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LCT Tables of Contents: 14-114-215

LCT 2014: 1st International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, Part II: Technology-Rich Environments for Learning and Collaboration

Fullname:LCT 2014: First International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, Part II: Technology-Rich Environments for Learning and Collaboration
Note:Volume 15 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Panayiotis Zaphiris; Andri Ioannou
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8524
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07485-6 hcibib: LCT14-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-07484-9 (print), 978-3-319-07485-6 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. LCT 2014-06-22 Volume 2
    1. Virtual and Augmented Learning Environments
    2. Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning
    3. Mobile and Ubiquitous LearningMobile and Ubiquitous Learning
    4. Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning
    5. Technology@school
    6. Collaboration, Learning and Training

LCT 2014-06-22 Volume 2

Virtual and Augmented Learning Environments

The Effect of Split Attention in Surgical Education BIBAFull-Text 3-10
  Erol Özçelik; Nergiz Ercil Cagiltay; Gokhan Sengul; Emre Tuner; Bulent Unal
Surgical education through simulation is an important area to improve the level of education and to decrease the risks, ethical considerations and cost of the educational environments. In the literature there are several studies conducted to better understand the effect of these simulation environments on learning. However among those studies the human-computer interaction point of view is very limited. Surgeons need to look at radiological images such as magnetic resonance images (MRI) to be sure about the location of the patient's tumor during a surgical operation. Thus, they go back and forth between physically separated places (e.g. the operating table and light screen display for MRI volume sets). This study is conducted to investigate the effect of presenting different information sources in close proximity on human performance in surgical education. For this purpose, we have developed a surgical education simulation scenario which is controlled by a haptic interface. To better understand the effect of split attention in surgical education, an experimental study is conducted with 27 subjects. The descriptive results of study show that even the integrated group performed the tasks with a higher accuracy level (by traveling less distance, entering less wrong directions and hitting less walls), the results are not statistically significant. Accordingly, even there are some evidences about the effect of split attention on surgical simulation environments, the results of this study need to be validated by controlling students' skill levels on controlling the haptic devices and 2D/3D space perception skills. The results of this study may guide the system developers to better design the HCI interface of their designs especially for the area of surgical simulation.
Supporting Learning with 3D Interactive Applications in Early Years BIBAKFull-Text 11-22
  Antonia Cascales Martínez; María-José Martínez-Segura; Maria Laguna-Segovia; David C. Pérez-López; Manuel Contero
Early years education is an key element for the introduction of children in the education system. In order to improve this process, the aim of this study was to explore how guided interaction with 3D apps can fit into a preschool setting, how it can help children learn through playing and how it can improve their learning outcomes. A study was conducted with six classes of 87 students aged between 3 years to 6 years, over a 12-week period. Children used 10 inch Android tablets with a series of apps developed by our research team, about houses of the world, the skeleton & five senses and, animals. A quasi-experimental design based on a nonequivalent groups pretest and posttest design revealed that an active behavior and better learning outcomes are obtained by children participating in the experimental group.
Keywords: augmented reality; preschool; knowledge
Interrelation between Pedagogical Design and Learning Interaction Patterns in different Virtual Learning Environments BIBAFull-Text 23-32
  Maka Eradze; Mart Laanpere
Different virtual learning environments offer different affordances and pedagogical design for learning interactions which results in difference learning interaction patterns. With the emergence of a new era in VLE (virtual learning environments) a new set of affordances is needed to support the appropriate learning interactions.We argue that there is a strong interrelation between the pedagogical design and learning interaction patterns in a given VLE which is influenced by the affordances of that VLE. In order to create a set of affordances that support learning interactions within the DLE, there is a need of analysis of already existing learning interaction affordances across different platforms.
BIZZY -- A Social Game for Entrepreneurship Education BIBAKFull-Text 33-41
  Benjamim Fonseca; Ramiro Gonçalves; Ricardo Rodrigues Nunes; Mário Sérgio Teixeira; Hugo Paredes; Leonel Morgado; Paulo Martins
Entrepreneurship education is increasingly being promoted, driven by a wide consensus in modern societies concerning its benefits in fostering the development of several professional and personal attitudes and skills, such as business expertise, creativity, risk assessment or responsibility. In this context, several authorities have been actively developing policies and activities to empower entrepreneurship culture in young people. Serious Games are recognized as having an important role and potential in education and social networks emerged in the last decade as the platform preferred by many people to socialize, play games or conduct professional activities. This paper presents a proposal for BIZZY, a serious game to be developed and implemented as a Facebook application, to enable young people in the range 12-18 years old to learn entrepreneurial skills progressively, by guiding them to develop a business project from the early idea to the business plan.
Keywords: computers in education; entrepreneurship; technology enhanced learning; serious games; social networks; facebook
An Approach to Holistic Development of Serious Games and Learning Simulations BIBAKFull-Text 42-49
  Aleshia T. Hayes
This discourse is an argument for a holistic approach to developing learning games and computer mediated experiences through the intersections of the areas of efficacy, effectiveness, and user experience in designing and developing serious games and simulated learning experiences. Some examples are explored in which reasonably effective design approaches could have been improved by a more holistic and iterative approach. The approach includes the integration of learning objectives, outcomes, usability, motivation, experience, ludus, aesthetics, cost and sustainability of the systems based on research within the fields of education, learning theory, game design theory, and simulation. These constructs explain the need for an iterative and holistic approach to designing and developing learning games. Embracing iterative and learning centered design of serious games will perpetuate development of effective educational technology.
