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LCT 2014: 1st International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, Part I: Designing and Developing Novel Learning Experiences

Fullname:LCT 2014: First International Conference on Learning and Collaboration Technologies, Part I: Designing and Developing Novel Learning Experiences
Note:Volume 14 of HCI International 2014
Editors:Panayiotis Zaphiris; Andri Ioannou
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8523
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07482-5 hcibib: LCT14-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-07481-8 (print), 978-3-319-07482-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. LCT 2014-06-22 Volume 1
    1. Design of Learning Technologies
    2. Novel Approaches in eLearning
    3. Student Modeling and Learning Behaviour
    4. Supporting Problem-Based, Inquiry-Based, Project-Based and Blended Learning

LCT 2014-06-22 Volume 1

Design of Learning Technologies

Course Sprints: Combining Teacher Training, Design Thinking and Hackathons BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Gemma Aguado; Carles Fernández; Muriel Garreta-Domingo; Roger Griset; Alícia Valls
In this work we present a teaching support action -- Course Sprint -- for the design and implementation of a course in a new virtual classroom. A Course Sprint is an intense and collaborative activity that brings together educators and instructional designers experts in teaching and learning technologies. The main objective is to create or redesign a set of learning activities considering the defined learning objectives and competences in the teaching program using creative thinking. The need of such an activity originated with the deployment of a new learning environment: how to get teachers to adopt this updated virtual environment for teaching and learning? The new classroom is activity-centered as opposed to calendar-centered and, therefore, requires teachers to change the design of the course and the learning activities.
Keywords: collaborative learning; informal learning; online learning; instructional design; higher education; teacher training; coaching; continuous professional development
Canvas to Improve the Design Process of Educational Animation BIBAKFull-Text 13-24
  André L. Battaiola; Márcia Maria Alves; Rafael Eduardo Paulin
Educational animation as a resource for learning has proliferated due to the inclusion of technology in schools and the possibilities brought by new media and graphic design software. By using animation for learning this feature gains more stakeholders with different goals (learning and teaching) and becomes a complex product. Aiming this, it is necessary to use auxiliary tools to cover all the functions of the project. The Business Model Generation (BMG) is a tool that displays all stakeholders of a business and their relationships. This article tries to apply the idea of this tool as an auxiliary canvas for creating requirements for animation. For those presents the BMG canvas and proposes a canvas for design educational animations. Finally, to show its uses two animation samples were evaluated by the model built, to demonstrate the ability of the canvas to be used as a tool for collaborative requirements elicitation.
Keywords: animation; design; educational animation; and canvas
Investigating Heuristic Evaluation as a Methodology for Evaluating Pedagogical Software: An Analysis Employing Three Case Studies BIBAKFull-Text 25-35
  Mike Brayshaw; Neil Gordon; Julius Nganji; Lipeng Wen; Adele Butterfield
This paper looks specifically at how to develop light weight methods of evaluating pedagogically motivated software. Whilst we value traditional usability testing methods this paper will look at how Heuristic Evaluation can be used as both a driving force of Software Engineering Iterative Refinement and end of project Evaluation. We present three case studies in the area of Pedagogical Software and show how we have used this technique in a variety of ways. The paper presents results and reflections on what we have learned. We conclude with a discussion on how this technique might inform on the latest developments on delivery of distance learning.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation; pedagogy; pedagogical software; disability; technology enhanced learning; flexible learning
A Narrative Research Approach: The Experiences of Social Media Support in Higher Education BIBAKFull-Text 36-42
  Alev Elçi; Begüm Çubukçuoglu Devran
Narrative research is started to be used in educational context recently. This article focuses on a discussion of the reasons for choosing narrative research approach in discovering the experiences of social media usage in higher education. Moreover, the preliminary information of ongoing study is provided. The authors use this method to convey their experiences about using social media for supporting their teaching and learning outside the classroom. The increasing trend in social media usage among new generations is being used as an advantage to interact and communicate with students in 'their way'.
Keywords: narrative; narrative research; social media; collaboration; learning; storytelling
An Interactive Installation for the Architectural Analysis of Space and Form in Historical Buildings BIBAKFull-Text 43-52
  Luis Antonio Hernández Ibáñez; Viviana Barneche Naya
This paper describes a methodology for the development of a didactic installation intended to explore the spatial, volumetric and formal relationships that, being present in any architectural work, are basic to understand the compositive and stylistic aspects that define some historical key buildings as paradigms of the history of Architecture. Such an exploration can only be done by providing the user with the ability to inspect the exterior and interior spaces from all angles and distances and perform cross-sections through any meaningful plane.
