. Analysis revealed that the medium in which content was delivered made little effect on engagement or retention, but students showed a significant preference for the tablet devices. Based on observations of the students and quotes from a focus group discussion, we also provide an initial set of interaction-related and content-related design recommendations. These recommendations should prove useful to designers presenting informational, multimedia content on tablet devices and researchers hoping to measure new styles of interaction.
Okinawa in Japanese and English wikipedia BIBAFull-Text 927-932
  Scott A. Hale
This research analyzes edits by foreign-language users in Wikipedia articles about Okinawa, Japan, in the Japanese and English editions of the encyclopedia. Okinawa, home to both English and Japanese speaking users, provides a good case to look at content differences and cross-language editing in a small geographic area on Wikipedia. Consistent with prior work, this research finds large differences in the representations of Okinawa in the content of the two editions. The number of users crossing the language boundary to edit both editions is also extremely small. When users do edit in a non-primary language, they most frequently edit articles that have cross-language (interwiki) links, articles that are edited more by other users, and articles that have more images. Finally, the possible value of edits from foreign-language users and design possibilities to motivate wider contributions from foreign-language users are discussed.
Designing ballot interfaces for voters with vision disabilities BIBAFull-Text 933-938
  Seunghyun Lee
Current accessible audio voting requires additional button controls to select candidates and scroll through the ballot, which result in significantly longer completion time for casting a ballot compared to sighted voters. Instead of adding accessibility to the finished product, this study has designed two ballot interfaces using a universal design approach. In this paper, I present the design of a ballot interface using universal design approach, formative user study, refined ballot features, and on-going future work.
A mobile point-of-care diagnostic system for low-resource settings BIBAFull-Text 939-944
  Nicola Lee Dell
Disease detection and epidemiology in developing countries are hampered by a lack of convenient, affordable and usable diagnostic technologies. The goal of this research project is to design, deploy and evaluate a mobile system that uses computer vision algorithms running on a mobile device to capture, interpret and transmit point-of-care diagnostic tests for infectious diseases. Our system will provide health workers around the world with access to rapid and accurate diagnoses for their patients and public health officials with real-time, aggregated data and statistics regarding the numbers and results of tests administered via a centralized database. Our system is currently being evaluated with sixty health workers at five clinical research sites in Zimbabwe. Our findings and insights could inform the design of future mobile health systems and help ministries of health and other stakeholders to assess the viability of deploying mobile systems in similar environments.
Learnersourcing subgoal labels for how-to videos BIBAFull-Text 945-950
  Sarah A. Weir
Websites like YouTube provide an easy way to watch the billions of how-to videos on the web, but the interfaces are not optimized for learning. Previous research suggests that users learn more from how-to videos when the information from the video is presented in outline form, with individual steps and labels for groups of steps (subgoals) shown. We intend to create an alternative video viewer where the steps and subgoals are displayed alongside the video. In order to generate this information we propose a learnersourcing approach where we gather useful information from people trying to actively learn from a video. We believe learnersourcing is a sustainable and constructive method for enhancing educational material. To demonstrate this method, we created a workflow that encourages users to contribute and refine subgoals for a given how-to video. Users in our pilot study of three videos were able to generate subgoals comparable to those created by the author, which suggests that learnersourcing may be a viable approach.
Virtual inclusion via telepresence robots in the classroom BIBAFull-Text 951-956
  Veronica Ahumada Newhart
The recent development of telepresence robots provides the opportunity for virtual inclusion to students who are not able to attend school due to medical conditions. Every year, large numbers of K-12 students are not able to attend class due to illness. Extended absence from the classroom has negative and overlapping educational, social, and medical consequences as students may fall behind in instruction, feel isolated from their peers, and experience difficulties in their recovery due to loneliness and depression. The recent development of telepresence robots provides a possible means for addressing this situation. Preliminary results from a local case study on the use of these robots in a public school system indicate that virtual inclusion may provide significant improvements in the educational, social, and healthcare experiences of this vulnerable population.
Autonomy-based rehabilitation design: balancing capability and complexity BIBAFull-Text 957-962
  Kyoungwon Seo
Autonomy is critical to harness post-stroke patient's motivation in an unsupervised home-based rehabilitation programme. The aim of this study is to share our experiences of designing the home-based rehabilitation platform for post-stroke patients, RehabMaster, particularly for, what kinds of autonomy supports should be of value for the post-stroke patients. Usefulness of the autonomy-based rehabilitation design was studied by a two-week home-based rehabilitation session with sixteen post-stroke patients and further design issues for autonomy were discussed.
The perceptual benefits of a tangible interface decrease with users' expertise BIBAFull-Text 963-968
  Bertrand Schneider
In this paper, I describe an empirical study where I investigated the way users learn new concepts using a Tangible User Interface (TUI). In this study, 27 pairs of apprentices in logistics (N=54) interacted with an interactive simulation of a warehouse. Their task was to memorize, analyze and optimize several warehouses' layouts. In one condition, half of the participants used physical, 3D shelves; in another condition, shelves were represented by 2D paper rectangles. This manipulation allowed me to control for the "representational effect" of 3D tangibles: the first group saw the warehouse as a small-scale model with realistic shelves, while the second group had access to a more abstract view with rectangular pieces of paper. I found that participants who used 3D shelves better memorized a warehouse layout, built a more efficient model, and scored higher on a learning test. Interestingly, these effects decreased with students' expertise: third-year students (compared to first-years and second-years) performed as well and learnt as much in both conditions.
Low-income parents' perceptions of technology: value-based design insights BIBAFull-Text 969-974
  David Munoz
Early diagnoses of developmental delays can lead to improved life outcomes. Families with a low socioeconomic status (SES) are less likely to notice concerns about their child's development and are also less likely to receive early intervention for their child. A qualitative study was conducted to learn about low SES parents' familiarity with technology and their current methods for learning about children's development. In order to deliver design insights for systems that could aid these parents to track their child's development, an emphasis was placed on not only learning about technology use but also the values that affect parents' preferences.
The agony of passwords: can we learn from user coping strategies? BIBAFull-Text 975-980
  Elizabeth Stobert
Users are burdened by having to keep track of many accounts and passwords. We conducted a series of interviews to investigate how users cope with these challenges, and found that most users have developed personal strategies involving password reuse and writing passwords down. These strategies have their limitations, but they are rational and could serve as the basis for a new user-centred approach to security.
Exploring tapping with thumb input for flexible tablets BIBAFull-Text 981-986
  Md Riyadh
Flexible displays offer new interaction techniques, such as bend gestures, but a little work has been done to support touch input, the most common input for handheld displays. In this paper, we explore touch input using the thumb of the holding hand, and compare it for different tapping tasks, between a flexible and a rigid tablet. We present initial design guidelines to use touch input with thumb in flexible devices. Our result suggests that users can perform tapping interaction using thumb input in both rigid and flexible devices with similar accuracy, and they prefer holding the display on the side or the bottom corner over the bottom center.
VisiStat: visualization-driven, interactive statistical analysis BIBAFull-Text 987-992
  Krishna Subramanian
To promote the practice of sound statistical analysis in HCI, we introduce VisiStat, a tool that allows users to perform statistical analysis by interacting with visualizations. It guides users to select the appropriate statistical analysis tasks based on the research questions they want to answer. By collocating statistical analysis results with appropriate visualizations, users are made aware of data-specific knowledge, which consequently improves their understanding of data and reduces common statistical analysis mistakes. In our user study, VisiStat helped users to answer 90% of the research questions they posed. On average, the users performed four statistical analysis tasks beyond their prior experience.


Introduction to human-computer interaction BIBFull-Text 1001-1002
  Jonathan K. Lazar; Simone D. J. Barbosa
Methods of design synthesis: moving from data to innovation BIBAFull-Text 1003-1004
  Jon Kolko
User-centered design research activities produce an enormous quantity of raw data, which must be systematically and rigorously synthesized in order to extract meaning and insight. Unfortunately, these methods of synthesis are poorly documented and rarely taught, and because of the pragmatic time constraints associated with working with clients, there is often no time dedicated in a statement of work to a practice of formal synthesis. As a result, raw design research data is inappropriately positioned as insight, and the value of user-centered research activities is marginalized -- in fact, stakeholders may lose faith in the entire research practice, as they don't see direct return on the investment of research activities.
   Design synthesis methods can be taught, and when selectively applied, visual, diagrammatic synthesis techniques can be completed relatively quickly. During synthesis, Designers visually explore large quantities of data in an effort to find and understand hidden relationships, to extract insight, and to look at complexity in new ways. These visualizations can then be used to communicate to other members of a design team, or can be used as platforms for the creation of generative sketching or model making. The action of diagramming is a way to actively produce knowledge and meaning, and a way to provoke a process known as sensemaking.
   This skills-based course will introduce various methods of synthesis as ways to translate research into meaningful insights. Course participants will learn about how to manage the complexity of gathered data, and through hands-on exercises, they will apply various synthesis methods to elicit hidden meaning in gathered data. This hands-on approach is critical for building both confidence and ability with the various synthesis methods that are discussed.
Conceptual models: core to good design BIBAFull-Text 1005-1006
  Jeff Johnson
A crucial step in designing a UI for a software application is to design a coherent, task-focused conceptual model (CM). With a CM, designers design better, developers develop better, and users learn and use better. Unfortunately, this step is often skipped, resulting in incoherent, arbitrary, inconsistent, overly-complex applications that impede design, development, learning, understanding, and use. This course covers what CMs are, how they help, how to develop them, and provides hands-on experience.
Card sorting for navigation design BIBAFull-Text 1007-1008
  William Hudson
This course covers the theory and practice of card sorting with a particular focus on navigation design. It includes a paper-based card sort activity. Online methods are also discussed.
Agile UX and UCD BIBAFull-Text 1009-1010
  William Hudson
This half-day course shows how to integrate User-Centered Design with Agile methods to create great user experiences. It takes an 'emotionally intelligent' approach to engaging all team members in UCD.
HTML5 game development BIBAFull-Text 1011-1012
  Parker Jim
A computer game, in addition to being playable and fun, has all of the characteristics of a modern high quality user interface. The ubiquity of multimedia web interfaces and gamification leads designers and developers to look at how games are designed and constructed. This course will take the attendee from initial concept through design to implementation of a basic web-based game, using accessible high level tools that could also be used equally in a research environment or an undergraduate classroom.
Empirical research methods for human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 1013-1014
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Steven J. Castellucci
This course teaches how to pose testable research questions, how to make and measure observations, and how to design an experiment. Attendees participate in a real experiment to gain experience as both an investigator and as a participant. Most notably, attendees learn how to organize experiment results and write a CHI paper.
Introduction to designing and building musical interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1015-1016
  Michael J. Lyons; Axel Mulder; Sidney Fels
This course provides a general, gentle, and fun introduction to the theory and practice of interface design for creating and performing music. Our intended audience consists of those who are interested in starting projects relating to music technology. Those with a general interest are also welcome. Participants will learn key aspects of the theory and practice of musical interface design by studying case studies and hands-on experience mostly sourced from the leading conference in this area, known as "New Interfaces for Musical Expression" or NIME.
Make this!: introduction to electronics prototyping using arduino BIBAFull-Text 1017-1018
  David Sirkin; Wendy Ju
This course is a hands-on introduction to interactive electronics prototyping for people with a variety of backgrounds, including those with no prior experience in electronics. Familiarity with programming is helpful, but not required. Participants learn basic electronics, microcontroller programming and physical prototyping using the Arduino platform, then use digital and analog sensors, LED lights and motors to build, program and customize a small paper robot.
Hands-on sketching course BIBAFull-Text 1019-1020
  Stephanie Foehrenbach
Sketching as a technique to quickly draw something on a piece of paper is used to explore and communicate ideas. This course introduces basic sketching techniques and a visual language which participants can apply in research and practice. It is a hands-on course which lets participants do a lot of sketching during the session.
Including children in technology design processes: techniques and practices BIBAFull-Text 1021-1022
  Allison Druin; Jerry A. Fails; Mona Leigh Guha
Children are fast becoming a large user-segment of new technologies in the world. We believe that it is critical that the HCI community continue to lead the way in supporting the best possible design of technology for children. To this end, this course will offer a balance of traditional lecture and hands-on design activities, and will cover techniques which balance the voices and contributions of adults and children.
Multimodal detection of affective states: a roadmap through diverse technologies BIBAFull-Text 1023-1024
  Javier Gonzalez-Sanchez; Maria E. Chavez-Echeagaray; Robert K. Atkinson; Winslow Burleson
One important way for systems to adapt to their individual users is related to their ability to show empathy. Being empathetic implies that the computer is able to recognize a user's affective states and understand the implication of those states. Detection of affective states is a step forward to provide machines with the necessary intelligence to appropriately interact with humans. This course provides a description and demonstration of tools and methodologies for automatically detecting affective states with a multimodal approach.
Interaction design for online video and television BIBAFull-Text 1025-1026
  David Geerts; Pablo Cesar
This course will teach attendees how to design and evaluate interaction with online video and television. It provides attendees a pragmatic toolset, including techniques and guidelines, which can be directly applied in practice. The different tools will be contextualized based on current developments, giving participants a complete overview of the state of the art and industry.
Designing unbiased surveys for HCI research BIBAFull-Text 1027-1028
  Hendrik Müller; Aaron Sedley; Elizabeth Ferrall-Nunge
Surveys are a commonly used method within HCI research. While it initially appears easy and inexpensive to conduct surveys, overlooking key considerations in questionnaire design and the survey research process can yield skewed, biased, or entirely invalid survey results. Fortunately decades of academic research and analysis exist on optimizing the validity and reliability of survey data, from which this course will draw. To enable the creation of unbiased surveys, this course demonstrates questionnaire design biases and pitfalls, provides best practices for minimizing these, and reviews different uses of surveys within HCI.
Improving the user interface for people with disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1029-1030
  Terrill Thompson
This course will explore the current state of the art in computer user interfaces (UIs) designed for people with disabilities, and will identify problems in the current models that may warrant alternative strategies. The course will begin by exploring a variety of UIs designed for people who are unable to see, hear, or use their hands, as well as those designed for people with dyslexia and other processing disabilities. Attendees will discover that the wide spectrum of available UIs makes it possible for almost anyone to use information technology. However, they will also experience examples of how this UI model breaks down when the software, document, form or website users are trying to access is designed in a way that fails to support user diversity. Current models are dependent on designers, developers, and authors to create products that are accessible, and these models are largely failing. Despite laws that require accessible design, and standards and guidelines that define it, people with disabilities still face daunting barriers that prevent them from accessing technology. This course will explore this problem in some depth, and participants will brainstorm possible solutions. This course is intended for all audiences. Everyone who designs or develops interfaces, and everyone who authors content, should be aware of how the interface or content they create affects individuals with disabilities. Attendees will learn current techniques and best practices for minimizing accessibility barriers, and will have an opportunity to contribute to the discussion regarding possible alternative solutions.
A crash course in modern geography for HCI researchers and practitioners BIBAFull-Text 1031-1032
  Brent Hecht; David A. Shamma
Recently, geography's role in human-computer interaction has risen due in part to the popularity of social computing as well as the number of ubiquitous GPS enabled devices. We now, either explicitly or implicitly, track, store capture, and annotate our surroundings constantly through out the day. In turn this changes how one might come to understand and perceive the spaces and locations around us. This course builds a framework for researchers and practitioners in geographic human-computer interaction, providing an introduction to foundational literature, modern geography, as well as, the qualitative and quantitative research practices that are most relevant to the HCI community.
Image processing and vision for interaction and UX BIBAFull-Text 1033-1034
  Jim Parker
More and more interfaces are being built that require visual input from the user. Certainly some of this can be accomplished using new hardware such as the Kinect, but computer vision provides a general solution absent special purpose devices other than a camera. After all, humans do the job without lasers or ultrasonic sensors. This course covers the essential vision and processing operations and outlines simple ways to make them work in practical situations. Easily accessible tools will be used that will allow the development of custom solutions.
Speech-based interaction: myths, challenges, and opportunities BIBAFull-Text 1035-1036
  Cosmin Munteanu; Gerald Penn
HCI research has for long been dedicated to better and more naturally facilitating information transfer between humans and machines. Unfortunately, humans' most natural form of communication, speech, is also one of the most difficult modalities to be understood by machines -- despite, and perhaps, because it is the highest-bandwidth communication channel we possess. While significant research efforts, from engineering, to linguistic, and to cognitive sciences, have been spent on improving machines' ability to understand speech, the CHI community has been relatively timid in embracing this modality as a central focus of research. This can be attributed in part to the relatively discouraging levels of accuracy in understanding speech, in contrast with often-unfounded claims of success from industry, but also to the intrinsic difficulty of designing and especially evaluating speech and natural language interfaces. As such, the development of interactive speech-based systems is mostly driven by engineering efforts to improve such systems with respect to largely arbitrary performance metrics, often void of any user-centered design principles or consideration for usability or usefulness.
   The goal of this course is to inform the CHI community of the current state of speech and natural language research, to dispel some of the myths surrounding speech-based interaction, as well as to provide an opportunity for researchers and practitioners to learn more about how speech recognition and speech synthesis work, what are their limitations, and how they could be used to enhance current interaction paradigms. Through this, we hope that HCI researchers and practitioners will learn how to combine recent advances in speech processing with user-centered principles in designing more usable and useful speech-based interactive systems.
How you could benefit from using ISO standards BIBAFull-Text 1037-1038
  Nigel Bevan
The course explains how international standards can provide a sound basis for education and training, can provide authority for design and development, and are a rich source of guidance and reference material.
HCI meets data mining: principles and tools for big data analytics BIBAFull-Text 1039-1040
  Duen Horng (Polo) Chau
This two-part course takes a practical approach to introduce you to the principles, tools and pitfalls in big data analytics. Part 1: A non-technical introduction illustrating where HCI and data mining as fields of research and practice can benefit from each other with illustrative case studies, followed by a review of tools for analyzing datasets from small to huge. Part 2: A more technical discussion of how to "do it right", such as: How to choose a "big data" platform for your work (or do you need one at all)? How to find an algorithm that is right for your data? How to evaluate your approach appropriately? And more... Audience: HCI researchers, practitioners, and students. No prior knowledge of data mining or machine learning is required. Teaching Methods: Lecture and videos. Instructor Background: Prof. Polo Chau has been working at the intersection of HCI and data mining for over 9 years, to create scalable, interactive tools for big data analytics. Now a professor at Georgia Tech's College of Computing, Polo holds a Ph.D. in Machine Learning and a Masters in HCI, both from Carnegie Mellon. His thesis on bridging HCI and data mining for making sense of large network data won received Carnegie Mellon's Distinguished Computer Science Dissertation Award, Honorable Mention. He teaches the "Data and Visual Analytics" course at Georgia Tech. Polo is the only two-time Symantec fellow. He contributes to the PEGASUS peta-scale graph mining that won an Open Source Software World Challenge Silver Award. Polo's NetProbe auction fraud detection research appeared on The Wall Street Journal, CNN, TV and radio. His Polonium malware detection technology protects 120 million people worldwide.
The glass class: designing wearable interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1041-1042
  Mark Billinghurst; Hayes Raffle
This course will teach how to design and develop effective interfaces for head mounted wearable computers through the application of user-centered design principles. It will enable existing HCI practitioners to enter the fast growing area of wearable computing. Attendees will gain the knowledge and tools needed to develop prototype applications, and also complete a hands-on design task.
Evaluating children's interactive products BIBAFull-Text 1043-1044
  Janet C. Read; Panos Markopoulos
Over the last decade there has been an increased interest in designing for children within the context of HCI. This activity has lead to a community of researchers and practitioners seeking information on best practice on how to work with children. This course will introduce attendees to some of the pitfalls and difficulties when carrying out evaluations with children but will then balance these with tips and tricks, methods and processes that will ensure that anyone attending this course will leave being able to plan and carry out a reasonable and safe evaluation with children.
Rapid design labs: a tool to turbocharge design-led innovation BIBAFull-Text 1045-1046
  Jim Nieters; Carola Fellenz Thompson
We as researchers and User Experience (UX) designers want to identify and create products that change the world and therefore, we choose to engage in strategic research and design. In the real world though, coming up with a breakthrough idea or transformative design doesn't mean it will automatically be accepted in the research community or get to market. By definition, innovative ideas represent new ways of thinking. Organizations by nature seem to have anti-innovation antibodies that often kill new ideas -- even disruptive innovations that could help companies differentiate themselves from their competition. As difficult as coming up with a game-changing idea can be, getting an organization to act on the idea often seems impossible. Perhaps we find ourselves in work routines that do not provide space to think differently. Our experience is that practitioners and academics alike need new tools to meet this challenge -- tools that empower UX teams in both business and universities to identify transformative new ideas, and then to get these big ideas and designs accepted. This course proposes rapid design labs -- a design-led, facilitative, cross-functional, iterative approach to innovation that aligns organizations and generates value at each step. It provides tools and methods that turn attendees into catalysts, who systemically identify new ideas, and align multidisciplinary teams around their ideas. Attendees learn how to lead workshops that foster ideation, collaboration, trust, and free expression. These workshops enable intensive brainstorming, purposeful play, design, user testing, and rapid prototyping. Learn how innovative companies, design firms, and universities identify, design, and bring great products to market.
Online A/B tests & experiments: a practical but scientifically informed introduction BIBAFull-Text 1047-1048
  Joseph Jay Williams; Betsy Anne Williams
This course helps attendees design effective online randomized experiments and A/B tests, in situations from Amazon Mechanical Turk to online course platforms. We discuss how to identify whether to run an experiment and what the appropriate comparison is, how to choose or construct outcome measures, and how to run an experiment on Amazon Mechanical Turk (AMT). We briefly review statistical significance and provide examples of bootstrapping. For each topic, we present relevant background concepts, discuss how the topic is applied to a concrete A/B test (where treatment A is compared to treatment B), discuss experimental design guidelines and heuristics, and provide web resources for future reference or further learning.
