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Computer Supported Cooperative Work 22

Editors:Kjeld Schmidt
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Standard No:ISSN 0925-9724
Links:springerlink.metapress.com | Table of Contents
  1. JCSCW 2013-02 Volume 22 Issue 1
  2. JCSCW 2013-04 Volume 22 Issue 2/3
  3. JCSCW 2013-08 Volume 22 Issue 4/6

JCSCW 2013-02 Volume 22 Issue 1

Grounding Privacy in Mediated Communication BIBAKFull-Text 1-32
  Natalia A. Romero; Panos Markopoulos
This paper addresses the need of interpersonal privacy coordination mechanisms in the context of mediated communication, emphasizing the dialectic and dynamic nature of privacy. We contribute the Privacy Grounding Model -- built upon the Common Ground theory -- that describes how connected individuals create and adapt privacy borders dynamically and in a collaborative process. We present the theoretical foundations of the model. We also show the applicability of the model, where we give evidence from a field study that illustrates how it can describe privacy coordination mechanisms amongst users of an instant messaging application and a desktop awareness system. The model describes efficient and effective factors that communicators consider in their decisions to use mechanisms for coordination. The Privacy Grounding Model aims to help designers reflect on how their system supports, or fails to support, people's need for lightweight and distinctive privacy coordination mechanisms, and in particular how communicators within the system create and use privacy border representations for grounding their needs to interact with each other.
Keywords: interpersonal privacy; common ground theory; mediated communication; HCI
Concealment of Emotion in an Emergency Room: Expanding Design for Emotion Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 33-63
  Helena M. Mentis; Madhu Reddy
The design of systems and mechanisms for the development of emotion awareness between communicators has been a concern in CSCW. The typical approach in design is tied up in notions of mediated communication being a 'poor' transmitter of crucial emotion information. Thus, by conveying emotion expressions, emotion awareness is consequently supported. In this paper we argue that emotion awareness is also reliant on strategic concealment of emotion expressions through hiding and suppression. To support our argument we present data from a field study of the expression of emotion between healthcare personnel in an emergency room. We provide evidence of the hiding and suppression of emotion expressions by both expressers and observers and how these behaviors support the development of emotion awareness. We then outline a new system design perspective for emotion awareness including both conveyance and concealment behavior and provide examples of systems that have successfully embodied notions of hiding and suppression.
Keywords: emotion; awareness; healthcare; design; cooperative work; suppression; invisible
Unearthing the Infrastructure: Humans and Sensors in Field-Based Scientific Research BIBAKFull-Text 65-101
  Matthew S. Mayernik; Jillian C. Wallis
Distributed sensing systems for studying scientific phenomena are critical applications of information technologies. By embedding computational intelligence in the environment of study, sensing systems allow researchers to study phenomena at spatial and temporal scales that were previously impossible to achieve. We present an ethnographic study of field research practices among researchers in the Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), a National Science Foundation Science & Technology Center devoted to developing wireless sensing systems for scientific and social applications. Using the concepts of boundary objects and trading zones, we trace the processes of collaborative research around sensor technology development and adoption within CENS. Over the 10-year lifespan of CENS, sensor technologies, sensor data, field research methods, and statistical expertise each emerged as boundary objects that were understood differently by the science and technology partners. We illustrate how sensing technologies were incompatible with field-based environmental research until researchers "unearthed" their infrastructures, explicitly reintroducing human skill and expertise into the data collection process and developing new collaborative languages that emphasized building dynamic sensing systems that addressed human needs. In collaborating around a dynamic sensing model, the sensing systems became embedded not in the environment of study, but in the practices of the scientists.
Keywords: infrastructure; collaboration; boundary objects; trading zones; sensors; ecology; seismology; environmental science; scientific data; technology driven research
Book Review BIBFull-Text 103-105
  David W. Randall