Keywords: Educational Technology; Efficacy; Engagement; Serious Games; Evaluation
Experiencing Physical and Technical Phenomena in Schools Using Virtual Reality Driving Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 50-61
  Polina Häfner; Victor Häfner; Jivka Ovtcharova
In the time of globalization and technical advances, companies want to remain competitive on national and international markets. This requires a qualified workforce with a corresponding level of education in the STEM fields. This paper presents a didactic methodology for a virtual reality-based workshop which supplements the school curricula of secondary education institutions. A virtual reality driving simulation application is used in order to enhance the students understanding of different physical and technical phenomena as well as to teach technical skills, such as the ability to program virtual reality applications. We observed that this methodology helps to reduce complexity and aid the understanding of the subject. This is due to the three main contributing factors: Immersion, interaction and engagement. The enthusiasm for the virtual reality systems kept the students motivated not only during the teaching units, but it has also inspired them to pursue the STEM careers.
Keywords: serious games; technology enhanced learning; STEM fields; secondary education; virtual learning environment; driving simulation
Weaving User Immersive Experiences: Scientific Curiosity and Reasoning with Bodily Feelings Mapping and Evolution BIBAKFull-Text 62-71
  Niki Lambropoulos; Tharrenos Bratitsis
The objective of this paper is to propose a gamification platform called Free2Grow that promotes scientific critical thinking based on User Immersive Experience (iX). Essential condition for effective use of media and methods is to make sure that they trigger and direct youngsters' curiosity, support their reasoning and emotional states, so that the learners are engaged and participate in new idea generation in co-creative writing. Free2Grow main characteristics are as follows: (a) diagnose/feed conative characteristics such as curiosity and reasoning as well as body atlas feelings as subtle ways that drive a youngster's reasoning and resilience; (b) enable gamification architecture; (c) team building and group formation techniques; (d) learners' active engagement in team co-creativity projects that will necessitate and make reference to the knowledge and skills acquired.
Keywords: Gamification; Immersive Experience; critical thinking; curiosity; emotional states; Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Communication; E-research with Communities; Team Based Innovation
HaptiChem: Haptic and Visual Support in Interactions with the Microscopic World BIBAKFull-Text 72-82
  Elisa Magnanelli; Gianluca Brero; Rosa Virginia Espinoza Garnier; Giacomo Mazzoletti; Alessandro Maria Rizzi; Sara Comai
Haptic technologies provide physical sensations in the interaction with a computing system, by exploiting the human sense of touch and by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user hands or body. Considering their features, they can be a useful tool in life-science teaching, especially when molecules are involved. For this purpose, a framework composed of an haptic device and a visual interface for molecular exploration has been developed to simulate molecular and intermolecular interactions. Furthermore, this work evaluates the visual and haptic tool for molecular exploration in a didactic context, performing tests and interviews with students. The final aim is to properly develop the features of the tool, in order to make it suitable for the introduction in chemistry education. Preliminary results show positive and effective responses and learning gains from the tasks. It has also been noticed that the use of such an innovative instrument raises the interest of students in the learning process, which is one of the main benefits of the haptic device.
Keywords: Haptics; Intermolecular Interaction; Life-Science Education
Augmented Reality Applications in the Engineering Environment BIBAKFull-Text 83-90
  Karle Olalde Azkorreta; Héctor Olmedo Rodríguez
In the area of engineering, we can move much in the way clients generally can interact with models or designs for new products, so we are developing various alternatives for visualization, such as Virtual and Augmented realities based on accurate models with no need of using specific software. In order to have a better and global knowledge of the possibilities we show in this paper the situation and capabilities of these technologies. From models developed with commercial programs and tools for industrial design, we propose a workflow to give everybody a chance to interact with these models. The sectors where these technologies are applied and the services offered are grouped in Industrial production systems and Learning of related disciplines. At the end conclusions will be given with every reference used. With everything, ideas for improving these technologies and the correspondent applications could be suggested to the reader.
Keywords: Collaboration technology and informal learning; Augmented and virtual Reality; engineering; models
User Experience Observations on Factors That Affect Performance in a Road-Crossing Training Application for Children Using the CAVE BIBAKFull-Text 91-101
  Aimilia Tzanavari; Skevi Matsentidou; Chris G. Christou; Charalambos Poullis
Each year thousands of pedestrian get killed in road accidents and millions are non-fatally injured. Many of these involve children and occur when crossing at or between intersections. It is more difficult for children to understand, assess and predict risky situations, especially in settings that they don't have that much experience in, such as in a city. Virtual Reality has been used to simulate situations that are too dangerous to practice in real life and has proven to be advantageous when used in training, aiming at improving skills. This paper presents a road-crossing application that simulates a pedestrian crossing found in a city setting. Children have to evaluate all given pieces of information (traffic lights, cars crossing, etc.) and then try to safely cross the road in a virtual environment. A VR CAVE is used to immerse children in the city scene. User experience observations were made so as to identify the factors that seem to affect children's performance. Results indicate that the application was well received as a learning tool and that gender; immersion and traffic noise seem to affect children's performance.