Mobile human-computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 1049-1050
  Niels Henze; Enrico Rukzio
The objective of this course is to provide newcomers to Mobile Human-Computer Interaction (Mobile HCI) with an overview of the field. The course will introduce the five grand challenges of Mobile HCI that set this field apart from others and will discuss eight current Mobile HCI research areas that address those challenges.
Reflections on design BIBAFull-Text 1053-1054
  Don Norman
The Design of Everyday Things [1](DOET) was first published 25 years ago, in 1988. Even though the fundamental principles of human interaction introduced in that book are still true, a lot has changed since then. The examples in the book reveal its age but more importantly, the technology of interaction has changed.
   The new DOET maintains the same basic structure with the same fundamental design principles. But new material has been added. First, I added the role of emotion, beauty and pleasure to the original DOET's emphasis on utility and understanding. Second, I added two chapters about the role of Design Thinking and how these principles work in the world of business. What are the constraints of the installed base, legacy products, and consumer readiness' What about time and budget? Among other things, I introduce Norman's Law: The day the product team is assembled, it is behind schedule and over its budget. Technologies disappear, but the needs they satisfied often remain. Phonographs, slide projectors, and film have disappeared, but music, illustrated talks, and photographs still exist. Doors, water taps, and light switches may remain the same, but automobiles will drive themselves, machines are becoming more intelligent, more fully autonomous, taking over many tasks we do ourselves, anticipating our desires. And often they will get it wrong. What design rules must change? How shall we design in the 21st century?
How social media design shapes society BIBAFull-Text 1057-1058
  Judith Donath
The design of social media influences the way people interact with each other online -- and shapes our society. This course will look at three key areas: how social identity is portrayed online; our changing social networks and the technologies that support them; and the role of pseudonymity in supporting privacy.
What HCI can do for citizen science BIBAFull-Text 1059-1060
  Jennifer Preece; Anne Bowser
Citizen science supports public participation in scientific research. Increasingly new devices including sensors, smartphones, and technologies for validating and communicating data, are integrated into these practices. We suggest design, privacy and security guidelines.

Panel 102

Design methods for the future that is now: have disruptive technologies disrupted our design methodologies? BIBAFull-Text 1063-1068
  Karen Holtzblatt; Ilpo Koskinen; Janaki Kumar; David Rondeau; John Zimmerman
Responsive Design. Mobile First. Agile Development. Lean UX. Crowdsourcing. Machine Learning. In a world that has been disrupted by new technologies and approaches, what does it mean to do "front-end" or "user-centered design"? Are we relying on methods that are too rooted in the past? What techniques are succeeding and what changes do we need to be making? Do we need different data collected, different styles of prototyping, different design principles, and ways of structuring products or apps when building across multiple platforms? How will any changes in UCD techniques be received by current professionals as well as product managers and developers? This panel explores whether user research and design methods as we know them need to be radically overhauled, or some even eliminated.
Designing for the experiential body BIBAFull-Text 1069-1074
  Helena M. Mentis; Kristina Höök; Florian Mueller; Katherine Isbister; George Poonkhin Khut; Toni Robertson
The goal of this panel is to reflect on the past and discuss the present and future of designing for an experiencing body in HCI. The motivation is to discuss the full range of rich body/movement-based experiences and how the CHI community can embrace and extend these perspectives on designing for the body. The panelists and audience will be asked to share their perspectives on what has most influenced thought in designing for the body, how new sensing technologies are crafting the HCI perspective, and where they see this line of research and design heading in the next ten years.
Electronic privacy and surveillance BIBAFull-Text 1075-1080
  Juan Pablo Hourcade; Ann Cavoukian; Ronald Deibert; Lorrie Faith Cranor; Ian Goldberg
The confluence of big data, data analytics, and connected devices is facilitating electronic surveillance and compromising privacy in unprecedented ways. This panel brings together voices with a diverse set of experiences and interests to discuss electronic privacy and surveillance, and the contributions the human-computer interaction community can make in this arena. Topics will include the usability of privacy tools, how to design interactive technologies with privacy as a primary consideration while incorporating user-centered design practices, and how to manage the technical complexity involved in privacy tools while enabling users to make wise choices.
Opportunities and risks of discovering personality traits from social media BIBAFull-Text 1081-1086
  Michelle X. Zhou; Jeffrey Nichols; Tom Dignan; Steve Lohr; Jennifer Golbeck; James W. Pennebaker
With the emergence of social media and the availability of big data, there has been much interest in mining the digital footprints left by users to predict personality traits (e.g., introvert and idealistic) and gain a deeper understanding of individuals. While such understanding will enable hyper-personalized computing, such as personality-based marketing, the use of this technology will have far-reaching social implications that could affect almost every aspect of our lives. For example, personality traits mined from social media could be used to guide hiring and promotion decisions or decide who is admitted into top academic programs. The risks of using derived personality traits are potentially high, particular due to factors such as the veracity of data collected from social media, imperfections in prediction algorithms, and a lack of control over how, when, and to whom anyone's personality traits might be exposed. We will use this panel to bring together experts from the fields of Psychology, Social Science, Computer Science, along with the CHI community, to discuss and debate the opportunities and risks of personality discovery from social media and the implications on technical communities and our society at large.
Making cultures: empowerment, participation, and democracy -- or not? BIBAFull-Text 1087-1092
  Morgan G. Ames; Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell; Silvia Lindtner; David A. Mellis; Daniela K. Rosner
Making has transformed from a fringe and hobbyist practice into a professionalizing field and an emerging industry. Enthusiasts laud its potential to democratize technology, improve the workforce, empower consumers, encourage citizen science, and contribute to the global economy. Yet critics counter that in the West, making often remains a hobby for the privileged and seems to be increasingly co-opted by corporate interests. This panel brings together HCI scholars and practitioners active in making, handwork, DIY, crafts, and tool design to examine and debate the visions that come from maker cultures.
Crowdfunding: an emerging field of research BIBAFull-Text 1093-1098
  Elizabeth M. Gerber; Michael Muller; Rick Wash; Lilly C. Irani; Amanda Williams; Elizabeth F. Churchill
Crowdfunding, the request of resources through social media, has generated much discussion in the popular press; however, there have been few systematic empirical studies of this growing phenomenon. We bring together the leading HCI researchers in crowdfunding and crowdsourcing to discuss this potentially transformative socio-technical innovation that may advance (or harm) human capabilities to innovate and collaborate. We will discuss current empirical research on crowdfunding and the future of research in this field from diverse perspectives including computer science, social science, communications, and design, using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. To make real progress towards realizing future research, we will lead a discussion with the audience of new research agendas in crowdfunding.
The meaning of design in healthcare: industry, academia, visual design, clinician, patient and hf consultant perspectives BIBAFull-Text 1099-1104
  Svetlena Taneva; Waxberg Sara; Goss Julian; Rossos Peter; Nicholas Emily; Cafazzo Joseph
Healthcare technologies have a reputation for being overly-complex, difficult-to-use, uninspired, and unusable. There is a significant opportunity to incorporate human-centered design into healthcare through the synthesis of deep healthcare domain expertise, visual and industrial design, human factors theory and practice, and an understanding of the patient experience. In practice, the need for such synthesis brings together professionals who often have distinct understanding of the meaning of design in healthcare and the ways in which design can solve problems in healthcare. As such, each professional encounters distinct challenges in trying to realize good design in healthcare. This panel will bring together the contrasting perspectives of industry, academia, visual design, clinicians, patients, and human factors consultants on the role of user interface and technology design in healthcare. Each representative speaker will share his/her experience, lessons learned, and thoughts on the role and meaning of design in healthcare. The audience will then be engaged in a discussion that aims to bring a common understanding, inclusive of all perspectives.
Can you do good and do well?: exploring HCI careers for societal impact BIBAFull-Text 1105-1110
  Anupam Jain; Matthew Kam; Michael Best; Elizabeth M. Gerber; Rowena Luk
International development and initiatives towards societal impact have been slowly gaining momentum in the HCI forums over the last few years. A subset of HCI researchers and practitioners worldwide have been working to design, build, evaluate and deploy solutions for the 80% of the world which lives on less than $10 a day[2] and broadly for humanitarian efforts that improves people's lives at large. However, a large section of the HCI community is still not directly involved in this space even if they are interested, because of concerns like job uncertainty, lack of awareness of avenues to help, time availability and perhaps some delusions about the space. This panel brings together panelists who are HCI professionals trying to produce social impact from four different domains (non-profit, for-profit social enterprise, academic research and corporate research) and are from different geographies and stages in their careers. The panel explores how HCI researchers and practitioners can consider HCI-related careers in international development and other societal impact initiatives, introduce the CHI community to different means through which they could make meaningful contributions, discuss why it may be imminent for HCI specialists to apply their expertise to this space, cite and discuss some real world stories and try to answer as many queries from people who would like to get involved either as volunteers or for full-time careers.

Special interest group: 111

HCI in food product innovation BIBAFull-Text 1111-1114
  Winyu Chinthammit; Henry Been-Lirn Duh; Jun Rekimoto
Food is essential to the survival of the world population. There are several processes in order to make food available to consumers: for example, production, transportation, and consumption. Since the global demand of food is always on the rise, there is a need to improve the efficiency in all the processes in food industries. For example, the food production industries are often not equipped with the right decision-making tools to allow farmers to properly deal with important factors such as environmental changes. On the other hand, tools are not difficult to create but can be very challenging to be successfully adopted by the professionals, especially when the tools require them to change their normal work practices. In this SIG, we will discuss how HCI can improve food product industries with suitable information for each food process.
Art and interaction SIG: cataloging the digital arts BIBAFull-Text 1115-1118
  David England; Jocelyn C. Spence; Celine E. Latulipe; Ernest A. Edmonds; Linda Candy; Thecla Schiphorst; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Kirk Woolford
Over the last three years the Digital Arts community of CHI has established itself and is a Spotlight for CHI2014. The focus for CHI2014 is the development of a Catalog for the Digital Arts that we hope will lead on to an Art Gallery as a future CHI conference event. This SIG will be preceded by a workshop "Curating the Digital" that will have as its outcome a research-informed design of the Catalog. The purpose of the SIG will be to open the Catalog design to wider audience participation and discussion, and invite the CHI community to support the development of the Catalog.
Current issues in assessing and improving information usability BIBAFull-Text 1119-1122
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith A. Ramey
The usability of information is vital to successful websites, products, and services. Managers and developers often recognize the role of information or content in overall product usability, but miss opportunities to improve information usability as part of the product-development effort. This meeting is an annual forum on human factors of information design, in which we discuss issues selected by the group from the facilitators' list of topics, augmented by attendees' suggestions.
Games and entertainment community SIG: reaching beyond CHI BIBAFull-Text 1123-1126
  Lennart E. Nacke; Pejman Mirza-Babaei; Magy Seif El-Nasr; Heather W. Desurvire; Regina Bernhaupt
Games and Entertainment have become important areas of research within the field of Human-Computer Interaction. The community has grown dramatically in the past years. During the previous CHI conference, there were a growing number of game-oriented submissions demonstrating the increased importance of the field. In 2014, the successful Student Games Competition and the Games User Research workshop (in its third iteration) continue to tie together students, researchers and practitioners. Games and Entertainment is one of the five research areas that have been selected as Spotlights in CHI 2014. Given the increase in quantity and variety of submissions, and the involvement and engagement of practitioners within the community, it is important for the community to have this SIG as a forum.
Interaction science SIG: overcoming challenges BIBAFull-Text 1127-1130
  Andrew Howes; Benjamin R. Cowan; Christian P. Janssen; Anna L. Cox; Paul Cairns; Anthony J. Hornof; Stephen J. Payne; Peter Pirolli
Over the past 30 years science has played a key role in shaping and advancing research in Human-Computer Interaction. Informed in part by methods, theories and findings from the behavioral sciences and from computer science, scientific contributions to HCI have provided explanations of how and why people interact through and with technology. We argue that the contribution of science to HCI could be enhanced if key challenges are met. During a SIG meeting we will discuss the challenges and potential responses and set an agenda for the coming years.
Jogging with technology: interaction design supporting sport activities BIBAFull-Text 1131-1134
  Florian Mueller; Joe Marshall; Rohit Ashok Khot; Stina Nylander; Jakob Tholander
There has been a significant increase of interactive technologies to support sports activities. Examples are heart rate monitors for cyclists, jogging apps on mobile phones and GPS sports watches for extreme sports. Despite consumer popularity, there is little knowledge about how they should be designed in order to support the exertion activity. Based on CHI'13's success of conducting a special interest group outdoors, we propose jogging with technology to discuss sports-support interactive systems and investigate what future opportunities and challenges exist.
Child computer interaction SIG: towards sustainable thinking and being BIBAFull-Text 1135-1138
  Janet C. Read; Juan Pablo Hourcade; Panos Markopoulos; Ole Sejer Iversen
The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant contributor to the ACM CHI conference. Having recently been given status as an IFIP (International Federation for Information Processing) TC13 working group, the community now needs to make plans around its academic themes and its coherence as a developing academic community. The CCI SIG at CHI aims to use a mixture of facilitated creative thinking and a world café approach to bring the community together to tackle these two key challenges. The CCI SIG will be the natural meeting place for members of this community at CHI and will disseminate its discussion to the CCI and CHI communities through the production of visual and interactive materials at the CHI conference.
The usability of text entry systems now and in the future BIBAFull-Text 1139-1142
  James Clawson; Stephen A. Brewster; Mark D. Dunlop; Per Ola Kristensson; Poika M. Isokoski; Antti Oulasvirta; Keith Vertanen; Annalu Waller
Text entry is an active and growing research domain. Our SIG serves three purposes. First, to strengthen the text entry community by bringing text entry researchers working in the human-computer interaction, natural language processing and augmentative and alternative communication communities together in one room. Second, to promote CHI as a natural and compelling focal point for all kinds of text entry research. Third, to follow-up on and broaden the discussions that emerged from two previous text entry workshops held at CHI [3, 4] by engaging in dialog to identify obstacles for success and formalizing procedures for measuring progress in the field of text entry.
Community centered collaborative HCI design / research in developing countries BIBAFull-Text 1143-1146
  Anicia N. Peters; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Nicola J. Bidwell; Arun Kumar; Daniel O. Ochieng; Fatoumata Camara; Susan M. Dray
We are proposing a SIG as an extended forum to build a sustainable network and resource repository for practitioners and researchers engaged in community centered collaborative design in developing countries. In structured discussions and an open cross-cultural dialogue, we attempt to build a practical and theoretical foundation based on success and failure stories, challenges and systematic approaches to such HCI. We will explore specific themes around time, trust and values, expectation management and transferability/ sustainability of localized projects. We intend to explore how to document and transform lessons learned into systematic approaches to be deployed in different contexts.
Interactions magazine BIBAFull-Text 1147-1150
  Ron Wakkary; Erik Stolterman
In this SIG meeting we invite attendees of CHI to join us to provide input, feedback, and discuss the ACM interactions magazine.
Managing UX teams BIBAFull-Text 1151-1154
  Janice Anne Rohn; Carola Fellenz Thompson
This SIG will serve multiple purposes: as a forum to share the results from previous CHI management panels, workshops and current trends, and also as a forum for the management community to discuss topics of interest.
Communicating user research in order to drive design and product decisions BIBAFull-Text 1155-1158
  Karen Holtzblatt; Shoshana Holtzblatt
As the industry evolved from engineering-centered design to user-centered design, organizations created new roles. These user experience (UX) roles are charged with conducting user studies, synthesizing data collected, and communicating findings to product managers, engineers, and UI designers. While it's generally accepted that user research should be performed, the challenge now is for UX professionals to represent and communicate what we find in ways that are valued and consumable by product teams. How can we get what we know into stakeholders' minds so it drives their design thinking? How can we make it compelling so they think about the user data when they are designing? How can we represent the data so that it facilitates ideation? This SIG creates a forum for people with real-world experience and challenges to discuss their best practices-and missteps-for communicating user research. It does not cover the "how to" details for gathering it.


Narrative-based elicitation: orchestrating contributions from experts and children BIBAFull-Text 1159-1164
  Joan Mora Guiard; Laura Malinverni; Narcis Pares
Integrating requirements from experts and children is a challenging task, especially when we design technology for children with special needs. This paper describes the use of the "narrative-based elicitation" as a method to facilitate the process of requirements' elicitation for the design of a Kinect game for children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. The use of narrative resources to structure meetings with experts and participatory design with children allowed a smooth orchestration between different disciplines, generations and contributions.
Find the jackalop: a game enhancing young children's spatial thinking BIBAFull-Text 1165-1170
  George Kalmpourtzis
Spatial thinking is an important human ability which contributes to mathematical thinking. The importance of developing skills related to spatial thinking, such as mental representations, orientation and navigation, starting from the early childhood is great also for other mathematical competencies, such as geometry. In addition to this, the continuous research interest on the impact of video games on student motivation [3], [5], [7] raises interesting questions on the capabilities of a game based learning environment for spatial thinking in the early childhood. "Find the Jackalop" is a video game designed specifically for this purpose, using a variety of different technologies, enabling their collaboration towards the optimum gaming experience and learning impact.
Speakup in the classroom: anonymous temporary social media for better interactions BIBAFull-Text 1171-1176
  Adrian Holzer; Sten Govaerts; Andrii Vozniuk; Bruno Kocher; Denis Gillet
Student participation in class is an important aspect of the learning experience, and can provide valuable feedback for teachers. However, getting students to interact in large classrooms is challenging. This paper presents SpeakUp, a mobile temporary social media app, confined in time and space that aims to improve interactions in classrooms. In SpeakUp, teachers can create temporary chat rooms accessible to students located nearby. Students can then anonymously post messages, which can be rated up or down by others. Our evaluation results (with a class of 300 students over the course of a semester) show that temporary social media can be used as an effective tool to improve classroom interactions by providing: (i) confined classroom-like here & now interactions to foster adoption, (ii) anonymity to increase participation and (iii) social media rating for highlighting interesting content. Students appear to use SpeakUp not solely for asking questions but also as a general backchannel, which can result in spam.
How do children adapt strategies when drawing on a tablet? BIBAFull-Text 1177-1182
  Siti Rohkmah Mohd Shukri; Andrew Howes
Children like to draw, but how easy is it for them to draw with a touch screen device? More specifically how do children adapt the way that they draw to the device and to their own limitations? Recent work has shown that while children seem to like using tablets they have specific difficulties. For example, they make multi-touch errors when only single touch actions are required. We are at the start of a project to investigate these issues. In the current article we review our theoretical and empirical perspective, which is derived, in part, from the cognitive psychology of human movement control.
Scaffolding design sessions with teenagers: the PDA approach BIBAFull-Text 1183-1188
  Daniel B. Fitton; Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read
Participatory design (PD) methods generally provide little guidance/reporting on how the tasks are introduced to participants and how participants are supported in carrying them out. This area, of understanding how a participant is guided through a design task, is particularly important for child and teenage participants who may be unwilling, for a range of reasons, to admit they do not understand a task and ask for help. This paper introduces an approach (called Primed Design Activity or PDA) used to help prime participants in a design session, the key aim of the work was to scaffold the introduction and completion of a PD task without biasing the outcome. The study reported in this paper showed that the approach was successful in assisting participants in completing a design task in a short amount of time and capturing useful outputs.
"Smiles, kids, happy songs!": how to collect metaphors with older adults BIBAFull-Text 1189-1194
  Sabrina Panëels; Fanny Le Morellec; Margarita Anastassova
In the context of an ageing society, vibrotactile wearable devices can open up new avenues for assisting older adults in their daily lives. They can provide information and yet free the hands, ears and eyes, which can be crucial to safety. However, designing intuitive informational vibrotactile messages for and with the older adults has seldom been investigated. This paper describes an initial study involving older adults in the design of vibrotactile messages for a pedestrian navigation application. The design is based on metaphors or everyday analogies in an attempt to strengthen the link between the pattern and its associated meaning. The study presents the method to collect these metaphors, focusing on the difficulties encountered with such an abstract task and the steps taken to adapt it to the audience. As a result, a number of metaphors were collected, in line with what matters for older adults (e.g. kids, health).
CopyMe: a portable real-time feedback expression recognition game for children BIBAFull-Text 1195-1200
  Natalie Harrold; Chek Tien Tan; Daniel Rosser; Tuck Wah Leong
Assistive tools are commonly used to aid children experiencing emotional developmental problems associated with psychological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In many cases early intervention is crucial to ease the struggle to identify key facial expressions and the emotions they are used to convey. Combining automatic facial expression recognition technology with real-time feedback on player performance, CopyMe is an iPad game that aims to provide a means for children to learn expressions to demonstrate emotions. In this paper, we discuss findings from a pilot study conducted at a childcare centre to evaluate the feasibility of CopyMe's use as a serious game for children to learn emotions through observation and mimicry. Based on observational and interview data, we found that the children, especially the ones affected by ASDs, were able to perform well in the game and generally expressed enjoyment during play. The design of CopyMe as well as our current findings will be most interesting for CHI attendees working in the domain of affective interfaces and serious games, especially those that target children.
