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IJHCI Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213141516

International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 6

Editors:Gavriel Salvendy
Publisher:Ablex Publishing Corporation
Standard No:ISSN 1044-7318
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 1
  2. IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 2
  3. IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 3
  4. IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 4

IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 1

From Users' Task Knowledge to High-Level Interface Specification BIBA 1-15
  Suzanne Sebillotte; Dominique L. Scapin
In the effort to define appropriate design and evaluation methods for interface usability, research work is being carried out to study the matching between users' task characteristics and interface characteristics. This article proposes a methodology: following the task description (using Methode Analytique de Description; MAD), select task-based data for defining informational constraints for the interface. The air traffic control task was described by applying MAD. Even though it was found to be suitable for capturing task-based knowledge, the method showed the need for further refinements. This led to a more systematic way of selecting human factors rules as candidates for generic inference rules. These rules consist of premises describing specific configurations of users' tasks (e.g., a particular informational need, a relationship between objectives, etc.) and conclusions that indicate specific requirements for the interface to conform to (e.g., a particular information display, a simultaneous access to two related functions, etc.). The air traffic control task description and the first interface specification attempts, even though they were exploratory, demonstrated the feasibility of the approach -- that is, of generating interface requirements from task configurations, through human factors rules.
Winners and Losers from Computerization: A Study of the Psychosocial Work Conditions and Health of Swedish State Employees BIBA 17-35
  Gunner Aronsson; Margareta Dallner; Carl Aborg
This study was comprised of 1,738 state-employed visual-display terminal (VDT) users whose work environment and health were examined through questionnaires. The aim of the study was to analyze the relationship between work organization and mental/somatic symptoms. The results showed that work conditions vary considerably both between groups of users and between men and women. Data-entry tasks and a combination of data-entry and data-acquisition tasks were more common among women. The data-entry group reported a greater number of somatic and psychological problems and contained the greatest percentage of people spending more than 6 hours per day at a terminal. There appeared to be a critical limit of 5 to 6 hours per day beyond which the incidence of symptoms rose sharply. Recommendations for preventive measures are presented.
Performance Variability as an Indicator of Fatigue and Boredom Effects in a VDT Data-Entry Task BIBA 37-45
  Christopher S. Pan; Richard L. Shell; Lawrence M. Schleifer
This study evaluated the utility of performance variability as an indicator of fatigue and boredom effects in a computer-based data-entry task. Twenty-four data transcribers entered numeric data from tax forms at a video-display terminal (VDT) for 3 consecutive workdays under one of the following work management conditions: Electronic Performance Monitoring (EPM) or No Electronic Performance (No EPM). Self-ratings of fatigue and boredom were assessed at periodic intervals. The speed (keystrokes) and the accuracy (errors) of task performance were recorded on a continuous basis. Irrespective of the type of work management condition, there was an increase in fatigue and boredom from the morning to afternoon work sessions. Correspondingly, there was an increase in the variability of speed performance from the morning to afternoon work sessions for both the EPM and No EPM conditions. Trend analyses revealed a correspondence of the linear increase in fatigue and boredom with the linear increase in speed variability across the afternoon work periods under the No EPM condition. The findings of this study suggest that performance variability may be an objective indicator of fatigue and boredom effects in repetitive computer tasks.