Keywords: CAVE; User Experience; Road Crossing; Children; and Training

Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Context Dependent Preference Acquisition with Personality-Based Active Learning in Mobile Recommender Systems BIBAKFull-Text 105-116
  Matthias Braunhofer; Mehdi Elahi; Mouzhi Ge; Francesco Ricci
Nowadays, Recommender Systems (RSs) play a key role in many businesses. They provide consumers with relevant recommendations, e.g., Places of Interest (POIs) to a tourist, based on user preference data, mainly in the form of ratings for items. The accuracy of recommendations largely depends on the quality and quantity of the ratings (preferences) provided by the users. However, users often tend to rate no or only few items, causing low accuracy of the recommendation. Active Learning (AL) addresses this problem by actively selecting items to be presented to the user in order to acquire a larger number of high-quality ratings (preferences), and hence, improve the recommendation accuracy. In this paper, we propose a personalized active learning approach that leverages user's personality data to get more and better in-context ratings. We have designed a novel human computer interaction and assessed our proposed approach in a live user study -- which is not common in active learning research. The main result is that the system is able to collect better ratings and provide more relevant recommendations compared to a variant that is using a state of the art approach to preference acquisition.
Keywords: Recommender Systems; Collaborative Filtering; Personalized Active Learning; Cold start; Mobile
Mobile Apps for Older Users -- The Development of a Mobile Apps Repository for Older People BIBAKFull-Text 117-126
  Francisco J. García-Peñalvo; Miguel Ángel Conde; Vicente Matellán-Olivera
The emergence and application of the information and communication technologies have changed the tools that people use in their daily life. However not all the collectives use the technology in the same way. One case to take especially into account is older people. For them technology should be an inclusive factor but it can be also exclusive. The use of mobile devices and mobile apps by older people is an example of this. The devices and the apps are not always adapted for the special abilities or features of older people; moreover they do not always meet their needs. In order to facilitate older people access to mobile apps the present work reviews the usability issues to take into account and poses a repository of apps adapted and classified taking into account usability issues related to older people.
Keywords: Older people; ICT; mobile apps; usability; needs
Development of the Learning System for Outdoor Study Using Zeigarnik Effect BIBAKFull-Text 127-137
  Yuko Hiramatsu; Atsushi Ito; Masahiro Fujii; Fumihiro Sato
What is the best way to feel the spirit of the location? In Japan, the students of the elementary school and the secondary school have the school trips for several days with classmates. The purpose of those trips is to visit historical areas in Japan or foreign countries to encourage the students to learn about history, culture and nature in a proactive way. However, it is not easy for them to recognize and understand valuable points such as the artistic points and historical points even if they look at the objects or scenery. To solve this problem, we have developed a new learning model for outdoor studies using mobile phone applying Zeigarnik effect that explains human beings takes much interest in uncompleted or interrupted tasks. In this paper, we explain our study model for outdoor study and evaluate the usefulness of our tool though trials.
Keywords: E-learning; Zeigarnik effect; Outdoor study; Mobile Phone; Secondary Education
Dream Drill: A Bedtime Learning Application BIBAKFull-Text 138-145
  Aya Ikeda; Itiro Siio
There is considerable evidence that sleep supports memory consolidation. Items studied before going to sleep are memorized more efficiently than on other occasions. Consequently, we propose a learning application based on these findings. The system includes an alarm clock, which alarm is set only if a user answers a few questions. We implement a prototype and conduct a field test to evaluate the effectiveness of the system.
Keywords: Memory consolidation; CAI; sleep; learning application; smart-phone application
Sustaining Outside-of-Class CALL Activities by Means of a Student Self-Evaluation System in a University Blended Learning EFL Course BIBAKFull-Text 146-154
  Yasushige Ishikawa; Reiko Akahane-Yamada; Misato Kitamura; Craig Smith; Yasushi Tsubota; Masatake Dantsuji
This paper is a report on a research project which was conducted on blended learning (BL) in an English as a foreign language (EFL) course at a Japanese university. In this study the BL approach to EFL teaching was defined as a combination of in-class and outside-of-class learning tasks and materials integrated in a single learning environment by a www-based courseware, ATR CALL BRIX (http://www.atr-lt.jp/products/brix/index.html). The use of the courseware outside of class was intended not only to help improve students' TOEIC scores, but also to nurture self-regulated learning (SRL). A student self-evaluation system was implemented in this project. On the basis of the findings of pre- and post-learning questionnaires and interviews with students, it was concluded that the self-evaluation system encouraged students to engage in SRL. Furthermore, pre- and post-TOEIC testing revealed that the students in the project improved their TOEIC scores (p < .01; r = .49).
Keywords: Self-evaluation system; Blended learning; Self-regulated learning; E-mentoring; English as a foreign language (EFL)
Society@school: Towards an e-Inclusion App for Social Reading BIBAKFull-Text 155-164
  Longo Lucia; Guercio Elena; Tedde Alessandra; Belluati Maurizio; Actis-Grosso Rossana
Society@school, a Telecom-Italia Social Reading application designed as a tool for education (presented in its first version at HCI International 2013) turned out to be a useful tool for students with Specific Learning Disabilities (SLD). Social reading could be a way to compensate some SLD, such as dyslexia, allowing a real inclusion of these students in the school system. The design process, aimed at including specific design requirements for SLD students with a user-centered design approach, is presented.
Keywords: Social reading; User Experience; School; User Interface; Social; Inclusion; SLD; Constructivism
Sensor Based Interaction Mechanisms in Mobile Learning BIBAKFull-Text 165-172
  Kai-Uwe Martin; Madlen Wuttke; Wolfram Hardt
This contribution discusses the possibilities for mobile interaction and learning, facilitated by the increasing use of sensors in mobile devices. Each sensor provides information which is useful in certain learning contexts and allows for distinct interaction mechanisms. However a model is required how to collect the sensor data and connect it to the learning environment and content. A suitable architecture is described and the steps of the information flow are explained. Future prospects to enhance mobile interaction with more natural ways of communication supported by sensors are given.