A robot with style, because you are worth it! BIBAFull-Text 1201-1206
  Wafa Johal; Gaelle Calvary; Sylvie Pesty
Research in social human-robot interaction gets more and more of its inspiration from psychology to make robots' behaviour more socially acceptable when among humans. In the context of rendering a robot more suitable to be a companion for children, we propose different parenting styles (namely authoritative and permissive) and evaluate them. As a first step, we use expression cues of the parenting styles; we implemented behaviours of different styles played out by two robots, Nao and Reeti, with body and facial channels respectively for communication. 88 parents watched videos of the robots and replied to a questionnaire about the authoritativeness of the robots. The results showed that the styles were perceptible through the non-verbal behaviours of the robots. The dominant condition was perceived to be more authoritative than the less dominant condition, which validates the hypothesis. We also notice an effect of the robot's modality of expressions; further work should confirm hypotheses on the modality's effects of the perception on authoritativeness of the robot.
Designing games for the rehabilitation of functional vision for children with cerebral visual impairment BIBAFull-Text 1207-1212
  Conor Linehan; Jonathan Waddington; Timothy L. Hodgson; Kieran Hicks; Robert Banks
Evidence has accumulated that visual rehabilitation for patients with neurological visual impairment can be effective. Unfortunately, the existing therapy tools are repetitive, uninteresting, and unsuitable for use with children. This project aims to improve the engaging qualities of visual rehabilitation for children, through the design of therapy tools based on game design principles. Development is ongoing in a participatory, user-centred manner in conjunction with a specialist centre for childhood visual impairment. This paper outlines design requirements and briefly reports early findings of the development process.
Supporting autism therapists: co-designing interventions BIBAFull-Text 1213-1218
  Carlos Duarte; Luis Carriço; Tiago Guerreiro; Carla Almeida; Soraia Nobre; Ana Margarida Campos
In this paper we report on the design of a support system for autism therapists. The system was co-designed with a team of therapists working with autistic children and supports session management and data collection and analysis. It is integrated with a storytelling interactive environment in the context of improving the social skills of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder. Preliminary results show the potential advantages of such a system for the therapists' work.
MEA: designing a multimodal email support tool for persons with Aphasia BIBAFull-Text 1219-1224
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Rick van de Ven; Laurens Slats; Esther van der Veen; Zlati Petkov; Omar Mubin
We describe the design of an assistive email interface for persons with aphasia who have problems in reading, writing, and or speaking. The email interface was designed by consulting persons with aphasia, their therapists and partners. Writing support such as readymade sentences and recommendations of words from free hand drawing were introduced. The application is suitable to be used in smart phone/tablet pc and highly praised by the therapists and persons with aphasia. Our user studies showed that the application has potential for persons with aphasia due to its simplicity in use and alternative means of language support while composing email messages.
Use octopus launcher like your hands: joystick-based smartphone control solution for motor impaired people in electric wheelchairs BIBAFull-Text 1225-1230
  Hyunjin Ahn; Yoojung Kim; Bongwon Suh
The rapid spread of smartphones based on touch interfaces is now playing a serious role in the digital divide to the physically disabled, especially to people with motor impairments. Motor impairments often result in muscle weakness, poor stamina, lack of muscle control, or total paralysis making it hard to fine-control fingers, which is essential to touch interactions. Through observation and in-depth interviews, we reached a design decision that an electric wheelchair joystick is a very viable interface device for users with motor impairments. Based on the findings, we developed Octopus Launcher, which is a solution to help motor impaired users to utilize smartphones by controlling the cursor on the smartphone screen using the joystick. Octopus Launcher takes advantage of the eight directional controls of a joystick readily equipped in electric wheelchairs. The launcher is designed to control various touch interactions as well as hardware buttons by use of a joystick on a wheelchair. Octopus Launcher is an interaction framework that enables many disabled people who can use the eight-direction joystick to control a smartphone.
Vision-deprived virtual navigation patterns using depth cues & the effect of extended sensory range BIBAFull-Text 1231-1236
  Shachar Maidenbaum; Daniel-Robert Chebat; Shelly Levy-Tzedek; Amir Amedi
How does the lack of vision affect one's path through real & virtual environments? How do these routes change when different assistive tools, such as the traditional White-Cane or new devices such as the EyeCane, are used? These questions have significant repercussions as independent Mobility poses one of the main challenges facing the blind. Here, we use a series of virtual environments and non-visual interfaces to comparatively explore the differences in intuitive navigation: when using the virtual-EyeCane, when using a virtual White-Cane, when navigating without using a device at all and finally when navigating visually. We show that using the virtual-EyeCane as a non-visual interface to virtual environments increases their accessibility, that characteristics of navigating with it are different from those of White-Cane users and from those of navigation without an assistive device, and that users of the virtual-EyeCane complete more levels successfully, taking a shorter path and with less collisions than users of the white cane or no device. Finally, we demonstrate that navigation with the virtual-EyeCane takes on patterns relatively similar to those of navigating visually.
Design of an accessible and portable system for soccer players with visual impairments BIBAFull-Text 1237-1242
  Alireza Zare; Kyla McMullen; Christina Gardner-McCune
Many people with visual impairments actively play soccer, however the task of making the game accessible is met with significant challenges. These challenges include: the need to constantly talk to signify location and detecting the positions of silent objects on the field. Our work aims to discover methods to help persons with visual impairments play soccer more efficiently and safely. The proposed system uses headphone-rendered spatial audio, an on-person computer, and sensors to create 3D sound that represents the objects on the field in real-time. This depiction of the field will help players to more accurately detect the locations of objects and people on the field. The present work describes the design of such a system and discusses perceptual challenges. Broadly, our work aims to discover ways to enable people with visual impairments to detect the position of moving objects, which will allow them to feel empowered in their personal lives and give them the confidence to navigate more independently.
Design for one: a game controller for a quadriplegic gamer BIBAFull-Text 1243-1248
  Henry W. J. Lin; Leila Aflatoony; Ron Wakkary
This paper explores utilizing digital fabrication and electronic prototyping techniques to build a game controller and a mouse for a quadriplegic patient over a six-month period. We present two products (keyboard and mouse) and DIY electronic prototyping techniques, which were developed in a collaborative effort between the designers and a quadriplegic teenager. We suggest that DIY and personal digital fabrication techniques can be adopted by occupational therapists and assistive technologists in particular cases, or where the traditional techniques fail to support or meet patients' requirements.
Technology to support emergent literacy skills in young children with visual impairments BIBAFull-Text 1249-1254
  Abigale Stangl; Jeeeun Kim; Tom Yeh
Developing emergent literacy skills and attitudes within children with visual impairments is critical to cultivating their lifelong ability to construct concepts about the function of symbols and develop tactile acuity. We offer novel HCI research on the factors that impact parents' abilities to create tactile pictures to meet their child's unique needs. The findings presented here are our first steps towards developing technologies and interfaces that support teachers and parents in easily and efficiently creating unique and replicable tactile graphics for children with visual impairments.
Making electronics more accessible to people with learning disabilities BIBAFull-Text 1255-1260
  Nic Hollinworth; Faustina Hwang; Kate Allen; Gosia Malgosia Kwiatkowska; Andy Minnion
We extended 'littleBits' electronic components by attaching them to a larger base that was designed to help make them easier to pick up and handle, and easier to assemble into circuits for people with learning disabilities. A pilot study with a group of students with learning disabilities was very positive. There were fewer difficulties in assembling the components into circuits, and problems such as attempting to connect them the wrong way round or the wrong way up were eliminated completely.
HoverZoom: making on-screen keyboards more accessible BIBAFull-Text 1261-1266
  Frederic Pollmann; Dirk Wenig; Rainer Malaka
Text entry on mobile devices such as smartphones or tablets almost exclusively depends on using on-screen keyboards that base on touch interaction. Due to the often limited space available on the touchscreen, the keys are displayed very small and are therefore hard to hit, especially in mobile scenarios or with users that do not have perfect eyesight. In our work we utilize a feature of some smartphones where a user's finger is detected before it touches the screen. This hover detection is used to enlarge the area of the keyboard under the finger to make it more readable and easier to use. A first working prototype exists and will be evaluated in the near future.
Welcoming gesture recognition into autism therapy BIBAFull-Text 1267-1272
  Carlos Duarte; Luis Carriço; David Costa; Daniel Costa; André Falcão; Luís Tavares
Gesture imitation has recognized benefits as a therapy for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Even tough automatic gesture recognition has advanced greatly in the last years, its application in the field of autism therapy has been mostly irrelevant. In this paper we present a solution that: 1) integrates gesture imitation into storytelling therapies; 2) is capable to learn new gestures without an explicit learning stage; 3) provides automatic gesture recognition capable of assisting therapists during interventions, and might support social skills practice at home.
HamsaTouch: tactile vision substitution with smartphone and electro-tactile display BIBAFull-Text 1273-1278
  Hiroyuki Kajimoto; Masaki Suzuki; Yonezo Kanno
This paper documents the development and evaluation of a novel tactile vision substitution system (TVSS) for the people with visual impairments. The system is composed of an electro-tactile display with 512 electrodes, the same number of optical sensors beneath each electrode, and a smartphone with a camera and an LCD. The smartphone acquires the surrounding view, conducts image processing and displays the image on the LCD. The image is captured by the optical sensors and converted to a tactile image by the electro-tactile display. While the concept of the TVSS is classic, combining the commonly available mobile device and electro-tactile display enables a low cost yet powerful and compact system. Furthermore, optical communication architecture enables an open development environment.
Augmented climbing: interacting with projected graphics on a climbing wall BIBAFull-Text 1279-1284
  Raine Kajastila; Perttu Hämäläinen
This paper describes our efforts in developing a novel augmented climbing wall. Our system combines projected graphics on an artificial climbing wall and body tracking using computer vision technology. The system is intended for accelerating motor skill learning or to make monotonous parts of the training fun by adding relevant goals and encouraging social collaboration. We describe six initial prototypes and the feedback obtained from testing them with intermediate and experienced climbers.
An augmented workplace for enabling user-defined tangibles BIBAFull-Text 1285-1290
  Markus Funk; Oliver Korn; Albrecht Schmidt
In this work, we introduce a novel setup for an augmented workplace, which allows for defining and interacting with user-defined tangibles. State-of-the-art tangible user interface systems equip both the underlying surface and the tangible control with sensors or markers. At the workplace, having one unique tangible for each available action results in confusion. Furthermore, tangible controls mix with regular objects and induce a messy desk. Therefore, we introduce the concept of user-defined tangibles, which enable a spontaneous binding between physical objects and digital functions. With user-defined tangibles the need for specially designed tangible controls disappears and each physical object on the augmented workplace can be turned into a tangible control. We introduce a prototypical system and outline an interaction concept.
Shvil: collaborative augmented reality land navigation BIBAFull-Text 1291-1296
  Nico Li; Aditya Shekhar Nittala; Ehud Sharlin; Mario Costa Sousa
We present our prototype of Shvil, an Augmented Reality (AR) system for collaborative land navigation. Shvil facilitates path planning and execution by creating a collaborative medium between an overseer (indoor user) and an explorer (outdoor user) using AR and 3D printing techniques. Shvil provides a remote overseer with a physical representation of the topography of the mission, and merges the physical presence of the explorer and the actions of the overseer via dynamic AR visualization. The system supports collaboration by both overlaying visual information related to the explorer on top of the overseer's local physical representation, and overlaying visual information in-situ for the explorer as it emerges from the overseer. We report our current prototype effort and preliminary results, and our vision for the future of Shvil.
Really, it's for your own good...making augmented reality navigation tools harder to use BIBAFull-Text 1297-1302
  James Wen; Agnes Deneka; William Helton; Mark Billinghurst
Improvements in navigation technology have made pedestrian guidance so easy, concerns have been raised over possible negative consequences. In particular, users may lose the ability to form mental maps, which may result in an undesired dependency on navigation tools. It has been proposed that better spatial awareness may be achieved by forcing users to expend greater effort in the navigation process. However, this runs against the general concepts of usability which seek to increase ease-of-use. Prior studies have either been inconclusive or profess to have created effort-inducing features that may not appeal to users. Practical usability is one focus of our research and we present an interface that addresses this focus while balancing navigation efficiency with acquisition of spatial knowledge. We report on promising preliminary results of observed user-tool interaction while we continue to collect data for this work in progress.
Enhancing augmented reality for use in product design BIBAFull-Text 1303-1308
  Timothy G. Purdy; Young Mi Choi
Feedback from users is an invaluable part of the product design process. Prototypes of varying levels of detail are frequently used to solicit this feedback for attributes related to the physical and user experience aspects of a product. There are limitations to current approaches. Accurate feedback is most useful early in the design process where changes to a product are easier to make. At the same time highly detailed prototypes which allow accurate feedback are generally not available until later in the design process after major design decisions have already been made. This paper will discuss Augmented Reality as a potential solution to this problem by combining physical attributes with easily changeable virtual aspects.
Generic method for crafting deformable interfaces to physically augment smartphones BIBAFull-Text 1309-1314
  Chihiro Watanabe; Alvaro Cassinelli; Yoshihiro Watanabe; Masatoshi Ishikawa
Though we live in the era of the touchscreen (tablet PCs and smart phones providing a rigid and flat interface) people and the industry are getting excited about the world of tangible 3D interfaces. This may be explained for two reasons: first, the emergence of cheap vision-based gestural interfaces conquering the space above and below the screen (but without haptic feedback), and second -- and perhaps more important for the present discussion -- the explosion of the 3D printing industry and the possibility for the end user to not only customise the layout of icons on a screen, but also of designing their own physical, deformable interface from scratch. Mass-produced smartphones could then be seen as bare-bone electronics devices whose shape can be physically augmented, personalised and crafted.
   Now, in order to introduce DIY techniques in the world of deformable input-output interfaces, it is necessary to provide a generic manufacturing/sensing method for such arbitrarily designed shapes. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate a minimally invasive method (i.e. no wiring) to physically augment rigid tablet PCs or smartphones. By putting a deformable object over the front or rear camera -- this 'object' can be part of the smartphone case itself -- and by making the inside of the object partially transparent, the complex light reflections can be used to recognise patterns of deformation/grasping and map them to different UI actions. A machine learning algorithm allows object shape and deformation to be designed arbitrarily, bringing the device physical personalisation at a level never reached before, with minimal interference with its original hardware.
CAPTIVE: a cube with augmented physical tools BIBAFull-Text 1315-1320
  Arpan Chakraborty; Ryan Gross; Shea McIntee; Kyung Wha Hong; Jae Yeol Lee; Robert St. Amant
This paper describes a tangible 3D user interface called CAPTIVE, a Cube with Augmented Physical Tools, for exploration of 3D information. The design of CAPTIVE is founded on the concept of tool use, in which handheld tool objects are used to modify the properties or appearance of target objects. The user of CAPTIVE holds a physical wireframe cube that contains virtual objects in one hand, in the other a pointing device, its tip visually augmented to reflect its function as a tool. On the display the user watches the immediate, direct effects of actions with the tool. In the current prototype, routines for handling cube manipulation and an augmented haptic pointing device have been separately implemented, but integration and refinement remain to be done. In this paper we describe our vision of the system and preliminary testing carried out to date.
Using 3D hand gestures and touch input for wearable AR interaction BIBAFull-Text 1321-1326
  Huidong Bai; Gun Lee; Mark Billinghurst
While wearable devices have been developed that incorporate computing, sensing and display technology into a head-worn package, they often have limited input methods that might not be appropriate for natural 3D interaction which is necessary for Augmented Reality (AR) applications. In this paper we report on a prototype interface that supports natural 3D free-hand gestures on wearable computers. In addition to using hand gestures for AR interaction, we also look into allowing users to combine low resolution hand gestures in 3D with high resolution touch input. We show how this could be used in a wearable AR interface and present early pilot study results.
Rubikon: a highly reconfigurable device for advanced interaction BIBAFull-Text 1327-1332
  Anne Roudaut; Diego Martinez; Amir Chohan; Vlad-Stefan Otrocol; Rupert Cobbe-Warburton; Max Steele; Ioana-Madalina Patrichi
Rubikon is a device that allows users to interact with common user interfaces by using an augmented Rubik's Cube that senses users' actions and displays information on each tile. Rubikon has advantages over the traditional mouse or the mid-air approach such as high number of degrees of freedom and implicit haptic feedback when rotating the sides. We present our first prototype that senses rotations and has a button with a RGB LED on each side. We also present four applications we developed for it. We then show the results of a preliminary study assessing the potential of Rubikon as an interactive device.
Babywijzer: an application to support women during their pregnancy BIBAFull-Text 1333-1338
  Anouk Wierckx; Suleman Shahid; Abdullah Al Mahmud
Mobile health (mHealth) provides a new way to bridge the communication gap between patients and their primary health care providers. This study investigates how a mobile application can support Dutch pregnant women. A prototype, called Babywijzer, was designed to support pregnant women's needs. Babywijzer is a mobile intervention, which enables pregnant women to search directly for an answer to their pregnancy related questions and follow current evidence based recommendations. The early evaluation showed that the Babywijzer app has a positive effect on the pregnant women's knowledge, awareness, confidence and satisfaction.
Lightweight support for collaborative web browsing through spreadvector BIBAFull-Text 1339-1344
  Mirko Fetter; Ralf Strobel; Tom Gross
We present SpreadVector, a prototype providing light-weight support for collaborative Web browsing. While a broad need for co-browsing tools has been repeatedly identified, the rate of mainstream adoption for existing solutions is still marginal. We argue that one reason is the lack of tools that offer lightweight collaborative browsing support. With SpreadVector we provide a concept and prototype for lightweight co-browsing.
Linking external and internal search: investigating the site searching patterns of referred searchers BIBAFull-Text 1345-1350
  Adan Ortiz-Cordova; Bernard J. Jansen
In this research, we investigate the relationship between external search on a major search engine and the subsequent internal search on an individual web site. Insights in the relationship can be a competitive advantage for websites. We use 295,271 searching sessions of an online Spanish entertainment business collected over a five month period. We develop a classification scheme for external and internal search queries using the referral query as the starting point. Using an n-gram approach, we identify query patterns for 295,271 searching episodes. We aggregate and identify six searching patterns. The three major searching strategies are Explorers (47%, a broad query for external search and then multiple broad queries during internal search), Navigators (16%, a navigational query for external search and then specific queries during internal search), and Acquirers (15%, transaction queries for both external and internal search). The remaining three patterns are Shifters (12%), Persisters (7%), and Orienteers (3%). Identification of searching patterns and related content can be a competitive advantage for websites dependent on providing relevant, fresh, and locatable information.
What people inquire about locations?: a study on the taxonomy of location-based questions in campus BIBAFull-Text 1351-1356
  Liwen Wang; Ling Chen; Cangjian Hou; Gencai Chen
More and more people turn to their social networks to ask questions. Among these questions the most frequently asked ones are about locations. In this paper, we focus on this specific type of questions, and try to find out what kinds of questions people ask about locations in campus -- a microcosm of social network. We collected 2010 posts on campus information board of an active university forum in four weeks and extracted 413 location-based questions. Then we proposed a reliable taxonomy of location-based questions in four dimensions (purpose, level of urgency, reusability, and location range). In purpose dimension, we found (factual and opinion) knowledge seeking questions (69%) and help seeking and offering questions (26%) are most frequently asked. A further correlation analysis revealed the relations between these four dimensions and gave design implications.
Should i stay or should i go: two features to help people stop an exploratory search wisely BIBAFull-Text 1357-1362
  Yuan Jia; Xi Niu
In today's "overloaded" information environment, deciding a stopping point for an exploratory search is not an easy decision. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of two search techniques: Result Preview (RP) and History Review (HR), to help people assess whether the information gained is enough and decide if he/she should quit or continue. Both RP and HR are utilizing visual presentations to release people from the demanding cognitive requirements needed for an exploratory search. A formal user experiment with 24 participants is proposed to evaluate the benefits and limitations, and also inform the future RP and HR design.
Unified visualization of quantitative and qualitative playtesting data BIBAFull-Text 1363-1368
  Pejman Mirza-Babaei; Günter Wallner; Graham McAllister; Lennart E. Nacke
A major challenge in studying player experience is tying together the results of quantitative and qualitative games user research (GUR) data. For example, combining data from players' physiological measures with questionnaire or interview results and in-game movement data into a single report is not straightforward because the underlying data is often in different formats. Visualization techniques can facilitate the understanding of relationships among these data sets. Although various visualization techniques have already been introduced in GUR, most of these techniques only focus on displaying large amounts of data captured directly via telemetry without integrating qualitative or contextual data on players' emotional experience. Hence, here we propose a novel visualization approach to triangulate the above mentioned mixed data sources.
Visualizing vocal expression BIBAFull-Text 1369-1374
  Mary Pietrowicz; Karrie G. Karahalios
Sound, especially speech, is ephemeral. It is a high-speed, ordered, multichannel stream that plays for a time, and leaves shadows of its presence in our memories. When we communicate, we exchange semantic, expressive, and relational messages. Most of our communicative power lies outside semantics, yet these expressive and relational exchanges are underexplored. We and others have experimented with visual representations of speech, yet little is known about the interpretability, usability, and efficacy of the visualizations; here we focus on interpretability. We provide a system for expressive vocal analysis, new voice visualizations which map vocal parameters to different designs, and a study focusing on the interpretability of the resulting voice visualizations.
GLOs: graph-level operations for exploratory network visualization BIBAFull-Text 1375-1380
  Charles D. Stolper; Florian Foerster; Minsuk Kahng; Zhiyuan Lin; Aakash Goel; John Stasko; Duen Horng Chau
There is a wealth of visualization techniques available for graph and network visualization. However, each of these techniques was designed for a specific task. Many graph visualization techniques and the transitions between them can be specified using a set of operations on the visualization elements such as positioning or resizing nodes, showing or hiding edges, or showing or hiding axes. We term these operations Graph-Level Operations or GLOs. Our goal is to identify and provide a comprehensive set of these operations in order to better support the broadest range of graph and network analysis tasks. Here we present early results of our work, including a preliminary set of operations and an example application of GLOs in transitioning between familiar graph visualization techniques.
