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Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Creativity and Cognition

Fullname:Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition
Editors:Ashok K. Goel; Fox Harrell; Brian Magerko; Yukari Nagai; Jane Prophet
Location:Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Dates:2011-Nov-03 to 2011-Nov-06
Standard No:ISBN 1-4503-0820-1, 978-1-4503-0820-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CC11
Links:Conference Home Page
Summary:The goal of the 8th ACM Conference on Creativity and Cognition (C&C 2011) is to foster disruptive new ideas in understanding human creativity in its many manifestations, in designing new interactive computing techniques to augment and amplify human creativity, and in using computational media technologies to explore new creative processes and artifacts in human endeavors ranging from the arts to science, from design to education, from research to practice to everyday life. The theme of the conference, as the conference website (http://dilab.gatech.edu/ccc/) states, is Creativity and Technology, as befits Georgia Institute of Technology, the host institution. We are pleased to share the conference program that follows in these proceedings with you, for we believe that it both promotes the conference theme and accomplishes the conference goal.
    For C&C 2011, we received 144 full paper and 35 poster paper submissions. We also received 33 artworks for review. In addition, we received 21 paper abstracts for the Graduate Student Symposium. We also received several proposals for tutorial and workshops, and subsequently many papers for the accepted workshops. In all, we received about 260 creative articles in various categories. C&C 2011 is a good-sized conference!
    In addition to the above articles, these proceedings contain abstracts of four keynote addresses by Guy Claxton (creativity and learning), Sara Diamond (creativity and arts), Atau Tanaka (creativity and music), and Ben Shneiderman (social creativity). We are very excited to have the four keynote speakers join us at the conference.
    These proceedings also contain abstracts of three workshops: Being there, Doing It: The Challenge of Embodied Cognition for Design (Chairs: Jelle van Dijk & Joep Frens); Semi-Automated Creativity: Software as a Creative Collaborator (Chair: Jimmy Secretan), and Beyond the Binding: Exploring the Future of the Book (Chairs: Natalie Freed, Jie Qi, Cristina Sylla, and Pedro Branco). These workshops add to the breadth of the conference.
    The conference program also includes three panel sessions on Creativity and Technology that bring creative artists together with creativity researchers, as well as an evening of art exhibits and performances. This focus on art builds on the tradition of past C&C conferences, and adds intellectual diversity, energy and fun to the conference!
  1. Creativity and learning
  2. Learning
  3. Creativity & technology - 1: fiction
  4. Public art
  5. Design - 1
  6. Creativity and music
  7. Affect
  8. Creativity & technology - 2: physical presence
  9. Collaboration
  10. Creativity and art
  11. Perception
  12. Design - 2
  13. Creativity & technology - 3: control/improvisation
  14. New frontiers
  15. Social creativity
  16. Poster session
  17. Demo session
  18. Art exhibits
  19. Art performances
  20. Workshops
  21. Graduate student symposium

Creativity and learning

Creative-mindedness: when technology helps and when it hinders BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Guy Claxton
Creative-mindedness is the broad disposition to come up with a good idea when you need one, and work it through. It relies on a number of factors: the absence of beliefs that might cause one to neglect or misrepresent useful aspects of one's own mind; the possession of a rich and partly unsystematic neural compost of experience, snippets and understanding; an intuitive grasp of when and how to think clearly and precisely, and when and how to think vaguely and dreamily; an awkward but irresistible sense of wonderment and scepticism; patience and persistence in the face of confusion and frustration; and the ability to amass and deploy material, spatial, technological and social resources in a way that is fluidly appropriate to the evolving nature of the creative project. This last factor is perhaps the most important of all: the presence of mind to orchestrate both one's own mental resources and habits, and the affordances of the outside world, in a way that optimises their ability to mesh with themselves and with each other. Creativity means being smart about yourself, smart about the world, and smart about how to fit the two together.


Studying medium effects on children's creative processes BIBAFull-Text 3-12
  Sharon Lynn Chu Yew Yee; Francis K. H. Quek; Lin Xiao
The Fourth Grade Slump, whereby children's creativity drops precipitously at around fourth grade, is a developmental phenomenon that begs for research to be done on ways to nurture children's creativity. We posit that due to its form and formal features, the use of the animated medium for creative activities can positively sustain the child's creativity throughout the Slump. We present a study that investigated how the animated medium (animation) mediates and influences the creative process of children in the third and fourth grade, using the digital print medium (storybook) as comparison. Analysis of the process was done at the structural and production level using mainly the method of discourse analysis.
   Children were observed to go through different stages and sequences when creating stories using animation as opposed to the storybook medium. The strategies that the children adopted to create differed along six themes: the prevalence of micro-activities, an integrated and activity-driven process of story generation, a focus on qualitative details producing richer stories, a broader imagination in terms of the story world, the occurrence of serendipitous creativity, and a higher degree of convergence and divergence despite a low seeding level of ideas in story generation. While animation was seen to have certain limitations in the act of creating, it had a largely positive impact on the children's motivation and enthusiasm to engage in the creative activity. Our results have implications for the understanding of the creative process among elementary school children, a necessary first step for the proper design of systems to nurture and sustain children's creativity throughout the Fourth Grade Slump.
Combining concept maps to catalyze creativity BIBAFull-Text 13-20
  Lixiu Yu; Jeffrey V. Nickerson
Combining concept maps aids creative problem solving. In two studies, participants were presented with a story describing a problem and its solution. They were then asked to read an analogous problem and provide a solution. In order to facilitate transfer from the first story to the second, concept maps of the stories were elicited and participants instructed to combine them. The results show that participants were more likely to solve the problem when they produced and combined concept maps, as compared to a condition in which concept maps were used without combination, and compared to a condition in which no maps were used, but instead summaries were created and combined.
Kinesthetic pathways: a tabletop visualization to support discovery in systems biology BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Andy Wu; Jung-Bin Yim; Eric Caspary; Ali Mazalek; Sanjay Chandrasekharan; Nancy J. Nersessian
We report on an ethnographic study of the work practice and discovery process in a systems biology lab, and outline a tabletop visualization that was developed based on this study, in collaboration with the researchers. The feedback from the researchers on the current prototype is presented, and ongoing revisions are outlined. We conclude with some of the challenges involved in developing such tangible visualizations for discovery.
An artistic dialogue with the artificial BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  David Norton; Derrall Heath; Dan Ventura
In conjunction with Brigham Young University's Visual Arts program, we conducted a study centered around a system designed to be an artificial artist, in order to synthesize the ideas of visual artists and computer scientists. Participants from both disciplines designed activities that imposed the limitations of the artificial system on their fellow participants. These activities sparked discussion and insight into the nature of the creative process and how it can be better emulated in artificial systems. We present our system and several of the activities designed around it and discuss the synergistic results.

Creativity & technology - 1: fiction

Creative gadget design in fictions: generalized planning in analogical spaces BIBAFull-Text 41-50
  Boyang Li; Mark O. Riedl
Science-fiction and fantasy stories often contain objects never envisioned previously. Inventing gadgets like lightsabers or mythical creatures like griffins is a creative task. Traditional computational storytelling systems are limited in their expressivity because they cannot create new types of objects or gadgets. The Japanese manga series Doraemon exemplifies the role of new and creative gadgets in creating fun and successful stories. We surveyed five volumes of Doraemon and identified 9 cognitive strategies of gadget creation, unified in a 5-step process. We present an algorithm to create new types of gadgets in the context of story generation. The algorithm is a combination of partial-order planning and analogical reasoning. Although Doraemon is our motivating example, we can also generate gadgets commonly seen in other science fictions and fairy tales.

Public art

Performing places BIBAFull-Text 51-60
  Colombine Gardair; Patrick G. T. Healey; Martin Welton
Street performers use carefully designed interactions to: create their performance space, build their audience, and elicit payment. Two of the key transformations a performer must achieve are (1) to transform a public space into a distinctive performance place that passers-by acknowledge as such; and (2) to turn a crowd of passers-by into an audience. In this ethnographic study of street shows we analyse the specific practicalities of creating a performance place within a public space. We propose that performers design their actions in ways that help passers-by and audience members identify them as part of a performance. We investigate how passers-by display their recognition that a performance is being created, becoming watchers before being audience members. We explore various techniques performers use for place-construction and demonstrate that in each case, while objects themselves may be important in attracting initial attention, it is only through interaction that they are successful in actual building of a performance place.
Post-it note art: evaluating public creativity at a user generated art installation BIBAFull-Text 61-70
  Anijo Mathew; Yvonne Rogers; Peter Lloyd
As computing increasingly deals with our lived experiences in complex social ecologies such as urban and public environments, designers are challenged with new methods and ways of appropriating computation and experience around public creativity. Public creativity deals with interactions in public interactive installations that are not task-based queries of information but social constructions of user generated and collaborative content. In this paper, we present an analytic framework to evaluate such interactions in public installations. We then present a study where we designed, installed and evaluated a user generated art installation through the lens of this framework.