Keywords: Collaboration technology and informal learning; Mobile and/or ubiquitous learning; Personalization; user modeling and adaptation in learning technologies; Technology enhanced learning; sensors; context information; architecture; m-learning
Visual and Spatial Data Integration in Mobile Application Design BIBAKFull-Text 173-181
  Patricia Morreale; Allan Goncalves; Daniel Church; Steven Holtz; Joshua Lisojo; Nathaly Lozano; Carlos Silva; Jason Bonafide
Mobile application design is a strong motivator for student-centered computing. By including visual and spatial data in a mobile application, students can develop a 3-D implementation which can provide the mobile app users with a virtual experience. The development of a mobile app for a historical burial ground provides an example of how to integrate database information with visual and spatial data to achieve s virtual experience. The case study presented here, using both Android and iOS devices, includes three parts. Initially, an existing database was converted for mobile application access. This was followed by design integration in support of the desired mobile app features. Finally, the inclusion of an image gallery, with visual and spatial elements, integrated with the mobile application, resulted in a compelling mobile application, providing a virtual replica of an actual visit to the historical site.
Keywords: Mobile application development; Android; iOS; visual data; spatial data
Exploring Simulated Provocations BIBAKFull-Text 182-193
  Mathias Nordvall; Mattias Arvola; Marcus Samuelsson
The purpose of our research project is to explore the design of game-like simulations that allow pre-service teachers to explore and experiment with problematic classroom situations to develop proficiency in classroom management. The research problem for this paper is how to design a plausible, valuable to learn, and interesting game-like simulation that also is usable and opens up for reflection on and understanding of the scenarios in the simulation. We used 'research through design' and combined interaction design and game design to develop the SimProv simulation. 21 pre-service teachers were invited to evaluate it in a play session with constructive interaction and questionnaires. SimProv consists of text-based scenarios where pre-service teachers can take actions corresponding to classic leadership styles. The results show that it provides a plausible, valuable, exploratory, playful, but not always interesting experience for pre-service teachers. The participants did engage in reflective discussions about the choices they made.
Keywords: Serious Games and 3D virtual worlds for learning; Technology enhanced learning; Design; Simulation; Classroom management
Rapid Prototyping for Mobile Serious Games BIBAKFull-Text 194-205
  José Rouillard; Audrey Serna; Bertrand David; René Chalon
Mobile Serious Games are new kind of Serious Games which are running on mobile devices, mainly on Smartphones. With continuously increased power and User Interface facilities, they constitute an alternative to the usual entertainment applications proposed on Smartphones. To design and implement such applications, a methodological assistance and development support are required. In this paper, we present our contribution to rapid prototyping for Mobile Serious Games in which we propose to augment App Inventor for Android framework with a methodological assistance. This proposition is based on a study in which we asked to 116 students to use this framework for the development of mobile applications. The results are presented (thematic domain, targeted users, components used...) and we discuss the relevance of using such a tool to achieve rapid prototyping for mobile Serious Game.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Serious Games; Mobile learning; Prototyping; App Inventor
Creating Universal Designed and Trustworthy Objects for the Internet of Things BIBAKFull-Text 206-214
  Trenton Schulz
The Internet of Things promises to connect different kinds of devices, allow for new ways of interaction, and make our lives easier. But, we need to be able to trust that the Internet of Things will protect our security and privacy. It should also be universally designed so that anyone can use it regardless of ability. We applied a user-centered approach to looking at user-centered trust in the Internet of Things, including universal design issues. We conducted an evaluation with 85 participants of a security assistant that can present security and privacy information to users. The evaluation included participants who were either elderly, had vision impairment, or had dyslexia. Participants found the information useful, but there was confusion about how the UI worked. We present an updated security assistant and future areas for research in trust and the Internet of Things.
Keywords: Internet of Things; trust; universal design; usability; accessibility; security; privacy

Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning : Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

Prototyping M-Learning Course on the Basis of Puzzle Learning Methodology BIBAFull-Text 215-226
  Krzysztof Szklanny; Marcin Wichrowski
The aim of the "Puzzles for Nomad" project is to improve the system of education by filling gaps in job seekers' competencies in an informal way (incidental learning). That would enable graduates, especially of humanities, to adjust their skills to the needs of the modern workplace using an innovation teaching method based on puzzles (puzzle learning). The first stage of the project was to create and test a mobile prototype.
   The distinctive, innovative features of our system are:
  • puzzle learning -- course contents follow the chosen methodology by
       integrating problem-based learning with the presentation (Presentation
       Practice Performance) methods, ensuring high levels of interaction with the
       user. The didactic process is carried in pre-planned stages or according to
  • learning outcomes ascribed to each stage, content is broken into stages of
       the learning process in accordance with the methodological approach;
  • monitoring, testing, methodology and course organization are relevant to the
       pre-defined learning outcomes -- we developed a procedure and a special
       qualifying questionnaire to check whether the expected learning objectives
       can be achieved and verified using our system of incidental learning;
  • verification of the final product -- a course developed by an expert is
       subject to review with respect to the criteria outlined in the correctness
       questionnaire at the methodological and technical levels; All the elements described above form an adaptive system for incidental learning, which is innovative not only with regard to the problem it tackles (mechanisms for the adaptation of informal education to the current job market) but also forms of learner support (distance learning with the use of mobile devices adjusted to the needs and skills of learners), and target groups (learners and content providers, corporate users).
       The system was based on the pilot course, a series of studies into the needs and opinions of users, and usability studies. These actions ensured high quality of user interface ergonomics in line with the rules of Human-Computer Interaction. Both the process of entering courses into the system and its use by students have been subject to in-depth usability tests.