   One of the main challenges of that kind of interactive visualization resides in the geometrical complexity that is present in many historical examples, especially if there is a certain level of detail involved. The use of forms of illumination that reproduce indirect lighting and diffuse reflection, which are needed to properly simulate many interior lighting conditions also increments the difficulty to achieve a fluent simulation. Hence, one of the issues to solve is that of applying a methodology intended to maximize the efficiency of the model in terms of rendering computational cost.
   The authors chose the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela as a case of application. The temple was modeled with a high level of geometrical detail and lit using global illumination, creating a model valid for real-time presentation in order to be examined, explored and manipulated using natural interaction.
Keywords: Real-time architectural visualization; Multitactile interaction; Natural Interfaces; Cross-section; Cathedral of Santiago; Radiosity
Introducing a Challenging Teachable Agent BIBAKFull-Text 53-62
  Camilla Kirkegaard; Agneta Gulz; Annika Silvervarg
This paper explores the potentials of a new type of pedagogical agent -- a Challenger Teachable Agent. The aim of such a pedagogical agent is to increase engagement and motivation, and challenge students into deeper learning and metacognitive reasoning. It is based on the successful implementation of the Learning by Teaching approach in Teacheable Agents, and in addition it draws on previous work that has shown the potential of resistance or challenge as means to improve learning. In this paper we discuss how these two bases can be combined and realized through new types of behaviours in a Teachable Agent.
Keywords: teachable agents; challenging agents; self-efficacy; educational technology
File Formats Security -- Proprietary vs. Open-Source BIBAKFull-Text 63-72
  Edmund Laugasson; Kaido Kikkas
Privacy and confidentiality are important components of digital literacy. Yet nowadays documents can be found online, which apparently consist only of one or two pages yet have huge file size -- even several megabytes. Such documents may contain sensitive data that has been deleted but actually is still there. Our study provides an analysis of such cases in public sector of Estonia. Based on experiments and public sector web page analysis we describe security threats and features of different file formats and offer suggestions for their use, e.g. we found that using open-source formats like OpenDocument may help prevention of accidental disclosure of data.
Keywords: privacy; confidentiality; file format; proprietary; open-source; vendor lock-in
A Review of Storyboard Tools, Concepts and Frameworks BIBAKFull-Text 73-82
  Nor'ain Mohd Yusoff; Siti Salwah Salim
This paper describes and analyses storyboard tools, concepts and frameworks. It aims to identify gaps in storyboard works in an attempt to extend support for establishing a common ground between instruction designers and subject-matter experts as a distributed instructional design team. Twenty-four storyboard tools, concepts and frameworks are described according to the two classifications of domain applications, domain-independent and domain-dependent. They are reviewed and analysed with regard to three aspects of e-learning storyboard requirements: collaborative design environment, iterative process methodology and designer-centredness support. The finding shows that much less research has been done on collaborative environments and iterative processes than on supporting designers' work. It is also found that storyboard systems have some limitations in terms of giving the distributed instructional design team opportunity to engage in these cognitive task-related activities.
Keywords: storyboard tools; storyboard systems; distributed instructional design team
Designing Learning Tools: The Case of a Competence Assessment Tool BIBAKFull-Text 83-94
  Enric Mor; Ana-Elena Guerrero-Roldán; Enosha Hettiarachchi; M. Antonia Huertas
Advancements in technology offer new challenges and opportunities for online education. The interaction design of digital learning and assessment tools directly influence the learning experience. The aim of this work is to show the process of user-centered design and development of an online assessment tool that allows setting, monitoring and displaying the achievements of educational skills and competences. The main challenges addressed were: dealing with a rich and complex educational context; researching the actual needs of the actors involved and managing the different requirements for the tool; the process to generate design solutions and the evaluation of the tool. It was evaluated in a real case scenario in a virtual learning environment of a fully online higher education institution.
Keywords: User-Centered Design; Learning Tools; Assessment Tools; Competence Assessment; Virtual Learning Environment
Blogging Revisited: The Use of Blogs in ESAP Courses BIBAKFull-Text 95-106
  Anna Nicolaou; Elis Kakoulli Constantinou
The technological innovations of the last decades and the appearance of the Web 2.0 have triggered various advancements in the field of education in general and language teaching and learning in particular. The weblog or blog is nowadays one of the most popular Information Communication Technology (ICT) tools used for educational purposes, thus research on the use of blogs in education has seen increasing interest. This paper examines blogging as a learning tool in the instruction of English for Specific Academic Purposes (ESAP) in tertiary education. It explores the possibilities and pedagogical value offered by using weblogs in language learning, as well as university students' attitudes towards the use of blogs in their language courses.