JCSCW 2013-04 Volume 22 Issue 2/3

Differentiated Awareness-Support in Computer Supported Collaborative Work

Differentiated Awareness-Support in Computer Supported Collaborative Work BIBAKFull-Text 107-112
  Gwendolyn L. Kolfschoten; Thomas Herrmann
Awareness has, for decades, been a topic of interest in CSCW research, as it is a critical condition for effective coordination of collaborative work. In this special issue we present papers that discuss overviews of awareness aspects as well as research challenges for awareness in new settings and conditions. Awareness continues to be a topic of research especially in new (virtual) interaction environments and in various challenging domains in which collaboration is becoming an answer to the increasing complexity of interconnected systems and globalization.
Keywords: awareness; CSCW; distributed teams; virtual teams; groupwork
Awareness Support in Distributed Software Development: A Systematic Review and Mapping of the Literature BIBAKFull-Text 113-158
  Igor Steinmacher; Ana Paula Chaves
The developers' physical dispersion in Distributed Software Development (DSD) imposes challenges related to awareness support during collaboration in such scenario. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review and mapping that gathered, analyzed, and classified studies that improve awareness support in DSD, providing an overview of the area. Our initial search returned 1967 papers, of which 91 were identified as reporting some awareness support to DSD. These papers were then analyzed, and classified according to the 3 C collaboration model and to the Gutwin et al. Awareness Framework. Our findings suggest that awareness in DSD is gaining increasingly attention, 71 out of 91 papers were published from 2006 to 2010. Most part of the papers presented tools with some awareness support. The classification showed that the coordination is by far the most supported dimension of the 3C model, while communication is the less explored. It also showed that workspace awareness elements play a central role on DSD collaboration.
Keywords: Awareness; Communication; Coordination; Cooperation; Distributed software development; Systematic mapping; Systematic review
The Mind's Eye on Personal Profiles: A Cognitive Perspective on Profile Elements that Inform Initial Trustworthiness Assessments and Social Awareness in Virtual Project Teams BIBAKFull-Text 159-179
  Ellen Rusman; Jan van Bruggen; Peter Sloep
Collaboration in virtual project teams heavily relies on interpersonal trust, for which perceived professional trustworthiness is an important determinant. In face to face teams colleagues form a first impression of each others trustworthiness based on signs and signals that are 'naturally' available. However, virtual project team members do not have the same opportunities to assess trustworthiness. This study provides insight in the information elements that virtual project team members value to assess professional trustworthiness in the initial phase of collaboration. The trustworthiness formed initially is highly influential on interpersonal trust formed during latter collaboration. We expect trustors in virtual teams to especially value information elements (= small containers for personal data stimulating the availability of specific information) that provide them with relevant cues of trust warranting properties of a trustee. We identified a list with fifteen information elements that were highly valued across trustors (n=226) to inform their trustworthiness assessments. We then analyzed explanations for preferences with the help of a theory-grounded coding scheme for perceived trustworthiness. Results show that respondents value those particular information elements that provide them with multiple cues (signaling multiple trust warranting properties) to assess the trustworthiness of a trustee. Information elements that provide unique cues (signaling for a specific trust warranting property) could not be identified. Insight in these information preferences can inform the design of artefacts, such as personal profile templates, to support acquaintanceships and social awareness especially in the initial phase of a virtual project team.
Keywords: social awareness; CSCW; groupware; trust; online identity; presence; virtual teams
Turning Conflicts into Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 181-240
  Konrad Wieland; Philip Langer; Martina Seidl
In model-driven software development, software models are the main artifacts used not only for supporting brainstorming, analysis, and design purposes, but also for generating executable code. Such software models are usually not created by one single developer, but within a team. To coordinate team work, versioning systems have proven to be indispensable for managing modifications performed by different modelers at the same time. When concurrently performed modifications are contradicting each other, the standard versioning paradigm requires the person who detected the conflict to resolve it immediately in order to keep the evolved artifacts in a consistent state. Whereas this approach works well in later phases of the software development process, in early phases, when the development team had not established a consolidated view on the system under development yet, the conflicts might provide valuable information on the various intentions of the modelers. This information might be lost if removed in an undocumented manner by a single modeler. We propose an alternative versioning paradigm for models, where conflicts are temporarily tolerated and discuss its technical realization for current modeling languages such as the UML. The resolution of conflicts is then not performed by one single modeler but within a team so that a consolidated version of the model is obtained.
