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Computer Supported Cooperative Work 19

Editors:Kjeld Schmidt
Publisher:Springer Verlag
Standard No:ISSN 0925-9724
Links:springerlink.metapress.com | Table of Contents
  1. JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 1
  2. JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 2
  3. JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 3/4
  4. JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 5
  5. JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 6

JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 1

An Admissibility-Based Operational Transformation Framework for Collaborative Editing Systems BIBAKFull-Text 1-43
  Du Li; Rui Li
Operational transformation (OT) as a consistency control method has been well accepted in group editors. With OT, the users can edit any part of a shared document at any time and local responsiveness is not sensitive to communication latencies. However, established theoretical frameworks for developing OT algorithms either require transformation functions to work in all possible cases, which complicates the design of transformation functions, or include an under-formalized condition of intention preservation, which results in algorithms that cannot be formally proved and must be fixed over time to address newly discovered counterexamples. To address those limitations, this paper proposes an alternative framework, called admissibility-based transformation (ABT), that is theoretically based on formalized, provable correctness criteria and practically no longer requires transformation functions to work under all conditions. Compared to previous approaches, ABT simplifies the design and proofs of OT algorithms.
Keywords: CSCW; collaboration; consistency control; group editor; operational transformation
Mobile Technology and Action Teams: Assessing BlackBerry Use in Law Enforcement Units BIBAKFull-Text 45-71
  Susan G. Straus; Tora K. Bikson; Edward Balkovich; John F. Pane
This research explores the effectiveness of mobile wireless information and communication technologies (ICTs) for law enforcement teams. Law enforcement teams require real-time information access and rapid communication to diagnose potential threats, analyze problems, and coordinate actions. To meet these needs, two U.S. law enforcement organizations implemented pilot trials of RIM BlackBerries for approximately 650 squad members. These trials provided an opportunity to assess acceptance, use, and perceived performance benefits of the technology as well as factors influencing these outcomes. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews, user surveys, and system logs. Although the work teams and tasks were similar in the two organizations, the outcomes, while generally positive, differed markedly, with much greater acceptance and use in one organization versus the other. Results show how technical factors, functionality, and implementation processes account for these differences and illustrate how mobile wireless ICT can meet the unique needs for information access and communication in investigative action teams. We expect that these findings will generalize beyond action teams as more mobile workers in a variety of domains adopt wireless handheld technologies.
Keywords: action teams; BlackBerry; CSCW; email; information and communication technology; law enforcement; mobile technology; technology acceptance; technology adoption; wireless handheld
PeerCare: Supporting Awareness of Rhythms and Routines for Better Aging in Place BIBAKDOI 73-104
  Yann Riche; Wendy Mackay
Caring for the elderly is becoming a key challenge for society, given the shortage of trained personnel and the increased age of the population. Innovative approaches are needed to help the elderly remain at home longer and more safely, that is, to age in place. One popular strategy is to monitor the activity of the elderly: this focuses on obtaining information for caregivers rather than supporting the elderly directly. We propose an alternative, i.e. to enhance their inter-personal communication. We report the results of a user study with 14 independent elderly women and discuss the existing role that communication plays in maintaining their independence and well-being. We highlight the importance of peer support relationships, which we call PeerCare, and how awareness of each other's rhythms and routines helps them to stay in touch. We then describe the deployment of a technology probe, called markerClock, which a pair of elderly friends used to improve their awareness of each other's rhythms and routines. We conclude with a discussion of how such communication appliances enhance the awareness of rhythms and routines among elderly peers and can improve their quality of life and provide safer and more satisfying aging in place.
Keywords: aging in place; awareness; computer-mediated communication; communication appliances; elderly; markerClock; PeerCare; rhythms; routines; technology probes

JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 2

Context-Based Workplace Awareness: Concepts and Technologies for Supporting Distributed Awareness in a Hospital Environment BIBAKFull-Text 105-138
  Jakob E. Bardram; Thomas R. Hansen
Maintaining an awareness of the working context of fellow co-workers is crucial to successful cooperation in a workplace. For mobile, non co-located workers, however, such workplace awareness is hard to maintain. This paper investigates how context-aware computing can be used to facilitate workplace awareness. In particular, we present the concept of Context-Based Workplace Awareness, which is derived from years of in-depth studies of hospital work and the design of computer supported cooperative work technologies to support the distributed collaboration and coordination of clinical work within large hospitals. This empirical background has revealed that an awareness especially of the social, spatial, temporal, and activity context plays a crucial role in the coordination of work in hospitals. The paper then presents and discusses technologies designed to support context-based workplace awareness, namely the AWARE architecture, and the AwarePhone and AwareMedia applications. Based on almost 2 year' deployment of the technologies in a large hospital, the paper discuss how the four dimension of context-based workplace awareness play out in the coordination of clinical work.
Keywords: social awareness; context-aware computing; mobile computing; hospitals; pervasive healthcare; AwarePhone; AwareMedia
Technology Effects in Distributed Team Coordination -- High-Interdependency Tasks in Offshore Oil Production BIBAKDOI 139-173
  Petra Saskia Bayerl; Kristina Lauche
For highly interdependent yet location-specific tasks, distributed teams need to closely coordinate activities and processes. This field study in the upstream oil and gas industry focused on challenges in the coordination of highly interdependent tasks if teams work remotely on an ongoing basis. Based on 78 semi-structured interviews and observations over a period of 12 months, we identified coordination requirements for primary team activities, as well as effects of changing media capabilities to overcome difficulties of ongoing distribution. Implications for media requirements in the support of ongoing distributed teams are discussed.
Keywords: computer-mediated communication; coordination; distributed teams; task interdependency
The Dynamics of Material Artifacts in Collaborative Research Teams BIBAKFull-Text 175-199
  Deana D. Pennington
Boundary objects are material artifacts that mediate the relationship between two or more disparate perspectives. The concept of boundary objects has been demonstrably useful in a variety of research areas; however, the meaning and function of boundary objects is contested. At issue is the relationship between boundary objects that negotiate between perspectives and those that specify across perspectives. In this study the changing nature of boundary objects in cooperative work is related to the dynamics of evolving problem conceptualization, system design, and enactment within cooperative work settings. Design based research on material artifacts produced by an incipient cross-disciplinary research team during their efforts towards negotiating integrated conceptualizations and specifying shared research agendas is used to generate a more comprehensive model of boundary objects through the life of a project.
Keywords: eScience; eResearch; cross-disciplinary collaboration; boundary objects; material artifacts; design based research
Knowing the Way. Managing Epistemic Topologies in Virtual Game Worlds BIBAKFull-Text 201-230
  Ulrika Bennerstedt; Jonas Ivarsson
This is a study of interaction in massively multiplayer online games. The general interest concerns how action is coordinated in practices that neither rely on the use of talk-in-interaction nor on a socially present living body. For the participants studied, the use of text typed chat and the largely underexplored domain of virtual actions remain as materials on which to build consecutive action. How, then, members of these games can and do collaborate, in spite of such apparent interactional deprivation, are the topics of the study. More specifically, it addresses the situated practices that participants rely on in order to monitor other players' conduct, and through which online actions become recognizable as specific actions with implications for the further achievement of the collaborative events. The analysis shows that these practices share the common phenomenon of projections. As an interactional phenomenon, projection of the next action has been extensively studied. In relation to previous research, this study shows that the projection of a next action can be construed with resources that do not build on turns-at-talk or on actions immediately stemming from the physical body -- in the domain of online games, players project activity shifts by means of completely different resources. This observation further suggests that projection should be possible through the reconfiguration of any material, on condition that those reconfigurations and materials are recurrent aspects of some established practice.
Keywords: conversation analysis; collaborative gaming; coordinated action; ethnomethodology; gameplay; massively multiplayer online game; projectability; recognizability; virtual action

JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 3/4

Special Issue: Sociotechnical Studies of Cyberinfrastructure and e-Research: Supporting Collaborative Research