       The proposed system functionalities and the results of research, as well as the developed methodology, can be used to create similar m-learning systems.
  • Mobile and Ubiquitous Learning

    Posture and Face Detection with Dynamic Thumbnail Views for Collaborative Distance Learning BIBAKFull-Text 227-236
      Takumi Yamaguchi; Haruya Shiba; Masanobu Yoshida; Yusuke Nishiuchi; Hironobu Satoh; Takahiko Mendori
    In this paper, we describe the use of a collaborative TERAKOYA learning system developed to help students actively study anywhere on a local area network (LAN) linked to multipoint remote users. In this environment, if many students send questions to a teacher, it is difficult for the teacher to provide answers quickly; furthermore, the teacher is largely unable to determine the degree to which each student has understood the course materials, because he or she cannot observe the students and their reactions in person. In this paper, we discuss a graphical user interface (GUI) system that prioritizes student screens by changing the GUI on the teacher's computer; more specifically, thumbnails of student screens zoom dynamically in proportion to each student's understanding level. By sorting these priorities on his or her screen, the teacher can observe each student's work and support their thinking process at each student's individual pace.
    Keywords: Advanced Educational Environment; Ubiquitous Learning; Distance Education


    Collaborative Tools in the Primary Classroom: Teachers' Thoughts on Wikis BIBAKFull-Text 239-247
      Andria Agesilaou; Christiana Vassiliou; Sotiroula Irakleous; Maria Zenios
    The purpose of this work-in-progress study is to examine the attitudes of primary school teachers in Cyprus on the use of wikis as a mean to promote collaborative learning in the classroom. A survey investigation was undertaken using 20 questionnaires and 3 semi-structured interviews. The survey results indicate a positive attitude of teachers in Cyprus to integrate wikis in primary education for the promotion of cooperation. As such collaborative learning activities among pupils are being encouraged.
    Keywords: wikis; primary education; collaboration; collaborative learning; educators
    Computer Assisted Individual Approach to Acquiring Foreign Vocabulary of Students Major BIBAKFull-Text 248-257
      Nadezhda Almazova; Marina Kogan
    Multiple challenges for organizing an effective ESP language course for non-linguistics post-graduate students at St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University (SPbSPU) are inherently rooted in the broad spectrum of students' majors in ESP classes. Diversity of students' academic interests calls for new approaches and for tailoring the course in accordance with the students' needs. Our study represents an approach to individualizing the course by introducing data-driven learning (DDL) elements into the syllabus. More specifically, our approach is aimed at having post-graduate students getting concordances of their readings corpora for identifying unfamiliar vocabulary. The paper describes the recommended software for concordance building, concordance-based activities with unfamiliar vocabulary and the way of controlling the vocabulary acquisition. Test results show steady progress in independent vocabulary acquisition among the experiment participants. Questionnaires show they see the usefulness and efficiency of DDL approach to identifying and learning unfamiliar vocabulary.
    Keywords: data-driven learning (DDL) approach; teaching methodology; ESP course for post-graduates; concordance building software; knowledge rating; unfamiliar vocabulary
    Immersive Creative Classrooms within the Zones of Educational Priorities in Greek Primary Schools BIBAKFull-Text 258-268
      Antonios Besios; Niki Lambropoulos
    Nowadays, ICT and Social Media utilization in primary schools becoming more challenging provided that the educators aiming at not only transferring knowledge but also at developing shared meaning and common skills within creative classrooms (CCR). In this way both the teachers and the students can work on and share experiences to support co-creativity and idea generation also having wide presence in related educational communities. CCR refer to innovative learning environments that fully embed the potential of ICT to innovate learning and teaching practices. Such environments are proposed to bring forward 'online presence' on an interface for shared knowledge to occur by enhancing trust and reliability. The teachers of Art and Theatre subjects at the 152 Primary School in Athens, Greece supported the Zones of Educational Priorities the school was chosen for. In the case study presented, presence and co-creativity are developed under CCR umbrella with the use of social media and Web 2.0 tools as well as best practices are shared within the wider Greek teachers' community network.
    Keywords: Online Presence; Creative Classrooms; Immersive Experience; Zones of Educational Priorities; Social Media; Web 2.0 Tools
    Enhancing Online Learning Activities for Groups in Flipped Classrooms BIBAKFull-Text 269-276
      Reecha Bharali
    Flipped classrooms have been the latest trend in online learning. They have been accepted as a novel model because of an application based environment with the students. In this paper, the flipped classroom model has been studied in the context of online classrooms. The author vents in the context of groups in online classrooms and tries to understand the match within the flipped classroom scenario. This study is conducted with instructors and students to understand this attitude towards online classrooms and to integrate them with the flipped structure. Key requirements are identified from the study; which are proposed to influence the design of such a platform. Finally from the study the gaps are recognized, and the author proposes a novel platform for online group activities with a focus on flipped classroom scenario.
    Keywords: flipped classroom; online learning; groups
    Does CMC Reduce Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety? BIBAKFull-Text 277-287
      Adel Jebali
    Many researchers have proposed that anxiety related to second language learning, especially in the classroom, has a negative impact on the performance of learners. To reduce this anxiety, some authors propose to use computer-mediated communication (CMC) to realize oral tasks while others believe that the effects of this mode of communication is comparable to the effects of the face-to-face (FTF) communication. In order to provide an answer to this question, a systematic measurement of the performance of learners during oral interactions conducted through these two modalities must be obtained as the comparison cannot be made without this measurement. This paper is a preliminary study with 20 learners of L2 French in which the degree of anxiety beforehand was measured with [1] Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS). These learners completed a communication task through Skype and also responded to a post-task questionnaire on their perceptions of anxiety, FTF and CMC. Performance during the CMC was measured in order to verify the effects of anxiety on their performance. The comparison was made with their performance in another FTF communication task. The results show that all the students performed better in FTF than in CMC and that even the most anxious learners obtained better results in the former.