Keywords: blogs; language learning; language teaching; ESAP; ICT; CMC; BALL; New Technologies
Learner Engagement in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Activities: Natural or Nurtured? BIBAKFull-Text 107-118
  Andriani Piki
Drawing on a mixed-methods study this paper aims to investigate what constitutes learner engagement and how postgraduate students engage in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) activities (such as video-conferencing and blogging) in a real-life setting. This research contributes to current literature by proposing the WISE Taxonomy of Learner Engagement Archetypes which portrays the most universal engagement approaches that emerged within the studied context. The findings show that CSCL activities may engage postgraduate students irrespective of their perceived preference over individual or social learning. The findings also suggest that given certain conditions students may strategically disengage from CSCL activities and as a result they may fail to appreciate CSCL as an authentic activity which leverages the opportunity to learn from and with each other, as well as from the wide range of digital resources openly available to them.
Keywords: learner engagement; computer-supported collaborative learning; collaborative technologies; postgraduate education
Digital Literacy for All Through Integrative STEM BIBAKFull-Text 119-127
  Leo A. Siiman; Carlos Manuel Pacheco Cortés; Margus Pedaste
The ever growing importance of digital literacy requires an effective educational strategy to introduce it into K-12 education. We propose teaching digital competences within the context of an integrative STEM framework. An overview of integrative STEM, its two core components (design from the context of technology education and inquiry from science education), and the natural connections to digital literacy are discussed. Two examples are given -- robotics and 3-D computer software -- as promising digital platforms to implement this strategy. Including digital literacy in integrative STEM offers all K-12 students the opportunity to acquire digital competences.
Keywords: Digital literacy; technology education; integrative STEM; design; inquiry; robotics; 3-D technology
A Model for Human-Computer Trust BIBAKFull-Text 128-137
  Sonia Sousa; David Lamas; Paulo Dias
Trusting is a rather complex phenomena and this complexity has been increasing with the pervasiveness of computing systems. In this virtual realms, Human-computer trust represents a key issue in today's organizations, and it has a significative role in leveraging interactions and mediating interrelationships and auto-regulate knowledge sharing processes.
   This paper reports an research framework, which aims to facilitate the use of the acquired understanding of the role of trust in (A) Human Computer Interaction; and in (B) Computer mediated Interaction.
   Results situate the model as a key contribute for leveraging people's interactions and their technological artefacts.
Keywords: Human-computer Trust; User experience; Trusted interactions; Social engagement; Collaborative Learning
Going Digital: Literature Review on E-textbooks BIBAKFull-Text 138-148
  Terje Väljataga; Sebastian H. D. Fiedler
Digitising textbooks is becoming an increasingly important practice in formal education. While higher education has been the main focus of research on e-textbooks so far, the topic is also gaining attention in other areas of formal education. This paper reports on an initial attempt to review and synthesise research and development literature on e-textbooks -- mainly in the context of K-12 education. While the project is still work in progress, some provisional findings, main demarcation lines, and visible directions in the field are reported and discussed.
Keywords: e-textbooks; literature review; digitisation; K-12 education

Novel Approaches in eLearning

HIP -- A Technology-Rich and Interactive Multimedia Pedagogical Platform BIBAKFull-Text 151-160
  Ali Shariq Imran; Stewart James Kowalski
Technology enhanced learning is a key part of learning and teaching in most of the higher education. It not only provides easy access to pedagogical content of interest with few clicks, but it is a great way to acquire knowledge at ones doorstep. Many universities are providing distance and blended education programs through eLearning platforms, learning management systems (LMS) and smart tools, along side traditional lectures for on campus students. The use of recorded lecture videos and audios, lecture notes, presentation slides, handouts, etc., are commonly used to disseminate knowledge via various eLearning platforms. While these platforms are a good way to reach out to off-campus students, they often lack a two-way communication between a student and a teacher, and the interactivity with the content. The lack of real-time interactivity and right communication channel make online courses less effective. To address this problem we propose the use of an intelligent pedagogical media called hyper interactive presenter (HIP).
Keywords: eLearning; pedagogical platforms; hyper media; interactive media; intelligent chat bot
Cloud Storage Services in Higher Education -- Results of a Preliminary Study in the Context of the Sync&Share-Project in Germany BIBAKFull-Text 161-171
  Christian Meske; Stefan Stieglitz; Raimund Vogl; Dominik Rudolph; Ayten Öksüz
In recent years, a growing number of institutions in higher education is in progress to adopt cloud storage services. This paper describes the Sync&Share NRW-project in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) with a target audience of up to 500,000 users and presents the main results of a preliminary large-scale survey at the University of Muenster with more than 3,000 participants. The results of the analysis indicates a very high demand for an on-premise cloud service solution in German higher education with mobile access, a storage volume comparable to commercial offerings, collaborative features such as simultaneous work on text documents and, above all, high data protection standards.
Keywords: cloud storage services; higher education; technology adoption; trust
An HTML5-Based Online Editor for Creating Annotated Learning Videos BIBAKFull-Text 172-179
  Jan-Torsten Milde
Creating multi media learning resources has become a common standard in university level teaching. We present an online video annotation editor, allowing to create time aligned annotations of video material. The editor is implemented using HTML5-technology and runs in a standard web browser. The annotations are used to generate searchable indexes, making it easy to quickly navigate in the video.