Beyond physical bar charts: an exploration of designing physical visualizations BIBAFull-Text 1381-1386
  Simon Stusak; Ayfer Aslan
Physical visualizations only recently started to attract attention from the InfoVis and HCI communities. They are well known to encourage playful exploration and to stimulate curiosity, but are also considered to support analytical information visualization tasks. However, creating effective and usable physical visualizations has not been explored in much detail. In this work, we present our early approaches and experiences in designing and building novel physical visualizations. We started with sketches on paper, created first low fidelity prototypes out of cardboard and built the final visualizations with thread, acrylic glass and a laser cutter. An initial user study was conducted to investigate if basic information retrieval tasks can be accomplished with our physical visualizations and how users interact with them.
Annotation of graphical elements in visualizations for an efficient analysis of visual tasks BIBAFull-Text 1387-1398
  Michael Raschke; Stefan Strohmaier; Tanja Blascheck; Thomas Ertl
Data visualizations evaluated in an eye tracking experiment can be analyzed by using areas of interest (AOIs) on the data visualization. Usually, AOIs are defined manually and have to be adjusted if the layout of the stimulus is changed. Since this manual adjustment is time-consuming, we have developed a concept to automatically annotate graphical elements of visualizations using information from an ontology. This automatic annotation allows us to keep the information about AOIs when the layout of a visualization is changed. To evaluate our concept, we have implemented a prototype with the visualization framework D3. The paper concludes with a discussion of the concept's limitations, its application on graphical user interfaces, and a future perspective on this approach.
Doing gender in input fields BIBAFull-Text 1399-1404
  Nicola Marsden
The work-in-progress outlined in this paper focuses on the role input fields in webforms play in the performance of gender. Based on the premise that doing gender in HCI should be studied both on the macro- and the micro-HCI level, and highlighting the perceived necessity of knowing someone's gender to interact with them, my research explores the micro aspect of input fields for titles: I have completed a search for user interface design patterns available to design input fields for titles and have sampled current practices of designing input fields in German websites. A second survey is ongoing. Afterwards I will develop alternative user interaction patterns for making choices regarding the selection of a title. The aim of these alternatives will be to trigger critical reflection on the danger of reifying the societal status quo via an input field.
From DIY tutorials to DIY recipes BIBAFull-Text 1405-1410
  Matthew A. Dalton; Audrey Desjardins; Ron Wakkary
While online DIY (do-it-yourself) tutorials have increasingly gained interest both at CHI and in the DIY and Maker communities, there is not a lot of research concerning the qualities and drawbacks of the current formats used to share DIY knowledge online. Drawing on our current study of DIY tutorials, in this paper we propose an experimentation in which we "translate" DIY tutorials from their current formats to a more traditional cookbook style format. We present two tutorials -- the Cardboard Desklamp and the DIY Cellphone -- with their translation and discuss what we learned from the translation process.
Towards an integrated methodological framework for understanding embodiment in HCI BIBAFull-Text 1411-1416
  Anna Xambó; Carey Jewitt; Sara Price
The third wave in HCI reveals how embodiment matters in post-WIMP computing systems. Yet it is still unclear what methods provide effective insight into the nature of embodiment in HCI in relation to both design and use. This paper presents work in progress on MIDAS, a cross-disciplinary methodological research project on embodiment and technology exploring synergies across the fields of Digital Arts and Social Sciences. We argue that exploiting these synergies can contribute towards an integrated, innovative and progressive framework for understanding digital body interactions. We introduce the 5 ongoing case studies that inform MIDAS, outline the project's use of multimodal ethnography, and discuss two emerging themes: "conceptualising the body" and "the sensory", which will contribute to a methodological framework for informing future design, analysis and evaluation of HCI systems.
Programming in the pond: a tabletop computer programming exhibit BIBAFull-Text 1417-1422
  Michael S. Horn; David Weintrop; Emily Routman
We present the design of an interactive tabletop exhibit intended to engage visitors in free-form computer programming activities at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, California. We describe our design goals and outline challenges associated with creating this interactive experience for a free-choice learning environment. We review results of testing sessions with users from our target audience across three successive prototypes.
The timeline as a programming interface BIBAFull-Text 1423-1428
  Bruno Cardoso; Teresa Romão
The task of implementing meaningful reactive behavior in mobile applications is not trivial. To abstract over platform-specific details while writing expressive and legible code, we've developed EveWorks, a framework for context awareness that interfaces with the rest of the application code through statements written in a simple, interpreted language. In this work, we explain the conceptualization that stands at the core of our framework's language, inspired by one of the most ubiquitous representations of temporality, the timeline.
Exploring the need for visualizations in system administration tools BIBAFull-Text 1429-1434
  Jeevitha Mahendiran; Kirstie A. Hawkey; Nur Zincir-Heywood
Visualization is an effective way to explore and understand abstract data. While many tool domains have benefitted from the use of visualizations, they currently are in limited use in system administrator tools. The long-term objective of this research is to ease the work of sys admins through enhanced visualizations. Before we can design such tools, we must better understand the work of sys admins, their current tool environment, and how interactive visualizations and system models might enhance their routines. This paper presents our two-phase requirements gathering study currently underway.
Making 3D printed objects interactive using wireless accelerometers BIBAFull-Text 1435-1440
  Jonathan Hook; Thomas Nappey; Steve Hodges; Peter Wright; Patrick Olivier
We present an approach that allows designers and others to quickly and easily make 3D printed objects interactive, without the need for hardware or software expertise and with little modification to an object's physical design. With our approach, a designer simply attaches or embeds small three-axis wireless accelerometer modules into the moving parts of a 3D printed object. A simple graphical user interface is then used to configure the system to interpret the movements of these accelerometers as if they were common physical controls such as buttons or dials. The designer can then associate events generated by these controls with a range of interactive behavior, including web browser and media player control.
NatCut: an interactive tangible editor for physical object fabrication BIBAFull-Text 1441-1446
  Stefan Schneegass; Alireza Sahami Shirazi; Tanja Döring; David Schmid; Albrecht Schmidt
While physical prototyping and personal fabrication is currently getting increasingly popular, many of the tools used to design 3D objects are still complex and cumbersome to use. In this paper, we address this issue and present a novel tabletop-based tangible editor, called NatCut, that allows the quick and easy design of physical enclosures for interactive prototypes. To generate an enclosure with NatCut, the user first chooses a basic geometric shape for it on the tabletop surface. By simply placing electronic components on the displayed 2D layout for the enclosure, respective cut-outs and holes are generated. Further, a number of user interactions on the tabletop screen are supported to modify, personalize, and enrich the casing. The resulting 2D layout contains all joints needed to assemble the parts after laser cutting. We discuss the results of a user study in which we tested the approach.
A half-implant device on fingernails BIBAFull-Text 1447-1452
  Emi Tamaki; Ken Iwasaki
Hand gesture feedback systems using tactile or visual information can only be used in given situations because of the limitations of the device features such as the need for a battery. In this paper, we propose a half-implant device located on the fingernail. The half-implant device consists of a radio frequency (RF) receiving antenna, small electronic parts, and UV gel. The UV gel is used to glue the parts onto the user's nail and cover the parts meant to be waterproof. The device receives power from the RF antenna; therefore, it does not require a battery to function. It notifies whether the finger is in a target site by lighting an LED or activating a vibration motor. The primary benefit of this device is that the user can feel hand gesture feedback, anytime and anywhere. The device can be placed on the users' fingernail for approximately three weeks. To verify the devices' influence on the users' pointing task, we conducted a preliminary user study. The task success rate was 100% over the sessions with tactile and visual feedback and 97% without feedback. The experiment revealed that the tactile notification reduced the task time by 12.3% compared to that of the test with no feedback.
CapStudio: an interactive screencast for visual application development BIBAFull-Text 1453-1458
  Koumei Fukahori; Daisuke Sakamoto; Jun Kato; Takeo Igarashi
Programmers write and edit their source code in a text editor. However, when they design the look-and-feel of a game application such as an image of a game character and an arrangement of a button, it would be more intuitive to edit the application by directly interacting with these objects on a game window. Although modern game engines realize this facility, they use a highly structured framework and limit what the programmer can edit. In this paper, we present CapStudio, a development environment for a visual application with an interactive screencast. A screencast is a movie player-like output window with code editing functionality. The screencast works with a traditional text editor. Modifications of source code in the text editor and visual elements on the screencast will be immediately reflected on each other. We created an example application and confirmed the feasibility of our approach.
Gamification of collaborative idea generation and convergence BIBAFull-Text 1459-1464
  Ali Moradian; Maaz Nasir; Kelly Lyons; Rock Leung; Susan Elliott Sim
Collaborative brainstorming does not always result in more ideas or higher quality ideas than working individually. We designed a system with game elements to incent participation in a collaborative creative idea generation processes of brainstorming followed by a convergence activity. We compared teams using the system with and without game elements to investigate the effect of the elements on collaborative work activities. Preliminary results suggest that game elements can help teams produce more ideas during brainstorming and engage in more discussion during a subsequent convergence activity, without negatively affecting idea quality.
RoVatar: semi-autonomous robot boxing game by miniature avatars BIBAFull-Text 1465-1470
  ByungIn Yoo; Changkyu Choi; Nam-Joon Kim; Jae-Joon Han; Dusik Park; Junmo Kim
In this paper, we present a real-time prototype of a robot boxing game based on a novel interaction method which provides a simpler control for a miniature humanoid. Specifically, an upper body of the robot mimics a user's upper body motion, while a lower body of the robot moves autonomously towards a target object (an opponent robot). To the best of our knowledge this is the first robot boxing game which provides semi-autonomous control based on natural human motions. Questionnaire interview shows the users feel immersive gaming experience and companionship with the robot in the living room.
What nouns and adjectives in online game reviews can tell us about player experience? BIBAFull-Text 1471-1476
  Miaoqi Zhu; Xiaowen Fang
This paper presents a study attempting to investigate player experience by examining nouns and adjectives used in online game reviews. Built on our previous lexical analysis of adjectives in online game reviews, we argue that nouns together with adjectives will likely provide richer information than adjectives alone. We adopted a revised lexical approach and analyzed nouns and adjectives from 821,122 structured reviews provided by different stakeholders in the game community (e.g., players, developers, and producer etc.) 97 factors were identified and ranked from 5,130 unique terms. Results were presented and discussed.
Is 60 FPS better than 30?: the impact of frame rate and latency on moving target selection BIBAFull-Text 1477-1482
  Benjamin F. Janzen; Robert J. Teather
We present a pilot study investigating the relationship between frame rate and latency and their effects on moving target selection. In several latency/frame rate conditions, participants were given a 20 second time frame to click as many moving targets as possible. Performance with 60 FPS frame rate was 14% higher than 30 FPS, but the difference between 45 and 60 FPS was not significant. Latency alone had lower impact than the corresponding frame rate difference. While both factors impact performance, frame rate had a larger effect than the latency it introduces.
Civic engagement meets pervasive gaming: towards long-term mobile participation BIBAFull-Text 1483-1488
  Ulrich Lehner; Matthias Baldauf; Veikko Eranti; Wolfgang Reitberger; Peter Fröhlich
An increasing number of smartphone applications to engage and involve citizens in themes of urban government is available and enables mobile participation on-the-go. However, the current functionality of so-called "m-participation apps" is often restricted to one-way reporting of issues by citizens, and thus more strategic long-term participation is not supported. To enhance traditional m-participation approaches and encourage continuous engagement, we investigate their fusion with location-based games in a user-centered research process. In this paper, we present the results of a web survey among 33 gamers which uncover the main motivators for playing location-based games. Based upon these findings, we derive a new long-term m-participation concept named Community Circles and introduce a first functional prototype to be used in future focus group studies.
The effect of multiplayer dynamic difficulty adjustment on the player experience of video games BIBAFull-Text 1489-1494
  Alexander Baldwin; Daniel Johnson; Peta A. Wyeth
Multiplayer Dynamic Difficulty Adjustment (mDDA) is a method of reducing the difference in player performance and subsequent challenge in competitive multiplayer video games. As a balance of between player skill and challenge experienced is necessary for optimal player experience, this experimental study investigates the effects of mDDA and awareness of its presence on player performance and experience using subjective and biometric measures. Early analysis indicates that mDDA normalizes performance and challenge as expected, but awareness of its presence can reduce its effectiveness.
Performance of modern gaming input devices in first-person shooter target acquisition BIBAFull-Text 1495-1500
  Alexander Zaranek; Bryan Ramoul; Hua Fei Yu; Yiyu Yao; Robert J. Teather
We present a pilot study quantifying the targeting performance of several modern game input devices. These included a mouse, a game controller, the PS Move and the Kinect. Our study used a 3D first-person shooting game task, based on the ISO 9241-9 experimental paradigm for evaluating pointing devices. Comparison of performance measures indicated that the mouse was best, with the game controller coming in a close second. Performance of the 3D input devices (Move and Kinect) was much worse.
Geo-sociograms: a method to analyze movement patterns and characterize tasks in location-based multiplayer games BIBAFull-Text 1501-1506
  Gero Herkenrath; Carl Huch; Florian Heller; Jan Borchers
Location-based multiplayer games happen in real space so movement is not the location change of an avatar in a virtual world, but real change of a player's physical location. Additionally, movement is a core interaction of these games. This makes the distances between players a key element of the game dynamics. Annotating recorded movements requires video annotation which is time-consuming and prone to mistakes. To tackle this problem we introduce geo-sociograms as a method to visualize distances between players over time at a glance. We apply this method to existing data, showing that it leads to many of the same insights as traditional video analysis while being less time-consuming. A study indicates that geo-sociograms have the potential to help characterize types of location-based games. Ultimately, we hope that geo-sociograms will help predict movement patterns when using particular game design elements.
Playful science: deriving computer games from complex systems BIBAFull-Text 1507-1512
  Reuben Kirkham; Jesse Blum; Michael A. Brown
We explore the possibility of converting computational models of real-world phenomena into computer games. Fusing the fields of computer games and complexity science enables us to not only directly educate the public about science, but also perform valuable scientific research through crowdsourcing whilst introducing genuinely innovative gaming experiences. We highlight the natural overlap between these concerns, before offering our vision as to how to take this forwards as a cohesive research agenda.
Investigating players' responses to wayfinding cues in 3D video games BIBAFull-Text 1513-1518
  Dinara Moura; Lyn Bartram
Wayfinding (or navigation) is one of the most basic interactions within 3D video games since players need to navigate the environment before performing any other task in the game. Even so, there is little research on the difficulties, needs and preferences of players regarding wayfinding in 3D game worlds. To tackle this issue, we conducted a study to investigate how gamers respond to different visual wayfinding cues depending on the game context. Participants played a 3D game and then reported on their experience and expectations through interviews. This initial work aims to inform designers of factors influencing players' wayfinding decisions and the gaming experience.
Common playability problems in social network games BIBAFull-Text 1519-1524
  Janne Paavilainen; Hannu J. Korhonen; Kati Alha
Social network games on Facebook have become a popular genre of video games. Social network integration and the free-to-play revenue model make them easily accessible but also easy to discard. In such an ecosystem, the quality of the game plays an important part. Improving playability is one method for achieving higher quality game experiences which might in turn lead to better retention and monetization. In this work-in-progress paper, we examine 12 social games and present the ten most common problem categories featuring game usability, gameplay and platform related playability problems.
A brief technical note on haptic jellyfish with falcon and openGL BIBAFull-Text 1525-1530
  Miao Song; Serguei A. Mokhov; Peter Grogono
The ultimate goal of the project is to have a fully-tangible 3D interactive responsive jellyfish character, a work inspired by nature. We begin with a real-time physically simulated 2D prototype jellyfish that swims about and classically the users can just "drag" it around using a mouse. This work augments the interaction model with the attachment of the Novint Falcon haptic device that the jellyfish itself can "move" through the calculation of internal forces as we accumulate them for each of its particles, one of which serves as a guide particle to send the force coefficients to Falcon. The idea is to "feel" the weight and push of the jellyfish as it moves along and interact with it to change its direction. The subsequent work will focus on augmenting the bell of the jellyfish to 3D and more realistic tentacles. All are done in affordable Falcon and OpenGL. The jellyfish itself is based on the elastic real-time two-layer softbody simulation framework.
QuoDocs: improving developer engagement in software documentation through gamification BIBAFull-Text 1531-1536
  Ryan Sukale; Mark S. Pfaff
Open source projects are created and maintained by developers who are distributed across the globe. As projects become larger, a developer's knowledge of a project's conceptual model becomes specialized. When new members join a project, it is difficult for them to understand the reasoning behind the structure and organization of the project since they do not have access to earlier discussions. We interviewed and surveyed developers from a popular open source project hosting website to find out how they maintain documentation and communicate the project details with new members. We found that documentation is largely out of sync with code and that developers do not find maintaining it to be an engaging activity. In this paper, we propose a new system -- QuoDocs -- and take a human-centered approach to introduce competitiveness and personalization to engage software developers in documenting their projects.
Improving guide dog team play with accessible dog toys BIBAFull-Text 1537-1542
  Sabrina Hauser; Ron Wakkary; Carman Neustaedter
People with vision impairment have been a longstanding well-recognized user group addressed in HCI. Despite the recent interest in studying sighted dog owners and their pets in HCI, there is a noticeable gap in the field with regards to research on visually impaired owners and their dogs (guide dog teams). This paper presents portions of an ongoing study that explores interactions of guide dog teams revealing major opportunities for focusing on challenges faced in "off-work" everyday activities. In particular, opportunities point to promoting design interventions enriching play-interaction through accessible dog toys utilizing sensor technologies.
Multimodal target prediction model BIBAFull-Text 1543-1548
  Pradipta Biswas; Patrick Langdon
This paper presents a Neural Network based model that can be used to predict pointing target for both physical and situational impairment. The model takes different trajectory profiles like velocity, acceleration and bearing of movement as input parameters and based on that predicts next pointing target. We reported three user studies -- one involving users with physical and age-related impairment using a mouse and the other two involved able-bodied users using head and eye-gaze tracking based systems. We found that the model can accurately predict target in all cases. Finally we proposed an adaptation system using the target prediction model that can statistically significantly reduce pointing times.
Suit up!: enabling eyes-free interactions on jacket buttons BIBAFull-Text 1549-1554
  Kashyap Todi; Kris Luyten
We present a new interaction space for wearables by integrating interactive elements, in the form of buttons, into outdoor clothing, specifically jackets and coats. Interactive buttons, or 'iButtons', allow users to perform specific tasks using subtle, inconspicuous gestures. They are intended for outdoor settings, where reaching for a mobile phone or an other device may not be convenient or appropriate. Different types of buttons serve dedicated functions, and appropriate placement of these buttons make them easily accessible, without requiring visual contact. By adding context sensitivity, these buttons can also be repurposed to fit other functions. By linking multiple buttons, it is possible to create workflows for specific tasks. We provide a description of an initial iButton design space and highlight some scenarios to illustrate the envisioned usage of interactive buttons.
EyeDE: gaze-enhanced software development environments BIBAFull-Text 1555-1560
  Hartmut Glücker; Felix Raab; Florian Echtler; Christian Wolff
This paper introduces EyeDE, a prototypical system enabling gaze interaction for assistance in integrated development environments (IDE). By utilizing an eye tracking device, we have enhanced an IDE prototype with gaze-controlled interaction methods for source code navigation. A qualitative evaluation shows that users welcome the ability to quickly look up documentation or to jump to method declarations just by looking at triggers placed in the code. Although inaccuracies inherent in eye tracking technology and discomforting sitting positions for users impede successful implementation of more advanced IDE features, the interaction paradigm appears to be acceptable within the software development context and seems promising as eye tracking technology is being further improved.
Eye contact over video BIBAFull-Text 1561-1566
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Jacob H. Smedegård; Thomas S. Nielsen; Mikael B. Skov; Jeni Paay
Video communication systems traditionally offer limited or no experience of eye contact due to the offset between cameras and the screen. In response, we are experimenting with the use of multiple Kinect cameras for generating a 3D model of the user, and then rendering a virtual camera angle giving the user an experience of eye contact. In doing this, we use concepts from KinectFusion, such as a volumetric voxel data representation and GPU accelerated ray tracing for viewpoint rendering. This achieves a detailed 3D model from a noisy source, and delivers a promising video output in terms of visual quality, lag and frame rate, enabling the experience of eye contact and face gaze.
Multilevel auditory displays for mobile eyes-free location-based interaction BIBAFull-Text 1567-1572
  Yolanda Vazquez-Alvarez; Matthew P. Aylett; Stephen A. Brewster; Rocio von Jungenfeld; Antti Virolainen
This paper explores the use of multilevel auditory displays to enable eyes-free mobile interaction with location-based information in a conceptual art exhibition space. Multilevel auditory displays enable user interaction with concentrated areas of information. However, it is necessary to consider how to present the auditory streams without overloading the user. We present an initial study in which a top-level exocentric sonification layer was used to advertise information present in a gallery-like space. Then, in a secondary interactive layer, three different conditions were evaluated that varied in the presentation (sequential versus simultaneous) and spatialisation (non-spatialised versus egocentric spatialisation) of multiple auditory sources. Results show that 1) participants spent significantly more time interacting with spatialised displays, 2) there was no evidence that a switch from an exocentric to an egocentric display increased workload or lowered satisfaction, and 3) there was no evidence that simultaneous presentation of spatialised Earcons in the secondary display increased workload.