Design - 1

An information-processing account of creative analogies in biologically inspired design BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Ashok K. Goel; Swaroop Vattam; Michael Helms; Bryan Wiltgen
Biologically inspired design perhaps is one of the most important movements in engineering design. The paradigm espouses use of analogies to biology in generating conceptual designs for new technologies. In this paper, we briefly summarize some empirical findings about biologically inspired design, and then develop an information-processing theory of creative analogies in biologically inspired design. We also compare our theory with similar theories. In addition, we examine how biologically inspired design is fundamentally different from other design paradigms.
Understanding repair as a creative process of everyday design BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Leah Maestri; Ron Wakkary
This paper presents the findings from an exploratory study that looks at how creativity plays a role in the repair and reuse of objects in the home. We are interested in a particular form of creativity that manifests in the everyday -- what John Dewey [8] describes as a constant doing and undergoing, as we actively adjust to everyday situations. The goal of this study is to show evidence of repair as not only an act of restoration, but also as an act of creativity that entails the repurposing and resourcing of objects. This study is part of a larger research initiative known as the Everyday Design, where it is believed that everyone is a designer and that design is an ongoing activity that includes the repair, modification, and appropriation of design objects and systems. Furthermore, this study serves as baseline research for future investigations in how to inform the design of technologies whose lifecycle can be extended for various contexts of use through repair.
Traces in creative spaces BIBAFull-Text 91-94
  Jelle van Dijk; Gerrit Willem Vos
We organized one-week 'IncompanyLabs' (i.e. on site co-design activities) at three different creative companies, seeking opportunities for an embodied interactive media tool to support creative sessions. Our concept TRACES is an interactive floor guiding the creation of shared insights and supporting taking the step from individual thinking to group-level integration. User explorations with a Wizard-of-Oz prototype revealed directions for improving the interaction quality and indicated how a system like TRACES could act as a 'scaffold' for discussion.

Creativity and music

Enduring interaction: an approach to analysis and design of animated gestural interfaces in creative computing systems BIBAFull-Text 95-104
  Kenny K. N. Chow; D. Fox Harrell
This paper provides an interdisciplinary reflection on the nature meaning-making involving users and animated gestural interfaces. In particular, we propose a new model for analysis of creative computing systems incorporating gestural input into dynamically animated interfaces. Our contributions are based on a theoretical framework synthesizing embodied cognition approaches in cognitive science, phenomenology in philosophy, and user interface design in computing. We introduce the term enduring interaction to refer to the phenomenon of bodily and conceptually engaging interaction within constantly changing computational environments. Our construct centralizes the issue of how users' motor-sensory experiences inform their construction of meaning in the design of interactive systems. We argue that creative computing systems, a class of artifacts including types of hobbyist websites, video games, and computer-based artworks, require a new design perspective quite distinct from user-centric interface design approaches focused on productivity-oriented applications. Using examples including outcomes of the Gestural Narrative and Interactive Expression (GeNIE) project (Harrell, PI; Chow and Erik Loyer collaborators) along with existing prevalent, exceptional, or historically significant artifacts, we articulate a continuum of various kinds of engagement, showing design implications of our perspective, enabling users to use gestural interaction (through multi-touch and gyroscope/accelerometer-based input devices) to result in narratively salient, evocative, and even intimate interaction mechanisms in interactive narrative environments.
Music one participates in BIBAFull-Text 105-106
  Atau Tanaka
Digital music has undergone fundamental shifts -- it has gone real time, it has become interactive, it has become miniaturized, and completely democratized. I'll map out my personal trajectory in this time to look at broader evolutions in the field with sensors, networks, and mobility. These are not just technological changes, but changes that bring about shifts in musical approaches. Form factors change, analogue is reconciled with digital, and new directions in Open Source and DIY culture continue to challenge our assumptions on what it means to be an artist, composer, performer, participant, in these evolving musical/technological landscapes.


Temporal integration of interactive technology in dance: creative process impacts BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Celine Latulipe; David Wilson; Sybil Huskey; Berto Gonzalez; Melissa Word
Interdisciplinary projects bridging technology and the arts face challenges across many dimensions. In this paper, we reflect on the issue of temporal constraints on integrations of interactive technology within dance production. We describe lessons learned and illustrate practical impacts on stakeholders, creative process and outcomes from over three years of experience in developing dance productions at our university. Specifically, we reflect on perceptions of how the timing of the technology integrations impacted the creativity of the stakeholders involved. We separate results that are idiosyncratic to our project and highlight those that we expect are more generally applicable to other art and technology projects. Finally, we provide a set of temporal integration considerations that others can use to assess when it is best to integrate technology into an arts project.
A scale model of mixed reality BIBAFull-Text 117-126
  Evan Barba; Blair MacIntyre
Augmented Reality (AR) is becoming more interesting to a variety of research communities beyond the small group of researchers that have traditionally studied AR technology. From its earliest years, AR has been presented as a subset of Mixed Reality (MR), and both have been conceived of in terms of the technologies they use. However, while the definition of AR has been fixed for a number of years, MR is much more ambiguous. Through a re-examination of the accepted definition of AR, we derive a new definition of MR that centers on human experience rather than technology. Then, through discussion of a number of paradigmatic examples that fit this new definition, we generate a classification system for MR experiences based on the concept of spatial scale and its associated cognitive processes. Finally, we discuss how this new "scale model" of MR helps to identify key concepts that can be used in the design process of future MR experiences.
Audience empathy: a phenomenological method for mediated performance BIBAFull-Text 127-136
  Greg Corness; Kristin Carlson; Thecla Schiphorst
This research investigates audience experience of empathy with a performer during a digitally mediated performance. Theatrical performance necessitates social interaction between performers and audience. We present a performance-based study that explores audience awareness of performer's kinaesthetic activity in 2 ways: by isolating the audience's senses (visual, auditory, and kinaesthetic) and by focusing audience perception through defamiliarization. By positioning the performer behind the audience: in their 'backspace', we focus the audience's attention to the performer in an unfamiliar way. We describe two research contributions to the study of audience empathic experience during performance. The first is the development of a phenomenological interview method designed for extracting empirical evaluations of experience of audience members in a performance scenario. The second is a descriptive model for a poetics of reception. Our model is based on an empathetic audience-performer relationship that includes 3 components of audience awareness: contextual, interpersonal, and sense-based. Our research contributions are of particular benefit to performances involving digital media, and can provide insight into audience experience of empathy.
Tech break up: a research method for understanding people's attachment to their technology BIBAFull-Text 137-146
  Elizabeth Gerber
Tech Break Ups are an early stage research method that enables researchers to gain insights into ways in which people are attached to technology through improvised "break-ups." Informants verbally reflect on and formally end their relationships with technology that they previously used. The method was used in a study to understand peoples' relationship to technologies that enable creative work and reasons and moments for change in the relationship. This paper provides an overview of the method and its execution. The study reveals three primary factors of detachment for technologies that support creative work: changing self-identity, creative process, and creative ability. This case study suggests that the Tech Break Up Method can provide insights into product attachment to inform the design of new technology while simultaneously providing informants with an immediate positive experience through direct emotional expression to technology.

Creativity & technology - 2: physical presence

Formally modeling pretend object play BIBAFull-Text 147-156
  Alexander Zook; Brian Magerko; Mark Riedl
We address the problem of building computational agents that are capable of play. Existing research has examined the forms, characteristics, and processes involved in various kinds of play at a high level. However, this research does not provide a unified framework at a level of detail sufficient for building computational agents that can play. As a step toward addressing this gap we synthesize diverse research on pretend play to recognize important components of pretend play agents. We also develop a formal model of one key component of pretend play, pretend object play, and present a computational implementation of this model. Our work provides initial criteria for the content and processes necessary for pretend play agents.


NOOT: a tool for sharing moments of reflection during creative meetings BIBAFull-Text 157-164
  Jelle van Dijk; Jirka van der Roest; Remko van der Lugt; Kees C. J. Overbeeke
We present a fully working prototype of NOOT, an interactive tangible system which supports (sharing of) moments of reflection during brainstorms. We discuss the iterative design process, informed by embodied situated cognition theory and by user studies in context using various versions of the prototype. Apart from a potentially useful product, NOOT served as a research-tool showing how physical materials and social interactions scaffold people's sense-making efforts, and how technology might fit in to support this process.
Designing reality-based interfaces for creative group work BIBAFull-Text 165-174
  Florian Geyer; Ulrike Pfeil; Anita Höchtl; Jochen Budzinski; Harald Reiterer
Using affinity diagramming as an example, we investigate reality-based interfaces for supporting creative group work. Based on an observational study grounded in the reality-based interaction framework, we identified power vs. reality tradeoffs that can be addressed to find a close fit to embodied practice. Using this knowledge, we designed and implemented a digital workspace for supporting affinity diagramming. Its hybrid interaction techniques combine digital pen & paper with an interactive table and tangible tokens. An additional vertical display is used to support reflection-in-action and for enhancing discussion and coordination. A preliminary user study confirmed the applicability of our tradeoffs and the general acceptance of the tool design.
Creative personal projects of the elderly as active engagements with interactive media technology BIBAFull-Text 175-184
  Anu Kankainen; Vilma Lehtinen
Interactive media technologies are increasingly designed to support an active life among senior citizens and not solely to diminish the effects of physical and cognitive decline. One aspect of active life in one's old age is engagement in creative "personal projects," such as new hobbies and reflection on past events. To our knowledge, research has not yet explicitly focused on the role of creative personal projects in senior citizens' media use. In our analysis of media diaries and contextual interviews with seven seniors, we focus on how interactive media technologies are involved in these projects. Proceeding from our findings, we provide suggestions on how to enhance creative personal projects with interactive media technology design.