Keywords: online video annotation; learning videos; time aligned annotations
From Information Systems to e-Learning 3.0 Systems's Critical Success Factors: A Framework Proposal BIBAKFull-Text 180-191
  Paula Miranda; Pedro Isaias; Carlos J. Costa
This paper seeks to identity and provides Critical Success Factors (CSFs) that affect the decision of adoption of e-Learning 3.0 systems. The study begins with a literature review related to the CSFs for information systems, followed by a literature review for e-Learning systems CSFs. The paper introduces an initial framework for understanding of which factors can influence successfully the adoption of an e-Learning 3.0 system. The framework is composed of five main dimensions, such as: technology, content, students, professors and educational institutions, as well of its influencing factors, and characterizes the factors in each dimension. This study can assist the stakeholders, i.e. students, professors and organization, in their intension to adopt an e-Learning 3.0 system.
Keywords: Information Systems; e-Learning; Web 3.0; e-Learning 3.0; Critical Success Factors (CSFs); higher education
Exploring the Validity of an Instrument to Measure the Perceived Quality in Use of Web 2.0 Applications with Educational Potential BIBAKFull-Text 192-203
  Tihomir Orehovacki; Snjezana Babic; Mario Jadric
The aim of the work presented in this paper was to examine to what extent the subjective measuring instrument supports the assessment of all relevant facets of the quality in use in the context of Web 2.0 applications. For that purpose, two scenario-based studies were conducted. In both studies users were observed during their interactions with two Web 2.0 applications that are widely used in educational settings. Data analysis has verified the validity of the post-use questionnaire at various levels of the conceptual model. Findings of empirical studies together with implications for researchers and practitioners are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Web 2.0 Applications; Perceived Quality in Use; Post-use Questionnaire; Empirical Findings
Promoting Distributed Cognition at MOOC Ecosystems BIBAFull-Text 204-215
  Kai Pata; Emanuele Bardone
The paper proposes describing connectivist MOOCs as a learning ecosystem. We highlight two aspects of distributed cognition epistemic and collective -- that MOOCs promote and relate these with learning by chance-seeking and learning from ecological enculturation. Finally we outline some design aspects for supporting chance-seeking and learning from an encultured environment in connectivist MOOC ecosystems.
Layout Considered Harmful: On the Influence of Information Architecture on Dialogue BIBAFull-Text 216-225
  Peter Purgathofer; Naemi Luckner
Discussions are an important tool for students to engage with new content, bring up new ideas and generate knowledge. This paper focuses on the representation of asynchronous online discussion forums in an e-learning context and how it influences the outcome of discussions. We compare the results of a traditional discussion visualisation -- a vertically threaded comment system -- to the two dimensional system Discourse, in which every new statement of the discussion opens a new subthread. We draw our conclusions from a qualitative analysis of pairs of discussions on the same topic conducted in both systems. Our findings suggest that discussions in Discourse are more focused and goal-oriented than in traditional threaded system.
Analyzing Interactivity in Asynchronous Video Discussions BIBAKFull-Text 226-237
  Hannes Rothe; Janina Sundermeier; Martin Gersch
Evaluating online discussions is a complex task for educators. Information systems may support instructors and course designers to assess the quality of an asynchronous online discussion tool. Interactivity on a human-to-human, human-to-computer or human-to-content level are focal elements of such quality assessment. Nevertheless existing indicators used to measure interactivity oftentimes rely on manual data collection. One major contribution of this paper is an updated overview about indicators which are ready for automatic data collection and processing. Following a design science research approach we introduce measures for a consumer side of interactivity and contrast them with a producer's perspective. For this purpose we contrast two ratio measures 'viewed posts prior to a statement' and 'viewed posts after a statement' created by a student. In order to evaluate these indicators, we apply them to Pinio, an innovative asynchronous video discussion tool, used in a virtual seminar.
Keywords: Online discussion; asynchronous video discussion; educational data mining; interactivity; higher education
Assessing the Need of Augmenting Video Lectures with Supporting Information BIBAKFull-Text 238-249
  Gaurav Kumar Singh; Abhay Doke; Varun Kumar; Savita Bhat; Niranjan Pedanekar
Massively Online Open Courses (MOOCs) consist of online video lectures delivered by experts. Learner drop-out is a major concern for MOOCs. Early drop-outs are often associated with cognitive overload partially caused by unfamiliarity of concepts being taught. In such cases, the course can be augmented with supporting information such as definition and explanation for concepts. In this paper, we propose a metric quantifying the need for augmentation of individual concepts as a course progresses. We examine the metric using a MOOC course. We also present a preliminary experiment with 36 undergraduate students on using such augmentation.
