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Proceedings of the 1998 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces

Fullname:International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces
Editors:Joe Marks
Location:San Francisco, CA
Dates:1998-Jan-06 to 1998-Jan-09
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-955-6; ACM Order Number 608980; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: IUI98
  1. Tutorial
  2. Plenary Address
  3. Animated Agents
  4. Panel
  5. Integration
  6. Tasks and Usage
  7. Panel
  8. Plenary Address
  9. Demonstrational Interfaces
  10. Intelligent Database Interfaces
  11. Adaptation and Critiquing
  12. Evaluation
  13. Plenary Address


Intelligent Interface Agents BIBAPDF 3
  Henry Lieberman
Attendees will come away with a real, no-nonsense understanding of "the agent phenomenon"; why people are excited about agents, what the range of applicability of interface agent systems is, what is good and bad about agents, how to learn more about agents, and what is necessary to build them.
  • What's an Agent?
  • Perspectives from Artificial Intelligence, and from Human-Computer
  • Controversies about Agents
  • Architectural Considerations for Agent Interfaces
  • Learning Techniques for Interface Agents
  • Examples of Agent Systems
  • Programming and User Interface Design for Agent Systems
  • Resources for learning about the Agents field
  • Designing and Evaluating Intelligent User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 5-6
      Kristina Höök
    Intelligent user interfaces have been proposed as a means to overcome some of the problems that direct-manipulation interfaces cannot handle, such as: information overflow problems; providing help on how to use complex systems; or real-time cognitive overload problems. Intelligent user interfaces are also being proposed as a means to make systems individualised or personalised, thereby increasing the systems flexibility and appeal.
       But in order for intelligent user interface to gain ground and be of real use to their users, more attention has to be given to usability issues. In this tutorial we shall discuss methods for design and evaluation of intelligent user interfaces from a usability perspective.
    Keywords: Intelligent user interfaces, Usability, Design methods, Evaluation

    Plenary Address

    The Opportunity of a New Century BIB 9
      David Nagel

    Animated Agents

    Coherent Gestures, Locomotion, and Speech in Life-Like Pedagogical Agents BIBAKPDF 13-20
      Stuart G. Towns; Jennifer L. Voerman; Charles B. Callaway; James C. Lester
    Life-like animated interface agents for knowledge-based learning environments can provide timely, customized advice to support students' problem solving. Because of their strong visual presence, they hold significant promise for substantially increasing students' enjoyment of their learning experiences. A key problem posed by life-like agents that inhabit artificial worlds is deictic believability. In the same manner that humans refer to objects in their environment through judicious combinations of speech, locomotion, and gesture, animated agents should be able to move through their environment, and point to and refer to objects appropriately as they provide problem-solving advice. In this paper we describe a framework for achieving deictic believability in animated agents. A deictic behavior planner exploits a world model and the evolving explanation plan as it selects and coordinates locomotive, gestural, and speech behaviors. The resulting behaviors and utterances are believable, and the references are unambiguous. This approach to spatial deixis has been implemented in a life-like animated agent, Cosmo, who inhabits a learning environment for the domain of Internet packet routing. The product of a large multidisciplinary team of computer scientists, 3D modelers, graphic artists, and animators, Cosmo provides realtime advice to students as they escort packets through a virtual world of interconnected routers.
    Keywords: Animated agents, Life-like, Believability, Learning environments, Educational applications
    Guiding the User Through Dynamically Generated Hypermedia Presentations with a Life-Like Character BIBAKPDF 21-28
      Elisabeth Andre; Thomas Rist; Jochen Muller
    Rapid growth of competition on the electronic market place, will generate the demand for new innovative communication styles with web users. In this paper, we develop an operational approach for the automated generation of hypermedia presentations. Unlike conventional hypermedia, we use a life-like presentation agent which presents the generated material, and guides the user through a dynamically expanding navigation space. The approach relies on a model that combines behavior planning for life-like characters with concepts from hypermedia authoring such as timeline structures and navigation graphs.
    Keywords: Automated presentation of information, Hypermedia generation, Life-like characters
    Tigrito: A Multi-Mode Interactive Improvisational Agent BIBAKPDF 29-32
      Heidy Maldonado; Antoine Picard; Patrick Doyle; Barbara Hayes-Roth
    This paper presents the implementation of Tigrito, an affective computer character. We outline how Tigrito can be used to study children's sense of engagement and relationship with virtual toys in different modes of interaction.
    Keywords: Interactive, Avatar, Believability, Autonomous, Agent