Creativity and art

Computing harmony with PerLogicArt: perceptual logic inspired collaborative art BIBAFull-Text 185-194
  Nicholas Davis; Ellen Yi-Luen Do; Pramod Gupta; Shruti Gupta
This paper proposes a new model of perception called Perceptual Logic and applies it to the domain of art to understand artistic style. We describe style in terms of affordances, or ways in which an artist can interact with and contribute to an artwork. Different types of Perceptual Logic are found to influence the perceived affordances of an artwork. We present a computational collaborative art program called PERLOGICART that uses a computational model of Perceptual Logic to learn an artist's style through collaboration. The research is conducted using a practice-based method -- we are working on building an interactive tool to support the making of artworks and the understanding of the creative process at the same time. PERLOGICART is a compelling interactive artwork as well as a valuable research tool that records and categorizes the creative process in a systematic manner.
Artists & designers: an experiment in data visualization BIBAFull-Text 195-196
  Sara Diamond
OCAD University's strategic plan Living in the Age of Imagination places a priority on focusing the lenses of art, design and media on contemporary issues and practices outside of the traditional boundaries of art and design. This has resulted in a myriad of innovative curriculum and research initiatives of specific relevance to HCI. For example in concert with led partner York University, the University of Toronto and a set of industrial partners OCAD University has created the Centre for Innovation in Information Visualization and Data Driven Design (CIV/DDD), a research hub for the development of next-generation data visualization techniques and their underlying information processing and communication technologies (ICT). This centre is the focus of this talk. The idea was that by bringing an unprecedented number of interdisciplinary artists, designers, media makers, humanist analysts and social scientists into the research partnership we would develop new paradigms of data enquiry, user-centered visualization models, and information processing and display technologies.


The choreographer's notebook: a video annotation system for dancers and choreographers BIBAFull-Text 197-206
  Vikash Singh; Celine Latulipe; Erin Carroll; Danielle Lottridge
We present a collaborative tool for choreographers and dancers, the Choreographer's Notebook, which allows multimodal annotation of rehearsal videos during the dance production process. The dance production process is a creative process in which exploration and expression are paramount and we describe issues we have observed over four different dance production cycles. The Choreographer's Notebook addresses the recurring problem of scarcity of rehearsal time and space, which is a limiting factor for exploration and expression. The tool is a web-based video application that enables choreographers to provide multimodal, context-sensitive instructions and feedback to the dancers outside of formal rehearsal time. The novelty of this tool is its ability to provide a multimodal collaborative video-based workflow. This article also presents a thorough ethnographic investigation of the dance production process and results from the use of the Choreographer's Notebook as an artifact within that process.
Distributed creative cognition in digital filmmaking BIBAFull-Text 207-216
  Nicholas Davis; Boyang Li; Brian O'Neill; Mark Riedl; Michael Nitsche
This paper reports on an empirical study that uses a Grounded Theory approach to investigate the creative practices of Machinima filmmakers. Machinima is a new digital film production technique that uses the 3D graphics and real time rendering capability of video game engines to create films. In contrast to practices used in traditional film production, we've found that Machinima filmmakers explore and evaluate ideas in real time. These filmmakers generate vague and underspecified mental images, which are then explored and refined using the real time rendering capabilities of game engines. The game engine assists the filmmaker to fill in indeterminate details, which allows creative exploration of scenes through playfully experimenting with parameters such as camera angle and position, lighting, and character position. Creative exploration distributes the cognitive task of evaluation between the human user and the Machinima tool to enable evaluation through exploring possible scene configurations.
Using semantic similarity to predict angle and distance of objects in images BIBAFull-Text 217-222
  Sterling Somers; Jonathan Gagné; Cesar Astudillo; Jim Davies
A presentation of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) called Visuo that stores and guesses quantitative visual-spatial magnitudes (e.g., sizes of objects). In this analysis, Visuo is used to store polar (angle and distance) relationships between objects in images. It uses a database of tagged images as its memory and approximates unexperienced magnitudes by analogy with semantically related concepts. This shows the transferring of information from high semantically related concepts yielding significantly higher accuracy in angle and distance estimations over using medium or low semantically similar items.
Understanding exploratory creativity in a visual domain BIBAFull-Text 223-232
  Kyle E. Jennings; Dean Keith Simonton; Stephen E. Palmer
This paper describes a computerized aesthetic composition task that is based on a "creativity as search" metaphor. The technique collects detailed, moment-to-moment data about people's search behavior, which can help open the "black box" that separates independent variables that influence creativity from their outcomes. We first describe the technique and provide a detailed theoretical framework. Then, we discuss how the technique is typically applied, describe several in-progress studies, and present some preliminary results. Finally, we discuss relations to other work, limitations, and future directions. We argue that this technique and the research that it enables will facilitate a deeper understanding of the creative process, become a valued tool for creativity researchers, and contribute to methodological and theoretical advances in how creativity is studied and understood.

Design - 2

The HCI researcher as artist and designer: approaches to creativity and distance BIBAFull-Text 233-238
  Viveka Weiley; Ernest Edmonds
We first describe the process of working on creative problems using three different but related approaches: Art, Design and Human Computer Interaction research. We present case studies of two interactive artworks; Magic Hopscotch and Cities Tango: Melbourne/Sydney, and explain how engagement with those works has informed our further practice in art, design and HCI. We consider how HCI research can influence art and design, and how art and design can influence HCI research, thereby making some kinds of decisions more explicit, supporting stronger hypothesis generation and crucially enriching evaluation methods for creativity support tools.
Design and evaluation of creative and emotional motion BIBAFull-Text 239-248
  Kaori Yamada; Toshiharu Taura; Yukari Nagai
In this study, we propose a method for the design of a creative and emotional motion. Our work is based on the hypothesis that a creative motion that is beyond the ordinary human imagination can produce emotional impressions that resonate with deep feeling. The proposed method involves computer implementation of motion blending, movement analogous to natural objects, rhythmic emphasis, movement of the entire design object, and sound-related effect. Using a computer system we constructed, we conducted two experiments that confirmed both our hypothesis and the effectiveness of our methodology.
Design space exploration in parametric systems: analyzing effects of goal specificity and method specificity on design solutions BIBAFull-Text 249-258
  Naghmi I. Shireen; Halil Erhan; Rodolfo Sanchez; Jelena Popovic; Robert Woodbury; Bernhard E. Riecke
In this paper, the effects of design-task specificity level on design space exploration are studied. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of goals and methods on design process and design solutions by 16 individual designers, who performed two design tasks under different combination of design goal and method specifications. Protocol analysis and outcome-based analysis were carried out. The results of the outcome-based analysis reveal that the quality of the design solutions can greatly be affected by goal specificity level of a design task, whereas in case of quantity, novelty and designer's self satisfaction level, the effects are insignificant. None of these metrics showed significant influence of method specificity levels of a design task. The process-based analysis on the other hand, reveals some interesting search behaviors in parametric systems, which are then used to explain the possible reasons for insignificance in quantitative data.
Exploring the sensitivity to representation of an evolutionary algorithm for the design of shapes BIBAFull-Text 259-268
  Andrés Gómez de Silva Garza
Evolutionary algorithms have been used in many ways for design tasks and other creative endeavors. The choice of representation in these evolutionary algorithms influences the way in which the operators used by a given evolutionary algorithm need to be implemented. In this paper, I explore the way in which it also influences the performance of the algorithm, both from the point of view of the reliability and speed of the algorithms as well as from the point of view of the designs generated by them.

Creativity & technology - 3: control/improvisation

Shared mental models in improvisational theatre BIBAFull-Text 269-278
  Daniel Fuller; Brian Magerko
This article presents our currents findings from an empirical study of the cognition employed by performers in improvisational theatre. Improvised theatrical performance is an activity in which one or more individuals create a dramatic or comedic performance in real-time and is an interesting example of creative, real-time, collaborative problem solving. Unlike other forms of creative problem solving, improvisers are constrained from explicitly coordinating with the other improvisers on stage or revising their decisions after the fact. This article focuses on the means by which a group of improvisers converge on a shared understanding (i.e. a shared mental model) of what a scene is about and how it should proceed. We present our findings on how improvisers build shared mental models during a performance and discuss our applications of these findings to the design and development of improvisational intelligent agents.

New frontiers

The rise of personal fabrication BIBAFull-Text 279-288
  Catarina Mota
In recent years we have been witnessing the first stages of a democratization of manufacturing, a trend that promises to revolutionize the means of design, production and distribution of material goods and give rise to a new class of creators and producers. A disruptive technology and several cultural and economic driving forces are leading to what has already been called a new industrial revolution: public access to digital fabrication tools, software and databases of blueprints; a tech Do-It-Yourself movement; and a growing desire amongst individuals to shape and personalize the material goods they consume. This paper is an overview of the current state of personal digital fabrication and the trends that are shaping it.
Finding the odd one out: a fractal analogical approach BIBAFull-Text 289-298
  Keith McGreggor; Ashok Goel
The Odd One Out test of intelligence consists of 3x3 matrix reasoning problems organized in 20 levels of difficulty. Addressing problems on this test appears to require integration of multiple cognitive abilities usually associated with creativity, including visual encoding, similarity assessment, pattern detection, and analogical transfer. We describe a novel fractal technique for addressing visual analogy problems on the Odd One Out test. In our technique, the relationship between images is encoded fractally, capturing inherent self-similarity. The technique starts at a high level of resolution, but, if that is not sufficient to resolve ambiguity, it automatically adjusts itself to the right level of resolution for addressing a given problem. Similarly, the technique automatically starts with searching for similarity between simpler relationships, but, if that is not sufficient to resolve ambiguity, it automatically searches for similarity between higher-order relationships. We present preliminary results from applying the fractal technique on a representative subset of the problems from the Odd One Out test.
An agent-based model of the cognitive mechanisms underlying the origins of creative cultural evolution BIBAFull-Text 299-306
  Liane Gabora; Maryam Saberi
Human culture is uniquely cumulative and open-ended. Using a computational model of cultural evolution in which neural network based agents evolve ideas for actions through invention and imitation, we tested the hypothesis that this is due to the capacity for recursive recall. We compared runs in which agents were limited to single-step actions to runs in which they used recursive recall to chain simple actions into complex ones. Chaining resulted in higher cultural diversity, open-ended generation of novelty, and no ceiling on the mean fitness of actions. Both chaining and no-chaining runs exhibited convergence on optimal actions, but without chaining this set was static while with chaining it was ever-changing. Chaining increased the ability to capitalize on the capacity for learning. These findings show that the recursive recall hypothesis provides a computationally plausible explanation of why humans alone have evolved the cultural means to transform this planet.