    Keywords: FLCAS; CMC; FTF; anxiety; French L2
    The Role of Educational Technologist in Implementing New Technologies at School BIBAKFull-Text 288-296
      Birgy Lorenz; Kaido Kikkas; Mart Laanpere
    In 2005, a new profession called "educational technologist" was introduced in Estonian schools. At first, the idea was confusing for many school principals, because of the seeming overlap with the job descriptions of existing ICT support specialists or ICT managers. Other principals interpreted the role of the educational technologist as a technology-savvy teacher who could take responsibility for teaching with technology in some subject domains so that the rest of teachers would not have to bother them with constantly changing landscape of technology. According to the data from the Tiger Leap Foundation (2012), almost 7% of Estonian schools had hired an educational technologist by 2012 -- in most of the cases by re-allocating the salary fund of IT support specialists. The position is usually funded by local municipalities, not from the state budget. This paper is reflecting upon the case study data collected from 13 Estonian schools where educational technologists had been employed, the focus group interviews were conducted with 29 persons working in the field of educational technology. The study gives an overview of the current situation by defining the emerging profession of educational technologist on the level of professional practice. We also describe the arguments for establishing such a new position in school and the main challenges of a new specialist starting his/her career in this dynamic field.
    Keywords: educational technologist roles; implementing new technologies; learning environments; assessing teachers; training methods and principles; mixed expectations
    Facilitating Student Reflection through Digital Technologies in the iTEC Project: Pedagogically-Led Change in the Classroom BIBAKFull-Text 297-308
      Sarah McNicol; Cathy Lewin; Anna Keune; Tarmo Toikkanen
    During the Europe-wide iTEC project, student reflection has been supported through the development of two dedicated digital tools: TeamUp and ReFlex. Using these tools, students are able to monitor their progress, thus gaining a greater awareness of their learning achievements and an appreciation of the new skills they have developed. Although TeamUp and ReFlex have been well-received by teachers and students, the use of audio-visual tools to support reflection was novel for most and the project evaluation highlighted the need for detailed guidance if these technologies are to be exploited to their full advantage.
    Keywords: Reflection; audio-visual tools; scaffolding; digital tools
    Which Is More Effective for Learning German and Japanese Language, Paper or Digital? BIBAKFull-Text 309-318
      Reina Shimizu; Katsuhiko Ogawa
    Recently, many people often say how practical is the digital media. Moreover, there are many researches on this topic that compare the use of paper and the digital media, but unfortunately, only the moment in which the user is actually using one of these two media is taken into account. We researched a group of Japanese and German subjects about their ability to remember some words on the next day, three days later and a week after they first tried to memorize them. The results demonstrated that users who want to learn in a short term should use digital media, only if they have a lot of experience using digital media in general. But if the user wants to learn something in a long term, might prefer to use Paper.
    Keywords: paper digital learning memorizing language
    Monitoring Teachers' Complex Thinking while Engaging in Philosophical Inquiry with Web 2.0 BIBAKFull-Text 319-327
      Agni Stylianou-Georgiou; Alexios Petrou; Andri Ioannou
    The purpose of this study was to examine how we can exploit new technologies to scaffold and monitor the development of teachers' complex thinking while engaging in philosophical inquiry. We set up an online learning environment using wiki and forum technologies and we organized the activity in four major steps to scaffold complex thinking for the teacher participants. In this article, we present the evolution of complex thinking of one group of teachers by studying their interactions in depth.
    Keywords: complex thinking; critical thinking; creative thinking; caring thinking; philosophy for children; philosophical inquiry; technology integration; wiki; forum; WikiSplit
    Developing an Effective ESP Curriculum Integrating CALL BIBAKFull-Text 328-338
      Rumi Tobita
    This study introduces a compilation of the eight-year trial at a Japanese technical college involving an effective CALL training program for EFL learners to meet ESP curriculum goals: to develop global engineers who can work in the real-world environment and exchange ideas globally. According to the survey based on needs research, e-Learning software such as voice recognition software had been introduced and its effective usage discussed. As e-Learning materials were deemed a passive learning method, a Text to Speech (TTS) system was introduced to resolve this issue. Training using TTS systems was conducted in various settings, including metacognitive strategies and autonomous learning, such that students could more actively engage in the training. As one element of the subsequent development of an effective ESP curriculum, an original overseas training program and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were also introduced and applied to evaluate the effectiveness of e-Learning systems.
    Keywords: CALL; curriculum development; e-Learning system; voice recognition; TTS; overseas training program; NIRS
    HCI Requirements for Young Primary School CALL Learners BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
      Monica Ward
    This paper looks at the HCI requirements of young learners in the context of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) resources. It explains the motivation behind the project and the specific deployment context. It outlines some key components that must be taken into account when developing materials for this learner group. For example, the learners cannot read, so no text can be used on the screen. Colors and images are very important to make the material attractive and intuitive for the users. It shows that using HCI observations from other researchers, along with a structured approach, combined with an agile paradigm can produce useful, usable CALL resources in a limited resource context.