Contours and Borders in Animated Mimic Displays BIBA 47-64
  Kevin B. Bennett; Ed Madigan
Previous research has indicated that ambiguities in apparent motion (e.g., direction, rate) can result when color table techniques are used to produce animation in mimic displays. Two experiments were conducted to investigate alternative display designs in which contours (angled vs. straight) and borders (explicit vs. implicit) were varied. In Experiment 1, contours, borders, and temporal frequency interacted. At 5 Hz angled contours improved accuracy significantly. At 10 Hz explicit borders improved accuracy significantly with angled contours but degraded accuracy significantly with straight contours. In Experiment 2, the design of the angled contours was changed to convey less information and an additional border condition was added. Once again, borders and contours interacted: The widest explicit border degraded accuracy with straight contours. Angled contours also improved latency performance. The results suggest that angled contours can reduce ambiguity and improve the effectiveness of animated mimic displays by providing a redundant encoding of rate information. However, this benefit must be weighed against the associated computational costs. A secondary finding was that when contours are straight the borders should be implicit, not explicit. Alternative design solutions for animated mimic displays are also discussed.
Human-Machine Cooperation: Toward an Activity Regulation Assistance for Different Air Traffic Control Levels BIBA 65-104
  Frederic Vanderhaegen; Igor Crevits; Serge Debernard; Patrick Millot
Our research is based on the air traffic control activity regulation assistance. It aims at integrating the two levels of the air traffic control organization: a tactical level managed by a so-called radar controller and a strategic one managed by a so-called organic controller. Concerning the tactical level, our research is directed toward a "horizontal cooperation" that consists in a dynamic allocation of control tasks between a human air traffic controller and an assistance tool. Regarding the other level, it is oriented toward a scheduling module in order to improve the initial allocation policy.
Quantitative and Qualitative Differences Between Experts and Novices in Chucking Computer Software Knowledge BIBA 105-118
  Nong Ye; Gavriel Salvendy
This study investigated quantitative and qualitative differences between experts and novices in knowledge structure, specifically in their chucking of computer software knowledge. An experiment was conducted to collect pairwise relatedness ratings of 23 concepts in C computer programming from 10 experts and 10 novices. Correlation analyses of relatedness ratings were performed to examine expert-novice differences in overall knowledge structure. The intergroup correlation coefficients of experts were greater than the intragroup correlation coefficients of novices and the intergroup correlation coefficients between experts and novices. Hence, there existed structural differences of knowledge between experts and novices. To examine how experts differ from novices quantitatively and qualitatively in their knowledge chucking, the relatedness ratings of experts were averaged within the group to give a single set of relatedness ratings, and the relatedness ratings of novices were also averaged within the group to give a single set of relatedness ratings. Then the hierarchical clustering analyses were performed on the set of relatedness ratings for the experts group and on the set of relatedness ratings for the novices group, respectively. The hierarchical clustering of C concepts made by experts and the hierarchical clustering of C concepts made by novices indicated that novices had more but smaller knowledge chunks than experts for the common set of knowledge, and that the rough chucking of knowledge made by novices was qualitatively similar to the rough chucking of knowledge made by experts, although on a more detailed level qualitative differences still existed.

IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 2

Human-Computer Interaction and Lean Production: The Shop Floor Example BIBA 121-154
  Hans-Jorg Bullinger; Klaus-Peter Fahnrich; Michael Thines; Rainer Bamberger
The approach in industrial engineering to computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) proved not to be the concept needed for the majority of German companies. At the moment, lean production is the focal point of discussion about production engineering. It tries to combine concepts such as human-centered organization, internationalization of business, decentralization of decisions, increased development times, total quality management, and process-oriented business management. There are a variety of implementation areas for lean production. One implementation has been the shop floor-oriented production support concept as developed by the Fraunhofer Institute IAO in Stuttgart. It focuses on functions such as Computer Numeric Control (CNC) machine tool programming, shop floor control, quality assurance, and resource management, and it aims at decentralized work organization, comprehensive work contents, and support for highly skilled workers on the shop floor. This support is provided by Information Technology (IT) systems that follow the ideas of work enrichment and work enlargement, and use a so-called shop floor metaphor and graphical user interfaces with standard tool kits. In this way, the shop floor-oriented production support concept represents a future concept that takes into consideration particularly human factors and human-computer interaction.
Brain Potential Correlates of Supraliminal Contrast Functions and Defocus BIBA 155-176
  Ove Franzen; Gunnar Lennerstrand; Hans Richter
In six subjects with normal corrected vision, perceived suprathreshold contrast of a sine-wave grating pattern was assessed by an intermodal matching technique in combination with the method of ratio estimation. Vertical gratings were produced on an oscilloscope screen at spatial frequencies of 1.0, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0, 9.0 and 15.0 cycles per degree (c/deg) and at contrast levels between 0.03 and 0.55. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (VEP) were recorded from the occiput to phase reversing gratings of the same spatial frequency and contrast range. A linear relation was found in logarithmic coordinates between perceived and physical contrast and between VEP amplitude and physical contrast. The slopes varied with spatial frequency and were steeper at low and high spatial frequencies than in the intermediate range for both subjective contrast and VEP.
   In a second group of six subjects, the effect of retinal image defocus (myopia) on the psychophysical power functions was determined by placing spherical plus lenses in front of the eyes. A marked change in slope was obtained with blurred stimuli, and this effect was more pronounced with an increase in spatial frequency. Power transformations can thus be induced by neural and optical factors. Growth rate of supraliminal response functions seems to be inversely related to detection threshold of sensory systems. The close correlation between perceptual and electrophysiological contrast measurements makes it possible to use suprathreshold stimulation for objective, electrophysiological determination of contrast sensitivity.
Effects of Electronic Performance Monitoring on Job Design and Worker Stress: Results of Two Studies BIBA 177-190
  Pascale Carayon
This article discusses empirical evidence regarding the effect of electronic performance monitoring on job design and stress. It was assumed that electronic performance monitoring would have both direct and indirect effects on worker stress (Carayon, 1993). Electronic performance monitoring could indirectly affect worker stress because of its influence on job design. Data from two studies show that electronic performance monitoring seems to affect job design and worker stress. In the first study, monitored employees reported different levels of job design, but not of worker stress, as compared to nonmonitored employees. In the second study, monitored employees reported more negative perceptions of their working conditions and more stress than nonmonitored employees. Specific characteristics of electronic performance monitoring, such as completeness and comparison of ratings among coworkers, were found to be related to job design and worker stress. The results tend to confirm that EPM has an indirect effect on worker stress via job design.
Multimedia and Its Impact on Training Engineers BIBA 191-204
  Bonnie Daily
This article presents empirical research conducted on the effectiveness of the Advanced Technology Classroom (a computer-integrated, multimedia learning environment) on engineering-based curriculum. Multimedia offers the opportunity to enhance learning through greater audiovisual perceptions and interactive participation. Effectiveness of the ATC multimedia system was determined through a series of empirical studies that compared instruction with multimedia to traditional instruction methods. Courses in production/operations management and mechanics of materials were chosen for examination using undergraduate engineering students. The research findings suggest that multimedia is an applicable, pedagogical tool for use in training engineers.
New Analysis of HRV Through Wavelet Transform BIBA 205-217
  Hiroyuki Tsuji; Hirohiko Mori
This article introduces a new analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) using the wavelet transform (WT) in place of conventional methods. This transform maps the signal into a two-dimensional function on a time-scale plane. It allows us to precisely determine the location and the power of the HRV spectrum. We apply this method to empirical data containing several stress factors and detect a decrease in power at high frequencies when subjects hyperventilate. We can use this method to detect peaks of power at lower frequencies. We analyze the WT results statistically to determine the relationship between frequency bands at each condition. The correlation coefficients for the WT results between scales change when the stress factors are given. This method reveals the characteristics of the power spectrum at lower frequencies. These are known to play an important role in the modulation of the sympathetic nervous system. This method can be useful in studying computer users' stress responses under different working conditions.

IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 3

Percentage of Procedural Knowledge Acquired as a Function of the Number of Experts from Whom Knowledge is Acquired for Diagnosis, Debugging, and Interpretation Tasks BIBA 221-233
  Chin-Jung Chao; Gavriel Salvendy
Knowledge elicitation is an expensive and vital part in the construction of knowledge-based systems. This paper indicates that the acquisition of procedural knowledge can significantly be improved, depending on the tasks (interpretation, debugging, or diagnosis) for which the knowledge is elicited; the method of knowledge elicitation (protocol, interview, induction, or repertory grid), and the number of experts (from one to six) from whom knowledge is elicited. On average, for all conditions the percentage of acquired procedural knowledge increased by two-fold from using one to six experts. The optimal cost-benefit utility may be achieved by using three experts for knowledge elicitation.
Self-Assessment of VDT Operator Health: Hierarchical Structure and Validity Analysis of a Health Checklist BIBA 235-252
  Francois Sainfort; Pascale Carayon
The underlying hierarchical structure and validity of a health checklist that assesses Video Display Terminal (VDT) operator health was examined. This checklist has been used in many studies of VDT workers (Smith, Cohen, Stammerjohn, & Happ, 1981; Piotrkowski, Cohen, & Coray, 1992). Two hundred sixty-two office employees from three public service organizations provided the data to identify the underlying structure and assess the validity of the health checklist. Factor analyses of the health checklist were performed to identify all meaningful factor solutions. The convergent and discriminant validity of the nine-factor solution was examined. The factor analyses led to the identification of a hierarchical structure of the health checklist. This empirical structure is shown to be conceptually sound and useful and offers flexibility in constructing various scales.
Ergodynamics and Macroergonomics in Analysis of Decision-Making Efficiency and Complexity BIBA 253-274
  Valery F. Venda; Hal W. Hendrick
The principles of macroergonomics and the laws of ergodynamics are reviewed. The theories of mutual adaptation and transformation dynamics are presented as a complex basis of the ergodynamics, and they are offered as paradigms for macroergonomic evaluation and design of sociotechnical or human-machine-environment decision-making systems (HMES). Criteria and factors of decision-making efficiency are studied for different cognitive strategies and their transformations in the course of long-term training and short-term decision making in emergencies. Sample system criteria and design guidelines, based on the results of both laboratory studies and actual research and design applications, are provided. A combination of macroergonomics and ergodynamics helps ergonomists to meet rapidly growing requirements of practice and overcome a narrow approach to the workstations analysis when a broader view of complex multilevel system leads to success and instead of traditional static approach the analysis of transformations in technologies, management structures, and work skills is needed.
A Method for Assessing the Usability of Graphical, Direct-Manipulation Style Interfaces BIBA 275-297
  Donna L. Cuomo
A model-based method for assessing the usability of graphical, direct-manipulation style interfaces was developed. The method involves collecting and integrating verbal protocol data, history logs, and videotapes of the system display. Then, an analyst familiar with the task, the data, and Norman's (1986) user activity model reviews the data and makes determinations on what they mean in terms of the model. An encoding scheme is next applied to the integrated data, to structure the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) process at a detailed interaction level. The structured data now support the application of quantitative methods and the identification of meaningful patterns and frequencies that highlight potential usability problems or instances of indirectness. Error encodings reflect user-system interface difficulties not only in the execution stage but also in the psychological stages. The method was used to evaluate the usability of a military airspace scheduling system; the types of usability problems identified and the advantages of the method are discussed.
Automated Speech Recognition for Spreadsheet Tasks: Performance Effects for Experts and Novices BIBA 299-318
  Michael J. DeHaemer; George Wright; Thomas W. Dillon
The performance of spreadsheet users was compared for two modes of input to the computer, keyboard and automated speech recognition (ASR). Subjects from both an expert group and a novice group were also classified by decision style. Dependent measures were task completion time, accuracy, keystroke count, correction count, and user confidence. Results for a speaker-dependent, discrete-word recognized showed that, for both simple data input and more complex analytical spreadsheet tasks, neither the experts nor the novices performed more effectively using ASR. However, both groups expressed the desirability of having speech input as an option for desktop computing.
Effects of Six Different Highlighting Modes on Visual Search Performance in Menu Options BIBA 319-334
  Geerd Philipsen
Highlighting (Hl), for example of menu options, is usually considered as improving information processing efficiency. Particularly relevant are the attention effects of valid (target) highlighting, when contrasted with the effects of highlighting distracting information (invalid Hl). A visual search experiment was conducted to analyze the requirements of such an overall performance gain under valid Hl. The efficiency of six different modes of highlighting (brightness increase, reverse video, color [red], reverse color, blue-on-yellow, and red-on-green) on a black screen background was determined. Sixty-two subjects indicated the presence of a prespecified menu option in a list of CAD menu options, of which a subset was highlighted on every trial. Also varied was familiarity of highlighting. Dependent measures were the absolute performance scores (search time and accuracy) and highlighting benefits. Significant absolute performance differences between the modes were found. They were accompanied by a marked dissociation between the absolute and the benefit measures. The Hl benefits were calculated as the individual performance differences between target-highlighted trials (valid Hl) and target-standard (invalid Hl) conditions. The bright white mode, which caused the shortest absolute search time, did not result in a benefit. In contrast the red color condition produced a large benefit, accompanied by only mid-range absolute performance. The widely used reverse video modes generally led to the poorest performance. Familiarity of highlighting had a differential effect, depending on the dependent measure preferred. Recommendations for the use of highlighting in display design are given.

