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IJHCI Tables of Contents: 0102030405060708091011121314151617

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 7

Editors:Gavriel Salvendy; Michael J. Smith; Masamitsu Oshima
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 4

IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 1

Tactile Feedback Applied to Computer Mice BIBA 1-24
  Matthias Gobel; Holger Luczak; Johannes Springer; Volkmar Hedicke; Matthias Rotting
Most computer systems use a mouse as the input device for menu selection, pointing, and manipulation of screen objects. The user can get visual information from the screen only about the position of the mouse and the action that was initiated. In contrast, during the manipulation of real objects, the visual channel is only responsible for giving broader information about the action, whereas the motoric action itself is predominantly controlled by tactile information fed by interoceptive and exteroceptive sensory signals. Consequently, working with a standard computer mouse requires concentration primarily on the visual system, leading to strain reactions. Furthermore, human motor action is slower when only visual sense is used and tactile sense is ignored. In respect to this situation, it is proposed that a computer mouse be enhanced with additional tactile feedback to approximate more closely real object handling, thereby reducing strain reactions. To test this hypothesis, a standard computer mouse was enhanced with a total of four actuators, two lying under the fingers that controlled the mouse sideways and the other two under the mouse buttons. Thus, the approximation of the mouse cursor to an object or the crossing of an object can both be seen and felt, and should approximate real object handling. Three kinds of experiments with tracking and ballistic tasks were carried out by 22 subjects. The additional tactile feedback led to significant changes of the movement strategies. Whereas the overall performance decreased if tactile feedback was present during tracking tasks, ballistic tasks were carried out 9-19% faster. Although the subjects only had a few experiences with tactile feedback, all sequences of ballistic movements could be accelerated, in particular the movement preparation phases. In consequence, a reduction of users' workload is indicated.
The Influence of Performance Standards and Feedback on Speed and Accuracy in an Electronically Monitored Data-Entry Task BIBA 25-36
  Traci L. Galinsky; Lawrence M. Schleifer; Christopher S. Pan
This study examined performance effects of using electronic performance monitoring (EPM) and feedback to induce compliance with speed and accuracy standards in a data entry task. The study focused on subjects who had difficulty meeting a preestablished data entry speed standard. Subjects performed a data-entry task for 3 days. On the 1st (baseline) day, no performance standards were imposed, and all subjects were instructed to work at their normal speed and accuracy levels. For the 2nd and 3rd days of the experiment, subjects were assigned at random to one of two groups. In an experimental group, EPM and feedback were used to induce compliance with preestablished speed and accuracy standards. In a control group, subjects were unaware of EPM and received no feedback; they were instructed to continue working at their normal speed and accuracy levels. The introduction of EPM work management in the experimental group led to significant increases in data-entry speed that were accompanied by significant increases in data-entry errors. In addition, data-entry errors produced by experimental subjects increased significantly over time during the workdays in which EPM work management was employed. These effects are discussed in terms of relevant research on goal setting and feedback utilization. The results suggest that when performance standards and feedback that emphasize speed more than accuracy are applied in EPM-managed work settings, speed increments may be offset by decrements in work quality.
Visualization of Three-Dimensional Structure During Computer-Aided Design BIBA 37-56
  Michael E. Brown; Jennie J. Gallimore