Keywords: MOOCs; Education; Augmentation; Metric; e-learning
Low-Achieving Students' Perceptions of Online Language Learning: A Case of English Proficiency Threshold BIBAKFull-Text 250-258
  Ai-Ling Wang; Yuh-Chang Lin; Shu-Fen Chang
This study aims at exploring how low-achieving EFL learners perceive and make use of the instructional web site to fulfill part of the requirements for a college degree. Participants were college students who did not pass the threshold of the required level of English proficiency set by the college.
   Online Tutorial English was a one-semester course offered for the above-mentioned students; they did not come to the class for onsite instruction except for the weeks before the mid-term and final exam. Students were provided with weekly reading articles and were required to do assignments online. At the end of the semester, students were asked to fill out a questionnaire and some students volunteered for an interview.
   The researchers analyzed the qualitative data, using Grounded Theory Method. Findings of the study showed that low-achieving EFL learners could not really be motivated to learn and that the primary aim for those students to learn English as a foreign language was to pass the course and get their college diploma.
Keywords: English proficiency threshold; online language learning; low-achieving language learners; remedial English course

Student Modeling and Learning Behaviour

Card Sorting Assessing User Attitude in E-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 261-272
  Ghada R. El Said
Various undergraduate and post graduate educational bodies, now a day, employ blended learning systems to complement the face to face communication between educator and learner. While E-learning tools in general have been found to improve access to resources, these tools need to be reliable and usable; the ease of use of E-learning would have a meaningful impact on the learning experience.[1]
   This paper investigates learners' perception of quality and willingness to use of E-learning environments. It also explores the attitude of users from two different cultural groups towards a number of E-learning sites. The paper aims to reveal some of the perception of quality for these groups of users in interacting with learning virtual communities.
   In September/ October 2013, series of card sorting sessions were conducted with number of learners enrolled in a joint venture European-Arab Master Program. In the individual sessions, each participant was asked to look at card of selected E-Learning sites, and to choose a single criterion by which the E-learning main pages could be differentiated from one another. Cards were then sorted based on different categories under each criterion. Participants repeated sorting the cards according to criteria and categories they generated. A second round of sorting sessions were conducted by the same participants, where they sorted the same cards according to the Willingness to Use criterion, and provided a reason for the sorting decisions made.
   The analysis of the card sorting sessions reveals some interesting findings concerning interface elements which seem to be salient for users in E-learning environment, such as: Interface Comprehensibility and Obviousness, Content Usefulness, and Site Affiliation and Reputation. Some differences in quality perception were also found between the two cultural groups.
   This paper makes a contribution to universal access in HCI by describing the quality perception, preferences, and general attitude for different group of users in the context of E-learning environment.
Keywords: E-learning; Assessing User Attitude; Card Sorting
Empirical Analysis of Changes in Human Creativity in People Who Work with Humanoid Robots and Their Avatars BIBAKFull-Text 273-281
  Doori Jo; Jae-gil Lee; Kun Chang Lee
This study presents results from an analysis of the relationship between humanoid robots and human creativity, which has not been demonstrated in the literature to date. To increase the academic rigor of our study, we adopted humanoid robots and their avatars in our experimental procedures. After participants engaged in experiments with humanoids and their avatars, we assessed the degree to which their levels of creativity changed. In experiments with 90 participants, we found that interactions with humanoid robots produced a statistically significant effect in increasing their creativity.
Keywords: Creativity; Creativity training; Human-robot interaction
Empowering L&D Managers through Customisation of Inline Learning Analytics BIBAKFull-Text 282-291
  Evangelos Kapros; Neil Peirce
Popular learning management systems (LMS) often feature dashboards displaying various analytics. This dashboard display might be suboptimal for some learning and development managers (L&D). Moreover, the analytics presented are often based on standardised quizzes or semesters, which might be unsuitable (e.g., informal learning, corporate education, etc.). Finally, each LMS has its bespoke reporting solution, thus making it difficult for L&D managers to monitor the situation across various LMSs. We propose an interactive system where an L&D manager can customise the data source, queries, filters, and visualisations of their LMSs, and display them inline. To this end, we have built EVADE, a system that allows L&D managers to capture data from various LMSs, analyse them, and embed related visualisations in each LMS. In this instance, we have integrated EVADE with a Moodle instance for corporate education, and Almanac, a tablet application for informal learning. In this paper we present EVADE and discuss how it can improve the L&D manager-LMS interaction.