Social creativity

Social discovery framework: building capacity and seeking solutions BIBAFull-Text 307-308
  Ben Shneiderman
While journalists often portray discovery as the thrilling insight of a brilliant individual, many discoveries require years of work by competing and collaborating teams. Often large amounts of foundational work are necessary and dialogs among participants help clarify goals. The Social Discovery Framework suggests that (1) there are important processes in building capacity and then seeking solutions and (2) those that initiate requests are often as important as those who seek solutions. The implications of the Social Discovery Framework are that improved social tools to build capacity, initiate requests, and support dialog would accelerate the discovery process as much as the more visible tools for individuals seeking solutions.

Poster session

Creative ecologies in action: technology and the workshop-as-artwork BIBAFull-Text 309-310
  Jamie Allen; Rachel Clarke; Areti Galani; Kamila Wajda
A shift is occurring, particularly evident in art-and-technology practice, in which the artist-led-workshop is transformed into an distinct and distinguishable artistic form. Resulting from, and contributing to, the new access and relationships people have to information, creative culture, materials and like-interested individuals, the "workshop-as-artwork" is herein proposed and outlined. As a set of multiple artistic (material), social and learning agent interactions, thinking this new form as an ecology has shown benefits in terms of the aims and design of these new works, as well as their thinking, planning and execution. Further, from the artist-interventionist point of view, positing the workshop-as-artwork and ecological thinking seeks to update notions of legacy, consequence and significance for the art-and-technology practitioner and his or her audience.
   Particular attention is given to the links made between the workshop-as-artwork to other historical art forms, the potentials for these structures to provide a means of rendering technologies more convivial, as well as understanding the participative and performative interactions possible within such a form. We conclude with a set of reflections on the artistic context of this work, and possible directions and prospects arising from the "workshop-as-artwork".
Toward a dynamic dramaturgy: an art of presentation in interactive storytelling BIBAFull-Text 311-312
  Jason B. Alonso; Angela Chang; David Robert; Cynthia Breazeal
In interactive storytelling systems, we see common challenges of artistic expression that pertains to presentation, standing apart from narrative structure. We believe this expression can be achieved computationally, which is a core challenge in using procedurally-generated worlds in interactive storytelling. This computational expression so is what we call dynamic dramaturgy. We intend dynamic dramaturgy as a complement to interactive narrative systems, particularly drama management, and as a fundamentally distinct task from plot-level narrative construction, yet it is still a basic medium for artistic expression by an author. It is, in effect, an art of presentation in interactive storytelling.
Embroidered confessions: an interactive quilt of the secrets of strangers BIBAFull-Text 313-314
  Julynn Miller Benedetti
The condition of anonymity creates a private space within a public space as a person feels the freedom to act without attribution. This phenomenon holds true in both physical and digital spaces. People feel free to post their most intimate secrets on the Internet with the belief that their confessions are ephemeral and intangible. In reality, this data is perpetually archived and cached on distant servers. A disconnect exists between the perception of the transitory quality of digital data and the truth of its enduring existence. Through the weaving of the stories and secrets of strangers from the Internet into a material artifact, Embroidered Confessions represents the physical manifestation of the duality of digital information.
Towards supporting creative design: analysis of the use of the TRENDS system according to designers' expertise BIBAFull-Text 315-316
  Nathalie Bonnardel; Carole Bouchard
Towards the end of favoring the emergence of new ideas in design situations, we first characterize cognitive processes involved in creative design and we describe a new computational system, called TRENDS, which aims at helping designers find inspirational material. Then, we present an exploratory study that contributes to a better understanding of the use of this system for performing a creative task, according to the users' level of expertise in design. The obtained results allow us to point out differences of use by novices and experienced designers and, on these bases, to suggest complementary support depending on the designers' level of expertise.
Social user generated content's effect on creativity in educational games BIBAFull-Text 317-318
  Acey Boyce; Katie Doran; Antoine Campbell; Shaun Pickford; Dustin Culler; Tiffany Barnes
BeadLoom Game (BLG) is an educational puzzle game developed by adding game elements to a free-play educational tool called the Virtual Bead Loom (VBL). To motivate students who prefer the creative freedom of VBL, we added Custom Puzzle mode to BLG so players can create, share, and rate user-generated puzzles. We compare VBL and BLG Custom Puzzles to show that this mode increases the creativity and complexity of student work.
Creativity and conducting: handle in the CAIRA project BIBAFull-Text 319-320
  Selmer Bringsjord; Colin Kuebler; Joshua Taylor; Griffin Milsap; Sean Austin; Jonas Braasch; Pauline Oliveros; Doug Van Nort; Adam Rosenkrantz; Kasia Hayden
After providing some context via (i) earlier work on literary creativity carried out by Bringsjord et al., and (ii) an account of creativity espoused by Cope, which stands in rather direct opposition to Bringsjord's account, we summarize our nascent attempt to engineer an artificial conductor: Handle. Handle is a microcosmic version of part of a larger, much more ambitious system: CAIRA. Both are under development courtesy of a three-year CreativeIT grant from the National Science Foundation (PI Braasch, Co-PIs Oliveros & Bringsjord).
Capturing 'in the moment' creativity through data triangulation BIBAFull-Text 321-322
  Erin A. Carroll; Celine Latulipe
We present a first attempt at capturing 'in the moment' creativity (ITMC) through a triangulation self-report techniques, external judges, and physiological measures. In our study, participants were asked to sketch for 30 minutes while wearing GSR and EEG; then they retrospectively self-reported their creativity using a custom interface. External judges were also utilized to rate when participants were creative. Our initial results indicate high reliability for self-reporting ITMC, consensus between judges and participants, and that physiological measures trended according to the expectations from research. Our work sets the stage for more extensive research that makes use of temporal measures of creativity.
A computer system aiming to stimulate creativity for narrative BIBAFull-Text 323-324
  Yun-Tai Chang; Sheng-Chih Chen; Tsai-Yen Li
The goal of our research is to develop a computer system based on the concept of pictures-and-attributed-notes (PAN) aiming to stimulate creativity and imagination when users create a story. We have conducted an experiment and used the Conceptual, Operational, Perceptional and Evaluation (COPE) coding system to analyze the process of creating a story with the aid of computer system. The preliminary results revealed that the computer system based on PAN can stimulate user's creativity during the process of story creation.
MusEEGk: design of a BCMI BIBAFull-Text 325-326
  Yee Chieh (Denise) Chew; Eric Caspary
We present a novel integration of a brain-computer interface (BCI) with a music step sequencer. Previous BCIs that utilize EEG data to form music provide users little control over the final composition or do not provide enough feedback. Our interface allows a user to create and modify a melody in real time and provides continuous aural and visual feedback to the user, thus affording a controllable means to achieve creative expression.
Influence of design tools on conceptually driven processes BIBAFull-Text 327-328
  Amod Damle; Trudi Miller
Design thinking literature suggests that design tools can influence early design activities in a bottom-up, data-driven manner. This study suggests that design tools can influence design thinking in a top-down manner and cause designers prematurely to fixate on the details of a design solution. Further, such fixation can take place before a designer actually utilizes these features to produce a sketch.
Correlation between coherent heart rate variability and divergent thinking BIBAFull-Text 329-330
  Gina Deininger; Gareth Loudon
In this paper, a new quantitative method is proposed for measuring the unconscious mind in the incubation stage of the creative process. The method uses Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as a measure of the emotional and mental state of the participants. The creative process is measured quantitatively by the degree of divergent thinking shown by participants during a study of idea generation. The aim of the study is to see if there is a correlation between coherent HRV and divergent thinking.
Phenomenologies of practice: the artist in virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 331-332
  Denise Doyle
In the field of art and technology engagement with virtual worlds as spaces for creative practice challenges and enhances our understanding of the phenomena of imagining. The experience of creating in technology-mediated spaces (through an avatar form) brings the phenomenological experience of the body into the act of creating itself. Ways of explaining this creative process and its relationship to imaginative experience highlights a phenomenology of practice of artists working in this realm. This article considers the implications of the methodological approaches that have been chosen in an inter-disciplinary context and the case for investigating artistic and imaginative experience through adapting phenomenological research methods. It presents the results of the analysis and provides an account of the method of Imaginative Variation and its adaptation for use in new contexts.
Creative strategies in artists' and engineers' approaches to technology development: first results of a case study BIBAFull-Text 333-334
  Jill Fantauzzacoffin; Juan D. Rogers; Jay David Bolter
In this paper we present early findings from our comparative case study of the work practices of artists and engineers independently developing similar technologies. We describe two patterns of creative strategies: teleological and stochastic. We also draw a connection between these creative strategies and our subjects' negotiation of the uncertainty inherent in the creative process.
Beyond participation: empowerment, control and ownership in youth-led collaborative design BIBAFull-Text 335-336
  Lalya Gaye; Atau Tanaka
We describe a collaborative design project with a group of young people in which an interactive educational information pack for teenagers was implemented. Instead of just providing input to a design project, the young people initiated, controlled and partially implemented the project themselves, with the support of an interdisciplinary research team. Here we present this approach to participatory design research, describe the design process and show that initiative, control, and hands-on engagement in youth-led collaborative design, can bring to the young people a strong sense of ownership and empowerment.
The taste of criticism: enhancing feedback for creativity BIBAFull-Text 337-338
  Georgi V. Georgiev; Yukari Nagai
Criticism is important for cultivating creativity. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance feedback to creators of creative works. We separate the explicit evaluation from the implicit evaluation. We pay particular attention to cases in which the viewer expresses a positive evaluation of a work but the actual implicit evaluation is rather negative. In such cases, the feedback of the implicit criticism is important for creativity. We describe a prototype system designed to deliver such feedback to the creator. The feedback interface is represented by the taste of green tea, directly delivered to the creator, thus motivating the creator.
Do HCI researchers use computers? BIBAFull-Text 339-342
  Gunnar Harboe