The visual image presented to an engineer using a computer-aided design (CAD) system influences design activities such as decision making, problem solving, cognizance of complex relationships, and error correction. Because of the three-dimensional (3-D) nature of the object being created, an important attribute of the CAD visual interface concerns the various methods of presenting depth on the display's two-dimensional (2-D) surface. The objective of this research is to examine the effects of stereopsis on subjects' ability to (a) accurately transfer to, and retrieve from, long-term memory spatial information about 3-D objects; and (b) visualize spatial characteristics in a quick and direct manner. Subjects were instructed to memorize the shape of a 3-D object presented on a stereoscopic CRT during a study period. Following the study period, a series of static trial stimuli were shown. Each trial stimulus was rotated (relative to the original) about the vertical axis in one of six 36° increments between 0° and 180°. In each trial, the subject's task was to determine, as quickly and as accurately as possible, whether the trial object was the same shape as the memorized object or its mirrored image. One of the two cases was always true. To assess the relative merits associated with disparity and interposition, the two depth cues were manipulated in a within-subject manner during the study period and during the trials that followed. Subject response time and error rate were evaluated. Improved performance due to hidden surface is the most convincing experimental finding. Interposition is a powerful cue to object structure and should not be limited to late stages of design. The study also found a significant, albeit limited, effect of stereopsis. Under specific study object conditions, adding disparity to monocular trial objects significantly decreased response time. Response latency was also decreased by adding disparity information to stimuli in the study session.
IBM Computer Usability Satisfaction Questionnaires: Psychometric Evaluation and Instructions for Use BIBA 57-78
  James R. Lewis
This article describes recent research in subjective usability measurement at IBM, focused on evaluating the psychometric properties of questionnaires designed for use in scenario-based usability evaluation. The questionnaires address evaluation at both a global overall system level and at a more detailed scenario level. The primary goals of this article are to (a) discuss the psychometric characteristics of IBM questionnaires that measure user satisfaction with computer system usability, and (b) provide the questionnaires, with administration and scoring instructions. For scenario-level measurement, the 3-item After-Scenario Questionnaire (ASQ) has excellent internal consistency, with coefficient alphas across a set of scenarios ranging from .90 to .96. For more global assessment, the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ) also has excellent internal consistency, with an overall coefficient alpha of .97. Preliminary principal factor analysis of 48 PSSUQ questionnaires suggested the presence of three factors named, after varimax rotation, System Usefulness, Information Quality, and Interface Quality, with corresponding coefficient alphas of .96, .91, and .91. Evaluation of 377 PSSUQ questionnaires (modified to allow mailing to respondents in their offices and referred to as the Computer System Usability Questionnaire, or CSUQ) confirmed the structure of the preliminary principal factor analysis. Consequently, usability practitioners can use these questionnaires to help them measure users' satisfaction with the usability of computer systems in the context of scenario-based usability studies.
Applying Bifocal Displays to Topological Maps BIBA 79-98
  Ying K. Leung; Robert Spence; Mark D. Apperley
Presentation techniques for topological networks can be broadly classified as distortion-oriented and nondistortion-oriented. Although there has been a growing interest in applying various distortion-oriented techniques, the application of an earlier example, the bifocal display, has so far been underexploited. This article describes a number of human-computer interface techniques potentially relevant to the presentation and navigation of topological networks associated with transport systems, and describes a preliminary experimental study of a number of techniques for presenting the London Underground map as part of a real-time information system for travelers.