Design and evaluation of a dwell-free eye typing technique BIBAFull-Text 1573-1578
  Tuhin Chakraborty; Sayan Sarcar; Debasis Samanta
Dwelling, activated through gaze fixation for a prolonged time, is an essential task to be performed to select keys from on-screen keyboard present in the eye typing interface. Normally fixation on a key takes sufficient time which slows down eye typing rate. To get rid of it, researchers focused on minimizing or diminishing dwell time toward building a dwell-free interface. In this paper, we present an efficient dwell-free eye typing mechanism and compare it with a previous work with respect to text entry rate, learning rate and usability. The user experiment results reveal that newly proposed method performed slightly better than the other.
Dynamic edge: finding eyes-free controls on orientation-agnostic devices BIBAFull-Text 1579-1584
  Johan Kildal; Teemu T. Ahmaniemi; Topi Kaaresoja
Clean and minimalistic industrial designs dominate current multi-device ecosystems. One intended feature of such designs is that a device can be picked up and used in any orientation. However, the persistent presence of a few physical buttons forces most users to look for them by rotating the device before using it. We propose that tangible but virtual controls could appear where the user expects them to be, when the device is picked up. This would support the intended industrial design. In a user study, we evaluate two methods for synthesizing such controls (continuous and discrete), implemented in a functional prototype. While both were found to be highly usable, an optimum implementation should be a hybrid of both, where continuous feedback supports locating the exact position of the control. Then, either model could be used to obtain the best UX in button pressing, depending on the use case.
AirAuth: towards attack-resilient biometric authentication using in-air gestures BIBAFull-Text 1585-1590
  Md Tanvir Islam Aumi; Sven Kratz
AirAuth is a biometric, gesture-based authentication system based on in-air gesture input. We describe the operations necessary to sample enrollment gestures and to perform matching for authentication, using data from a short range depth sensor. We present the results of two initial user studies. A first study was conducted to crowd source a simple gesture set for use in further evaluations. The results of our second study indicate that AirAuth achieves a very high Equal Error Rate (EER-)based accuracy of 96.6% for simple gesture set and 100% for user-specific gestures. Future work will encompass the evaluation of possible attack scenarios and obtaining qualitative user feedback on usability advantages of gesture-based authentication.
Robot conferencing: physically embodied motions enhance social telepresence BIBAFull-Text 1591-1596
  Kazuaki Tanaka; Hideyuki Nakanishi; Hiroshi Ishiguro
The main feature of robot conferencing is to present the body motions of a conversation partner with a physical embodiment. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of this feature on social telepresence, i.e., the sense of resembling face-to-face interaction. We conducted an experiment in which subjects talked with a remote conversation partner through various communication media to compare the robot conferencing with existing media that have no physical embodiment. As a result, we observed that the physical embodiment enhanced social telepresence.
Glasses with haptic feedback of gaze gestures BIBAFull-Text 1597-1602
  Jussi Rantala; Jari Kangas; Deepak Akkil; Poika Isokoski; Roope Raisamo
We introduce eyeglasses that present haptic feedback when using gaze gestures for input. The glasses utilize vibrotactile actuators to provide gentle stimulation to three locations on the user's head. We describe two initial user studies that were conducted to evaluate the easiness of recognizing feedback locations and participants' preferences for combining the feedback with gaze gestures. The results showed that feedback from a single actuator was the easiest to recognize and also preferred when used with gaze gestures. We conclude by presenting future use scenarios that could benefit from gaze gestures and haptic feedback.
Error behaviours in an unreliable in-air gesture recognizer BIBAFull-Text 1603-1608
  Ahmed Sabbir Arif; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger; Euclides Jose de Mendonca Filho; Alec Gordynski
This article presents results of two pilot studies that investigated error behaviours with an unreliable in-air gesture recognizer. During the studies, users performed a small set of simple in-air gestures. In the first study, these gestures were abstract. The second study associated concrete tasks with each gesture. The error patterns in the two studies were substantially different.
U-Remo: projection-assisted gesture control for home electronics BIBAFull-Text 1609-1614
  Kaori Ujima; Azusa Kadomura; Itiro Siio
Various home appliances and electronic devices require remote control in homes, such as air conditioners and televisions, and the number of household remote control devices is increasing. However, the users of remote control devices sometimes experience stress because they might forget where they left a device, or they might have problems selecting the correct control from an array of confusing devices. Thus, we propose an innovative control method for home electronics that detects user gestures, where the prompts for gestures are projected onto the user's body. We also designed gestures and a GUI, which are highly intuitive and easy to understand. We refer to this system as "U-Remo" (ubiquitous + you are the remote control). As an example of this method, we applied the U-Remo system to an air conditioner. We developed a prototype system that comprised an air conditioner embedded device, a depth sensor camera, and a projector, which allowed the detection of user actions and the provision of graphical feedback based on the user's actions.
Personal space: user defined gesture space for GUI interaction BIBAFull-Text 1615-1620
  Alvin Jude; G. Michael Poor; Darren Guinness
Reality-Based Interaction (RBI) [14] theorizes that realistic user interactions (UIs) are effective because they exploit users' pre-existing knowledge about their bodies and objects in the world. Gesture based interaction allows users to relay information to a computer through body movement without physical contact with additional hardware such as a mouse or trackball. However, this interaction style requires the users to interact in a manner that is tailored for the system to recognize with very strict rules for bodily interaction, not toward a gesture space that is more natural for the user. In this paper we propose a natural method of gestural input through a user-defined 3-dimensional space. We conducted two pilot studies to assess the performance and usability of these augmented gestural pointing methods for cursor manipulation as compared to a standard mouse interaction as well as the current standard approach used in gestural input.
Using audio cues to support motion gesture interaction on mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1621-1626
  Sarah Morrison-Smith; Jaime Ruiz
Motion gestures are an underutilized input modality for mobile interaction, despite numerous potential advantages. Negulescu et al. found that the lack of feedback on attempted motion gestures made it difficult for participants to diagnose and correct errors, resulting in poor recognition performance and user frustration. Here, we describe and evaluate a training and feedback system consisting of two techniques that use audio characteristics to provide: (1) a spatial representation of the desired gesture and (2) feedback on the system's interpretation of user input. Results show that while both techniques provide adequate feedback, users prefer continuous feedback.
Trampoline: a double-sided elastic touch device for repoussé and chasing techniques BIBAFull-Text 1627-1632
  Jaehyun Han; Seongkook Heo; Jiseong Gu; Geehyuk Lee
Relief is often used to add patterns to product surfaces, but interaction techniques for modeling relief on the surface of virtual objects have not received due attention. We adopt the repoussé and chasing artwork techniques in an alternative interaction technique for modeling relief on virtual surfaces. To support the interaction technique, we develop a double-sided touchpad called Trampoline that can detect the position and force of a finger touch on both sides. In addition, it provides an elastic feedback to users as the surface consists of an elastic fabric. With this device and the interaction technique developed, we implement a relief application and present modeling results that demonstrate the efficacy of our system.
Evaluating a clinical decision support interface for end-of-life nurse care BIBAFull-Text 1633-1638
  Alessandro Febretti; Karen Dunn Lopez; Janet Stifter; Andrew E. Johnson; Gail Keenan; Diana Wilkie
Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) are tools that assist healthcare personnel in the decision-making process for patient care. Although CDSSs have been successfully deployed in the clinical setting to assist physicians, few CDSS have been targeted at professional nurses, the largest group of health providers. We present our experience in designing and testing a CDSS interface embedded within a nurse care planning and documentation tool. We developed four prototypes based on different CDSS feature designs, and tested them in simulated end-of-life patient handoff sessions with a group of 40 nurse clinicians. We show how our prototypes directed nurses towards an optimal care decision that was rarely performed in unassisted practice. We also discuss the effect of CDSS layout and interface navigation in a nurse's acceptance of suggested actions. These findings provide insights into effective nursing CDSS design that are generalizable to care scenarios different than end-of-life.
Comparing direct and indirect interaction in stroke rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 1639-1644
  Maryam Khademi; Hossein Mousavi Hondori; Alison McKenzie; Lucy Dodakian; Cristina Videira Lopes; Steven C. Cramer
We explore the differences of direct (DI) vs. indirect (IDI) interaction in stroke rehabilitation. Direct interaction is when the patients move their arms in reaction to changes in the augmented physical environment; indirect interaction is when the patients move their arms in reaction to changes on a computer screen. We developed a rehabilitation game in both settings evaluated by a within-subject study with 10 patients with chronic stroke, aiming to answer 2 major questions: (i) do the game scores in either of the two interaction modes correlate with clinical assessment scores' and (ii) whether performance is different using direct versus indirect interaction in patients with stroke. Our experimental results confirm higher performance in use of DI over IDI. They also suggest better correlation of DI and clinical scores. Our study provides evidence for the benefits of direct interaction therapies vs. indirect computer-assisted therapies in stroke rehabilitation.
Point-of-care testing for diabetes patients: investigating diabetes management by older adults BIBAFull-Text 1645-1650
  Laurie Visser; Suleman Shahid; Abdullah Al Mahmud
Point-of-care testing is an important phenomenon in contemporary healthcare. The opportunity of self-testing by patients provides quicker results and independence for patients, especially for people with chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus. Glucometers are point-of-care testing devices that facilitate this controlling of the disease. This qualitative research focuses on how older adults manage their diabetes, what role the glucometers play in that management of it and how satisfied they are with that. Based on the results some suggestions for improvements are given.
Physio@Home: design explorations to support movement guidance BIBAFull-Text 1651-1656
  Richard Tang; Hesam Alizadeh; Anthony Tang; Scott Bateman; Joaquim A. P. Jorge
Patients typically undergo physiotherapy with the help of a physiotherapist who teaches, guides, and corrects the patients as they perform exercises. It would be nice if people could repeat these exercises at home, potentially improving their recovery rate. However, without guidance and/or corrective feedback from a physiotherapist, the patient will not know whether they are doing their exercises correctly. To address this problem, we implemented a prototype that guides patients through pre-recorded exercise movements using visual guides overlaid atop a mirror-view of the patient on a wall-mounted display. We conducted informal evaluations and pilot studies to assess our prototype and identified some working designs and design characteristics. Collected data will assist us in developing future iterations of the system and designing improved guides for physiotherapy sessions at home.
Supporting longitudinal change in many health behaviors BIBAFull-Text 1657-1662
  Jingjing Ren; Daniel Schulman; Brian Jack; Timothy W. Bickmore
We identify the challenges in developing systems that support users in changing multiple health behaviors over time, and a development methodology that addresses these challenges. We describe how these methods were used in the design of a system for supporting young women with "preconception care", involving simultaneous longitudinal behavior change on up to 108 health behaviors. Results from focus group testing, usability studies, pilot studies, and an ongoing clinical trial are presented.
Free-hand interaction with leap motion controller for stroke rehabilitation BIBAFull-Text 1663-1668
  Maryam Khademi; Hossein Mousavi Hondori; Alison McKenzie; Lucy Dodakian; Cristina Videira Lopes; Steven C. Cramer
In recent years, the field of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been advanced with many technologies, however, most are limited to healthy users. In this paper, we leveraged the technology of free-hand interaction to rehabilitate patients with stroke. We modified the game of Fruit Ninja to use Leap Motion controller's hand tracking data for stroke patients with arm and hand weakness to practice their finger individuation. In a pilot study, we recruited 14 patients with chronic stroke to play the game using natural interaction. Their Fruit Ninja (FN) scores show high correlation with the standard clinical assessment scores such as Fugl-Meyer (FMA) and Box-and-Blocks Test (BBT) scores. This finding suggests that our free-hand Fruit Ninja's score is a good indicator of the patient's hand function and therefore will be informative if used in their rehabilitation.
Afraid to ask: proactive assistance with healthcare documents using eye tracking BIBAFull-Text 1669-1674
  Shuo Zhou; Raghavendra Gali; Michael Paasche-Orlow; Timothy W. Bickmore
We investigate gaze patterns and other nonverbal behavior that people use when providing and receiving explanations of complex healthcare documents, and use a model of this behavior as the basis of a system that provides automated, proactive assistance. We present the results of the human analog study along with results from a preliminary evaluation of the automated system. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using eye tracking to automatically assess the health literacy of people reading healthcare documents.
Designing engaging camera based mobile games for implicit heart rate monitoring BIBAFull-Text 1675-1680
  Teng Han; Lanfei Shi; Xiang Xiao; John Canny; Jingtao Wang
Heart rate monitoring is widely used in clinical care, fitness training, and stress management. However, tracking individuals' heart rate faces two major challenges, namely equipment availability and user motivation. In this paper, we present a novel technique, LivePulse Games (LPG), to measure users' heart rate in real time by having them play casual games on unmodified mobile phones. With LPG, heart rate is calculated by detecting changes in transparency of users' fingertips via a mobile device's built-in camera. More importantly, LPG integrate users' camera lens covering actions as an essential control mechanism for game play, and detect heart rate implicitly from intermittent lens covering actions. We explore the design space and trade-offs of LPG through three rounds of interactive design and report the preliminary results from a 12-subject user study.
SensoryPaint: a natural user interface supporting sensory integration in children with neurodevelopmental disorders BIBAFull-Text 1681-1686
  Kathryn E. Ringland; Rodrigo Zalapa; Megan Neal; Lizbeth Escobedo; Monica E. Tentori; Gillian R. Hayes
Natural User Interfaces (NUI) offer an innovative approach to sensory integration therapies. We designed and developed SensoryPaint, a NUI with the capability of superimposing the user's reflection on a projected surface and "painting" this surface with balls of different textures and colors. We conducted a preliminary lab-based evaluation with 15 children with neurodevelopmental disorders in which they used the system for one hour. Our results demonstrate that whole-body interactions, such as those used in SensoryPaint, are promising as therapeutic tools for children with neurodevelopmental disorders.
Lessons from ICT design of a healthcare worker-centered system for a chronic mental care hospital BIBAFull-Text 1687-1692
  Junia C. Anacleto; Sidney S. Fels
We report on designing natural ICT tools and solutions for integration into a non-ICT workflow at a Brazilian chronic care Center. Our healthcare worker-centered approach for continuous life-care contrasts from the more typical acute care situations that tend to be patient-centered or administrator-centered. Chronic mental care focuses on improving patients' life quality as they age in contrast to acute care. Therapy is collaboratively preparing patients to establish a routine for a normal life. Our main findings from our worker-centered design are: 1. Supporting workers communication and workflow using an online social intranet is effective, 2. Designing for appropriation as well as adoption is important and 3. Public workflow visualization can influence workers behavior. Our approach may apply to other long-term assistant scenarios as nursing homes, teaching and parenting.
Automated virtual observation therapy BIBAFull-Text 1693-1698
  Yin-Leng Theng; Owen Noel Newton Noel Newton Fernando; Chamika Deshan; Lynette Ying Qin Goh; Jason Wen Lau Lee; Foo Shou Boon Schubert
In this paper, we present an enhanced virtual observation therapy (VOT) system to address challenges in medication adherence and the current observed therapy approach. The original approach requires both patient and healthcare worker to be physically collocated, which has several technical and practical challenges. Therefore, we developed a system that tracks the natural actions of the patient when they take medication, which provides a new experience for them. The system automates the process of recording a video of the patient's medication taking and uploads the video log to the hospital management system. In addition, the system provides instructions to the patient from start to end of the medication taking process.
HeartiSense: a novel approach to enable effective basic life support training without an instructor BIBAFull-Text 1699-1704
  Yeram Kwon; Sungwon Lee; Jihoon Jeong; Wonjoon Kim
In this paper, we propose a novel approach for a CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation) education system that enables more precise and effective learning even without an instructor. The proposed system consists of a sensor kit that can be simply inserted in an existing training mannequin, and software that operates along with the kit. This system provides trainees with simulated virtual scenarios that have been designed to offer a more realistic experience. Visual feedback and auditory feedback are continuously provided to promote interaction during the course of training, and assessments from various simulated situations based on practice results are provided. Based on the experimental results, the educational effectiveness of the proposed system is verified. We expect that our system can also be implemented in other fields of medical education to produce better performance.
VizCom: a novel workflow model for ICU clinical decision support BIBAFull-Text 1705-1710
  Anthony Faiola; Preethi Srinivas; Yamini Karanam; David Chartash; Bradley Doebbeling
The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) has the highest annual mortality rate (4.4M) of any hospital unit or 25% of all clinical admissions. Studies show a relationship between clinician cognitive load and workflow, and their impact on patient safety and the subsequent occurrence of medical mishaps due to diagnostic error -- in spite of advances in health information technology, e.g., bedside and clinical decision support (CDS) systems. The aim of our research is to: 1) investigate the root causes (underlying mechanisms) of ICU error related to the effects of clinical workflow: medical cognition, team communication/collaboration, and the use of diagnostic/CDS systems and 2) construct and validate a novel workflow model that supports improved clinical workflow, with goals to decrease adverse events, increase safety, and reduce intensivist time, effort, and cognitive resources. Lastly, our long-term objective is to apply data from aims one and two to design the next generation of diagnostic visualization-communication (VizCom) system that improves intensive care workflow, communication, and effectiveness in healthcare.
The application of eye movement biometrics in the automated detection of mild traumatic brain injury BIBAFull-Text 1711-1716
  Oleg V. Komogortsev; Corey D. Holland
This paper presents a pilot study for the automated detection of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) via the application of eye movement biometrics. Biometric feature vectors from multiple paradigms are evaluated for their ability to differentiate subjects diagnosed with mTBI from healthy subjects within a small subject pool. Supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques were applied to the problem, with preliminary results indicating a potential 100% classification accuracy from a supervised learning technique and 89% classification accuracy from an unsupervised technique.
Attention in mobile interactions: gaze recovery for large scale studies BIBAFull-Text 1717-1722
  Lucas Paletta; Helmut Neuschmied; Michael Schwarz; Gerald Lodron; Martin Pszeida; Patrick Luley; Stefan Ladstätter; Stephanie M. Deutsch; Jan Bobeth; Manfred Tscheligi
Understanding human attention in mobile interaction is a relevant part of human computer interaction, indicating focus of task, emotion and communication. Lack of large scale studies enabling statistically significant results is due to high costs of manual penetration in eye tracking analysis. With high quality wearable cameras for eye-tracking and Google glasses, video analysis for visual attention analysis will become ubiquitous for automated large scale annotation. We describe for the first time precise gaze estimation on mobile displays and surrounding, its performance and without markers. We demonstrate accurate POR (point of regard) recovery on the mobile device and enable heat mapping of visual tasks. In a benchmark test we achieve a mean accuracy in the POR localization on the display by 1.5 mm, and the method is very robust to illumination changes. We conclude from these results that this system may open new avenues in eye tracking research for behavior analysis in mobile applications.
Attention approximation of mobile users towards their environment BIBAFull-Text 1723-1728
  Johann Schrammel; Georg Regal; Manfred Tscheligi
Public environments are increasingly equipped with interactive features, such as electronic maps for way finding, dynamic information displays or animated advertisements. Understanding the attention patterns of users within these environments is important for the design and evaluation of such interactive elements. We present a modelling approach based on dynamic adaptation of the users' field-of-view, bottom-up visual saliency calculation and task-dependent semantic interest modeling that allows approximating the attention of users with regard to a photorealistic 3D-model. This improved availability of attention information can help to design more usable navigation systems, identify problems for user groups with special needs and support the design of seamless attention switches between information elements.
Studying how character of conversation affects personal receptivity to mobile notifications BIBAFull-Text 1729-1734
  Florian Schulze; Georg Groh
In this paper we promote the idea of analyzing the character of a conversation that the user is engaged in to help determine her receptivity to mobile notifications. Given that most previous mobile notification management systems incorporate only general awareness of speech or just consider the mere presence of the user's voice, we argue for the use of speaker tracking to completely capture presence as well as dynamics and other characteristics of personal conversations in order to assess personal interruptibility.
Understanding notification stress of smartphone messenger app BIBAFull-Text 1735-1740
  SungHyuk Yoon; Sang-su Lee; Jae-myung Lee; KunPyo Lee
Today, many smartphone users experience stress from receiving notifications all the time. In this work-in-progress paper, we explore the relationships between users' stress levels from receiving smartphone notifications and notification setting activeness from messenger app, and we also identify the implications to reduce stress. In order to understand the user, we selected the messenger application KakaoTalk, which is the most frequently used smartphone messenger application in Korea, and conducted an online survey of 95 smartphone user participants. We investigated how users actively set their smartphone notifications in their daily lives and how users become stressed from receiving these notifications. From this understanding, we propose design implications for notification interfaces in smartphones, in which the user can still be effectively aware of his or her notifications but can also reduce stress in his or her life.
Supporting the mobile notification process through tactile cues selected using a paired comparison task BIBAFull-Text 1741-1746
  Huimin Qian; Ravi Kuber; Andrew Sears
The process of checking mobile notifications can be challenging when the user is engaged with another task that requires him/her to monitor the path ahead (e.g. running, driving). Developing expressive tactile feedback to communicate key components of the message would enable users to decide whether to attend to the notification, or to continue with the on-going activity. We describe the design of a paired-comparison task to determine how to map tactile parameters to characteristics of incoming messages. Early findings from a field study highlight the promise offered by multi-parameter tactile cues designed using mappings identified from the paired-comparison task, even when distracters are present.
Designing a visual cue invocation scheme to aid monitoring behavior on a digital map display BIBAFull-Text 1747-1752
  Florian Fortmann; Susanne C. J. Boll
At CHI'13 we introduced Supervisory Guide -- an assistant system that invokes visual cues on a digital map display to aid the monitoring behavior of a human operator supervising unmanned aerial vehicles. The overall goal of the system is to improve situation awareness. A previously performed evaluation showed that the design of the scheme dictating the look and feel of visual cues invoked on the display is very important for user acceptance. This paper presents two connected participatory design studies. In the first study 12 participants explored the design space and sketched schemes using pen and paper. In the second study 6 participants specified the implemented scheme on the display. The results were used to design an adequate visual cue invocation scheme.