Doing scientific research involves creative and complex forms of thinking. This paper examines the effect that information and computer technology (ICT) has on research practice. I present a bibliographic study that examines the role of ICT as a research tool in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) through an analysis of 79 CHI papers, identifying five themes in their references to ICT. Among recent ICT developments, the internet is found to have had the greatest effect on research methods.
Measuring creative impact with web-based data BIBAFull-Text 343-344
  Richard W. Hass
This paper reviews a method of collecting creative-impact data utilizing the All Music Guide (AMG, www.allmusic.com) database. This type of data is suitable for quantitative analysis and has been used to test cognitive-psychological hypotheses about the creative process. Implications are discussed.
Creativity barometer: an approach for continuing micro surveys to explore the dynamics of organization's creativity climates BIBAFull-Text 345-346
  Thomas Herrmann; Angela Carell; Jan Nierhoff
An approach has been designed for computer-supported micro surveys which measure dynamic changes of an organization's creativity climate. Employees are unobtrusively prompted to occasionally answer single questions. The main challenges are to ensure acceptance and to maintain a high participation. This is done by guaranteeing anonymity, avoiding perturbation and distraction, giving valuable feedback, and including aspects of entertainment.
Improvisational theater for computing scientists BIBAFull-Text 347-348
  Raquell Holmes
Computing disciplines integrate computing and another discipline. In the field of computational biology this often includes mathematics, physics, biology and computing. To better understand the qualitative character of learning, collaboration and creativity in computational biology, a pilot study was initiated to determine if training in improvisational theater affects computing scientists' ability to be creative in their research. In this work we provide introductory improvisational theater training to students and researchers along the computational biology continuum. We are developing a better understanding of the creative character of computational biology education and research. Our evaluation suggests participants recognize that interpersonal relationships affect learning and creativity; and reexamine their notions of learning and creativity.
User roles in asynchronous distributed collaborative idea generation BIBAFull-Text 349-350
  Sara Jones; Anni Poulsen; Neil Maiden; Konstantinos Zachos
This paper presents the findings of an exploratory study within a real-life context that investigates participant behaviour and emergent user roles in asynchronous distributed collaborative idea generation by a defined community of users. In the study, a high-fidelity prototype of an online virtual ideas room was built and used by a Community of Interest consisting of representatives from 10 different voluntary organisations spread across Denmark. The study revealed five user roles, which the authors propose that future asynchronous distributed collaborative idea generation platforms should consider.
Study of affective communication method in tactile hand gesture feedback BIBAFull-Text 351-352
  Hae youn Joung; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
We are interested in the usability of haptic hand gestures in emotional online communication. To investigate how different emotions are associated with different tactile hand gestures, we built a tactile user interface device to record parameters of hand gestures exerted on it such as the hand gesture intensity, temporal frequency, spatial frequency and pattern correlation to be used as the source of information to access emotions. We observed the behavioral aspects of tactile hand gestures used for emotional interaction through the sensory input device and analyzed the data using a model-based analysis tool. The obtained gestures are categorized into the groups defined by the tactile signal parameters. Based on the findings of this research, we show a possibility that the tactile hand gesture-to-emotion map can be used to enable affective on-line communication. We are applying the relationships between tactile hand gestures and emotions to emotional online communication devices.
Everyday creativity in novice e-textile designs BIBAFull-Text 353-354
  Yasmin B. Kafai; Deborah A. Fields; Kristin A. Searle
We examine e-textile designs, a new domain combining crafts, circuitry, and programming with the LilyPad Arduino, to better understand how novice designers develop creative technical solutions. Our analyses draw from observation and interviews conducted with middle and high school students enrolled in e-textiles workshops. In the workshops, students created their own designs by re-interpreting e-textile creations from an online community or by re-purposing the conductive functionality of everyday objects. These remixes, popular in today's youth digital media culture, can also be seen as "interpretative flexibility" and promising indicators of the everyday creativity of novice designers.
Interpretation as driver for psychological creativity BIBAFull-Text 355-356
  Nick Kelly; John S. Gero
This paper describes some acts of psychological creativity as phenomena arising from changes to a situation, brought about through interpretation. It presents a way of representing a situation as a schema of concepts made up from perceptual dimensions. It shows the utility of concepts as being changed by the situation within which they are used. An example of this is described, in which the information within a concept is unchanged yet its use becomes different through salience weighting. A computational implemented example is presented as a generate-and-interpret model that produces country growth indicators and then interprets them and repeats this process. The situation, and the space of possible designs, is changed through the act of interpretation. It is suggested that interpretation can be a driver for changing situations -- something that looks like P-creativity to an outside observer.
Computing indicators of creativity BIBAFull-Text 357-358
  Kyu Han Koh; Vicki Bennett; Alexander Repenning
Divergent thinking has been linked to creative processes leading to innovative artifacts. Measuring creative divergence can be difficult. Across the USA, the Scalable Game Design (SGD) Project includes thousands of student participants building their own games through learning computational thinking (CT). To evaluate these games, a technique, the Computational Thinking Pattern Analysis (CTPA) [1], was developed, refined and used successfully. Under three different learning conditions, divergence was computed through CTPA, and then analyzed and explored as an indication of creativity.
Dance in augmented reality: calibration and applications BIBAFull-Text 359-360
  Michael Korostelev; Kathryn Knauth; Li Bai
Dance expresses and translates human experience into meaningful body forms, transcending cultural barriers and language. Ideas and concepts can be portrayed through each dancer's movement on the stage. Mixing cutting edge technologies into contemporary fine arts creates opportunities for human imagination and advances development of futuristic technologies. Augmented Reality (AR) is this technology, and we envision the use of AR in avant garde dance, interactive media, and story telling. Dance and Engineering in Augmented Reality (DEAR) is a collaborative effort between artists and engineers. Through this project, we will realize multiple creative works that take advantage of AR in an integral and non trivial manner. As part of this paper, we describe our application of the technology in dance and propose a simple projector camera calibration method for projection mapping installations. With an easier setup, we hope enable and inspire future AR pieces from talented artists, computer engineers and computer scientists.
Collaborative musical improvisation in a laptop ensemble with LOLC BIBAFull-Text 361-362
  Sang Won Lee; Jason Freeman; Andrew Colella; Shannon Yao; Akito Van Troyer
This paper discusses LOLC, a text-based collaborative music improvisation system for laptop ensemble developed by the authors. The paper evaluates LOLC in the context of a recent performance by professional classical musicians with minimal computer experience. Using qualitative data from interviews with the performers and quantitative data from server logs, the paper considers the degree to which LOLC facilitated collaborative improvisation among the musicians and the degree to which LOLC was accessible to non-programmers to learn and perform.
A top-down design methodology based on causality and chronology for developing assisted story generation systems BIBAFull-Text 363-364
  Carlos León; Pablo Gervás
Assisted story generation systems do not include automatic generation of content due to the fact that creating generation algorithms is a challenging task, usually carried out in research projects on Artificial Intelligence. This paper proposes a top-down design methodology in which the knowledge representation is based on causality and chronology. The proposed methodology partially eases the process by dividing the narrative generation system in two parts: a generic engine and a domain definition based only on a specific set of predicates. The theoretical model and an implemented case study with resulting stories are presented.
LilyPond: an online community for sharing e-textile projects BIBAFull-Text 365-366
  Emily Lovell; Leah Buechley
LilyPond is a new online community that enables people to document, share and browse e-textile projects -- projects that blend electronics, computation and textiles. It was designed to be a project repository and a community gathering place for students, educators, and hobbyists who are creating e-textiles. In this paper, we describe the developing website and its user community. We examine the demographics of this community, its patterns of site usage and its emerging tastes and preferences.
mediPuppet: an interactive comforting companion for children while visiting a doctor BIBAFull-Text 367-368
  Szu-Chia Lu; Andy Wu; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
Young children often feel anxious when visiting the doctors. This paper presents mediPuppet, an interactive companion with an exploratory procedure map designed to help children feel more relaxed and comfortable during their medical procedure. The ultimate goal of this study is to transform an intimidating stressful situation into a joyful exploring game for children during hospital visits.
Image schemata in animated metaphors for insight problem solving BIBAFull-Text 369-370
  Eric Luchian; Corina Sas
While most of the work on metaphors has focused on conceptual ones, less attention has been paid to the visual metaphors for insight problems. This paper investigates the role of dynamism and realism in visual metaphors for cueing the insight problem solving process. To match the visual-kinesthetic feature of the eight-coin insight problem, the developed metaphors represented the insight cues, both kinetically and kinesthetically. An experimental study showed the superiority of metaphors as realistic and continuous animations over schematic and discrete animations.
Innovation is built on the obscure: innovation-enhancing software for uncovering the obscure BIBAFull-Text 371-372
  Tony McCaffrey; Lee Spector
Analysis of over 1,000 innovative inventions reveals that during the innovative process at least one rarely-noticed or new (i.e., obscure) feature is unearthed and built upon to create the solution (i.e., the Obscure Features Hypothesis for innovation: OFH) [6, 7]. Embedding the insights from this analysis into the structure of semantic networks creates AhaNets, which help optimize the search for the needed key obscure feature. Techniques to overcome cognitive aversions to noticing the obscure (i.e., fixation effects) further enhance innovation by improving the search process. Once implemented in software, AhaNets and counter-fixation techniques create an innovation-enhancing human-machine interaction.
Scaffolding creativity with open-source hardware BIBAFull-Text 373-374
  David A. Mellis; Leah Buechley
In this paper we discuss the role of open-source hardware in supporting creativity. We use the case study of an open-source FM radio and explore the modes of creation that emerged from a workshop in which participants modified and produced the design: making, personalizing, designing, engineering, and experimenting. We contrast open-source hardware with other approaches to supporting creativity and explore some of its unique challenges and opportunities.