Book Review

"Understanding Interfaces: A Handbook of Human-Computer Dialogue," by M. W. Lansdale and T. C. Ormerod BIB 99-100
  Julie A. Jacko

IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 2

Evaluating a User Interface with Ergonomic Criteria BIBA 105-121
  J. M. Christian Bastien; Dominique L. Scapin
The usefulness of a set of ergonomic criteria for the evaluation of user interfaces was assessed using a mixed two-factors experimental design. Two groups of usability specialists (control, criteria) were asked to evaluate the interface of a musical database management system in two phases. In the first phase of the experiment, all the participants relied solely on their expertise; in the second phase they were instructed to evaluate the management system again but this time through the replay of their previous exploration: Participants in the criteria group used a set of ergonomic criteria whereas the participants in the control group did not. In the first phase, the two groups did not differ in terms of: (a) the number of usability problems detected, and (b) the proportions of usability problems uncovered as well as the proportion of usability problems found in common, with respect to the number of single evaluations (one by participant) that were computed into combined evaluations (i.e., aggregates). In the second phase, however, the participants in the criteria group had better performances than those in the control group: They uncovered more new problems, and the proportion of problems uncovered as well as the proportion of problems found in common was greater as a function of the number of evaluators in the aggregates. To sum up, the criteria increased the evaluation performance of the experts.
A Method for Estimating Code Key-In Times of College Students BIBA 123-134
  Satoshi Kishino; Yoshio Hayashi
A time estimation method for manual code entry is proposed. It estimates the reasonable time required for the students to key in their own code written in Pascal programming language. Actual time needed to key in varies depending on their knowledge, but this method does not estimate an individual student's manual entry time. For example, reasonable time means that 75% of the students finish their work within it. We are not interested in knowing every student's manual entry time. The features of our estimation process are as follows: First, the short parts of the Pascal code named reading units (RUs) were defined. It was assumed that all students read a code and type keys with every reading unit (RU). RUs were fixed for all students. Second, Method Time Measurement (MTM) was adopted to determine the time required for the basic elemental motions of manual entry operation. MTM is one of the Predetermined Time Standard (PTS) methods and is usually applied to the field of industrial work studies. Third, only six parameters were introduced in order to vary key-in time. They were average moving distance of fingers, average time to read a RU, occurrence rate of input errors and modification errors, and two real numbers that determine the difficulty in moving fingers and searching for characters.
Domain-Specific Design of User Interfaces BIBA 135-151
  Jan Gulliksen; Bengt Sandblad
The use of graphical user interfaces in a computerized work environment is often considered to substantially improve the work situation. The outcome can, however, often be the opposite. Inappropriate use of windowing techniques, scrolling, and colors can result in tedious and confusing interaction with the computer. Today's standards and style guides define basic design principles but are insufficient for design of interfaces to end-user applications. Here detailed domain knowledge is indeed essential. A domain-specific style guide (DSSG) is an extension of today's standard with domain-specific primitives, interface elements, and forms, together with domain-specific guidelines. Careful dedicated analysis of information utilization in a domain is the development basis for a DSSG. The development is performed with an object-oriented approach to facilitate the reuse of interface components and to support consistency and structure. Using a DSSG, the development of applications can be performed with a simplified information analysis. Therefore a more effective design process is possible, one in which end users can participate in the design using their own familiar domain-related terminology. Time and costs for the development process can be drastically reduced if domain-specific style guides, design guidelines, and development tools are used.
Considerations for Linking Seatpan and Backrest Angles BIBA 153-165
  Douglas L. Gardner; Leonard S. Mark; Marvin J. Dainoff; Wei Xu
Modern ergonomic chairs typically have several dimensions that can be adjusted independently of one another. Finding a desirable setting for any one dimension can depend on how other dimensions are set, thereby confronting users with a significant control problem. One design strategy for dealing with this problem has been to link changes in seatpan and backrest angles in some ratio, such that a one-degree change in seatpan angle is associated with a two- or three-degree change in backrest angle. However, there is no evidence to justify the choice of a particular ratio. This article presents data that addresses this issue. Subjects, performing either an entry or verification task, could adjust the chair to any position. Backrest and seatpan angles were plotted over time and analyzed using both graphical and statistical methods. The resulting scatter plots do not support the industry standard, 1:2 or 1:3 ratio, of changes in seatpan to backrest angles. The possibility of a variable linkage is discussed, however problems associated with such a solution raise the possibility that control issues might be best addressed through training and exploration.
Predictors of Learning Performance in a Computer-User Training Environment: A Path-Analytic Study BIBA 167-185
  Bernadette Szajna; Jane M. Mackay
A model was developed that incorporates several potential predictors of computer-user learning performance in a software training situation. The predictors in the model are: computer anxiety, computing aptitude, computing experience, and prior general achievement. The results show that computing aptitude and achievement are related to learning performance, whereas anxiety and experience are not. Several demographic traits of the subjects were also considered but no significant differences were found. Suggestions for future research include the evaluation of other potential predictors of computer-user learning performance and the assessment of different types of training programs to deal with differing levels of computing aptitude.

Book Review

"The Garden in the Machine: The Emerging Science of Artificial Life," by Claus Emmeche, translated by Steven Sampson BIB 187
  Umesh H. Patel

IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 3

Applications of Fuzzy-Based Linguistic Patterns for the Assessment of Computer Screen Design Quality BIBA 193-212
  Jerzy Grobelny; Waldemar Karwowski; Jozef Zurada
The main objective of this study was to develop a modeling framework which would unify different aspects of computer screen design and result in a quantitative criterion for an optimized computer screen format. The fuzzy set-based linguistic design patterns were utilized as a tool to build this model. The linguistic patterns are based on categories of expressions related closely to natural language and truth values, which are close to a human designer's intuition. The proposed framework is capable of assessing the quality of computer screen design based on existing knowledge in human-computer interface domain using the fuzzy-based linguistic pattern approach. Exemplary patterns for an optimal screen density, information grouping, and some aspects of screen layout are presented, along with a sequence of calculations based on the exemplary screen format. This study showed that it is possible to achieve a rational and relatively easy to interpret assessment of different screen designs in the form of the degrees of truth. Such an evaluation criterion reflects the compatibility of a given screen design with the optimal one based on the current knowledge in the field. It is believed that the proposed methodological framework for computer screen design should significantly augment the efforts of human designers.
The Effects of Mice and Pull-Down Menus versus Command-Driven Interfaces on Writing BIBA 213-234
  Karen R. Mahach; Deborah Boehm-Davis; Robert Holt
The effects of two different computer user interfaces on the process of writing are examined. English composition students (matched on computer experience) used a computer and keyboard (either with function keys or with a mouse) to write essays during their English classes. Essays generated using either a mouse or command-driven interface were compared across different stages of writing. The impact of using a mouse versus command-driven interface is described by analyzing the differences in the process used to create the essays and the quality of the essays produced by each group. Results indicate that students who used the command-driven interface scored better on organization of the paper, creativity, number of supporting arguments, grammar/spelling, and letter grade than did their mouse counterparts, as perceived by graders. However, there were no significant differences between the two interface conditions on any grammatical indices.
Factors Affecting User Tolerance for Voice Mail Message Transmission Delays BIBA 235-248
  Barrett S. Caldwell; Piyusha Paradkar
This article addresses nontechnology factors influencing the acceptance of system performance in an electronic voice messaging ("voice mail") system. Over 1,000 state government and university employees in a midwestern U.S. state responded to a survey evaluating voice mail systems previously installed in employees' phone systems. Situational constraints of message urgency, message content, and sender-receiver distance were examined. These constraints, as well as two measures of user experience, were studied to determine relationships between task or situational factors and user acceptance (tolerance) for message transmission delay. Results of the study demonstrated significant main effects of all three situation factors, as well as two situation interaction effects, on delay tolerance. User experience as measured by frequency of use, but not length of system availability, was also significantly related to tolerance for message transmission delay. This article discusses these results in the context of user and task demand factors in technology acceptance and system performance in implementing information technology systems in organizations.
A Dialogue-Based (Natural Language) Platform for Human Interaction with an Intelligent Mining Machine BIBA 249-272
  Celestine A. Ntuen; Eui H. Park; Arun A. Setty; Michael S. Kim
A mining environment is one of the most complex and unstructured in the manufacturing industry. In order to minimize the problems associated with these characteristics, recent strategies in mining operation are to automate the task performance and to design mining machines that are "intelligent." These strategies, among other things, will require that the human operators and the machine interact and collaborate to perform tasks in a symbiotic manner. To achieve this, a prototype dialogue-based interaction platform has been developed. The platform known as OASIP is a knowledge-based system driven by the operator-planned actions and behaviors known as intentions. OASIP is an adaptive system which exploits several sources of environmental knowledge from built-in blackboard cells.
Displaying a Boundary in Graphic and Symbolic "Wait" Displays: Duration Estimates and Users' Preferences BIBA 273-290
  Joachim Meyer; Yuval Bitan; David Shinar
Two experiments assessed the effect of displaying a boundary on duration estimates and preference ratings for dynamic displays that were shown while users waited for the system's response. Displays were either symbolic (changing numbers) or graphic (increasing rectangles) and could contain a boundary that indicated when the interval was expected to be over. Duration estimates were similar for symbolic and graphic displays and for displays with and without a boundary. However, when the displays were encountered successively, participants assessed the graphic displays as having shorter durations than the symbolic displays. Faster rates of change in both types of displays led to increased duration estimates. Although displaying a boundary did not affect duration estimates, participants preferred displays in which a boundary was shown and preferred the graphic displays over the symbolic displays. Hence, bounded graphic displays are recommended as "wait" displays for computerized applications.