    Speech Research: Near and Not-So-Near Results and What They Might Mean for IUI BIBAPDF 35
      Candy Sidner; Alex Acero; Janet Cahn; Julia Hirschberg; Robert Moore; Salim Roukos
    The purpose of this panel is to provide members of the IUI community with a look at where speech is heading in the near and not so near term. At present speech research has made great strides in speech recognition (to the point that large vocabulary, continuous dictation products are commercially available), some strides in speech understanding for limited tasks, and progress on synthesis (where products have long been available and continue to improve). Because of these changes, many kinds of speech capabilities will before long be available to the IUI community as tools for intelligent user interfaces (and even not so intelligent ones). Members of this panel are convening to make some projections about the progress expected in research in the next three years and also in the six year time horizon. They will address such questions as:
  • How is speech research on input going to move beyond continuous dictation in
       the next few years? What are the significant challenges to, for example,
       using speech in a conversational fashion with computer programs over the
       next few years? How will this change over the longer term of 3-6 years, if
       at all?
  • What research directions are being undertaken to understand the challenges in
       using speech in standard (GUI) interfaces? What do the members of the panel
       believe are the appropriate ways to move beyond GUI interfaces?
  • What progress is being made on synthetic speech output to provide more
       natural voices and more natural speaking styles (articulation, prosodic
       function, emotion, timing, and the like)? What advances are likely in the
       near term? How will these change over the long term? What tools are likely
       to be available to other researchers?
  • For tools provided from speech research, how much sophistication about
       language and/or speech will non-speech researchers (and others) need to have
       to use the tools that will be available over the next few years?
  • Integration

    Integrating User Interface Agents with Conventional Applications BIBAKPDF 39-46
      Henry Lieberman
    In most experiments with user interface agents to date, it has been necessary either to implement both the agent and the application from scratch, or to modify the code of an existing application to enable the necessary communication. Instead, we would like to be able to "attach" an agent to an existing application, while requiring only a minimum of advance planning on the part of the application developer. Commercial applications are increasingly supporting the use of "application programmers' interfaces" and scripting languages as mean of achieving external control of applications. Are these mechanisms sufficient for software agents to achieve communication with applications?
       This paper reports some preliminary experiments in developing agent software that works with existing, unmodified commercial applications and agents that work across multiple applications. We describe a programming by example agent, ScriptAgent, that uses a scripting language, Applescript, to record example procedures that are generalized by the agent. Another approach is examinability, where the application grants to the agent the right to examine internal data structures. We present another kind of learning agent, Tatlin, that compares successive application states to infer interface operations. Finally, we discuss broader systems issues such as parallelism, interface sharing between agent and application, and access to objects.
    Keywords: Agents, Scripting languages, Programming by example, Programming by example, Programming by demonstration, Machine learning, User interface
    Cyberdesk: A Framework for Providing Self-Integrating Context-Aware Services BIBAKPDF 47-54
      Anind K. Dey; Gregory D. Abowd; Andrew Wood
    Applications are often designed to take advantage of the potential for integration with each other via shared information. Current approaches for integration are limited, effecting both the programmer and end-user. In this paper, we present CyberDesk, a framework for self-integrating software in which integration is driven by user context. It relieves the burden on programmers by removing the necessity to predict how software should be integrated. It also relieves the burden from users by removing the need to understand how different software components work together.
    Keywords: Context-aware computing, Automated software integration, Dynamic mediation, Ubiquitous computing
    MVIEWS: Multimodal Tools for the Video Analyst BIBAKPDF 55-62
      Adam Cheyer; Luc Julia
    Full-motion video has inherent advantages over still imagery for characterizing events and movement. Military and intelligence analysts currently view live video imagery from airborne and ground-based video platforms, but few tools exist for efficient exploitation of the video and its accompanying metadata. In pursuit of this goal, SRI has developed MVIEWS, a system for annotating, indexing, extracting, and disseminating information from video streams for surveillance and intelligence applications. MVIEWS is implemented within the Open Agent Architecture, a distributed multiagent framework that enables rapid integration of component technologies; for MVIEWS, these technologies include pen and voice recognition and interpretation, image processing and object tracking, geo-referenced interactive maps, multimedia databases, and human collaborative tools.
    Keywords: Multimodal pen and voice user interfaces, Image processing and object tracking, Video analysis and annotation, Agent architecture