Keywords: model-driven engineering; model versioning; collaborative modeling
Awareness Support for Combining Individual and Collaborative Process Design in Co-located Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 241-270
  Thomas Herrmann; Alexander Nolte
The collaborative design of complex systems is a challenging task. It requires phases of linear as well as creativity oriented work. Also phases of collaborative work have to alternate with work in solitude, requiring a smooth transition between them. This in turn results in awareness becoming a crucial factor. Within the context of designing socio-technical processes through modeling we have developed tools and methods to integrate individual and collaborative creativity into modeling with special respect to awareness thus allowing for a smooth transition between phases of working in solitude and phases of collaboration. We have conducted multiple experiments on the subject following an action research approach which allowed for reflecting on the influence of awareness on collaborative process design in co-located meetings while also improving the socio-technical setting they were applied in. Derived from our findings we show requirements for further development of the socio-technical setting and show future directions such as the integration of the described setting into other areas of design.
Keywords: awareness; brainstorming; collaborative modeling; creativity support; interactive large screen
An Approach for Asynchronous Awareness Support in Collaborative Non-Linear Storytelling BIBAKFull-Text 271-308
  Jana Schumann; Tanja Buttler; Stephan Lukosch
Workspace awareness support is mandatory for group support systems. It allows users not only to follow actions of others, but to understand and respond to any changes others make to the workspace. In this paper, we present a novel approach for asynchronous awareness support by offering different filters to retrieve relevant awareness information and visualizing the evolution of the shared artifact. We illustrate our approach with a tool for collaborative non-linear storytelling in which users can jointly create a story graph of interconnected audio files. Such a story graph is an example for a non-linear story. We describe the development of a prototype that visualizes how the collaborative story has evolved over time. We evaluate our approach for asynchronous awareness support in an experiment with 40 participants exploring story graphs of different complexity. The evaluation results show that our visualization approach helps group members to assess who has modified the shared story, how it was modified, what exactly has been modified, and when it has been modified.
Keywords: asynchronous workspace awareness; collaborative storytelling; information visualization; traceability
Ambient Awareness to Strengthen the Family Social Network of Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 309-344
  Raymundo Cornejo; Mónica Tentori
Social networking sites (SNSs) provide ambient awareness of the interests and activities of friends and relatives helping them sustain and strengthen their social ties. Older adults who are not adopting SNSs might however feel like outsiders within their own families who increasingly rely on these services to socialize. Previous research has shown that situated displays can provide appropriate interfaces for older adults to use digital services. In this paper we explore how situated displays can intuitively provide ambient awareness to strengthen the family social network of older adults. We designed and developed Tlatoque, a situated display, to seamlessly integrate older adults into the SNS used by their relatives. The results of a 21-week deployment study of an initial version of Tlatoque in one extended family showed that the older adult became more conscious of relatives' activities, which also enriched in-person encounters. However, relatives expected the older adult to reply to their posts in the SNS and Tlatoque lacked mechanisms for the older adult to provide feedback. We re-designed Tlatoque to incorporate means for enabling the older adult to share information back to the SNS. We conducted a second 21-week deployment study with another extended family to evaluate the use of this new version of the system. Our results indicate that the second design was successful in providing ambient awareness to the older adult as well as to her relatives. We conclude that situated displays that provide SNS services can assist the integration of older adults to their social network and contribute to enhance asymmetric relations between the older adult and younger relatives.
Keywords: Ambient awareness; Elderly; Family ties; Situated displays; Social media; Social network