Spatial perception orientation task (SPOT): developing an accessible tool for measuring spatial working memory BIBAFull-Text 1753-1758
  Dawn G. Blasko; Heather C. Lum; Megan Harris; Holly Blasko Drabik; Shane Halse
Software applications are becoming increasingly realistic and complex which creates greater opportunities for work, gameplay and education. However, the limitations of human working memory create serious constraints for software and hardware designers and developers. Working memory capacity differs across individuals and shows growth through early childhood and decline in many older adults. However, recent research has shown that working memory is trainable and can improve problems such as attentional deficit disorder and cognitive problems in aging. The current work describes the development and preliminary validation of SPOT; the Spatial Perception Orientation Task. Spatial working memory is particularly important to spatial cognition, including mental rotation and spatial visualization. It is also important to understanding navigation in complex game worlds. After validation is complete, HCI practitioners will find SPOT easy to use, and available on-line. It will also be usable for different age groups and for those with color deficiencies.
Supporting non-verbal visual communication in online group art therapy BIBAFull-Text 1759-1764
  Brennan Jones; Sara Prins Hankinson; Kate Collie; Anthony Tang
Art therapy provides therapeutic benefit to people suffering from chronic pain, and recent work has explored supporting art therapy through online tools such as chat forums and discussion boards. These tools give people the benefit of engaging in art therapy without the burden of having to leave one's home (when transportation may be a challenge), and allowing people to reveal their identities through dialogue and activity rather than through one's appearance. However, these tools also do not provide much opportunity for collaboration and shared art making. Because group members are not aware of each other's actions and non-verbal cues in a chat room, they cannot collaborate with each other easily. We discuss the design and development of tools that promote enhanced awareness of non-verbal cues and shared creative experiences in online group art therapy.
SomaTech: an exploratory interface for altering movement habits BIBAFull-Text 1765-1770
  Qiao Wang; Pavan Turaga; Grisha Coleman; Todd Ingalls
We propose SomaTech, a Kinect-based system that encourages users to expand understanding and awareness of their everyday movements. The system creates real-time auditory feedback based on the user's whole action, aiming toward re-education of habitual, potentially unsound movement patterns which are often ingrained within the brain. To do this, we draw inspiration from the field of somatics, which has well-studied prophylactic benefits. Our initial evaluation shows promising results that users become more aware of movement choices and are able to improve their efficiency after using the system.
Leveraging the design of child restraint systems to reduce driver distraction BIBAFull-Text 1771-1776
  Omar Mubin; Mauricio Novoa; Joel Ferguson; Joel Taylor
Despite the significant level of protection child restraint systems (CRS) provide to children, motor vehicle accidents continue to lead to child injury, primarily due to drivers being distracted while monitoring the children in the back. Therefore, it is hypothesised that traditional design elements included within child restraints must accommodate new technology including sensors and automated systems, in an attempt to provide drivers with real time feedback about the CRS occupants without drawing their attention away from the road. As such, an iterative process documented within this paper offers design proposals that seek to modernise CRS. In conclusion, focus group studies provided insights on the validation of the design proposals.
Quantifying driver frustration to improve road safety BIBAFull-Text 1777-1782
  Ronnie Taib; Jeremy Tederry; Benjamin Itzstein
Automatically identifying driver inattention could dramatically improve road safety. This paper presents a preliminary study aiming to correlate high levels of frustration with posture information collected from the driver's seat. Using a driving simulator, participants had to drive under normal and frustrating conditions, for example parking in a tight spot with some time constraint. Binary classification using a range of machine learning algorithms provided encouraging results, showing that posture features could help reflect frustration and possibly other drivers' mental states.
Exploring virtual depth for automotive instrument cluster concepts BIBAFull-Text 1783-1788
  Nora Broy; Benedikt J. Zierer; Stefan Schneegass; Florian Alt
This paper compares the user experience of three novel concept designs for 3D-based car dashboards. Our work is motivated by the fact that analogue dashboards are currently being replaced by their digital counterparts. At the same time, auto-stereoscopic displays enter the market, allowing the quality of novel dashboards to be increased, both with regard to the perceived quality and in supporting the driving task. Since no guidelines or principles exist for the design of digital 3D dashboards, we take an initial step in designing and evaluating such interfaces. In a study with 12 participants we were able to show that stereoscopic 3D increases the perceived quality of the display while motion parallax leads to a rather disturbing experience.
Beyond eye tracking analogies: cursor trajectories as subtle cues to detect distracting UI elements BIBAFull-Text 1789-1794
  Jörn Hurtienne; Maximilian Landeck; Stefan Ludwig; Diana Löffler
Designers trying to build intuitive interaction need to identify screen elements that (potentially) distract users from reaching their goals. The analysis of cursor movements has been proposed as a scalable and low-cost approach to analyze user distraction. Previous research, however, was mainly focused on finding gaze-analogous variables in cursor tracking data, e.g. cursor dwell times as an analogy to gaze fixations. We propose an approach that uses the shape of the cursor trajectories as an alternative means to estimate and locate user distraction. We present a study that shows the feasibility of the approach and we outline further work needed to use cursor trajectories as a means to automatically measure and identify distracting screen elements.
Understanding in-car smartphone usage pattern with an un-obfuscated observation BIBAFull-Text 1795-1800
  Changhoon Oh; Joongseek Lee
The spread of smartphone has enabled everyone to easily participate in information activities regardless of time and space. The interiors of cars are not an exception to this phenomenon. Many drivers use their smartphone while driving, though it is legally restricted due to safety issues. This research intends to (1) observe the information behaviors of drivers (2) classify their information activities (3) and finally induce design implications. For this purpose, we conducted user research using an in-car monitoring system observing drivers in situ (Figure 1) and a smartphone application usage tracker. After gathering and integrating the data through a multi-coding process, we were able to introduce special categories, "five sessions," explaining a smartphone usage pattern in cars particularly. Moreover, using the drivers' voice recordings, we found out drivers' specific informational needs. The results informed us of four implications that could be used in smart cars or car-related services in the future.
Resumption lag at interruptible timing might not be short in actual environment BIBAFull-Text 1801-1806
  Takahiro Tanaka; Niels Taatgen; Kazuaki Aoki; Kinya Fujita
Experiments performed in controlled environments have revealed that interruptions occurring at application switching (AS), which correspond to task breakpoints in the computer field, are more subjectively acceptable and require shorter resumption lags (RL), which indicate the cognitive cost. Therefore, in this study, we investigate RLs in uncontrolled office environment. The interruptions at more acceptable ASs were expected to show shorter RLs, because the cognitive costs of the interruption are less. However, contrary to the expected result, the RLs were longer. This implies that factors other than cognitive cost may affect interruptibility in a realistic environment.
Working with the television on: an investigation into media multitasking BIBAFull-Text 1807-1812
  Duncan P. Brumby; Helena Du Toit; Harry J. Griffin; Ana Tajadura-Jiménez; Anna L. Cox
Many people can now bring the office home in the evening and work on a laptop computer while watching television. We conducted a lab-study to investigate the impact that this media multitasking habit has on stress and our ability to stay engaged with the content of a television show. Participants were required to complete a stressful mental arithmetic task, designed to simulate a demanding work-related activity, while watching a segment of a television documentary. To reflect the different ways that people can media multitask, participants were asked either to perform the work task continuously (concurrent multitasking), or during bursts (sequential multitasking). Results show that working on the stressful task was stressful -- it did not matter whether the television was on or not, nor did it matter how the tasks were interleaved. There was some evidence that sequentially interleaving tasks allowed participants to maintain their engagement with the television show. Overall though the results of this preliminary study suggest that if people want to relax and become engrossed in a television show they should avoid working on a secondary device at the same time.
Output to input: concepts for physical data representations and tactile user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 1813-1818
  Steve James Szigeti; Anne Stevens; Robert Tu; Ana Jofre; Alex Gebhardt; Fanny Chevalier; Jonathan Lee; Sara L. Diamond
Tangible user interfaces and physical representations of data are both promising approaches to improving insights derived from large data sets. Interactive tangible representations of data, which seamlessly combine those two approaches, potentially take advantage of cognitive processes, data representations, and interactions not supported by current approaches and may enhance collaboration. This paper describes user evaluations of two sets of prototypes comprised of physical blocks to represent data. One set uses six blocks of identical dimensions and another set uses six blocks with different dimensions. The objectives of this pilot study include (i) making general observations on how users interact with the two prototypes, (ii) making observations on the role these tangible interfaces play in collaboration, and (iii) comparing the two sets of tangible interfaces. We report on the results of the study and discuss future work. make general observations on how users interacted with the tangible interfaces; two, to make observations on the role the tangible interfaces play in collaboration; and three, to compare the two sets of tangible interfaces with one another. We report on the results of the study and discuss future work.
Interaction techniques for co-located collaborative TV BIBAFull-Text 1819-1824
  Karolina Buchner; Roman Lissermann; Lars Erik Holmquist
We propose a number of interaction techniques allowing TV viewers to use their mobile phones to view and share content with others in the room, thus supporting local social interaction. Based on a preliminary evaluation, we provide guidelines for designing interactions to support co-located collaborative TV viewing.
ExtendedThumb: a motion-based virtual thumb for improving one-handed target acquisition on touch-screen mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 1825-1830
  Jianwei Lai; Dongsong Zhang
Screen size of mobile handheld devices such as cellular phones has been increasing, causing the decrease of thumb mobility. It is difficult for a user to hold a large touch-screen mobile device and reach a distant target on the screen with one hand. We propose ExtendedThumb, a virtual thumb proxy of the real thumb, to address this problem in single-handed interaction. ExtendedThumb reaches out to a distant target on a touch screen in the dragging direction of the real thumb but at a faster speed than the latter. Users can adjust the position of the virtual thumb by changing the dragging direction and distance of the real thumb. Results of an empirical evaluation show that ExtendedThumb significantly outperforms MagStick in speed and user satisfaction while achieving a similar accuracy. ExtendedThumb is also significantly better than the direct touch method in accuracy and user satisfaction. The findings provide insights into motion-based one-handed interaction with mobile devices.
Chiron: interpreting signals from capacitive patterns and inertial sensors for intuitive shape modeling BIBAFull-Text 1831-1836
  Ansh Verma; Gabriel Culbertson; Karthik Ramani
In this paper we introduce Chiron (abbr. Chironomia ): A wearable device for the hand that reads the digital and analogous signals from capacitive sensor patterns and orientation sensors, to interpret user-intent. Here, we explore two cases -- (a) an unconventional and low-cost method for intuitive shape modeling and control, (b) ergonomically designing these patterns from conductive ink, for reading localized finger interactions (swiping or pinching). We also exploit Chiron's thumb-based interaction mechanism and discuss future novel applications.
Origami tessellation display: interaction techniques using origami-based deformable surfaces BIBAFull-Text 1837-1842
  Yuichiro Kinoshita; Kentaro Go; Reiji Kozono; Kohei Kaneko
Origami Tessellation Display is an origami-based input/output device that has a flexible and unique deformable surface. This study primarily investigates possible interactions for an Origami-based deformable surface, using a user observation study. The authors found that its three-dimensional structure afforded deformable gestures and enabled a variety of interactions. An early-stage prototype with a map application is also implemented on the basis of the observed results. In addition to the basic map navigation gestures, the prototype demonstrates example usage of slits on the tessellated surface.
Classifying physical strategies in tangible tasks: a video-coding framework for epistemic actions BIBAFull-Text 1843-1848
  Augusto Esteves; Saskia Bakker; Alissa N. Antle; Aaron May; Jillian Warren; Ian Oakley
Tangible interaction is a compelling interface paradigm that elegantly merges the fluency of physical manipulation with the flexibility of digital content. However, it is currently challenging to understand the real benefits and advantages of tangible systems. To address this problem, this paper argues that we need new evaluation techniques capable of meaningfully assessing how users perform with tangible, physical objects. Working towards this aim, it presents a video-coding framework that supports the granular identification of epistemic actions (physical actions that are made to simplify cognitive work) during tangible tasks. The framework includes 20 epistemic actions, identified through a systematic literature review of 77 sources. We argue that data generated by applying this process will help us better understand epistemic behavior and, ultimately, lead to the generation of novel, grounded design insights to support physically-grounded cognitive strategies in tangible tasks.
LightBundle: grasping light through plant-inspired interactions BIBAFull-Text 1849-1854
  Hsin-Liu (Cindy) Kao; Meng Yee (Michael) Chuah; Michael Degen; Jason Tucker; Hiroshi Ishii
LightBundle is an optical fiber bundle for direct manipulation between the bundle and its composing strands. The bundle changes color based on user manipulation. Inspired by our daily interactions with bundles of vegetables (e.g., asparagus), LightBundle affords grabbing, peeling and twisting of bundle and strands. The metaphoric plant properties lend themselves to interaction scenarios ranging from timing, location, social awareness to energy transfer.
How is your laugh today? BIBAFull-Text 1855-1860
  Maurizio Mancini; Giovanna Varni; Radoslaw Niewiadomski; Gualtiero Volpe; Antonio Camurri
Despite its relevance for human-human communication, laughter has been quite under-investigated and under-exploited in human-machine interaction. Nevertheless, endowing machines with the capability of analyzing laughter (i.e., to detect when the user is laughing, to measure intensity of laughter, to distinguish between different laughter styles and types) in ecological contexts is a very challenging task. An approach to laughter recognition consisting of the real-time analysis of a single communication modality, i.e., body, is presented in this paper and positive results of an evaluation study are discussed.
Place-onas: shared resource for designing body tracking applications BIBAFull-Text 1861-1866
  Cecily Morrison; Robert Corish; Abigail J. Sellen
Developments in computer vision technology have led to a plethora of new body tracking applications. These applications share a challenge in accounting for characteristics of the specific places in which they are intended to be used. We present the concept of Place-onas, representations of "typical" places, as a shared resource to support multidisciplinary team discussions during the development of body tracking applications. We present an example Place-ona drawn from ASSESS MS, a computer vision application that supports the clinical assessment of Multiple Sclerosis. We describe its usage, drawing out how it supported design work, and conclude with a discussion of future work.
Understanding expert-novice differences in geometry problem-solving tasks: a sensor-based approach BIBAFull-Text 1867-1872
  SeungJun Kim; Vincent Aleven; Anind K. Dey
Understanding learner differences with sensors is increasingly important for effective learner modeling. Learner models based on a student's problem-solving actions and the automated interpretation of those actions have successfully advanced computer tutoring services. However, such transaction level actions provide insufficient detail about higher-rate cognitive variations, which may hold key information about individual differences in cognition and learning, and about factors that differentiate attention-switching strategies and instructional effects between individuals. To fill this gap, we have conducted a user study to investigate causal relationships between learners' expertise levels and patterns of interaction and attention during learning tasks by using an eye tracker and physiological sensors. In this paper, we validate our experimental test-bed built for inferring learners' cognitive processing states and diagnosing learning phases with sensors, and present initial results about expert-novice differences revealed in transaction level samples and sensor data streams.
An interaction model for touch-aware tangibles on interactive surfaces BIBAFull-Text 1873-1878
  Simon Voelker; Christian Corsten; Nur Al-huda Hamdan; Kjell Ivar Øvergård; Jan Borchers
Tangibles on interactive surfaces enable users to physically manipulate digital content by placing, moving, manipulating, or removing a tangible object. However, the information whether and how a user grasps these tangibles has not been exploited for input so far. Based on Buxton's Three-State Model for graphical input, we present an interaction model that describes input on tangibles that are aware of the user's touch and grasp. We present two examples showing how the user benefits from this extended interaction model.
SPad: a bimanual interaction technique for productivity applications on multi-touch tablets BIBAFull-Text 1879-1884
  Cédric Foucault; Manfred Micaux; David Bonnet; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
SPad is a new bimanual interaction technique designed to improve productivity on multi-touch tablets: the user activates quasimodes with the thumb of the non-dominant hand while holding the device with that hand and interacts with the content with the dominant hand. The paper describes the design of SPad and a tablet application that demonstrates how it enables faster, more direct and more powerful interaction without increasing complexity.
Whirlstools: kinetic furniture with adaptive affordance BIBAFull-Text 1885-1890
  Yuichiro Takeuchi; Jean You
Despite the deepening integration of digital technology into architectural space, kinetic (i.e., shapeshifting) architecture has found few applications outside of installations in art galleries. Clearly, a major culprit is cost-complex transformation mechanisms can rarely be built and operated at costs low enough to justify their often unclear benefits. In this paper we argue that by drawing on the psychological theory of affordance, we can design low-cost kinetic architectural systems that nonetheless bring about beneficial, sizable changes in human behavior. To illustrate the idea we introduce Whirlstools, a kinetic furniture system that uses modest adjustments of seat angles to foster spontaneous conversations among strangers in public spaces.
Extending interaction for smart watches: enabling bimanual around device control BIBAFull-Text 1891-1896
  Jarrod Knibbe; Diego Martinez Plasencia; Christopher Bainbridge; Chee-Kin Chan; Jiawei Wu; Thomas Cable; Hassan Munir; David Coyle
The size of a smart watch limits the available interactive surface for the user. Most current smart watches use a combination of a touch screen and physical buttons. Unfortunately, a small touch screen's usability is limited when it can be easily occluded, such as by a finger. In this paper, we look at extending the interactive surface for a smart watch to the back of the hand. Our approach reduces screen occlusion by enabling off-device gestural interaction. We define a range of supported bimanual gestures and present a prototype device.
Empa talk: a physiological data incorporated human-computer interactions BIBAFull-Text 1897-1902
  Myungho Lee; Kangsoo Kim; Hyunghwan Rho; Si Jung Kim
We present a novel approach that allows the user to feel the other's emotional status while communicating with each other in a video chat. The video chat is composed of physiological sensors and multimodal displays. In our first prototype, we employed a Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) sensor and a Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) sensor as they were crucial indications to human emotions. A vibrotactile motor and a RGB LED were also used in order to convey and display the other's emotion on one's wrist. Along with the hardware part, we implemented intuitive software for processing, transmitting, and displaying bio feedback data.
Perceived distance from hitting with a stick is altered by overlapping vibration to holding hand BIBAFull-Text 1903-1908
  Ryuta Okazaki; Hiroyuki Kajimoto
Distance perception by hitting with a holding stick is quite important for the people with visual impairments who daily use white cane. If the mechanism of this perception is well understood, it can be applied for the development of more intuitive and simple electric white cane consisting of a range sensor and a haptic display. A hypothetical mechanical model of a stick and a holding palm told us that hitting at a closer point should induce a stronger vibration at thumb side of the palm, and percussing a farther point should induce equally distributed vibrations in the palm. To verify if this vibration distribution plays role in the distance perception, we conducted an experiment that superimpose vibration to the real vibration while percussing, to change the center of gravity of vibration. The experimental results showed that adding vibration to the thumb side shortened the perceived collision distance than adding vibration to the little-finger side, which partly agrees with our hypothetical model.
Mobile payment systems in North America: user challenges & successes BIBAFull-Text 1909-1914
  Serena Hillman; Carman Neustaedter; Erick Oduor; Carolyn Pang
As smartphones continue to increase in popularity in North America so too does the opportunity to expand their use and functionality. Our study looks at one of these new opportunities, Mobile Payment Services (MPS). This study investigates user behaviors, motivations and first impressions of MPS in Canada and the USA through interviews with veteran users and interviews and diaries with new users. Participants used a variety of MPS, including: Google Wallet, Amazon Payments, LevelUp, Square and company apps geared towards payments (e.g., Starbucks). Our preliminary findings are presented as user successes and challenges.
A methodological inquiry into predictors of consumer satisfaction BIBAFull-Text 1915-1920
  T. S. Balaji; Leslie Knuysky; Sheri Sipsis; Sarah Cavrak
Several theories of consumer satisfaction, e.g., Contrast [6]; Expectation Disconfirmation [13], report that satisfaction is predicted by the discrepancy between pre-purchase expectations, and actual product performance. Whereas, satisfaction can be indexed using emotion-based measures [13] -- Product performance, on the other hand, has been evaluated using a variety of indices (e.g., direct evaluation, brand norm). In the current investigation, we were interested in evaluating product performance using a less conventional methodological approach in order to explore specific product attributes and their predictive influence on satisfaction in the communications market. Customers completed an online survey regarding their experience with the iPad, and then provided emotion-based satisfaction ratings, as well as open- and closed-ended performance feedback. Several converging analyses reveal that negative product feedback predicted lower satisfaction scores, and furthermore, only the product attributes of reliability and navigation negatively predicted satisfaction.
Towards a novel digital household account book BIBAFull-Text 1921-1926
  Frederic Kerber; Pascal Lessel; Maximilian Altmeyer; Annika Kaltenhauser; Christian Neurohr; Antonio Krüger
We introduce the concept of a novel digital household account book which lessens the burden of manually entering single items. In this paper, we present the results of two studies. We first conducted an online questionnaire with 142 participants to assess requirements. One of the lessons learned supports our initial notion to enhance digital household account books with automatic receipt capturing for increasing the acceptance rate. Subsequently, we analyzed a corpus of 117 German receipts in a technical study to learn about their structure and content. The results from these two studies form the basis for the realization of the concept.
"What do you think of the return of dungarees?": social media interactions between retail locations and their customers BIBAFull-Text 1927-1932
  Jamie Mahoney; Shaun Lawson; Rufus Stone
Social media presents new digital interaction opportunities and challenges to urban retail locations such as shopping malls, centres and streets. Platforms such as Facebook facilitate online communication with, and between, customers that is not possible through traditional media and marketing techniques. Using data gathered from the Facebook pages of six urban retail locations over 12 months, this paper considers the possible factors that shape online customer engagement and conversation. In particular, we present a thematic analysis of content in shared posts, and discuss how characteristics of a retail location and the structure of the consumer community shape these posts. Our findings are used to form suggestions to further investigate engagement between customers and retail locations via social media.