Keywords: Learning Analytics; Visualisation; Corporate Learning; LMS
Fuzzy Student Modeling for Personalization of e-Learning Courses BIBAFull-Text 292-301
  Carla Limongelli; Filippo Sciarrone
In the context of e-learning courses, personalization is a more and more studied issue, being its advantage in terms of time and motivations widely proved. Course personalization basically means to understand student's needs: to this aim several Artificial Intelligence methodologies have been used to model students for tailoring e-learning courses and to provide didactic strategies, such as planning, case based reasoning, or fuzzy logic, just to cite some of them. Moreover, in order to disseminate personalised e-learning courses, the use of known and available Learning Management System is mandatory.
   In this paper we propose a fine-grained student model, embedded into an Adaptive Educational Hypermedia, LS_Plan provided as plug-in for Moodle. In this way we satisfy the two most important requirements: a fine-grained personalization and a large diffusion. In particular, the substantial modification proposed in this contribution regards the methodology to evaluate the knowledge of the single student which currently has a low granularity level. The experiments showed that the new system has improved the evaluation mechanism by adding information that students and teachers can use to keep track of learning progress.
Slow Learner Children Profiling for Designing Personalized eBook BIBAKFull-Text 302-311
  Marzita Mansor; Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Natrah Abdullah
Advances in reading technology have created significant interest for young children to use eBook. But similar opportunity and enjoyable experience of using the eBook suit with slow learner needs seems to be impossible. This is due to the fact that the existing eBooks on the market are not designed to suit with the slow learner reading capability. This situation stimulates the desire to explore on the need to design a personalized eBook for slow learner children. This paper presents the findings of the interview session conducted on five slow learner children and a school teacher at one of the primary school in Malaysia in order to explore on the need to provide individual learning. It also presents an overview of the research approach and shares an initiative conducted to adapt Segmented Personalization and Scaffolding approach in the eBook application development. We do hope that this study able to provide an overview on the importance of providing personalized learning especially for individuals with learning disabilities.
Keywords: personalized; eBook; slow learner; reading
A Web Analytics and Visualization Tool to Understand Students' Behavior in an Adaptive E-Learning System BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Barbara Moissa; Lucas Simões de Carvalho; Isabela Gasparini
Web analytics in the learning environment is the use of intelligent data, learner-produced data, and analysis models to discover information and social connections. This paper describes a web analytics and visualization tool which collects, analyses and visually represents the data collected in an e-learning environment. The goal of this tool is allow the teacher to better understand his students' behavior in front of the environment and support the decision making related to the pedagogical content adapted to the students' need.
Keywords: learning analytics; information visualization; adaptive e-learning system
Markov Chain and Classification of Difficulty Levels Enhances the Learning Path in One Digit Multiplication BIBAKFull-Text 322-333
  Behnam Taraghi; Anna Saranti; Martin Ebner; Martin Schön
In this work we focus on a specific application named "1x1 trainer" that has been designed to assist children in primary school to learn one digit multiplications. We investigate the database of learners' answers to the asked questions by applying Markov chain and classification algorithms. The analysis identifies different clusters of one digit multiplication problems in respect to their difficulty for the learners. Next we present and discuss the outcomes of our analysis considering Markov chain of different orders for each question. The results of the analysis influence the learning path for every pupil and offer a personalized recommendation proposal that optimizes the way questions are asked to each pupil individually.
Keywords: Learning Analytics; One digit multiplication; Knowledge discovery; Math; Markov chain; Primary school
The Emotion Component on Usability Testing Human Computer Interface of an Inclusive Learning Management System BIBAKFull-Text 334-345
  Vânia R. Ulbricht; Carlos Henrique Berg; Luciane Fadel; Silvia R. P. Quevedo
Learning Management Systems -- LMS supported by the Information and Communication Technologies to distribute knowledge at any time and to any place, to most different kind of people with different backgrounds. Human Computer Interface -- HCI, use known metaphors that makes the mediation between human and machine. Because humans define the metaphors, final users can find some barriers to the comprehension of them. To evaluate LMS's HCI, there are few paradigms available, but the only one who uses final users is the Usability Test -- UT. These tests focus on evaluate the efficiency and efficacy of an interface, but seldom evaluate the user's emotions. In order to do that, new researches point out the importance of having the emotions evaluated. This paper aims to describe methods and techniques used to evaluate HCI using Usability Tests UT with emotions and validate one of them in the WebGD LMS at http://egc.ufsc.br/webgd/login/index.php.
Keywords: Learning Management System; Human Computer Interface; Usability Tests with Emotion
Measuring Students' Flow Experience in a Multimodal Learning Environment: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 346-357
  Christina Vasiliou; Andri Ioannou; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This research paper focuses on the relationship between flow experience and multimodal learning environments. Flow experience has been defined as the state in which an individual feels completely absorbed and fully engaged in an activity. This concentration and complete engagement can lead to optimal learning. Several scholars in the areas of distance learning [2] and game-based learning [3] highlighted the relationship between high levels of flow experience and the effectiveness of technology-enhanced learning environments. Yet, this theory has not been applied in the area of multimodal learning environments, were multiple forms of technologies are provided to collocated learners. The purpose of the present study was, by studying an HCI course, to explore learners' flow experience and to understand the affordances of that promote flow experience. Findings suggest that flow experience does exist in collaborative activities within a multimodal learning environments and that it offers a useful construct to understand the affordances of technology in similar learning environments.