The impact of design media on cognitive load during architectural ideation process BIBAFull-Text 375-376
  Ashraf Mohamed Ahmed; Nathalie Bonnardel; Pierre Côté
Architectural design can be viewed as a process of solving ill-defined problems, requiring a constant dialogue between internal (or mental) representations and external representations based on the use of different media (sketches but also technologies) [4]. During the ideation phase or conceptual phase, this dialogue uses the resources of the working memory, which has to be discharged to process new information elements [1]. The objective of this research is to document whether different types of media traditionally used in architecture (physical models, freehand sketch or the use of a 3D software -- in this case Sketch-Up) impose an additional cognitive load to the designer during the design process.
   To address this topic, an experiment was conducted with 25 students in a school of architecture. Two kinds of measures of cognitive workload were performed: an objective measure using the paradigm of dual task and a subjective measurement based on a modified version of the questionnaire NASATLX.
   The results showed no significant difference between media but the quantitative and qualitative measures allow us to point out tendantial differences between them.
Mapping seduction: traditional narrative abstractions as parameterized story systems BIBAFull-Text 377-378
  Janet H. Murray
Enduring story patterns provide a rich source of variation that can be exploited by the creators of multiform digital stories. Stories of seduction and courtship, for example, reveal variations based on the "moral physics" of the story world including characters serving similar plot functions, such as seducer or suitor, who contrast with one another in significant ways. Focusing on story structure at this level of abstraction can help authors to avoid arbitrary variation, by creating narratively consistent worlds that provide interaction choices that offer the possibility of dramatic agency.
Roles of miniature space in hybrid prototyping BIBAFull-Text 379-380
  Yasuto Nakanishi; Koji Sekiguchi; Takuro Ohmori; Soh Kitahara; Daisuke Akatsuka
We propose a hybrid prototyping approach that utilizes both virtual simulation and miniature simulation in designing spatial information systems such as public displays or sensors. In this paper, we describe a case study of the hybrid prototyping process and discuss roles of miniature space.
Beyond Eco-feedback: using art and emotional attachment to express energy consumption BIBAFull-Text 381-382
  Valentina Nisi; Diego Nicoletti; Raffaella Nisi; Nuno Jardim Nunes
This paper describes several art based eco-feedback concepts conceived around the potential of emotional attachment between people and the natural environment. Starting from a sensor-infrastructure that looks at how families consume electricity in their homes, we investigate several artistic visualizations of the Madeiran local landscapes exploring the connection between families and elements of the endemic laurel forest. The approach described here leverages digital art as a means to go beyond traditional eco-feedback technology. By coupling people and the forest landscapes we intend to narrow the physical, temporal and psychological gaps between our everyday actions and nature. We explore how people can build a direct emotional connection between their daily energy consumption and the impact on the natural environment (such as climate change and related forest fires, mudslides, desertification and erosion).
RE: designing a digital sketchbook BIBAFull-Text 383-384
  Shaleph O'Neill
Why are digital tools not replacing traditional sketchbooks? Our research explores the fundamentals of sketchbook use by thinking about them as Creativity Support Tools that could be digitally replicated.
Articulating creativity in a new domain: expert insights from the field of e-textiles BIBAFull-Text 385-386
  Kylie Peppler; Diane Glosson; Yasmin Kafai; Deborah Fields; Kristin Searle
Building on Csikszentmihalyi's conception of creativity as a system composed of the domain, the individual, and a field of experts who validate creative innovations, we examine a new domain of e-textiles to describe creativity. Further, we use our interviews with domain experts to outline some of the limitations of current assessment techniques to inform our understanding of creativity.
Spielraum: play, chance and creativity across disciplines BIBAFull-Text 387-388
  Diane Rosen
Creativity and technology share linguistic roots in "art, craft, making and method". But a more compelling substrate, increasingly evident in gaming culture, links the two. In the notion of Spielraum -- room-for-play -- a common ground of emergent possibility may be discerned. This interactive space of memory, thought, affect and sensory perception allows the mind to wander creatively, i.e. purposefully and at the same time playfully. Integrating non-methods of play and chance (two variants of spiel) with goal-directed activity, this paper proposes, is an important way to foster creative problem solving across disciplines.
"I reflect to improve my design": investigating the role and process of reflection in creative design BIBAFull-Text 389-390
  Moushumi Sharmin; Brian P. Bailey
Reflection is an integral part of the creative design process. However, reflection is often considered as an enigmatic, un-orderly, and irregular process, leading to a lack of support from existing design and creativity support tools. Through a contextual inquiry (N=12) of designers' reflection practice, we found that reflection is predominantly a systematic, intentional, and repeatedly practiced activity. We also found that artifacts play an imperative role in supporting reflective process. We offer guidelines for the design of better reflection support tools.
The role of iteration in the design processes of middle school students BIBAFull-Text 391-392
  Mark Sherman; Fred Martin; Michelle Scribner-MacLean
This project studied the manner in which 7th and 8th grade students approach design problems, focusing on testing and iteration behaviors. Students were asked to solve design problems and create generalized processes for solving them. Observations of the students were analyzed using degree of design success with length and speed of iterations. The time spent exploring the problem before starting testing and iteration was the most significant factor to the success of the student's design. Future work exploring this property of design is needed to understand the causes of it.
Creative feelings: the effect of mood on creative ideation and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 393-394
  Paul T. Sowden; Leah Dawson
Research has found mixed effects of mood on creative problem solving. Here we examined the effects of mood on two components of creative problem solving; ideation and evaluation. After induction of positive, negative or neutral mood participants completed ideation and evaluation tasks. Results showed that a positive mood facilitates ideation whereas a negative mood facilitated evaluation. Persons in a negative mood set their criterion for usefulness of ideas higher than did those in a positive mood. This would lead to continued search for optimal solutions and improve performance on creative problem solving tasks in which the quality, rather than quantity, of solutions is important.
An exploration of creativity in school children's music composition: study, software and framework BIBAFull-Text 395-396
  Sylvia M. Truman
A question that has gained widespread interest is 'how can learning tasks be structured to encourage creative thinking in the classroom?' This paper presents a generative framework which exists as a design support tool for planning creative learning experiences. A demonstration of the framework application is made through the design of SoundScape.
Beyond fixing bugs: case studies of creative collaboration in open source software bug fixing processes BIBAFull-Text 397-398
  Jing Wang; John M. Carroll
Bug fixing is an important collaborative practice of open source software development. Creative collaborative bug fixing -- collectively generating new and useful solutions to improve software quality -- is important especially when bugs are difficult to fix. We find bug fixing practices are unavoidably creative by studying Mozilla and Python. We characterize their bug fixing process as four common subprocesses, problem identification, preparation, solution generation, and solution evaluation. We discuss the key challenges of creative collaboration during each subprocess, and recommend design implications to enhance creative collaborative bug fixing processes, including support for establishment of common ground, externalization of social networks, awareness of resolving progress, and articulation of design rationale.
Creative storytelling enhanced through social media and intelligent recommendation BIBAFull-Text 399-400
  Yin-Li Wong; Chien-Sing Lee
Collaborative storytelling is an activity that would boost our creativity and imagination. However, collaborative storytelling systems are not popular and few efforts have been made to support its growth. This research presents WriteYourJourney (WYJ), a collaborative e-storytelling system integrated with social networking media and a recommender system. WriteYourJourney supports the idea of collaborative storytelling by adding in features that increase the interactivity between the users and the system. These features are story and link recommender, story tree visualization, diverse choices of story writing style and chat room. User testing results are positive with regards to usability, effectiveness, learnability and memorability. Users are keen to use the system in the future.
Creativity in software development in an academic research lab BIBAFull-Text 401-402
  Andy Wu; Sam Mendenhall; Jayraj Jog; Ali Mazalek
We review the creative activity in the software development process of the ROSS (Responsive Objects, Surfaces, and Spaces) API. The ROSS API is a tangible toolkit that allows designers and developers to easily build applications for many different tangible platforms while still accommodating the continued evolution of the underlying sensing technologies. This paper describes the ROSS API specification, identifies its originality and relevance to creativity, discusses the challenges of the API development process, and summarizes the lessons learned.
Perception, insight, and creativity in paradigm, a game of pattern exploration BIBAFull-Text 403-404
  William W. York; David C. Bender
We discuss Paradigm, a game of intuition and pattern exploration. We make a case for the game's relevance as a microdomain for studying creativity and related phenomena such as analogy-making, high-level perception, and aesthetic sensibility. Rather than focusing on creativity in the sense of "generating output" (e.g., writing stories or making up jokes), we emphasize its more exploratory and evaluative aspects, which we believe to be prerequisites for genuine "output creativity."
Introducing creativity techniques and software apps to the care of people with dementia BIBAFull-Text 405-406
  Konstantinos Zachos; Neil Maiden; Kristine Karlsen; Sara Jones; Ian Turner; Malcolm Rose; Kevin Pudney; Julie MacManus
This poster reports research to introduce creative problem solving techniques and software to the care for people with dementia in residential homes.
Silent barrage: interactive neurobiological art BIBAFull-Text 407-408
  Riley Zeller-Townson; Guy Ben-Ary; Philip Gamblen; Peter Gee; Stephen Bobic; Douglas Swehla; Steve M. Potter
Here we present Silent Barrage, a closed loop system in which a culture of rat brain cells is given a new body in the form of a small 'forest' of robotic poles located within an art space. This system allows us to study the relationship between brain and body in both scientific and artistic contexts.
Towards a computational model of character status in interactive storytelling BIBAFull-Text 409-410
  Jichen Zhu; Kenneth Ingraham; J. Michael Moshell; Santiago Ontañón
In computer-based interactive narrative, a key challenge is the conflict between user agency and authorial control of the story quality. In this paper, we use the constructs of character status and status shifts from improvisational and interactive theatre to further engage users in the creative process of co-creating the story. Based on the cognitive semantics theory of force dynamics, we develop a computational model of status shifts.