JCSCW 2013-08 Volume 22 Issue 4/6

CSCW: The First Quarter Century

Constructing CSCW: The First Quarter Century BIBAKFull-Text 345-372
  Kjeld Schmidt; Liam Bannon
As an established field of research, Computer Supported Cooperative Work or CSCW is now well beyond its first quarter century of existence. It is an appropriate time to take stock: What has been achieved, and what issues remain as challenges for the field? This introductory article will assess what has become of the field, its position as a research field in the wider context of technology development, and its complex physiognomy.
Keywords: CSCW; Computer-Supported Cooperative Work
Reflections on 25 Years of Ethnography in CSCW BIBAKFull-Text 373-423
  Jeanette Blomberg; Helena Karasti
In this article we focus attention on ethnography's place in CSCW by reflecting on how ethnography in the context of CSCW has contributed to our understanding of the sociality and materiality of work and by exploring how the notion of the 'field site' as a construct in ethnography provides new ways of conceptualizing 'work' that extends beyond the workplace. We argue that the well known challenges of drawing design implications from ethnographic research have led to useful strategies for tightly coupling ethnography and design. We also offer some thoughts on recent controversies over what constitutes useful and proper ethnographic research in the context of CSCW. Finally, we argue that as the temporal and spatial horizons of inquiry have expanded, along with new domains of collaborative activity, ethnography continues to provide invaluable perspectives.
Keywords: anthropology; critical studies; CSCW; connecting ethnography and design; constructing the field site; ethnomethodology; multi-sited ethnography; sociality and materiality of work; work practice; workplace studies
Supporting Effortless Coordination: 25 Years of Awareness Research BIBAKFull-Text 425-474
  Tom Gross
Significant progress has been made in awareness research in Computer-Supported Cooperative Work over the last 25 years. This survey addresses awareness and effortless coordination -- that is, how a mutual understanding in distributed teams can be gained and maintained, while still keeping the team members' coordination efforts to a minimum. I characterise the origins of awareness and its ethnographically-informed and the technology-oriented roots, and discuss the notion of awareness. I review technical solutions for awareness support -- both in applications as seen by users, and in base technology as seen by developers. Design tensions in awareness research and solutions are identified. A discussion contrasts awareness as seen from a users' activity and effort perspective versus awareness as seen from a systems' support and automation perspective.
Keywords: awareness; coordination; computer-supported cooperative work; survey; history
Computational Coordination Mechanisms: A tale of a struggle for flexibility BIBAKFull-Text 475-529
  Federico Cabitza; Carla Simone
Coordination mechanisms (CMs) can be defined as any kind of computable construct whose aim is to organize activities performed by a group of actors that are called to collaborate for some purpose or reason. As such, CMs can be observed, conceived for and applied in a vast number of coordinative practices in almost every work setting. The advent of information and communication technologies has raised the issue of how these technologies could be used to help cooperating actors governing the increasing complexity of collaboration in modern organizations. This issue has been at the core of CSCW from its foundation until today: the field studies therein conducted have highlighted the flexibility by which human beings master this complexity. The requirement of flexibility has become one of the necessary conditions to guarantee the effectiveness of any computer support of coordination. The paper presents the main paradigms and approaches that have been proposed to fulfil this challenging requirement. The story shows that this effort has really been a sort of a struggle for either conceptual and technological solutions that are still to be fully realized and generally adopted in the field of work.
Keywords: coordination mechanisms; workflow management systems; flexibility; coordination theory; ordering systems; case handling; alpha level taxonomy
Sharing Knowledge and Expertise: The CSCW View of Knowledge Management BIBAKFull-Text 531-573
  Mark S. Ackerman; Juri Dachtera
Knowledge Management (KM) is a diffuse and controversial term, which has been used by a large number of research disciplines. CSCW, over the last 20 years, has taken a critical stance towards most of these approaches, and instead, CSCW shifted the focus towards a practice-based perspective. This paper surveys CSCW researchers' viewpoints on what has become called 'knowledge sharing' and 'expertise sharing'. These are based in an understanding of the social contexts of knowledge work and practices, as well as in an emphasis on communication among knowledgeable humans. The paper provides a summary and overview of the two strands of knowledge and expertise sharing in CSCW, which, from an analytical standpoint, roughly represent 'generations' of research: an 'object-centric' and a 'people-centric' view. We also survey the challenges and opportunities ahead.
Keywords: knowledge sharing; expertise sharing; CSCW; collective memory; organizational memory; expertise location; expert finder; expertise finding; knowledge management; sociotechnical; collective intelligence
From Artefacts to Infrastructures BIBAKFull-Text 575-607
  Eric Monteiro; Neil Pollock; Ole Hanseth
In their initial articulation of the direction of the CSCW field, scholars advanced an open-ended agenda. This continuing commitment to open-ness to different contexts and approaches is not, however, reflected in the contents of the major CSCW outlets. The field appears to privilege particular forms of cooperative work. We find many examples of what could be described as 'localist studies', restricted to particular settings and timeframes. This focus on the 'here and now' is particularly problematic when one considers the kinds of large-scale, integrated and interconnected workplace information technologies -- or what we are calling Information Infrastructures -- increasingly found within and across organisations today. CSCW appears unable (or unwilling) to grapple with these technologies -- which were at the outset envisaged as falling within the scope of the field. Our paper hopes to facilitate greater CSCW attention to Information Infrastructures through offering a re-conceptualisation of the role and nature of 'design'. Design within an Information Infrastructures perspective needs to accommodate non-local constraints. We discuss two such forms of constraint: standardisation (how local fitting entails unfitting at other sites) and embeddedness (the entanglement of one technology with other apparently unrelated ones). We illustrate these themes through introducing case material drawn on from a number of previous studies.
Keywords: Infrastructures; Ethnography; Localist; CSCW
A Review of 25 Years of CSCW Research in Healthcare: Contributions, Challenges and Future Agendas BIBAKFull-Text 609-665
  Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Gunnar Ellingsen
CSCW as a field has been concerned since its early days with healthcare, studying how healthcare work is collaboratively and practically achieved and designing systems to support that work. Reviewing literature from the CSCW Journal and related conferences where CSCW work is published, we reflect on the contributions that have emerged from this work. The analysis illustrates a rich range of concepts and findings towards understanding the work of healthcare but the work on the larger policy level is lacking. We argue that this presents a number of challenges for CSCW research moving forward: in having a greater impact on larger-scale health IT projects; broadening the scope of settings and perspectives that are studied; and reflecting on the relevance of the traditional methods in this field -- namely workplace studies -- to meet these challenges.
Keywords: coordination; CSCW; electronic health records (EHR); electronic patient records (EPR); healthcare; health ICT; integration; interaction; medical records; policy; review; standardisation; workplace studies; workpractice
Supporting Scientific Collaboration: Methods, Tools and Concepts BIBAKFull-Text 667-715
  Marina Jirotka; Charlotte P. Lee
This paper discusses the interrelationship between e-Science and CSCW in terms of key substantive, methodological and conceptual innovations made in both fields. In so doing, we hope to draw out the existing relationship between CSCW and e-Science research, and to map out some key future challenges where the two areas of research may become more closely aligned. In considering what may be required to draw the two more closely together, the paper focuses primarily on investigations that have been undertaken in two dedicated initiatives into e-Science, along with the key issues emerging from these studies.
Keywords: cyber-infrastructure; e-Science; supporting scientific collaboration