    Tasks and Usage

    Interface Design Based on Standardized Task Models BIBAKPDF 65-72
      Larry Birnbaum; Ray Bareiss; Tom Hinrichs; Christopher Johnson
    Producing high-quality, comprehensible user interfaces is a difficult, labor-intensive process that requires experience and judgment. In this paper, we describe an approach to assisting this process by using explicit models of the user's task to drive the interface design process. The task model helps to ensure that the resulting interface directly and transparently supports the user in performing his task. By crafting a library of standardized, reusable tasks and interface constructs, we believe it is possible to capture some of the design expertise and to amortize much of the labor required for building effective user interfaces.
    Keywords: Model-based interface design tools, Task analysis
    EDEM: Intelligent Agents for Collecting Usage Data and Increasing User Involvement in Development BIBAKPDF 73-76
      David M. Hilbert; Jason E. Robbins; David F. Redmiles
    Expectation-Driven Event Monitoring (EDEM) provides developers with a platform for creating software agents to collect usage data and increase user involvement in the development of interactive systems. EDEM collects information that is currently lost regarding actual usage of applications to promote improved usability and a more empirically grounded design process.
    Keywords: Event monitoring, Intelligent agents, Expectation agents, Usability engineering, Software engineering
    U-TEL: A Tool for Eliciting User Task Models from Domain Experts BIBAKPDF 77-80
      R. Chung-Man Tam; David Maulsby; Angel R. Puerta
    Eliciting user-task models is a thorny problem in model-based user interface design, and communicating domain-specific knowledge from an expert to a knowledge engineer is a continuing problem in knowledge acquisition.
       We devised a task elicitation method that capitalizes on a domain expert's ability to describe a task in plain English, and on a knowledge engineer's skills to formalize it. The method bridges the gap between the two by helping the expert refine the description and by giving the engineer clues to its structure.
       We implemented and evaluated an interactive tool called the User-Task Elicitation Tool (U-TEL) to elicit user-task models from domain experts based on our methodology. Via direct manipulation, U-TEL provides capabilities for word processing, keyword classification, and outline refinement. By using U-TEL, domain experts can refine a textual specification of a user task into a basic user-task model suitable for use in model-based interface development environments.
       Our evaluation shows that U-TEL can be used effectively by domain experts with or without a background in programming or interface modeling, and that the tool can be a key element in promoting user-centered interface design in model-based systems.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Model-based user interface design, Task models, Knowledge elicitation
    Task-Sensitive Cinematography Interfaces for Interactive 3d Learning Environments BIBAKPDF 81-88
      William H. Bares; Luke S. Zettlemoyer; Dennis W. Rodriguez; James C. Lester
    Interactive 3D learning environments can provide rich problem-solving experiences with unparalleled visual impact. In these environments, students interactively solve problems by directing their avatars to navigate through complex worlds, transport entities from one location to another, and manipulate devices. However, realtime camera control is critical to their successful deployment. To create effective learning experiences, a virtual camera must in realtime "film" their activities in a manner that most clearly depicts the salient aspects of the tasks students are performing. To address this problem, we have developed the cinematic task modeling framework for automated realtime task-sensitive camera control in 3D environments. Cinematic task models dynamically map the intentional structure of users' activities to visual structures that continuously depict the most relevant actions and objects in the environment. By exploiting cinematic task models, a cinematography interface to 3D learning environments can dynamically plan camera positions, view directions, and camera movements that help users perform their tasks. To investigate the effect of the cinematic task modeling framework on student-environment interactions, we have constructed a full-scale cinematography interface and a 3D learning environment testbed. Focus group studies suggest that task-sensitive camera planning significantly improves students' interactions with complex 3D learning environments.
    Keywords: 3D environments, Task models, Camera-planning, Learning environments, Educational applications


    Affect and Emotion in the User Interface BIBAPDF 91-94
      Barbara Hayes-Roth; Gene Ball; Christine Lisetti; Rosalind W. Picard; Andrew Stern
    Intelligence. So much of our technology revolves around intelligence: technology in support of intellectual activities; the goal of engineering artificial intelligence; the need for intelligence in the user interface. And yet, so much of everyday life is really about affect and emotion: differences in performance under conditions that are supportive, threatening, or punishing; the challenges of conflict resolution and cooperation among heterogeneous groups of people; the implicit messages of body language and conversational style; the spirit-sustaining texture of our affective relationships with family and friends.