IJHCI 1995 Volume 7 Issue 4

The Relative Effectiveness of Hypertext and Text BIBA 293-313
  Mark R. Lehto; Wenli Zhu; Bryan Carpenter
A series of two experiments was conducted. In Experiment 1, participant performance when using a hypertext electronic reference system was compared to using a conventional reference book. The links in this hypertext were based on the index entries in the corresponding 529-page book. Specific topics and particular facts were located much faster and more accurately using the hypertext system than for the book. These advantages increased when participants searched for information that was either not included or referred to indirectly in the index. However, hypertext did not have an advantage over text on learning tasks. The conclusion was that hypertext is superior to text only for "reading-to-do" tasks similar to those a designer may perform when consulting a reference book. Experiment 2 compared user performance when the links corresponded exactly to the original index of a 545-page textbook on ergonomics to performance when the links were generated by computer key-word searches. Strong advantages were found in speed, accuracy, and subjective ratings for links based on the author's original index. It appears that these latter results can be attributed to the greater focus of the information provided by links based on the author's index. Users spent much less time browsing irrelevant sections of the book.
Experiences on Computerization in Different Occupational Groups BIBA 315-327
  Pentti Seppala
Experiences on computerization in different occupational groups, such as department heads, lawyers, architects, clerical workers, and draftspersons were studied by distributing a questionnaire in a large, municipal organization. The results presented in this article are based on the responses of 566 employees. The attitude toward computerization was positive, and the majority expected further developments in information technology to affect their future positively. The anticipated benefits of computerization were more interesting job contents and increased effectiveness in performing tasks. On the other hand, many respondents felt that computers had also made their work more difficult. Furthermore, it was felt that the capability to use various application software was deficient, and further training was required in all groups. Draftspersons, architects, and the administrative management required the most training. The main reasons for computer-related stress were defects and failures in computer systems, as well as insufficient skills in using computers.
Visual Interference with Users' Tasks on Multiwindow Systems BIBA 329-340
  Hirohiko Mori; Yoshio Hayashi
This study investigated the potential visual interference imposed by displayed peripheral windows that are not central to a user's current task performance. In particular, the study examined the relation between foveal vision and peripheral vision activities in multiwindow systems. It was suggested that the number and layout of the windows in a multiwindow system can interfere with a user's activities while performing a task.
   Results from a visual search experiment were indicated as follows:
  • 1. Displayed peripheral windows interfered with a user's current task
  • 2. The number of the peripheral windows is a significant factor in the
  • 3. The types of the layout, overlapping or nonoverlapping, are also a
        significant factor in the interference.
  • 4. The activities of the foveal vision get worse when the visual position of
        the task performance is closer to the peripheral windows.
  • 5. These factors have different influences depending on whether the peripheral
        windows are static or dynamic. We discuss these results from the viewpoint of the nature of the human visual systems, especially the relation between foveal and peripheral vision.
  • Methodology Guide to Task Analysis with the Goal of Extracting Relevant Characteristics for Human-Computer Interfaces BIBA 341-363
      Suzanne Sebillotte
    This article presents the precepts of a methodology for extracting characteristics relevant for human-computer interface design. This methodology takes into account the compatibility of computer interfaces with human operators' tasks. The article uses examples to illustrate the logical progression of the proposed approach. Methods for gathering data about human operators' tasks (interview, trace analysis, experimental simulation) and a task description according to the methode analytique de description or analytic description method (MAD) formalism are outlined. The interface specification is described using an example to show how some important characteristics for human-computer interfaces may be extracted from the task description. Such characteristics need to be considered in order for the interface to satisfy the ergonomic criteria.
    An Approach to the Design of a Skill Adaptive Interface BIBA 365-383
      Qing Gong; Gavriel Salvendy
    Computer users vary greatly in their abilities to use a software interface efficiently. One factor that apparently affects users' efficiency in using an interface is the changes in their skill levels. In this study, an adaptive interface (of menu and command) is presented that dynamically adjusts to users' changing skill levels. The mechanism of an adaptive interface is described and discussed. The validity and usability of the adaptive interface is tested with 40 participants in an experiment that used a between-subject experimental design for interface style. The independent variables were interface style (menu, command, hybrid, and adaptive) and skill level (starting session and ending sessions). The dependent variables were task completion time, number of steps used, ratio (of using menu mode over menu and command modes), perceived memory load, and satisfaction with the interface styles. The task-completion time and ratio data indicate that the adaptive interface produced significantly better performance than the static hybrid interface at the end of the training sessions for experienced computer users. No significant differences were found for memory load and satisfaction ratings across the four interface styles.
    Interactive Reconstructive Student Modeling: A Machine-Learning Approach BIBA 385-401
      Antonija Mitrovic; Slobodanka Djordjevic-Kajan
    Reconstructive bug modeling is a well-known approach to student modeling in intelligent tutoring systems, suitable for modeling procedural tasks. Domain knowledge is decomposed into the set of primitive operators and the set of conditions of their applicability. Reconstructive modeling is capable of describing errors that come from irregular application of correct operators. The main obstacle to successfulness of this approach is such decomposition of domain knowledge to primitive operators with a very low level of abstraction so that bugs could never occur within them. The other drawback of this modeling scheme is its efficiency because it is usually done offline, due to vast search spaces involved.
       This article reports a novel approach to reconstructive modeling based on machine-learning techniques for inducing procedures from traces. The approach overcomes the problems of reconstructive modeling by its interactive nature. It allows online model generation by using domain knowledge and knowledge about the student to focus the search on the portion of the problem space the student is likely to traverse while solving the problem. Furthermore, the approach is not only incremental, but also truly interactive because it involves the student in explicit dialogs about his or her goals. In such a way, it is possible to determine whether the student knows the operator he or she is trying to apply. Pedagogical actions and the student model are generated interchangeably, thus allowing for dynamic adaptation of instruction, problem generation, and immediate feedback on student's errors. The approach presented is examined in the context of the symbolic integration tutoring system (SINT), an intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for the domain of symbolic integration.

    Book Reviews

    "Requirements Engineering: Social and Technical Issues," by M. Jirotka and J. A. Goguen BIB 403-404
      Baijun Zhao
    "Designing Usable Electronic Text: Ergonomic Aspects of Human Information Usage," by A. Dillon BIB 404-405
      Liwana S. Bringelson
    "Adaptive User Support," by R. Oppermann BIB 406-407
      Qing Gong
    "The Trouble with Computers," by T. K. Landauer BIB 407-408
      Andrew Sears
    "Research Techniques in Human Engineering," by J. Weimer BIB 408-409
      Jason S. Priebe