    Keywords: young learners; HCI; CALL; primary school; agile paradigm

    Collaboration, Learning and Training

    E-Portfolios -- Fostering Systematic Reflection in Social Work Education BIBAKFull-Text 351-362
      Patricia Arnold; Swapna Kumar
    Learning technologies in higher education open up new possibilities for academic professional development due to the flexibility in time and place they offer. For professional students it is important to develop a critical distance to their daily practice and a capacity for reflection. E-portfolio technology is considered to be suitable to help to develop such a reflective critical stance. In this paper we argue that in order for e-portfolios to foster reflection, a robust educational design with careful "scaffolding" is needed. We present a design in social work education that was meant to gradually develop students' ability to reflect, while using a mixture of technologies. With three exemplary e-portfolios, we re-construct how students reflected on their professional trajectories, how they used the technology and how this was fostered by the educational design. A critical discussion leads to recommendations for using e-portfolio technology for fostering reflection in other settings.
    Keywords: e-portfolios; learning technologies; professional students; social work education
    European Citizens and Their Trust in Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 363-374
      Gianmarco Baldini; Ioannis Kounelis; Jan Löschner; Mariachiara Tallacchini
    In information and communication technology (ICT) trust has been considered as a crucial component of digital interactions. Trust has been dissected in a variety of potential meanings and dimensions and through the merging of trust in humans and trust in machines. In this paper, we investigate the role and the aggregation of trust in social networks and blogs and how it relates to knowledge production, and its connections to concepts such as reputation and sustainability in the European context. Moreover, we discuss knowledge production in information and communication technology and its relationship to user trust. We develop a view on the co-production of knowledge and trust and propose a policy management framework to support the users in their trusted use of social networks and blogs. This is presented based on an e-health use case analysis considering web based reputation and developing a new reputation scheme.
    Keywords: trust; social networks; European citizens; collaboration; reputation; e-health
    Towards Aggression De-escalation Training with Virtual Agents: A Computational Model BIBAKFull-Text 375-387
      Tibor Bosse; Simon Provoost
    Serious gaming based on Virtual Reality is a promising means for training of aggression de-escalation skills. By enabling trainees to interact with aggressive virtual characters that respond in a realistic manner to different communicative approaches, they can learn to apply the appropriate approach at the right time. To facilitate the development of such a training system, this paper presents a computational model of interpersonal aggression. The model consists of two sub-models, namely an 'aggressor model' and a 'de-escalator model'. In the long term, the former can be used to generate the behaviour of the virtual characters, whereas the latter can be used to analyse the behaviour of the trainee. The functioning of the model is illustrated by a number of simulation runs for characteristic circumstances.
    Keywords: virtual training; aggression de-escalation; cognitive modelling
    Mosca BIBAKFull-Text 388-396
      Sílvia Castro
    "Mosca" was an art project developed by art students, on a context of formal education, the project was designed in a collaborative learning mode. Throughout the presentation of this project one will reflect, on an empirical basis, as an actor and observer, upon the working platforms and the dimensions which were experienced in a very active and intuitive way: the physical and the virtual dimensions, used in order to create a physical event.
    Keywords: art education; collaborative learning; virtual dimension; social media; project design
    A New Way to Community Services BIBAKFull-Text 397-407
      Habib M. Fardoun; Daniyal M. Alghazzawi; Antonio Paules Ciprés; Sebastián Romero López
    In this paper we are going to describe the architecture of community services by mean mobile devices. We opt for a direct communication between the mobile users and server information and where users interact directly from their mobile devices and the cloud system, by leaving a record of the accused and requested data. As result of this improvement in the process, we have a platform that saves costs and time management to users of these services in the instantiation and regular payments to government claims.
    Keywords: Mobile devices; Cloud; Community Services; Administration; Citizens
    Online Collaboration: Individual Involvement Used to Predict Team Performance BIBAKFull-Text 408-416
      Walkyria Goode; Guido Caicedo
    Social media -- with its collaborative and interactive functionalities -- is an ideal platform for collaboration. Several teams were asked to create material using a content management system. Log records were analyzed to measure group and individual participation. Direct and indirect measures of involvement are used as predictor variables. A model is proposed that uses system-tracked data to forecast team performance.
    Keywords: collaboration; collaborative computing; team performance
    Interface Design for a Real-Time Collaborative Editing Tool BIBAKFull-Text 417-428
      Nurul Naslia Khairuddin
    The topic Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) has been introduced since almost three decades now. Many tools have been invented to support different situations in cooperative work. Example of CSCW tools are instant messaging (IM), email, real-time document editor, forum, blog, group decision support system, electronic meeting room, voice chat, video conference and Real-Time Collaborative Editing (RTCE) tools. A study was conducted to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of applying CSCW approach on a class of multicultural undergraduate students as they plan their software project in virtual environment. Analysis of the gathered data was done focusing towards the problems faced during the discussion sessions. Solutions were derived based on the problems identified and an RTCE tool was designed aiming to assist small scale software project planning process in virtual collaborative environment while supporting group awareness for effective teamwork.
    Keywords: CSCW; RTCE; Group Awareness
    If I Do Not Like Your Online Profile I Will Not Hire You! BIBAKFull-Text 429-439
      Birgy Lorenz; Kaido Kikkas
    Today, both employees and employers are active online. A lot of people live their lives through personal online social networks. Online social networking sites are an easy tool to screen potential employees online profiles and for human resource management to use in recruitment processes. The screening process includes Internet and social networking site search that will provide not only professional but also personal information. Investigating personal information, however, may be considered violation of privacy. Our study goals are to find out how common it is to do background checks on possible future employees in Estonia, how students feel about such a practice and how they maintain their public profiles. Methods used to gather information were a survey among employees (n=34), pupils (n=117) from five high schools, students (n=91) from one university, and a case study that involved pupils (n=54) and students (n=38). Results reported in this paper will give an overview of our understanding of the accuracy of online profiles, common practices, unspoken risks, and maybe even frustration from the side of future employees. The results of this study can be applied to improve youth-related Internet safety training modules and programmes.