IJHCI 1994 Volume 6 Issue 4

The Full-Time VDT Operator as a Working Person: Musculoskeletal Work Discomfort and Life Situation BIBA 339-364
  Gunnela Westlander
The purpose of this research was to explore the situations and activities during which video display terminal (VDT) operators' musculoskeletal discomforts arose. The study groups were engaged in highly computerized office work, consisting of routine, standardized job tasks. A total of 36 subjects were chosen from two office departments: 25 people from an accounts center where work was dominated by routine data-entry work, and 12 persons from a telephone exchange where data-dialogue work predominated. An instrument for in-depth interview was prepared to explore how the individual was coping with any musculoskeletal discomfort and how this kind of discomfort was related to work and overall life situation. An earlier-developed method was used for assessing the subjectively perceived position of the interviewees in relation to the entire course of their paid employment, using four variables. The data underwent a predominantly qualitative analysis.
   Findings based on the assessment of subjective time perspective of current work and its relation to musculoskeletal complaints revealed that people working together, and with very similar tasks, had very different panoramas looking backward and forward at their personal work life and independent of their suffering from musculoskeletal discomfort. Most of the workers had decided to stay in the present job and to not demand more of the job than they had obtained until now. One conclusion is that these orientations should be considered important factors in planning for ergonomic intervention and organizational change.
Error Training: Replication and the Function of Exploratory Behavior BIBA 365-372
  Tanja Dormann; Michael Frese
A study of 30 psychology students replicated and extended the findings of Frese et al. (1991) on the superiority of error training, a procedure in which trainees are exposed to many errors. The hypothesis was that error training would lead to exploration and this would increase performance. The error training group performed better than the group that received training in which they were not allowed to make any errors. Students in both the error training and the error avoidant groups performed better if they explored. Exploration was done in contrast to the instruction in the error avoidant group. The data suggest that it is necessary to look into the question of whether errors instigate exploration.
An Empirical Evaluation of Knowledge, Cognitive Style, and Structure upon the Performance of a Hypertext Task BIBA 373-390
  Ralph D. Korthauer; Richard J. Koubek
In an effort to reduce navigation difficulties, recent research suggests that user characteristics need to be considered when designing a hypertext document. This study evaluated the effects of an individual's cognitive characteristics in conjunction with the nature of the hypertext task. Subjects of varying levels of knowledge and cognitive style, specifically field independence/field dependence, utilized a hypertext document to answer explicitly and inherently structured questions. Among other findings, experienced field-dependent subjects' performance was less than that of experienced field-independent subjects', specifically when explicit structure was provided. The results suggest that the existing knowledge structure of experienced field-dependent subjects may conflict with explicitly structured hypertext. Implications for the appropriate design of hypertext systems are discussed.
Parallel Use of Hand Gestures and Force-Input Device for Interacting with 3D and Virtual Reality Environments BIBA 391-413
  Monica Bordegoni
User interfaces of current 3D and virtual reality environments require highly interactive input/output (I/O) techniques and appropriate input devices, providing users with natural and intuitive ways of interacting. This paper presents an interaction model, some techniques, and some ways of using novel input devices for 3D user interfaces. The interaction model is based on a tool-object syntax, where the interaction structure syntactically simulates an action sequence typical of a human's everyday life: One picks up a tool and then uses it on an object. Instead of using a conventional mouse, actions are input through two novel input devices, a hand- and a force-input device. The devices can be used simultaneously or in sequence, and the information they convey can be processed in a combined or in an independent way by the system. The use of a hand-input device allows the recognition of static poses and dynamic gestures performed by a user's hand. Hand gestures are used for selecting, or acting as, tools and for manipulating graphical objects. A system for teaching and recognizing dynamic gestures, and for providing graphical feedback for them, is described.
Human Processing of Two-Dimensional Graphics: Information Volume Concepts and Effects in Graph-Task Fit Anchoring Frameworks BIBA 414-456
  Joseph K. Tan
This report discusses the findings from three related experiments on the effects of information volume in graph-task fit anchoring frameworks reported in the literature. Information volume is operationally defined as the size of a data matrix (SDM), that is, the total number of points in a graphical display. The anchoring frameworks specify that an extraction task has high or low x-value anchoring depending on whether or not the x-component is represented in the question (as a given or unknown value). A total within-subject repeated measure experimental design was used to test the effects of SDM on speed and accuracy of data extraction. These experiments also integrated different frameworks to relate the information-volume effects. Results indicated that increased SDM adversely affected only data extraction time, not accuracy. A significant graph format by information volume interaction was observed; and training did reduce perceived information complexity, especially for high data volume displays. Also, effects of information volume on graph types differed: For vertical bars, a steeply rising monotonic performance-information volume trend was observed for all tasks. Symbols produced flat nonmonotonic trends for high x-value anchoring tasks and a gently rising monotonic trend for low x-value anchoring tasks. In contrast line graphs produced a gently rising monotonic trend for high x-value anchoring tasks and a nonmonotonic trend for low x-value anchoring tasks. Such evidence suggests that information volume effects on human processing of two-dimensional graphical displays are influenced considerably by the character of the graphic format used for representing quantitative data and by the "fit" in anchoring characteristics between tasks and graphical formats.