Demo session

cartographs: the trans-sensory metaphor BIBAFull-Text 411-412
  Brian Evans
The visual music composition cartographs, a work in three short movements, is presented. [1] Each movement is an abstract animation -- a visualization of a numeric process -- that is then mapped into a single static image (a score) -- that is then mapped into sound. Thus through the process of data mapping we hear and see a process unfold, each sense simultaneously experiencing a map (a metaphor) of what the other sense is experiencing.
The Zajal programming language BIBAFull-Text 413-414
  Ramsey Nasser
Computer programming opens up many exciting possibilities to the creative mind. These possibilities are limited by the mismatch between the organic, free-flowing nature of the creative process and the rigid, highly formal nature of machines. While the artist is concerned with presentation and content, the machine requires complicated setup, memory management, and precise programming before anything else can be considered. I have termed this mismatch friction, it is present in any software engineering project. Zajal's primary goal is to minimize friction, focusing on creative and audio/visual work. Zajal aims to take care of as much of the administrative code as possible while freeing the programmer to focus on what really matters -- their idea.
   Zajal is implemented as a language interpreter built on and compatible with the Ruby programming language while using the creative coding capabilities of openFrameworks. Although still very new, the responses in various user tests have been positive, with testers excited to use the language in future projects.
RhythmSynthesis: visual music instrument BIBAFull-Text 415-416
  Ryan Raffa
Originating as an investigation into the relationships between rhythm and technology, RhythmSynthesis applies color, shape, and sound to demonstrate how our understanding of visual music, computation, and tangible, audio-visual interactions can be applied as considerations in musical compositions. As an instrument, the final piece allows for experimentation, rewards for mastery, and is a vehicle for expression.
   By asking questions about how visual music can be used to perceive rhythm, what ways visual rhythms can be used for composition, and what ways composition can be intertwined with performance and experimental notation, this project illustrates that sound is a reliable and effective way to provide users feedback for making visual composition decisions, judgments, and actions. From amateur to professional musicians, the instrument allows for unique, personal interactions and expressive choice.
Conversing with a computer: the body language of the box BIBAFull-Text 417-418
  James Sheridan
This small performance looks at novel interactive ways for better understanding the attentive processes and there affects on things like perception. This is done via the user exploring an audio-visual environment that reacts to their attention in different ways. The users gaze and brainwaves (via EEG) are dynamically mapped to different visual and sonic objects based on the ways in which they pay attention. This allows them to setup and explore different feedback loops, which begin to resonate with each other allowing the users attentive patterns to be represented as a unique audio-visual structure.
Morphing robotic environment shaped by and shaping kindergarteners, reaching for the stars BIBAFull-Text 419-420
  Anthony L. Threatt; Keith Evan Green; Jessica Merino; Ian D. Walker; Michelle V. Buckley; M. S. Ellison
Our world is digital, physical, social and technological. Informal learning environments that are likewise digital, physical, social and technological have the potential to afford children with creative, informal learning explorations. Following from Antle's concept of "embodied child-computer interaction" and Vygotsky's "cycle of creative imagination," we demonstrate an intelligent, robotic informal learning environment at room-scale targeted for K-3 visitors to a regional children's museum. Our reconfigurable environment is, in essence, co-adaptive, allowing the physical learning environment and young students to mutually change and develop through iterative interactions.

Art exhibits

The wheatstone stereoscopic random line pair generator with fitness function for non-objective art BIBAFull-Text 421-422
  Gregory Patrick Garvey
The Wheatstone Stereoscopic Random Line Pair Generator with Fitness Function for Non-objective Art is a proposal for an interactive installation. Viewers in the gallery wear stereoscopic glasses. The motion of each viewer will trigger the projection of randomly positioned stereoscopic pairs of lines projected on each wall of the gallery forming a dynamic, evolving, emergent, stochastic, "non-objective [1] composition".
Please smile BIBAFull-Text 423-424
  Hye Yeon Nam; Changhyun Choi; Sam Mendenhall
Nowadays, with reductions in manufacturing costs and a transition toward lifestyles of convenience, robots are becoming pervasive in our homes, museums, and hospitals. In addition to increased demands for robots in these domains, recently more artistic robots that interact with audiences on a personal instead of a practical level are now being exhibited in art exhibition. This paper explains how people interpret artistic robots as more than mere machines in the theory of intentionality and introduces the implementation of the artistic robot, Please Smile, which consists of five robotic skeleton arms that gesture in response to a viewer's facial expressions. The paper also explores how individuals can use experimental designs to create artistic robots that can express various ideas that traditional, practical robots can often not convey.
Fitness function: turning the loop inside out BIBAFull-Text 425-426
  David Norton; Derrall Heath; Dan Ventura
The process of creating art is an optimization problem for which the objective function is probably unknown and possibly undefinable. That objective function is imposed on the artist by an environment which may be composed of any of a number of sources: peers, a jury, society, the self. This does not imply that the function is arbitrary nor that the optimization is impossible; however, it does suggest an interesting interpretation of the artist at work.
Creating "maybe make some change" BIBAFull-Text 427-428
  Aaron A. Reed
"maybe make some change" is an interactive fiction incorporating video, audio, and animated text to explore a frozen battlefield moment from six violently conflicting perspectives. Inspired by a true story of Adam Winfield, a US soldier accused in 2010 of war crimes in Afghanistan, the piece was first exhibited in the spring of 2011 as part of the author's MFA exhibition in Digital Arts & New Media.
Sympathy for Pacman BIBAFull-Text 429-430
  Matt Ruby
Our understanding of the digital world is influenced by the interfaces that we use to access it. Traditionally, interfaces are designed to be innocuous so that we do not question the role that they play in our experience. Sympathy for Pacman, addresses both the role and the potential for interfaces. This experimental interface which requires vigorous activity to control makes the user more aware of themselves and their actions. This work addresses interaction from the perspective of fine art, giving viewers a look at how digital elements and digital space can be translated into the physical world. By creating a piece that is not strictly practical, participants are given the opportunity to consider alternative connections and understanding of digital media while questioning their relationship to it.
Open house: interaction as critical reflection BIBAFull-Text 431-432
  Jack Stenner; Patrick LeMieux
This paper describes Open House, a networked art installation by Jack Stenner and Patrick LeMieux that allows visitors to telematically squat in a Florida home undergoing foreclosure after the U.S. housing collapse. Virtual markets transformed this otherwise livable property into a ghost house. Prior to the collapse, the movements of global capital seemed like a distant reality to most homeowners, but in the end it was imaginary systems of value, not bricks and mortar, that fell apart. Through computer interaction that integrates computational processes, mechanical relays, and human interactions, Open House implicates the tendency to separate virtual and physical activity, an enabling mechanism and proximate cause for the current U.S. economic crisis.

Art performances

LOLC for laptop music ensemble BIBAFull-Text 433-434
  Jason Freeman; Sang Won Lee; Shannon Yao; Aaron Albin
This statement describes LOLC, a text-based collaborative music improvisation environment for laptop ensemble developed at Georgia Tech and presented in performance by the authors at the Creativity and Cognition conference.
A reading of skeleton seas of mare incognitum: an interactive fiction expedition in curveship BIBAFull-Text 435-436
  D. Fox Harrell; Nick Montfort
Skeletons of Mare Incognitum (The Unknown Sea) is an interactive fiction (IF) work developed by Fox Harrell. This work was written using Curveship [1, 2], a platform for implementing works of IF that offers a range of affordances for narrative variation such as flashbacks, temporal movement of the narrator, and changes in voice.
Moori: interactive audience participatory audio-visual performance BIBAFull-Text 437-438
  Haeyoung Kim
Moori is a hybrid form of an audience participatory dynamic narrative and an audio-visual performance system. By incorporating a smart phone's dynamic interface and SMS, users share their thoughts to proposed questions by a performer. Through text inputs, buttons, and multi-touch pads, user-data is processed to generate algorithmic audio and visuals. The result is a collaboration between performer and audience members, a real-time audio-visual composition and a dramatic narrative. As authors, viewers transform the content in a collective narrative space.
SoundPainter BIBAFull-Text 439-440
  Celine Latulipe; David Wilson; Berto Gonzalez; Adam Harris; Erin Carroll; Sybil Huskey; Melissa Word; Robert Beasley; Nathan Nifong
SoundPainter is an interactive dance performance that features a triad of dancers, musicians and projected visuals, where each of these three elements reacts to one another through improvisation, algorithmic representations of sound and vision-based technology.
Pictures at an exhibition: a physical/digital puppetry performance piece BIBAFull-Text 441-442
  Ali Mazalek; Michael Nitsche; Claudia Rebola; Andy Wu; Paul Clifton; Firaz Peer; Matthew Drake
Pictures at an Exhibition is a physical/digital puppetry piece that uses tangible interface puppets to modify a virtual scene projected at the back of the stage in real-time. Telling the story of a heist in an art gallery, the actions of the puppets are digitally reflected in abstract changes to an artwork in the scene. The piece merges traditional puppeteering practices with tangible interaction technologies and virtual environments to create a novel performance for the live stage.