BARTER: promoting local spending behavior BIBAFull-Text 1933-1938
  Bran Knowles; Mark Lochrie; Paul Coulton; Jon Whittle
In the wake of the 2008 economic collapse, there is renewed interest in strategies for ensuring the future economic success of nations in a globalized marketplace. One of the main ideas being championed by governments is to promote growth by encouraging local spending, although it is not clear how to motivate this behavioral shift. Local currency initiatives are increasingly popular, though due to certain practicalities are rarely successful in fostering long term and widespread change in spending behaviors. We report on the development of a persuasive system (BARTER) that leverages mobile and ubiquitous technology to overcome some of the limitations of local currencies, while also providing users with the insight needed to determine for themselves how local spending may benefit their community.
Exploring the opportunities of mobile technology use in nonprofit organizations BIBAFull-Text 1939-1944
  Sunyoung Kim; Jennifer Mankoff; Eric Paulos
The proliferation of mobile technology has opened up opportunities for more effective services through improved work processes in nonprofit organizations. Contrary to the potential of mobile technology, few nonprofits fully exploit the capabilities of mobile technology. We present results of a qualitative study of current usage of information technology in nonprofit organizations, and explore the reasons for the underutilization and potential opportunities of mobile technology. We categorize the type of nonprofits with regard to the types of public engagement and identify the challenges of adopting mobile technology to bridge the gap between the current and potential use of mobile technology. Finally, we provide implications that reflect common needs and unique characteristics that nonprofits share with regard to mobile technology for data collection.
Analyzing employment technologies for economically distressed individuals BIBAFull-Text 1945-1950
  Benjamin Jen; Jashanjit Kaur; Jonathan De Heus; Tawanna R. Dillahunt
Economically distressed individuals-those living at or below the poverty line-and individuals with limited education were hit hardest by the recent economic recession in the U.S. Past research finds that these populations often lack the social capital, or connections, needed to achieve economic mobility and face specific barriers such as community distrust and links to strong ties. In addition, the tools and technologies afforded to and used by more affluent individuals fail to meet the needs of this population. Leveraging techniques from Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), we investigate employment technologies (e.g., LinkedIn, TaskRabbit, ODesk) designed to foster social capital and to help individuals find jobs. We contribute the results of a competitive analysis that highlights explicit barriers of employment technologies, or technologies that promote job growth (e.g., the need for credit, upfront money). We also contribute results of a brainstorming session that include concepts to improve future employment technologies.
Testing a grassroots citizen science venture using open design, "the bee lab project" BIBAFull-Text 1951-1956
  Robert Daniel Phillips; Jesse Michael Blum; Michael A. Brown; Sharon L. Baurley
The Bee Lab project applies Citizen Science and Open Design to beekeeping, enabling participants to construct monitoring devices gathering reciprocal data, motivating participants and third parties. The presented approach uses design workshops to provide insight into the design of kits, user motivations, promoting reciprocal interests and address community problems. This paper signposts issues and opportunities in the process of designing Citizen Science tools for communities using Open Design to solve individual problems, including: downloadable design for social/local change, laypeople creating technology and repairable kits.
Layers of user expectations of future technologies: an early framework BIBAFull-Text 1957-1962
  Thomas Olsson
User's expectations are identified as a factor affecting the actual user experience in human-computer interaction. Considering the context of emerging and future technologies, users' expectations can become increasingly diverse, especially in terms of where they stem from. This paper presents an early framework for understanding different layers of expectations that people might have of technologies in the near future: for example, "desires" and "social and societal norms". The framework provides understanding of the spectrum of user expectations and what different aspects of them could be identified in user inquiries and evaluations. For concretization and credibility of this work-in-progress framework, examples from recent research on user expectations of mobile augmented reality are provided.
Designing for neighborhoods: lessons learned from paper-based bulletin boards BIBAFull-Text 1963-1968
  Claudia López; Rosta Farzan
Many local information systems struggle to remain viable over time. The low volume of new content that is generated each day in a local community places burdens on the sustainability of such systems. To shed light on designing for local communities, we investigated the content, design and significance of paper-based bulletin boards as sustainable local information systems. We found that their viability is built upon several design strategies such as announcing information about local services and small-scale events; a dual strategy of supporting sense of community and information discovery; and using a flexible, but strategic definition of the communities' geographical boundaries. Future work will investigate these design strategies in online settings.
Collaborating with communities in Africa: a hitchhikers guide BIBAFull-Text 1969-1974
  Anicia N. Peters; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Kagonya Awori; Nicola J. Bidwell; Edwin Blake; Arun Kumar; Shilumbe Chivuno-Kuria
Designing, developing and deploying technologies with local African communities involves a rapport and trust beyond predefined and agreed upon project goals. Pursuing an agenda for community-driven development involves prioritizing and recognizing the role of community members as co-designers and co-researchers. Constraints on time, resources and differing protocols often hinder effective and sustainable collaboration with local African communities. This paper presents discussions started at an international workshop and panel about the key factors in building local community collaboration in Africa, as part of an accruing repository of empirically-grounded advice from local researchers, community members and designers with extensive community collaboration experience.
LocaLudo: card-based workshop for interactive architecture BIBAFull-Text 1975-1980
  Jonathan Huyghe; Niels Wouters; David Geerts; Andrew Vande Moere
In this paper, we describe the design and outcomes of LocaLudo, a playful and card-based workshop that aims to involve families in the design of interactive architecture. Family members, both children and adults, were invited to build upon local experiences for informing the design of concepts that allow interaction between the house, its residents, and the neighborhood. While the creation of such concepts proved challenging, we found that an open and playful approach, and suggesting the possible use of technologies aided participants in this process. Several recurring themes were identified in the generated concepts: stimulating social contact, spreading information, reacting to negative events, and solving practical problems.
The young and the vulnerable?: perceived negative effects of robots on youngsters prevent older adults from adopting companion robots BIBAFull-Text 1981-1986
  Thomas F. Waddell; S. Shyam Sundar; Eun Hwa Jung
An exploratory survey (N = 640) reveals that senior citizens view robots as having more negative effects on younger people than themselves. This "third-person effect" is related to decreased intention to use companion robots. These initial findings hold theoretical, practical and methodological implications for HCI research, by showing that older users may inhibit their own adoption of robotics if they believe robots will have a negative effect on others.
NewsPad: designing for collaborative storytelling in neighborhoods BIBAFull-Text 1987-1992
  J. Nathan Matias; Andrés Monroy-Hernandez
This paper introduces design explorations in neighborhood collaborative storytelling. We focus on blogs and citizen journalism, which have been celebrated as a means to meet the reporting needs of small local communities. These bloggers have limited capacity and social media feeds seldom have the context or readability of news stories. We present NewsPad, a content editor that helps communities create structured stories, collaborate in real time, recruit contributors, and syndicate the editing process. We evaluate NewsPad in four pilot deployments and find that the design elicits collaborative story creation.
Mixing languages': image schema inspired designs for rural Africa BIBAFull-Text 1999-2004
  Diana Löffler; Klara Lindner; Jörn Hurtienne
The concept of image-schematic metaphors, basic subconscious structures of the human mind, has been used by many researchers for conveying abstract information in user interfaces. Since they can be conveniently derived from the users' language, an open question is how metaphors differ between languages and, consequently, how to design for multilingual user groups. We explored this issue while designing capacity building tools for the estimation of energy consumption in rural Africa. We found that the majority of image-schematic metaphors are equivalent in Swahili and English and that metaphors deviating in one language complemented rather than contradicted the other metaphors.
'Sometimes it's the weather's fault': sustainable HCI & political activism BIBAFull-Text 2005-2010
  Sebastian Prost; Johann Schrammel; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper presents empirical evidence that design for political activism that goes beyond the individual user is crucial for sustainable HCI. The analysis of a series of qualitative interviews conducted during a field trial evaluating a persuasive technology for transport behaviour resulted in 20 factors that influence such behaviour. Factors were ordered and grouped by the potential of a person to influence a factor individually. Concluding, four approaches for HCI, namely, entertainment, education, community support, and political activism are identified that can together address the full continuum of influence factors.
Making sense of haul videos: self-created celebrities fill a fashion media gap BIBAFull-Text 2011-2016
  Sarah Sykes; John Zimmerman
Fashion and beauty videos, particularly haul videos -- those that summarize a recent shopping trip -- have quickly grown into a YouTube phenomenon. Creators share the fashion and beauty products they buy and detail how they use them to create a look. Today, over 50 million people devote more than 1.6 billion minutes watching these videos. Despite the size of this online practice, little research exists investigating how this new content fits within the world of fashion media.
   This paper offers initial insights into the complex network of stakeholders and explores opportunity areas to develop products, services, or systems that support YouTube creators and consumers, retailers, and other media channels involved.
Helping users review and make sense of access policies in organizations BIBAFull-Text 2017-2022
  Pooya Jaferian; Hootan Rashtian; Konstantin Beznosov
This work addresses the problem of reviewing complex access policies in an organizational context using two studies. In the first study, we explored the access review activity and identified its challenges using semi-structured interviews. Interviews revealed that access review involves challenges such as scale, technical complexity, the frequency of reviews, human errors, and exceptional cases. We also modeled access review in the activity theory framework. The model shows that access review requires an understanding of the activity context including information about the users, their job, and their access rights, and the history of them. We then used activity theory guidelines to design a new user interface named AuthzMap. We conducted a user study with 340 participants to compare the use of AuthzMap with two of the existing commercial systems for access review. The results show that AuthzMap improved the efficiency of access review in 5 of the 7 tested scenarios compared to the existing systems.
Using personalized radio to enhance local music discovery BIBAFull-Text 2023-2028
  Douglas R. Turnbull; Justin A. Zupnick; Kristofer B. Stensland; Andrew R. Horwitz; Alexander J. Wolf; Alexander E. Spirgel; Stephen P. Meyerhofer; Thorsten Joachims
We explore the use of personalized radio to facilitate the discovery of music created by local artists. We describe a system called MegsRadio.fm that produces a customizable stream of music by both local and well-known (non-local) artists based on seed artists, tags, venues and/or location. We hypothesize that the more popular artists provide context for introducing new music by more obscure local artists. We also suggest that both the easy-to-use and serendipitous nature of the radio model are advantageous when designing a system to help individuals discover new music. Finally, we describe an interactive map that features personalized event recommendations based on the user's listening history. Results from a small-scale user study indicate that users are more aware of the local music scene after using it, discover relevant local music events, and would recommend the experience to others.
Tablet interaction techniques for viewport navigation on large displays BIBAFull-Text 2029-2034
  Kelvin Cheng; Dingyun Zhu
While a subset view on tablet devices allows users to observe in detail an area of the large display from a distance, interaction techniques are required to support viewport navigation around the display efficiently. We propose two dual-touch techniques (DualTaP and DirectTaP) for defining both the size and position of the viewport simultaneously. We also explore two orientation-based techniques (TabTilt and TabPoint) to further explore the design space. In our user study, we found that the DualTaP technique out performs the rest due to its speed and overall preference. We discuss our initial findings and suggests potential applications for using these techniques on large displays.
Midair displays: exploring the concept of free-floating public displays BIBAFull-Text 2035-2040
  Stefan Schneegass; Florian Alt; Jürgen Scheible; Albrecht Schmidt; Haifeng Su
Due to advances in technology, displays could replace literally any surface in the future, including walls, windows, and ceilings. At the same time, midair remains a relatively unexplored domain for the use of displays as of today, particularly in public spaces. Nevertheless, we see large potential in the ability to make displays appear at any possible point in space, both indoors and outdoors. Such displays, that we call midair displays, could control large crowds in emergency situations, they could be used during sports for navigation and feedback on performance, or they could be used as group displays which enable information to be brought to the user anytime and anywhere. We explore the concept of midair displays and show that with current technology, for example copter drones, such displays can be easily built.
Assessing the zone of comfort in stereoscopic displays using EEG BIBAFull-Text 2041-2046
  Jeremy Frey; Leonard Pommereau; Fabien Lotte; Martin Hachet
The conflict between vergence (eye movement) and accommodation (crystalline lens deformation) occurs in every stereoscopic display. It could cause important stress outside the "zone of comfort", when stereoscopic effect is too strong. This conflict has already been studied using questionnaires, during viewing sessions of several minutes. The present pilot study describes an experimental protocol which compares two different comfort conditions using electroencephalography (EEG) over short viewing sequences. Analyses showed significant differences both in event-related potentials (ERP) and in frequency bands power. An uncomfortable stereoscopy correlates with a weaker negative component and a delayed positive component in ERP. It also induces a power decrease in the alpha band and increases in theta and beta bands. With fast responses to stimuli, EEG is likely to enable the conception of adaptive systems, which could tune the stereoscopic experience according to each viewer.
Expanding the porthole: leveraging large, high-resolution displays in exploratory visual analysis BIBAFull-Text 2047-2052
  Khairi Reda; Catherine Offord; Andrew E. Johnson; Jason Leigh
The scale and complexity of today's datasets frequently overwhelms conventional visualization interfaces, which could negatively impact the quality of the visual analytic activity. In this paper, we investigate the use of Large, High-Resolution displays in exploratory visual analysis scenarios. We argue that the ability to see and interact with more information at once fundamentally affects users' analytic behavior, prompting them to explore their data more broadly. This positive effect may also enhance the diversity of questions and hypotheses conceived and explored by users during their analysis.
Screen scaling: effects of screen scale on moving target selection BIBAFull-Text 2053-2058
  Graeme Browning; Robert J. Teather
We examine the effects of screen size and target movement on selection performance using an experiment based on Fitts' law. Results indicate that small screen sizes reduced pointing throughput by around 20%. Target movement also negatively impacted performance, but the performance difference between static and moving targets was lower on small screen sizes.
User centered design of a hybrid-reality display for weld monitoring BIBAFull-Text 2059-2064
  Will Seidelman; Michael Lee; C. Melody Carswell; Travis Kent; Bo Fu; Ruigang Yang
We present a current multi-study process aimed at developing a hybrid-reality display for use in remote welding. Results from an initial user study and applied cognitive task analysis are discussed along with possible future development directions.
Towards understanding spontaneous interaction on curved displays BIBAFull-Text 2065-2070
  Henri Palleis; Heinrich Hussmann
Vertically curved displays feature a curved segment that seamlessly combines a horizontal with a vertical display segment. A potential application domain for such displays is their use in public settings. We created a quiz game on our curved display and exposed it to visitors of our open lab day to gather first insights into how people encounter such a device in a real world context. We report on our observations during the exhibition and present preliminary findings of a subsequent experiment comparing different variations of the game.
ReflectoSlates: personal overlays for tabletops combining camera-projector systems and retroreflective materials BIBAFull-Text 2071-2076
  Diego Martinez Plasencia; Jarrod Knibbe; Andy D. Haslam; Eddie James Latimer; Barnaby Dennis; Gareth J. Lewis; Matthew Whiteley; David Coyle
Tabletop systems are great platforms for collaborative work and social interaction. However, many fail to also accommodate contents visible only to some users, or they do so by reducing the surface visible to the rest of the users. We present ReflectoSlates, which combines a chest mounted camera-projector system connected to the user's mobile device and retroreflective sheets (ReflectoSlates). When placed on the tabletop, ReflectoSlates allow users to see their private contents while other users continue to see the tabletop. They can be lifted and moved while still displaying each user's individual content. Users can also interact with them using mid-air gestures detected by the camera-projector system. This way they do not interfere with other users when their contents are in the tabletop, or they can continue to interact with them, when they lift the ReflectoSlate or walk away from the tabletop.
TangramTheatre: presenting children's creation on multimodal tabletops BIBAFull-Text 2077-2082
  Zhun Qu; Chun Yu; Yue Shi; Jin Huang; Li Tian; Yuanchun Shi
The tangram is a jigsaw-like traditional Chinese art form rich in wittiness and expressiveness. However, there is an absence of efficient support to create animations for children and novice users after designing tangram characters. Thus, we present TangramTheatre, a performance-driven animation tool that combines both creation and animation of physical and virtual characters. TangramTheatre allows users to create characters using seven physical tangram pieces as what they do in real tangram games and then edit animations of these characters. In this paper we present our proof of concept prototype. A preliminary study was conducted to direct a future empirical study with children. The results show that all of the participants express great interests in TangramTheatre.
Understanding and leveraging social networks for crowdfunding: implications for support tools BIBAFull-Text 2083-2088
  Julie Hui; Elizabeth Gerber; Darren Gergle
Crowdfunding provides a new way for creatives to share their work and acquire resources from their social network to influence what new ideas are realized. Yet, we understand very little about this growing phenomenon. Grounded in existing work on social network analysis, we investigate how crowdfunders strategically use their social network to reach their campaign goals. We interviewed 47 crowdfunding project creators to understand the challenges they face. We identified three main themes, which include understanding network capabilities, activating network connections, and expanding network reach. From our findings, we develop initial design implications for support tools to help crowdfunding project creators better understand and leverage their social network.
Influence of dining-progress synchrony in time-shifted tele-dining BIBAFull-Text 2089-2094
  Tomoo Inoue; Mamoun Nawahdah
A system "KIZUNA" was recently proposed enabling time-shifted people to enjoy a meal together in a virtual environment involving the transmission of recorded video messages. The system achieves synchrony through adapting the displayed video's playback speed to the difference in the dining progress between local and remote person. A subjective system evaluation revealed that the adaptation method enhanced participants' communication behavior and perceived presence of remote person. In this paper, we further explored the influence of synchrony on diners' behavior through analyzing the recorded experiment dining sessions. The results revealed that the participants engaged more in communication, while their eating and drinking behaviors were almost not changed.
Social comparison in social media: a look at Facebook and Twitter BIBAFull-Text 2095-2100
  Galen Panger
Recent attention has focused on the tendency for social media, namely Facebook and its News Feed, to promote unfavorable social comparisons, or envy. We extend this work in a survey that looks at three main questions. First, are people who exhibit lower well-being more vulnerable to unfavorable social comparisons in social media? Second, how do Facebook and Twitter differ in their tendencies to promote unfavorable social comparisons? And third, what structural factors in each platform might explain differences? We find substantial evidence that, indeed, low well-being individuals are more vulnerable to unfavorable social comparisons in social media and that across the board, users are more prone to envy on Facebook than Twitter. Finally, we find suggestive evidence that greater references to the self on Facebook and a larger presence of public figures and organizations on Twitter help account for the difference.
International students' use of Facebook vs. a home country site BIBAFull-Text 2101-2106
  Chien Wen Yuan; Leslie D. Setlock; Susan R. Fussell
Previous work on social network sites (SNSs) tends to examine use of a single site, such as Facebook. In this survey study, we examined international students' motivations for participation in Facebook versus a site (Renren or Cyworld) from their own country. We anticipated that use of Facebook would be driven by desires to expand bridging social capital, whereas use of the home country site would be driven primarily by the desire to maintain existing bonds. A survey of 335 Chinese and Korean students in the U.S. showed that contrary to our expectations, desires to develop both bridging and bonding social ties were associated with greater intensity of activity on Facebook and the home country site. Greater intentions to interact with people from their own home country were associated with greater interaction on the home country site. Both intensity of site use and number of friends were higher for Korean than Chinese respondents. We conclude with some thoughts as to how our findings might be used to help people manage social relationships across two different sites in different countries.
Watchboard: curated microblogging for the enterprise BIBAFull-Text 2107-2112
  Nicole Sultanum; Mateus Motta; Carlos Cardonha; Ricardo Herrmann
Traditional microblogging in the enterprise is known to increase work environment awareness, but is also coupled with information overload and privacy issues. We address these challenges by introducing the concept of curated microblogging, which proposes the addition of social curation and access control to such platforms. We also present Watchboard, a prototype tool incorporating these ideas, and discuss highlights of a preliminary user study delineating crucial factors of the proposed concept.
Affordances of social technologies as social microworlds BIBAFull-Text 2113-2118
  Antigoni Parmaxi; Panayiotis Zaphiris
Social technologies such as blogs and wikis have been used extensively in multiple educational settings for diverse purposes. Despite their popularity, their potentiality is not fully exploited, whereas their use is not clearly framed in theory. In this poster we present the potential of social technologies as social microworlds for facilitating groups of learners to construct a shareable artifact. A qualitative study that captures the use of different types of social technologies in three different classroom settings sheds light on the affordances of social technologies to transform the activity of learning across a new culture of computational tools.
Evaluation of automated friend grouping in online social networks BIBAFull-Text 2119-2124
  Motahhare Eslami; Amirhossein Aleyasen; Roshanak Zilouchian Moghaddam; Karrie G. Karahalios
Managing friendship relationships is challenging due to the growing number of people in online social networks (OSNs). While grouping friends sometimes mitigates this challenge, the burden of manual grouping still prevents OSNs users to create groups widely for privacy control, selective sharing and filtering. In this paper, we present an automated friend grouping tool which utilizes three different clustering algorithms to create groups from Facebook friendship networks. By conducting 18 semi-structured interviews, we investigated the advantages and disadvantages of automated friend grouping in OSNs.
Pact: leveraging social networks for goal achievement BIBAFull-Text 2125-2130
  Zach Porges; Nicole Calace; Tré Calhoun; Yundi (Lily) Gao; Brian Lin; Yulan (Lannie) Miao; Toshihiro Noguchi; Ben Shulman; Naomi Wiener; Dan Cosley
Millions of individuals have goals but struggle to achieve them. Research shows that writing down goals, sharing them with friends, and receiving feedback can increase the likelihood that these goals are achieved. However, there is limited research on technologies that support groups of friends working together toward goals. We are designing Pact, a social application in which groups of friends can collaborate toward goal achievement. We have made novel design decisions involving persuasion and motivation due to our focus on previously established strong social ties. Pact allows individuals to set personally achievable goals, yet encourages both collaboration and competition by allowing friends to compare measurable progress and hold each other accountable.