Keywords: Flow experience; multimodal space; CSCL
Attention Profiling Algorithm for Video-Based Lectures BIBAFull-Text 358-367
  Josef Wachtler; Martin Ebner
Due to the fact that students' attention is the most crucial resource in a high-quality course it is from high importance to control and analyze it. This could be done by using the interaction and the communication because they are known as valuable influencing factors of the attention. In this publication we introduce a web-based information system which implements an attention-profiling algorithm for learning-videos as well as live-broadcastings of lectures. For that different methods of interaction are offered and analyzed. The evaluation points out that the attention profiling algorithm delivers realistic values.

Supporting Problem-Based, Inquiry-Based, Project-Based and Blended Learning

Promoting Students' Writing Skills in Science through an Educational Simulation: The GlobalEd 2 Project BIBAKFull-Text 371-379
  Scott W. Brown; Kimberly A. Lawless
Using a problem-based learning (PBL) approach, GlobalEd 2 (GE2) utilizes an interdisciplinary approach to learning writing, science, and social studies. Leveraging technologies commonly available in most middle grade classrooms (computers with Internet connections), GE2 engages classrooms of students as teams in simulated negotiations of international agreements on issues of global concern such as water resources and climate change. The impact of student interactions within the simulation on the writing self-efficacy and the ability to author evidenced-based arguments in science of 420 7th and 8th grade students across two states is presented. Results indicate that after participation in a GE2 simulation, students not only increased their writing self-efficacy, but also significantly increased the quality of their written scientific arguments.
Keywords: Writing; Problem-based Learning (PBL); Simulation; Self-Efficacy
Distance Exchange Projects at Elementary School: A Focus on a Co-learning Process BIBAKFull-Text 380-387
  Anne Choffat-Dürr
The use of communication and information technology at primary school enables learners to interact at a distance with speakers of the target language. The article aims to show that international distance exchange projects between early-language learners contributes to making a shift in attitudes. The study questions a co-action process based on a reciprocity principle as a social construct.
Keywords: Computer mediated communication; early learning; collaboration; distance exchange projects
Applying Gianni Rodari Techniques to Develop Creative Educational Environments BIBAKFull-Text 388-397
  Habib M. Fardoun; Iyad A. Kateb; Antonio Paules Ciprés; Jaime Ramírez Castillo
In this article we will conduct a study of the Gianni Rodari School, a technique used in the initial educational levels of pre-schools and primary schools, but in this case for the use in the development of new creative ideas for the college projects, and vocational training subjects. For this we define and justify the essence of creativity as ideas, using a structure that can be stored in the cloud. To validate the system, we present a case study by using abstract concepts of human knowledge in the cloud. The presented work takes into consideration the interaction and collaborative work to promote creativity and the generation of new ideas in a clear and ordered way for the students.
Keywords: Creativity; Teaching Techniques; Cloud Computing; developing ideas; education environments
Happy Girls Engaging with Technology: Assessing Emotions and Engagement Related to Programming Activities BIBAKFull-Text 398-409
  Michail N. Giannakos; Letizia Jaccheri; Ioannis Leftheriotis
The advent of programming languages for students (i.e., Scratch) combined with accessible programmable hardware platforms (i.e., Arduino) is becoming an emerging practice for computer science education (CSE). Robots and interactive installations are some of the most widespread artifacts for increasing students' adoption in CSE. But what kind of emotions motivate students to participate in such creative development activities? In this paper we present the results of an empirical investigation regarding the key emotions and their impact on a creative learning context. In our empirical evaluation, a group of researchers and artists designed, implemented, and evaluated three workshop programs. The workshops were based on the Reggio Emilia education principles, open source software Scratch and Arduino and were conducted in creative centers. We designed a survey, based on the main Emotional factors identified from the literature as important on the technology context. Responses from 37 twelve-year-old girls were used to examine the effect of Enjoyment, Happiness and Anxiety on students' intention to participate on similar creative development activities. Results confirmed the positive effects of Happiness and the negative effect of Anxiety. Moreover, the results indicated that students' Enjoyment has no relation with students' intention to re-participate in an activity. The overall outcomes are expected to contribute to design practices and promote the acceptance of creative development activities.