    Keywords: Internet safety strategies; online profile; privacy management; privacy rights
    Collaboration, Knowledge Sharing and Digital Environments: What about Argumentation and Questioning Skills? BIBAFull-Text 440-449
      Maria José (Zé) Loureiro; Francislê Neri de Souza; Anna Bezerra; Ana Rodrigues
    This work aims at explaining one online platform (ArguQuest) whose main objective is to stimulate learning through argumentation and questioning in a collaborative virtual environment. It is expected that students clarify their knowledge by explaining what they know to their peers. They have to make themselves precise and clear so that their peers can understand them and the ideas they want to express.
       In this online environment students are invited to discuss topics in dyads, in a certain number of modules where the level of discussion centered on arguments and questions become deeper. In some points they are invited to discuss the contents with other dyads and, to conclude, an argumentative map is presented by the system and changed or not by the participants.
       Conclusions of studies developed in Brazil and Portugal reveal that the platform stimulates peer discussion develops questioning and arguing skills.
    Active Ageing -- Enhancing Digital Literacies in Elderly Citizens BIBAKFull-Text 450-459
      Ana Loureiro; Maria Barbas
    Being digital and information literate is crucial in nowadays society, although not every citizen has the necessary means and resources to achieve these skills, especially the elderly ones. Therefore it is necessary to develop ways to help them to enhance their digital and information competences. In this paper we will present an ongoing project that was designed and implemented with the goal to provide elderly citizens with the necessary skills of a networked society, contributing for an active ageing. The methods used were based on a set of hands on workshops delivered by a team of voluntary students and teacher, with the help of collaborators from a nursing home. The workshops were developed accordingly with the detected needs of a group of elderly citizens, based on the answers of an implemented questionnaire.
    Keywords: active ageing; digital literacy; elderly citizens; ICT; inclusion
    Reflective Thinking: Exploring Blog Use by Adult Learners BIBAKFull-Text 460-466
      Maria Mama Timotheou
    This paper investigates the enhancement of reflective thinking in the context of online and distance adult education, through blogging as part of a course activity. A multi-case was conducted involving content and thematic analyses. The results show that students appreciated the reflection process that blogging engaged them into, while their motivation to further explore and use blogs to improve their learning experiences was increased. Factors affecting blog interaction are also identified, while the findings are associated with the key components of a theoretical framework for reflection in an attempt to link theory and research on reflective thinking.
    Keywords: student reflection; critical thinking; blogging; adult education; case study; web-based course; online learning environments; perspective change; model of reflection
    Digital Identity of Researchers and Their Personal Learning Network BIBAKFull-Text 467-477
      Nuno Ricardo Oliveira; Lina Morgado
    In a networked society, everyday experience is shared in networks at a personal, professional and academic level. Thus, there is a need to have digital literacy skills to obtain and produce contents in a collaborative way, sharing the knowledge acquired in the personal learning network.
       This paper is a reflection of literature revision in the PhD project of Online Distance Education and e-learning, concerning themes such as digital identity and personal learning networks. In this way we aim to make a literature analysis about the necessity of digital literacy so that we may obtain competencies for a personal learning network.
    Keywords: collaborative learning; Digital Identity; Digital literacy; personal learning network; skills
    Blended Simulation Based Medical Education: A Complex Learning/Training Opportunity BIBAKFull-Text 478-485
      Armineh Shahoumian; Murray Saunders; Maria Zenios; Gale Parchoma; Jacky Hanson
    Simulation Based Medical Education (SBME) as an innovative approach in Medical and Professionals Allied to Medicine (PAM) education has received international attention in the past few years to support improvement of patient safety and providing better health care services within hospitals. Blended SBME (B-SBME) is a new instructional model recently introduced into the field, which blends on-line briefing sessions followed by a simulation session, and concluded with immediate face-to-face debriefing sessions. In this paper we discuss the complexity of learning in B-SBME and how individualistic learning theories do not support understanding of all these processes. A shift in theoretical lens to socio-cultural theories may develop our understanding of how we depict and theorise the learning that goes on in B-SBME and whether B-SBME can act as a "boundary crossing tool" and support expanding of learning into clinical setting.
    Keywords: Simulation based medical education; blended learning; Social Practices Theory; boundary crossing tool
    Finding and Exploring Commonalities between Researchers Using the ResXplorer BIBAFull-Text 486-494
      Selver Softic; Laurens De Vocht; Erik Mannens; Rik Van de Walle; Martin Ebner
    Researcher community produces a vast of content on the Web. We assume that every researcher interest oneself in events, persons and findings of other related community members who share the same interest. Although research related archives give access to their content most of them lack on analytic services and adequate visualizations for this data. This work resides on our previous achievements [1,2,3,4] we made on semantically and Linked Data driven search and user interfaces for Research 2.0. We show how researchers can find and visually explore commonalities between each other within their interest domain, by introducing for this matter the user interface of "ResXplorer", and underlying search infrastructure operating over Linked Data Knowledge Base of research resources. We discuss and test most important components of "ResXplorer" relevant for detecting commonalities between researchers, closing up with conclusions and outlook for future work.