Being there, doing it: the challenge of embodied cognition for design BIBAFull-Text 443-444
  Jelle van Dijk; Joep Frens
This workshop investigates how to apply embodied situated cognition to the design for interaction. Participants combine embodied experiences, prototyping and theory. We aim for deep-level linkage of theory and practice by uncovering some of the more complex challenges that embodiment presents in the context of concrete design cases.
Beyond the binding: exploring the future book BIBAFull-Text 445-446
  Natalie Freed; Jie Qi; Cristina Sylla; Pedro Branco
We have reached a special moment in the story of the book: today's youngest generation will experience literature in a vastly different way than the generation preceding. What we call a book has always morphed over time, but digital capabilities and the ubiquity of mobile electronics are changing the landscape at an unprecedented pace. This workshop will be a forum for creative exploration and discussion of the future of the book, motivated by this particular historical moment and a desire to bring together researchers from diverse backgrounds who are working on book-related technologies. We will share and document visions, approaches, and techniques.
Semi-automated creativity: software as a creative collaborator BIBAFull-Text 447-448
  Jimmy Secretan
Creativity support tools are important to professionals and amateurs alike. Typically, these tools abstract away the mundane details of creative design to allow the user to focus on her creative process. However, emerging techniques in data mining, machine learning, and artificial intelligence all have the potential to enhance the efficiency, productivity, accessibility and usability of these tools. Leveraging these techniques, creativity support tools are poised to move from the role of an assistant carrying out chores for the user to a role as a creative collaborator.

Graduate student symposium

The intersection of poetry and design BIBAFull-Text 449-450
  Erin L. Beatty
Despite parallels between the structure of poetry composition and design tasks, no research has explored these correspondences to better understand the skilled behaviour in these two domains. In Study 1 expert poets were interviewed about their creative practices and a thematic analysis was conducted comparing these practices to key findings concerning the nature of design expertise. In Study 2, poets wrote poems while completing a 'think aloud' protocol and in Study 3 award winning expert poets were interviewed in light of the findings of earlier studies. The results were examined in regards to: (1) the role of "sources of inspiration" [4] in contextualizing activity and informing the creation of novel solution ideas; (2) the involvement of "primary generators" [3] in scoping tasks to core objectives; and (3) the nature of self-questioning and the role that questions take in forming solutions.
Investigating the effects of bimanual multitouch interaction on creativity BIBAFull-Text 451-452
  Allen Bevans
Creativity is an important but difficult cognitive process to study. Recent findings from cognitive neuroscience suggest that inter-hemispheric interaction (the interaction of opposite brain hemispheres facilitated by the corpus callosum) is an important factor influencing creative output. We propose that bi-manual multitouch interaction may improve creative output because manipulating digital objects (an integral part of computer-supported creativity tasks) with two hands may facilitate inter-hemispheric interaction. This paper briefly describes the development of a computerized form of the Alternate Uses Task, a standardized creativity assessment tool, used in an exploratory study (n=65) investigating this theory.
Getting a picture of your thoughts: interactive visualization for creative work BIBAFull-Text 453-454
  Marius Brade
Creative work -- especially in business -- is often connected to highly complex data. While current software tools support manifold areas in working with complex data, they are very limited to support creative work. Little research has been done on what kinds of representations are supporting the externalization of mental efforts in the best way. Especially it is very challenging to give abstract mental concepts an appropriate representation. This doctoral research is creating and investigating novel approaches combining visualizations, interaction concepts and memory techniques to create design guidelines for interactive visualizations for creative work. First experiments have been conducted and the key principles are implemented partially in a prototype called BrainDump.
Convergence of self-report and physiological responses for evaluating creativity support tools BIBAFull-Text 455-456
  Erin A. Carroll
Creativity is a fuzzy, complex concept with a wide range of definitions and theories. Since there is no single agreed upon methodology for recognizing and evaluating creativity, this makes it particularly difficult to evaluate how well a creativity support tool (CST) supports the creativity of a user. My dissertation will be concerned with evaluating CSTs through the development of new quantitative metrics and methodologies. In this paper, I discuss research plans for my dissertation, which includes both existing work and new directions for my research.
Gesture modeling: improving spatial recognition in architectural design process BIBAFull-Text 457-458
  Chih-Pin Hsiao
In this paper, we discuss the role of spatial cognition during the architectural design activity, and how it affects design creativity. Recognizing that current CAD applications' Windows-Icon-Menu-Pointer (WIMP) user interfaces do not fully support creative exploration in modeling geometries for design, we design a prototype system that incorporates a regular pc and a depth camera for gestural input. We present the implementation and use scenario of the system, and discuss why gestural input may advance creativity in the design process.
Haptic interaction study and application to haptic mobile design for online communication BIBAFull-Text 459-460
  Hae Youn Joung
This study explores how individuals communicate emotions using tactile hand gestures and investigates the usability of applying tactile hand gestures for emotional online communication. Tactile hand gestures are used as the source of information to express emotions in distance communications. In this study, behavioral aspects of tactile hand gestures used for emotional interaction are observed through a sensory input device and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). In user experiments, subjects perform tactile hand gestures on the sensory input device to illustrate a list of 8 distinct emotions (i.e. excited, happy, relaxed, sleepy, tired, lonely, angry and alarmed). An analytical method is used to classify gestures in terms of signal parameters such as intensity, temporal frequency, spatial frequency and pattern correlation. I found that different emotions are statistically associated with different tactile hand gestures. From the research outcome data, I also introduce the design of online emotional communication devices that aim to mimic natural tactile hand gestures used in the face-to-face communication.
Bridging the design time -- use time divide: towards a future of designing in use BIBAFull-Text 461-462
  Monica G. Maceli
Meta-design theory emphasizes that future use can never be entirely anticipated at design time, as users shape their environments in response to emerging needs; systems should therefore be designed to adapt to future conditions in the hands of end users. In our increasingly complex technological environments, tomorrow's meta-designers must be able to anticipate the environment in which the end users will work in order to provide the flexibility for users to craft their tools. By exploring and projecting forward current trends in technology use, I have identified key principles for meta-designers and suggest that using them as design heuristics will aid meta-designers in crafting systems for future end-users. My doctoral research aims to validate and critique these meta-design principles.
Mind and method: an examination of cognitive activities in the design process BIBAFull-Text 463-464
  Amy Mattingly
The creative process is a multifaceted and dynamic path of thinking required to execute a project in design-based disciplines (i.e., interior design, architecture). This research seeks to better understand the creative design process by investigating design student experiences during the course of a two week chair design project assignment. This study used an exploratory design to collect data from student demographic information, journal responses, and creative product results. The project deliverables were reviewed by external evaluators to identify level of creative output. High and low level output groups were identified and compared according to demographic data and journal responses. Grade point averages, transfer credits, and total credit hours were higher for the high creativity group in addition to evidence of higher levels of abstract thought and greater divergent thinking. Students in the high creativity group also demonstrated increased depth in thought and higher motivation throughout their creative process.
Tele-improvisation: cross-cultural creativity in networked improvisation BIBAFull-Text 465-466
  Roger Haigh Mills
This paper summarizes the author's thesis investigating intercultural creativity and cognition in networked musical improvisation. The research is situated amongst scholarly studies of tele-musical interaction, highlighting the technological agenda that drives this enquiry and the need for a deeper examination of the experiential qualities of networked improvisatory practice. The advantages of distributed cognition as a theoretical perspective is considered in relation to evaluation of a preliminary pilot study. Incidences of creative interaction reveal the cognitive strategies that musicians employ to navigate the dispersed non-visual improvisatory-networked-experience.
Shifting between modes of thought: a mechanism underlying creative performance? BIBAFull-Text 467-468
  Andrew J. Pringle
Creative-cognition has been viewed as involving both divergent and convergent modes of thought, with the former involved in generating new ideas and the latter in honing them into useful and appropriate outcomes [3]. It has been suggested that the ability to efficiently shift between modes may be an important feature underlying the capacity to be creative [4,6], and possibly, of particular importance in professions such as design [10]. However current measures of convergent and divergent thinking do not allow an examination of the dynamic deployment of these different modes on the same task. The present paper outlines a novel behavioral task examining dynamic shifts between modes of thinking, with pilot data tentatively suggesting more creative people are better able to shift between modes than less creative people. A better understanding of the link between shifting and creativity could inform the design of computer-based environments to facilitate shifting between modes [5].
Creativity syntax: codifying physical space's impact on creativity in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 469-470
  Alison Williams
The impact of the physical environment on people's ability to be optimally creative at work is a research area which has only now, in the past decade, started to receive detailed attention. Although creativity in the workplace has been the subject of intensive research for over half a century researchers have stepped away from or minimized the effect that the physical environment may have on people's creativity and ability to innovate. Building on recent work done in the field, and on earlier theories of pattern language and shape grammar, this paper outlines work that moves towards a grammar of creative spaces identifying and codifying those elements of the physical environment which may optimize creativity in the workplace.
Crowd creativity through combination BIBAFull-Text 471-472
  Lixiu Yu
The goal of this research is to perform large-scale experiments to see if the crowd, mediated by technology, produces creative designs by combining designs. To fulfill this goal, a sequential combination system is built. The system is a variant on a human based genetic algorithm, through which the crowd participates in an iterative process of design, evaluation, and combination. The study will provide a way of creatively solving problems in a number of different domains. It will also shed light on the mechanisms of social creativity: how individuals can build on each other's work and how technology can facilitate design by encouraging collaboration through shared designs.