Keywords: Creativity; Scratch; Programming; Girls in programming; Students' intentions; Emotions; Engagement; Workshop program; Reggio Emilia principles
Dialogue, Knowledge Work and Tabletops: Lessons from Preservice Teacher Education BIBAKFull-Text 410-418
  Andri Ioannou; Maria Zenios; Agni Stylianou
This pilot study is concerned with the exploration of tabletops in preservice teacher education, through the lens of sociocultural theories. An educational tabletop application designed to facilitate dialog and collaborative decision making, so called IdeasMapping, was enacted in the context of proposing a solution plan for a case study classroom problem. Students' responses to a questionnaire showed that they positively endorsed the technology for this type of collaborative activity. Moreover, analysis of video recordings of groups' discussions and interactions showed that the technology enhanced students' communication as they took turns in sharing their ideas, and provided structure and organization of these ideas linked to possible solutions on the problems embedded in the case.
Keywords: collaborative learning; collaborative decision making; surface computing; interactive tables; tabletops; preservice teacher education; case based learning; educational technology; technology integration
Simulation Training in Self-Regulated Learning: Investigating the Effects of Dual Feedback on Dynamic Decision-Making Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 419-428
  Jung Hyup Kim
Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) is a popular concept in the research area of the education. However, most researchers who have studied SRL focus on the theoretical aspects of metacognition or the educational application such as children's learning and academic performance. The purpose of this research is to investigate the SRL effects of dual feedback (retrospective confident judgments and task performances) in a dynamic task environment. A human-in-the-loop simulation experiment was conducted to collect real-time task performance data from participants and compared the self-regulated learning effects between different feedback conditions. We found that an improvement in the accuracy of their performance prediction might promote an increase in their situation awareness on dynamic decision-making tasks. This research will contribute design faster and more effective training algorithm to inexperienced operators in the computer simulation training environment.
Keywords: Simulation Training; Self-Regulated Learning; Human-in-the-loop simulation
Development of a Fieldwork Support System for Group Work in Project-Based Learning BIBAFull-Text 429-440
  Mikihiko Mori; Akihisa Tatsumi
This paper describes the Fieldwork Support System (FSS) for project-based Learning. The FSS is an essential tool for students who are new to fieldwork activities. They need to take notes on events that occur in the field and reflect on what people did and what they talked about in interviews. In addition, students should collaborate to learn using the data they collected. Therefore, we developed the FSS, which was constructed to use a combination of portable terminals during the students' time in the field and a Web-based management application upon their return. We also conducted a practical experiment on PBL in which students explored local communities. The results of a posterior questionnaire showed the students enjoyed being able to view their current locations and the locations of data they had collected on the FSS terminal map. However, they had complaints about the user interface.
Novel Didactic Proof Assistant for First-Order Logic Natural Deduction BIBAFull-Text 441-451
  Jorge Pais; Álvaro Tasistro
We present a proof assistant designed to help learning formal proof, particularly in the system of Natural Deduction for First-Order Logic. The assistant handles formulas and derivations containing meta-variables and allows to maintain a library of instanciable lemmas. It possesses a graphical interface presenting proofs as trees and handles multiple simultaneous derivations that can be dragged and dropped into one another.
The Evolvement of Constructionism: An Overview of the Literature BIBAKFull-Text 452-461
  Antigoni Parmaxi; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This paper reviews the theory of constructionism from its evolvement in 1980s towards its more recent implementations. By reviewing recent research conducted under the framework of constructionism, we set off in understanding its key ideas and their evolution over time. At the same time this paper acknowledges obstacles, challenges and critiques towards implementing constructionism in the teaching and learning practice. The paper is organized around three sections: constructionism, distributed constructionism and social constructionism. The findings of this study reveal the dynamic progression of constructionism and its potential to be used as a pervasive theoretical framework for instructional technology in various settings.
Keywords: theory of learning; Papert; Logo; microworlds construction; artifact; object-to-think-with; social technologies
Examining an Online Collaboration Learning Environment with the Dual Eye-Tracking Paradigm: The Case of Virtual Math Teams BIBAKFull-Text 462-472
  Selin Deniz Uzunosmanoglu; Murat Perit Çakir
The aim of this study is to investigate the computer supported collaborative problem solving processes using the dual eye-tracking method. 18 university students participated in this study, and 9 pairs tried to solve 10 geometry problems using Virtual Math Team (VMT) online environment. Which situations the participants' eye movements, and eye gazes overlap, and how usability of VMT environment affect the problem solving processes are tried to identify. After experiments with two eye-trackers, a questionnaire including System Usability Scale and open-ended questions was filled by participants. Eye-tracker data were analyzed both quantitatively using cross-recurrence analysis, and qualitatively using interaction analysis. Analysis of eye-tracker data and open-ended questions are consistent, and support to each other. Results show that pairs collaborating with higher level have more gazes overlapping, more shared understanding, and anticipatory gazes than pairs having with low level. Also, usability of the system and awareness tools affect the collaboration processes.
Keywords: computer supported collaborative learning; collaborative problem solving; joint attention; gaze overlap; dual eye tracking