Predicting potential responders in social Q&A based on non-QA features BIBAFull-Text 2131-2136
  Zhe Liu; Bernard J. Jansen
Given the recent advancement of online social networking technologies, social question and answering has become an important venue for individuals to seek and share information. While studies have suggested the possibilities of routing questions to potential answerers for their help and the information provided, there is little analysis proposed to identify the characteristics that differentiate the possible responders from the nonresponders. In order to address such gap, in this work we present a model to predict potential responders in social Q&A using only non-QA-based attributes. We build the classifier using features from two different aspects, including: features extracted from one's social profile and style of posting. To evaluate our model, we collect over 20,000 questions posted on Wenwo, a social Q&A application based on Weibo, along with all their responders. Our experimental results over the collected dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of responder prediction based on non-QA features and proposed potential implications for system design.
I'm here with my kids: investigating location sharing preferences of parents with young children BIBAFull-Text 2137-2142
  Chiara Leonardi; Paolo Massa; Massimo Zancanaro
In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation toward the design of mobile services aiming at supporting offline networking among parents with young children. In particular, we investigated the attitude toward mobile services exploiting location sharing to promote offline social gatherings. We made in-depth interviews with nine working parents (five fathers and four mothers) with children aged 0-8. From a qualitative analysis, five themes emerged: the tension between extending and maintaining the social network; the importance of catching opportunities over planning; the difference between parents' and children's needs; the dynamicity of parents' needs; the different attitudes of mothers and fathers. Although preliminary, we believe that the findings presented here may contribute to the ongoing discussion about how technology may support family wellbeing.
The laughing dress: evoking prosocial interaction among strangers BIBAFull-Text 2143-2148
  Sunmin Lee; (Wynnie) Wing Yi Chung; Emily Ip; Thecla Schiphorst
Our research introduces a responsive wearable design that explores laughter as an emotional contagion between strangers in a public space. We investigate how interactive wearable technology can support expression and communication through laughter as prosocial behaviour within the context of a public art installation. We base our design on psychological research that explores emotional contagions and psychophysiological mirroring. While most of this research has focused primarily on internal biological data, there is little design research that has investigated the phenomenon of emotional contagion in a social space utilizing wearable technology, particularly within HCI. We conducted a mixed methods pilot study, which has indicated that wearable technology can create affordances for emotional mimicry by testing the effectiveness of visual and auditory cues embedded within the wearable design. Our research provides insight to help evaluate effective design strategies in wearable interaction that can ameliorate positive social interaction between people.
Towards effective ethical behavior design BIBAFull-Text 2149-2154
  Rodrigo de Oliveira; Juan Pablo Carrascal
Many of today's persuasive systems are designed taking into account cognitive biases to foster positive changes in people's behavior (e.g. adopt greener attitudes). However, these biases are also exploited to shape the users' behavior in a way that not necessarily benefit them (e.g. user retention in a website). Scholars addressed this problem by developing design guidelines and methods for ethics in persuasive computing, but these approaches alone have proved to be inefficient since they require every designer to be aware, understand, and comply with the recommended ethical practices. We propose preventive approaches that shall support higher compliance, as well as a remediation-based approach that does not require compliance from every designer. These approaches aim to help users understand persuasive elements embedded in systems, as well as to take more rational decisions when interacting with them. We expect that using preventive and remediation-based approaches will more effectively implement ethics in behavior design.
Integrative workplace: studying the effect of digital desks on users' working practices BIBAFull-Text 2155-2160
  Christoph Gebhardt; Roman Rädle; Harald Reiterer
Digitally augmented workspaces have been extensively researched in the last two decades. However, no studies exist which compare the work at digital desks with the work at normal desks to examine how digital desks might change knowledge work practices and its outcomes. This paper reports our work on the design and implementation of Integrative Workplace, a digital desk to support legal work. The prototype allows the user to search and excerpt content from digital and printed documents. In contrast to related works, the system enables parallel interaction with multiple paper documents spread on an entire desk. We identified five key requirements to develop the system and tested it in a pre-study. The study revealed a system usability between ok and good having an average SUS score of 66.94. In future work, we want to conduct a comparative study to research the effect of digital desks on users' working practices in the domain of legal work.
Casalendar: a temporal interface for automated homes BIBAFull-Text 2161-2166
  Sarah Mennicken; Jonas Hofer; Anind Dey; Elaine M. Huang
Smart homes with advanced building technologies can react to sensor triggers in a variety of preconfigured ways. These rules are usually only visible within designated configuration interfaces. For this reason inhabitants who are not actively involved in the configuration process can be taken by surprise by the effects of such rules, such as for example the unexpected automated actions of lights or shades. To provide these inhabitants with better means to understand their home, as well as to increase their motivation to actively engage with its configuration, we propose Casalendar, a visualization that integrates the status of smart home technologies into the familiar interface of a calendar. We present our design and initial findings about the application of a temporal metaphor in smart home interfaces.
The effects of pitch contour and flanging on trust in speaking cognitive agents BIBAFull-Text 2167-2172
  Laya Muralidharan; Ewart J. de Visser; Raja Parasuraman
Speech from intelligent "cognitive agents" can vary along a machine-to-human spectrum, from very machine-like to very human-like [3,4]. Effective interaction with such agents may depend on whether they are trusted by human users. This study investigated properties of machine-like speech along a machine-to-human spectrum in order to identify those associated with higher trust. We first examined whether flanging (time delay) and pitch contour could be used to map a machine-to-human speech spectrum. We found that lower pitch range and greater time delay generated more machine-like speech. Subsequently we examined perceived trust levels for different sounds along the spectrum. We found that human-speech had higher ratings of trust than machine-like speech. Finally, we used the behavioral TNO Trust Task (T3) to examine trust and compliance levels with cognitive agents speaking in different voices. The results confirmed that participants complied with and trusted agents with human speech more than agents with machine-like speech.
AR browser for points of interest in disaster response in UAV imagery BIBAFull-Text 2173-2178
  Danielle Ellyse Crowley; Robin R. Murphy; Ann McNamara; Tim D. McLaughlin; Brittany Anne Duncan
This work in progress describes AerialAR, a global positioning system (GPS) augmented reality (AR) application for mobile devices that automatically labels points of interest (POI) in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery. This has important implications for assisting emergency responders. Existing AR applications for UAVs provide the pilot with navigational situational awareness such as terrain features; AerialAR locates and labels mission-relevant points such as schools that may need to be evacuated or hospitals to transport victims to. Locating POI in UAV imagery poses more challenges than those addressed by typical AR browsers on smartphones. The UAV operates at different altitudes as opposed to handheld devices and the UAV camera can tilt over a wide range of angles rather than simply facing forward. AerialAR overcomes these issues by developing a set of equations that translate UAV telemetry and field of view (fov) into a projection onto a Google Map. The map can then be queried for categories of POI. The current version calculates the POI distance and angles with an average error of 0.04% as compared to the Haversine and Rhumb line equations for the distance between the UAV location projected on the ground and the POI on the Google Map. Future work will complete AerialAR by processing UAV video in real-time on mobile devices.
Offlinetags: a novel privacy approach to online photo sharing BIBAFull-Text 2179-2184
  Frank Pallas; Max-Robert Ulbricht; Lorena Jaume-Palasí; Ulrike Höppner
In this paper, we describe a novel approach to the privacy problem that photos showing persons are often "meddle-shared" by others online. We introduce a set of four elementary privacy preferences a photo subject can have. These preferences are represented by corresponding symbols -- "Offlinetags" -- which can be worn in the form of stickers or badges and which are designed to be easily recognizable by humans and algorithms. Especially for the context of public events, these Offlinetags can serve as a basis for novel practices of photo sharing that respect the photo subjects' privacy preferences.
The editable self: a workbench for personal activity data BIBAFull-Text 2185-2190
  Heather S. Packer; Gustavo Buzogany; Daniel Alexander Smith; Laura Dragan; Max Van Kleek; Nigel R. Shadbolt
The many and varied personal activity trackers on the market have the potential to provide unprecedented detail and insight on our everyday activities. However, effective use and interpretation of data from them can be challenging due to common issues. Such issues include false readings due to sensing approaches taken, or missing data arising from a number of different causes. In order to understand user perceptions on this topic, we performed a preliminary survey, which found that users desired the ability to annotate, retroactively repair, and compare their data. Based on insights from this survey, we designed a direct-manipulation interface permitting the consolidated annotation and revision of activity data from multiple devices. A pilot study of this interface found that users understood readily how to use the features offered, and valued the ability to edit, yet preserve the provenance of their data.
Biosignal sharing for affective connectedness BIBAFull-Text 2191-2196
  Hyeryung Christine Min; Tek-Jin Nam
We explore how sharing biosignals can support affective connectedness from the design and user study of two wearable systems called WearBEAT and WearBREATH: WearBEAT is a body sound sharing device and WearBREATH is a breathing movement sharing device. Both systems translate biosignals into intimate and implicit information. A preliminary user study discusses about user experiences and compares both systems based on the design considerations. This work contributes to our understanding on experiences with biosignal sharing for affective communication and connectedness. The proposed design and the user study help to guide the design considerations for future wearable systems using biosignals.
TagMe: an easy-to-use toolkit for turning the personal environment into an extended communications interface BIBAFull-Text 2197-2202
  Xavier Benavides; Judith Amores; Pattie Maes
In this paper we present an end-user toolkit for easy creation of responsive objects and environments. TagMe consists of a wearable device that recognizes the object or surface the user is touching. The user can make everyday objects come to life through the use of RFID tag stickers, which are read by a RFID bracelet whenever the user touches the object. We present a novel approach to create simple and customizable rules based on emotional attachment to objects and social interactions of people. Using this simple technology, the user can extend their application interfaces to include physical objects and surfaces into their personal environment, allowing people to communicate through everyday objects in very low effort ways. This paper discusses different applications for this type of technology as well as the implementation of the bracelet prototype and the supporting smartphone application.
Passive haptic learning of typing skills facilitated by wearable computers BIBAFull-Text 2203-2208
  Caitlyn E. Seim; David Quigley; Thad E. Starner
Passive Haptic Learning (PHL) allows people to learn "muscle memory" through vibration stimuli without devoting attention to the stimulus. PHL can be facilitated by wearable computers such as gloves with an embedded tactile interface. Previous work on PHL taught users rote patterns of finger movements corresponding to piano melodies. Expanding on this research, we are currently exploring the capabilities and limits of Passive Haptic Learning as we investigate whether more complex skills and meaning can be taught through wearable, tactile interfaces. We are creating and studying a system for passively teaching typing skills, with the ultimate goal of passively teaching Braille typing. Our initial studies in perception and learning provide key information for system development including the importance of visual feedback in learning to type; while our pilot study using the current system for Passive Haptic Learning of typing on an unfamiliar keyboard shows passive learning in all participants.
Workscape explorer: using group dynamics to improve performance BIBAFull-Text 2209-2214
  Jun-ichiro Watanabe; Kaori Takeuchi; Nozomu Ishibashi; Kazuo Yano
Analyses of physical human behavioral data measured using wearable sensors have revealed that face-to-face interaction plays an important role on group performance. We have developed a web application that captures face-to-face interaction among employees as measured using wearable sensor badges and that provides persuasive feedback which encourages managers to try and change employee behaviors so as to improve business performance. Testing of this "Workscape Explorer" application in a call center environment revealed that it has a significant effect on improving employee performance.
Learning the game: breakdowns, breakthroughs and player strategies BIBAFull-Text 2215-2220
  Ioanna Iacovides; Anna L. Cox; Thomas Knoll
Digital games are rich learning environments that require players to engage with challenging situations in order to progress. Recent research indicates that game-play involves overcoming breakdowns and achieving breakthroughs in relation to player action, understanding and involvement. In particular, breakthroughs involve moments of insight where learning occurs which, in turn, can help increase involvement. However, little is known about how players actually achieve breakthroughs. We applied the breakdown/breakthrough "lens" to explore how players attempt to achieve breakthroughs in relation to two single player games. We identified a finite number of strategies that illustrate how players learn in games. These strategies are considered in relation to producing playable and engaging games.
I'd tap that!: providing real time feedback on roller derby skills BIBAFull-Text 2221-2226
  Craig D. Stewart; Penny Traitor; Vicki L. Hanson
Modern roller derby is a predominately female driven full contact sport. A relatively new and evolving sport, players are yet to benefit from recent advances in wearable technologies. This paper reports on our initial investigations into player attitudes towards the use of technology as a training aid. Our survey results highlight broad support for the development of a wearable training device. Over 300 participants identified the skills they want help with improving and provided some initial feedback on the appropriateness of feedback modalities and location of a wearable training device. We end the paper by introducing our first interaction prototype, TapTrain, that allows skaters to access feedback on their technique while skating.
Human SUGOROKU: learning support system of vegetation succession with full-body interaction interface BIBAFull-Text 2227-2232
  Tomohiro Nakayama; Takayuki Adachi; Keita Muratsu; Hiroshi Mizoguchi; Miki Namatame; Masanori Sugimoto; Fusako Kusunoki; Etsuji Yamaguchi; Shigenori Inagaki; Yoshiaki Takeda
In this study, we developed a simulation game called "Human SUGOROKU" that consists of a full-body interaction system to enable elementary school students to enjoy and learn vegetation succession. The students' sense of immersion is improved by enabling them to play this game using their body movements. We conducted an experiment with the students and investigated the affects of the full-body interaction through questionnaires. The results showed that the full-body interaction promotes a sense of immersion in the game and enhance their understanding of vegetation succession. This paper describes the structure of this system and the questionnaires results.
Measuring learned skill behaviors post-MOOC BIBAFull-Text 2233-2238
  Daniel M. Russell
A team of ten engineers, instructional designers, and subject matter experts designed, built, and ran a Massive Online Open Course (MOOC) during a 6-week period in mid-2012 to teach search skills. We report on the attendance patterns of students in the MOOC and our first measures of the efficacy of teaching in this style. Of the 23,087 students who completed the entire class, we were able to show a clear 40% average improvement in their skills between the beginning and end of their MOOC experience. We were also able to show that for students who successfully completed the MOOC, their search behavior was substantially -- and persistently -- improved for the two-week period following the class. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the changes last for months afterwards as well.
Wait-learning: leveraging conversational dead time for second language education BIBAFull-Text 2239-2244
  Carrie J. Cai; Philip J. Guo; James Glass; Robert C. Miller
Second-language learners are often unable to find time for language practice due to constraints in their daily lives. In this paper, we examine how brief moments of waiting during a person's existing social conversations can be leveraged for second language practice, even if the conversation is exchanged in the first language. We present an instant messaging (IM) prototype, WaitChatter, that supports the notion of wait-learning by displaying contextually relevant foreign language vocabulary and micro-quizzes while the user awaits a response from her conversant. The foreign translations are displayed just-in-time in the context of the conversation to promote incidental learning. In a preliminary study of WaitChatter, we found that participants were able to integrate second language learning into their existing instant messaging activities, and that a particularly opportune time to embed foreign language elements may be immediately after the learner sends a chat message.
Supporting second language reading with picture note-taking BIBAFull-Text 2245-2250
  Cheng-Hsien Han; Chi-Lan Yang; Hao-Chuan Wang
Second language reading is difficult when people are with limited second language proficiency. In this paper, we proposed picture note-taking, displaying semantic-related pictures as notes of keywords in an article to support second language reading comprehension. We prototyped an online reading tool called PicRemarkable and evaluated its effects on English reading with Chinese native speakers. Our result showed that participants performed better at the delay comprehension test when using picture note-taking as support than using Chinese definitions of words as support.
The impact of interactive visual simulations on learning statistics BIBAFull-Text 2251-2256
  Glena Helen Iten; Silvia Heinz; Markus Karl Stöcklin; Roland Hübscher; Klaus Opwis
In previous studies non-interactive visual simulations in learning tasks have improved learners' conceptual understanding of statistical principles. To explore the impact of interactive visual simulations on conceptual understanding of statistical principles, an online tutorial where students could either manipulate or only observe changes of statistical graphs was developed. Overall, the tutorial supports students in learning statistical concepts immediately after working with the tutorial and two weeks after. In addition, if students could manipulate the graphs on their own, they were faster. Implications and opportunities for further investigations of interactive simulations are discussed.
Supporting debates with a real-time feedback system BIBAFull-Text 2257-2262
  Bernd Huber; Sarah Tausch; Heinrich Hußmann
Feedback systems can improve collaborative working and learning. We investigate a novel real-time feedback system that enables a subtle and unobtrusive interaction between learners and trainers in the context of debates. Novices to structured debates practiced in debate clubs need to learn fundamental rhetorical skills. The argumentation follows a well-defined structure: claim, explanation and example. Learners receive feedback about their rhetorical performance in the end of debates which complicates the immediate adaptation. We introduce a real-time feedback system enabling an unobtrusive teacher-student dialog. Teachers virtually communicate their assessment about the presented performance using a smart phone; students adapt the structure of their debate according to the visual feedback that is presented on a tablet. We tested our prototype in the field and applied it to two debates. We found that participants that used our feedback system valued the immediate feedback and stated high satisfaction about their own performance.
The effects of physical and virtual manipulatives on learning basic concepts in electronics BIBAFull-Text 2263-2268
  Shima Salehi; Bertrand Schneider; Paulo Blikstein
In this study we investigated the effects of using physical manipulatives (PM) and virtual manipulatives (VM) on students' understanding of electronics. In our experiment, all participants completed two similar tasks, one with a tangible toolkit and another with a computer simulation. Both systems shared the same functionalities. Half of the participants first worked with a physical manipulative and then virtual simulation, while the rest did the opposite sequence. Our findings suggest that working with physical manipulatives might improve significantly learning gains compared to a computer simulation. Additionally, users who first worked with the physical manipulatives and then the virtual environment scored higher on the final post-test compared to participants who completed the same activities in the reverse order. This difference, however, did not reach statistical significance.
Learning online via prompts to explain BIBAFull-Text 2269-2274
  Joseph Jay Williams; Geza Kovacs; Caren Walker; Samuel Maldonado; Tania Lombrozo
Prompting learners to explain their beliefs can help them correct misconceptions upon encountering anomalies -- facts and observations that conflict with learners' current understanding. We have developed a way to augment online interfaces for learning by adding prompts for users to explain a fact or observation. We conducted two experiments testing the effects of these explanation prompts, finding that they increase learners' self-correction of misconceptions, though these benefits of explaining depend on: (1) How many anomalies the prompts require people to explain, and (2) Whether anomalies are distributed so that individual observations guide learners to correct ideas by conflicting with multiple misconceptions at once.
Understanding meditation and technology use BIBAFull-Text 2275-2280
  Katie Derthick
This paper presents findings emerging from an ethnographic study of meditators and meditation communities. The research goal is to explore decisions people engaging with meditation principles and practices make about technology use in everyday life, and why, in order to inform HCI theory and design. Emergent themes focus on how video chat is used for meditation, tensions around tracking meditation, information practices indirectly supporting meditation, and the quality of remote meditation teaching.
MOODs: building massive open online diaries for researchers, teachers and contributors BIBAFull-Text 2281-2286
  Sandy J. J. Gould; Dominic J. Furniss; Charlene I. Jennett; Sarah Wiseman; Ioanna Iacovides; Anna L. Cox
Internet-based research conducted in partnership with paid crowdworkers and volunteer citizen scientists is an increasingly common method for collecting data from large, diverse populations. We wanted to leverage web-based citizen science to gain insights into phenomena that are part of people's everyday lives. To do this, we developed the concept of a Massive Open Online Diary (MOOD). A MOOD is a tool for capturing, storing and presenting short updates from multiple contributors on a particular topic. These updates are aggregated into public corpora that can be viewed, analysed and shared. MOODs offer a novel method for crowdsourcing diary-like data in a way that provides value for researchers, teachers and contributors. MOODs also come with unique community-building and ethical challenges. We describe the benefits and challenges of MOODs in relation to Errordiary.org, a MOOD we created to aid our exploration of human error.
The informatics needs of amateur endurance athletic coaches BIBAFull-Text 2287-2292
  Brett Wakefield; Carman Neustaedter; Serena Hillman
Personal informatics applications are increasingly available for amateur endurance athletes to record and monitor their performance and training. This information can be valuable for coaches who tailor training programs based on this data. Despite this, it is not clear if the information provided by such tools map to the real needs of the amateur athletic community. To address this, we conducted interviews with eight amateur athletic coaches of endurance athletes. Our results show that athlete-specific contextual factors can be important to track and monitor in relation to performance-based metrics. This information can be difficult to capture, analyze, and share. This suggests design opportunities for personal informatics applications for amateur athletes and coaches.
Personalized presentation builder BIBAFull-Text 2293-2298
  Amirsam Khataei; Ali Arya
We can observe a paradigm shift on the Web from a predominantly machine-centered view towards an increasingly user- and community-centered view better described as the "Social Web". The data that can be extracted from users' social network accounts provide us with much personal information about them, their persona and life styles. The next rational step in this field is to create applications that take advantages of such information to provide more effective and personalized services to users. This paper is an attempt to introduce the Storytelling System which is a subcomponent of the Narrative Visualization Recommender System [1]. Our objective is to go through its conceptual design which allows us to share personalized story with other users and find an acceptable model to measure the effectiveness of such a system as a means of information presentation.
Mobile and computer-based talent assessments: implications of workload and usability BIBAFull-Text 2299-2304
  Alexandra B.