    Plenary Address

    Interacting in Chaos BIBPDF 97
      Dan R., Jr. Olsen

    Demonstrational Interfaces

    Demonstrational Automation of Text Editing Tasks Involving Multiple Focus Points and Conversions BIBAKPDF 101-108
      Yuzo Fujishima
    We present a programming by demonstration (PBD) system for text editing tasks and describe over an experimental evaluation of it. Unlike other PBD systems our system can automate tasks that involve multiple focus points and conversions. In the system, a document is regarded as a sequence of objects and a task is modeled as repetitions of turns, in which the user focuses on sub-sequences of the document and modifies them. We ran a user study to evaluate the system and found that even non-programmers could automate tasks and wanted to use the system for their own tasks.
    Keywords: Programming by demonstration, PBD, Programming by example, PBE, Text editing
    Building Applications Using Only Demonstration BIBAKPDF 109-116
      Richard G. McDaniel; Brad A. Myers
    By combining the strengths of multiple interaction techniques and inferencing algorithms, Gamut can infer behaviors from examples that previously required a developer to annotate or otherwise modify code by hand. Gamut is a programming-by-demonstration (PBD) tool for building whole applications. It revises code automatically when new examples are demonstrated using a recursive procedure that efficiently scans for the differences between a new example and the original behavior. Differences that cannot be resolved by generating a suitable description are handled by another AI algorithm, decision tree learning, providing a significantly greater ability to infer complex relationships. Gamut's interaction techniques facilitate demonstrating many examples quickly and allow the user to give the system hints that show relationships that would be too time consuming to discover by search alone. Altogether, the concepts combined in Gamut will allow nonprogrammers to build software they never could before.
    Keywords: End-user programming, User interface software, Application builders, Programming-by-demonstration, Programming-by-example, Inductive learning, Gamut

    Intelligent Database Interfaces

    Context-Sensitive Filtering for Browsing in Hypertext BIBAKPDF 119-126
      Tsukasa Hirashima; Noriyuki Matsuda; Toyohiro Nomoto; Jun'ichi Toyoda
    Modeling of the user's interests is one of the most important issues to support a user to gather information. Although there are several promising methods to infer the interests from the user's browsing behavior, they assume that the interests are consistent during the information gathering. However, in browsing which is one of the most popular ways to gather information, the user's interests are often strongly dependent on the local context of the browsing. This paper describes a method to model the user's shifting interests from the browsing history. An information filtering method using the model of the interests has been implemented. We call it "context-sensitive filtering." The results of an experimental evaluation, by real users' browsing for an encyclopedia in CD-ROM format, are also reported.
    Keywords: Information filtering, Context-sensitive, Hypertext, Browsing
    Deja Vu: A Knowledge-Rich Interface for Retrieval in Digital Libraries BIBAKPDF 127-134
      Andrew S. Gordon; Eric A. Domeshek
    Providing access to digital libraries will require interfaces that effectively mediate between the retrieval needs of library users and the materials that the library has to offer. This paper describes Deja Vu, a new interface for retrieval in digital libraries. Rather than relying on traditional query-based techniques, Deja Vu allows users to browse through the subject terms used to catalog library materials to find ones that meet their particular retrieval needs. The browsing process is facilitated by a new knowledge structure introduced in this paper called Expectation Packages. Expectation Packages group together subject terms based on the commonsense knowledge of library users to provide a richly interconnected browsing space. An example application of Deja Vu is described, which incorporates the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials to provide access to online image collections.
    Keywords: Retrieval interfaces, Digital libraries, Thesaurus browsing
    Visualization of Construction Planning Information BIBAKPDF 135-138
      Kathleen McKinney; Martin Fischer; John Kunz
    Visualizing a construction schedule helps planners to identify potential construction problems prior to actual building construction. Planners must envision the sequence of construction, the workspace logistics, and utilization of resources and equipment in space and over time. This paper discusses methods of generating, visualizing, and evaluating construction planning information with CAD based tools. We use a construction example to illustrate how feature extraction of 3D CAD models can help identify construction problems and evaluate the quality of a construction plan through 4D analysis and 4D annotation.
    Keywords: 4D CAD, Annotation, Construction, Feature extraction, Information visualization

    Adaptation and Critiquing

    Software Architecture Critics in Argo BIBAKPDF 141-144
      Jason E. Robbins; David M. Hilbert; David F. Redmiles
    Software architectures are high-level design representations of software systems that focus on composition of software components and how those components interact. Software architectures abstract the details of implementation and allow the designer to focus on essential design decisions. Regardless of notation, designers are faced with the task of making good design decisions, which demands a wide range of knowledge of the problem and solution domains. Argo is a software architecture design environment that supports designers by addressing several cognitive challenges of design. In this paper we describe how Argo supports decision making by automatically supplying knowledge that is timely and relevant to decisions at hand.
    Keywords: Domain-oriented design environments, Software architecture, Human cognitive needs, Design critics
    Authorable Critiquing for Intelligent Educational Systems BIBAKPDF 145-152
      Christopher K. Riesbeck; Wolff Dobson
    An important issue in intelligent interfaces is making them as authorable as non-intelligent interfaces. In this paper, we describe Indie, an authoring tool for intelligent interactive education and training environments, with particular emphasis on how authors create knowledge bases for critiquing student arguments. A central problem was providing authors with tools that supported the entire development process from mock-up to final product. Two key ideas are: (1) MVC-based event-action triggers to support a gradual migration from interface-based to model-driven interactions (2) rule-based evidence assessment events.
    Keywords: Intelligent learning environments, Educational systems, Authoring tools, Goal-based scenarios
    Adaptive Forms: An Interaction Paradigm for Entering Structured Data BIBAKPDF 153-160
      Martin R. Frank; Pedro Szekely
    Many software applications solicit input from the user via a "forms" paradigm that emulates their paper equivalent. It exploits the users' familiarity with these and is well suited for the input of simple attribute-value data (name, phone number, ...). The paper-forms paradigm starts breaking down when there is user input that may or may not be applicable depending on previous user input. In paper-based forms, this manifests itself by sections marked "fill out only if you entered yes in question 8a above", and simple electronic forms suffer from the same problem -- much space is taken up for input fields that are not applicable.
       One possible approach to making only relevant sections appear is to hand-write program fragments to hide and show them. As an alternative, we have developed a form specification language based on a context-free grammar that encodes data dependencies of the input, together with an accompanying run-time interpreter that uses novel layout techniques for collapsing already-entered input fields, for "blending" input fields possibly yet to come, and for showing only the applicable sections of the form.
    Keywords: Data entry, Layout, Parsing, User interfaces, Human-computer interaction


    Agents in their Midst: Evaluating User Adaptation to Agent-Assisted Interfaces BIBAKPDF 163-170
      Tara Gustafson; J. Ben Schafer; Joseph Konstan
    This paper presents the results of introducing an agent into a real-world work situation -- production of the online edition of a daily newspaper. Quantitative results show that agents helped users accomplish the task more rapidly without increasing user error and that users consistently underestimated the quality of their own performance. Qualitative results show that users accepted agents rapidly and that they unknowingly altered their working styles to adapt to the agent.
    Keywords: Agent-assisted interface, User studies, User-centered interface design, Learning agents, Online newspaper production, Electronic publication
    An Experiment with Navigation and Intelligent Assistance BIBAKPDF 171-178
      Robert St. Amant; Martin S. Dulberg
    Modern user interfaces make extensive use of navigation, a metaphor based on wayfinding in a physical space. Navigation can be an effective solution for many problems in understanding and manipulating a complex information space. Our work is in the area of intelligent assistance for decision support environments, where assistance may take the form of automatically exploring decision alternatives, recording justifications for actions, testing global consistency of local results, and generating audit trails, among other activities. This paper describes an experimental evaluation of assisted search in an artificial environment using navigation as a communication medium, under conditions that vary the quality of assistance.
    Keywords: Navigation, Wayfinding, Intelligent assistance

    Plenary Address

    From HAL to Office Applicances: Human-Machine Interfaces in Science Fiction and Reality BIBAPDF 181
      David G. Stork
    In the mid-1960s, the creators of the epic film 2001: A Space Odyssey sought to portray the future of computers as realistically as possible. This was before computer science and HCI were broadly acknowledged disciplines, and their vision was unconstrained by the many lessons (and failures) yet to come. Now, on the occasion of the HAL 9000 computer's first "birthday" (almost to the day), it makes sense to analyze their view of the "future" of human interfaces, to see where it stands up, where it was seriously flawed, what was overlooked, and why.
       For instance, the film's creators felt that computers would get bigger and bigger -- HAL is omnipresent while there are no desktop or laptop computers, PDAs or digital watches in sight. In reality the opposite occurred. They felt that speech would be the primary I/O medium (there are no mouses, keyboards, touchscreens or data gloves in the film), whereas in reality effortless speech for HCI remains a distant dream. Conversely, their portrayal of computer graphics has been far outpaced by today's graphics and visualization techniques -- from dynamic simulations of thunderstorms to realistic special effects in TV advertisements to films such as Toy Story.
       Nowadays innumerable "visionaries" confidently predict the future of computers and technology. They might be more humble were they to look back and understand why informed and careful predictions so often fail. I shall illustrate several such lessons gleaned from "looking back at the future," with special focus on HCI, the web, and active documents that bear both content for human consumption and information for controlling networked office appliances.