Sociotechnical Studies of Cyberinfrastructure and e-Research: Current Themes and Future Trajectories BIBAFull-Text 231-244
  David Ribes; Charlotte P. Lee
Dedication. We dedicate this special issue to the memory of Susan Leigh Star. The influence of her work, and particularly her conceptualization of infrastructure, has been very influential in this growing research area. Almost all of the articles in this special issue cite her work or cite other works that were influenced by her own. Less apparent to others but strongly present in our lives was Leigh's role as a mentor, colleague and inspiration as she fostered the study of infrastructure. Her pioneering work demonstrated the important role of embedded social scientists that subsequently created openings to the field sites and funding sources that made much of this research possible. Leigh, you will be greatly missed.
Synergizing in Cyberinfrastructure Development BIBAKDOI 245-281
  Matthew J. Bietz; Eric P. S. Baumer; Charlotte P. Lee
This paper investigates the work of creating infrastructure, using as a case study the development of cyberinfrastructure for metagenomics research. Specifically, the analysis focuses on the role of embeddedness in infrastructure development. We expand on the notion of human infrastructure to develop the concepts of synergizing, leveraging, and aligning, which denote the active processes of creating and managing relationships among people, organizations, and technologies in the creation of cyberinfrastructure. This conceptual lens highlights how embeddedness is not only an important result of infrastructure development, but is also a precursor that can act as both a constraint and a resource for development activities.
Keywords: Cyberinfrastructure; Synergizing; Leveraging; Aligning; Infrastructure; Metagenomics
The Dialectical Tensions in the Funding Infrastructure of Cyberinfrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 283-308
  Kerk F. Kee; Larry D. Browning
This article focuses on funding for cyberinfrastructure and how funding affects the cyberinfrastructure foundation laid, who completes the work, and what the outcomes of the funding are. By following qualitative procedures and thematic analysis, we identify five dialectical tensions across three difference levels of institutions, individuals, and ideologies in the funding infrastructure of cyberinfrastructure. Through an organizational communication lens, we define funding infrastructure as the communication arrangements of institutions, individuals, and ideologies that must be coordinated in order for cyberinfrastructure to be brought into existence. These communication arrangements include salient motivations of and financial compensations for individuals who engage in them. They also comprise explicit policies about funding, as well as implicit ideologies about science embedded in funding, as held by institutions involved in these communication arrangements.
Keywords: cyberinfrastructure; dialectical tensions; funding infrastructure; organizational communication
Transforming Scholarly Practice: Embedding Technological Interventions to Support the Collaborative Analysis of Ancient Texts BIBAKFull-Text 309-334
  Grace de la Flor; Marina Jirotka; Paul Luff; John Pybus; Ruth Kirkham
e-Research and Cyberinfrastructure programmes actively promote the development of new forms of scientific practice and collaboration through the implementation of tools and technologies that support distributed collaborative work across geographically dispersed research institutes and laboratories. Whilst originating in scientific domains, we have more recently seen a turn to the design of systems that support research practices in the social sciences and the arts and humanities. Attempts to embed large-scale infrastructures into research settings has brought to the fore the necessity of understanding the knowledge, skills and practices of researchers within a variety of disciplines that might use these technologies. In this paper, we consider an approach to gathering requirements through the introduction of various technical interventions for relatively short term periods so that we may come to an understanding their impact on routine work practices. Drawing upon an analysis of the detailed ways in which classicists work with digital images, we discuss the requirements for systems that support them as they collaborate in the interpretation of particular types of images. We discuss implications for the development of infrastructures to support research collaboration in this area and conclude with reflections upon the experiences gained from conducting naturalistic studies in parallel with design interventions.
Keywords: e-science; e-research; cyberinfrastructure; workplace studies; digital humanities; requirements engineering
Reconfiguring Evidence: Interacting with Digital Objects in Scientific Practice BIBAKDOI 335-354
  Marko Monteiro
This paper analyzes how scientists working in a multidisciplinary team produce scientific evidence through building and manipulating scientific visualizations. The research is based on ethnographic observations of scientists' weekly work meetings and the observation of videotapes of these meetings. The scientists observed work with advanced imaging technologies to produce a 4D computer model of heat transfer in human prostate tissues. The idea of 'digital objects' is proposed in order to conceptually locate their 'materiality', observed in the practices of producing evidence through the handling of three-dimensional renderings of data. The manipulation of digital objects seeks to establish meaningful differences between parameters of interest, both when building and when analyzing them. These digital objects are dealt with as part of the empirical evidence used in the course of practices of visualizing and modeling natural phenomena. This process, which can be contextualized historically in terms of the development of imaging technologies, becomes crucial in understanding what counts as empirical evidence in current scientific work.
Keywords: cyberinfrastructures; ethnography; modeling; prostate cancer; representation in science; scientific visualization; STS
Reusing Scientific Data: How Earthquake Engineering Researchers Assess the Reusability of Colleagues' Data BIBAKFull-Text 355-375
  Ixchel M. Faniel; Trond E. Jacobsen
Investments in cyberinfrastructure and e-Science initiatives are motivated by the desire to accelerate scientific discovery. Always viewed as a foundation of science, data sharing is appropriately seen as critical to the success of such initiatives, but new technologies supporting increasingly data-intensive and collaborative science raise significant challenges and opportunities. Overcoming the technical and social challenges to broader data sharing is a common and important research objective, but increasing the supply and accessibility of scientific data is no guarantee data will be applied by scientists. Before reusing data created by others, scientists need to assess the data's relevance, they seek confidence the data can be understood, and they must trust the data. Using interview data from earthquake engineering researchers affiliated with the George E. Brown, Jr. Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES), we examine how these scientists assess the reusability of colleagues' experimental data for model validation.
Keywords: data reuse; data sharing; data quality; trust; scientific data collections; data repositories; e-Science; cyberinfrastructure
Infrastructure Time: Long-term Matters in Collaborative Development BIBAKDOI 377-415
  Helena Karasti; Karen S. Baker; Florence Millerand
This paper addresses the collaborative development of information infrastructure for supporting data-rich scientific collaboration. Studying infrastructure development empirically not only in terms of spatial issues but also, and equally importantly, temporal ones, we illustrate how the long-term matters. Our case is about the collaborative development of a metadata standard for an ecological research domain. It is a complex example where standards are recognized as one element of infrastructure and standard-making efforts include integration of semantic work and software tools development. With a focus on the temporal scales of short-term and long-term, we analyze the practices and views of the main parties involved in the development of the standard. Our contributions are three-fold: 1) extension of the notion of infrastructure to more explicitly include the temporal dimension; 2) identification of two distinct temporal orientations in information infrastructure development work, namely 'project time' and 'infrastructure time', and 3) association of related development orientations, particularly 'continuing design' as a development orientation that recognizes 'infrastructure time'. We conclude by highlighting the need to enrich understandings of temporality in CSCW, particularly towards longer time scales and more diversified temporal hybrids in collaborative infrastructure development. This work draws attention to the manifold ramifications that 'infrastructure time', as an example of more extended temporal scales, suggests for CSCW and e-Research infrastructures.
Keywords: Collaborative information infrastructure development; Continuing design; Cyberinfrastructure, e-Infrastructure, e-Research, e-Science; Development orientation; Long-Term Ecological Research; Metadata standard; Standard-making; Temporal orientation; Temporal scale; Time research

JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 5


Susan Leigh Star -- in memoriam BIBDOI 417
  Kjeld Schmidt
Collaboration on Social Network Sites: Amateurs, Professionals and Celebrities BIBAKFull-Text 419-455
  Bernd Ploderer; Steve Howard; Peter Thomas
Amateurs are found in arts, sports, or entertainment, where they are linked with professional counterparts and inspired by celebrities. Despite the growing number of CSCW studies in amateur and professional domains, little is known about how technologies facilitate collaboration between these groups. Drawing from a 1.5-year field study in the domain of bodybuilding, this paper describes the collaboration between and within amateurs, professionals, and celebrities on social network sites. Social network sites help individuals to improve their performance in competitions, extend their support network, and gain recognition for their achievements. The findings show that amateurs benefit the most from online collaboration, whereas collaboration shifts from social network sites to offline settings as individuals develop further in their professional careers. This shift from online to offline settings constitutes a novel finding, which extends previous work on social network sites that has looked at groups of amateurs and professionals in isolation. As a contribution to practice, we highlight design factors that address this shift to offline settings and foster collaboration between and within groups.
Keywords: amateurs; bodybuilding; career; celebrities; collaboration; community; leisure; passion; professionals; social network sites
Knowledge Management in Locating the Patient in an Emergency Medical Service in Italy BIBAKFull-Text 457-481
  Fabio Dovigo; Ilaria Redaelli
This study examines an Emergency Medical Service in order to analyze the composite set of activities and instruments directed at locating the patient. The good management of information about the location of the emergency is highly relevant for a reliable rescue service, but this information depends on knowledge of the territory that is socially distributed between EMS operators and callers. Accordingly, the decision-making process often has to go beyond the emergency service protocols, engaging the operator in undertaking an open negotiation in order to transform the caller's role from layman to "co-worker". The patient's location turns out to be an emerging phenomenon, collaborative work based on knowledge management involving two communities -- the callers and the EMS operators -- that overlap partially. Drawing examples from emergency calls, the study analyzes the practice of locating a patient as a complex and multi-layered process, highlighting the role played by new and old technologies (the information system and the paper maps) in this activity. We argue that CSCW technologies enable the blended use of different kinds of instruments and support an original interconnection between the professional localization systems and the public's way of defining a position.
Keywords: control room; emergency calls; ethnography; ethnomethodology; knowledge management; technology blending
Collaboration Within Different Settings: A Study of Co-located and Distributed Multidisciplinary Medical Team Meetings BIBAKFull-Text 483-513
  Toni Robertson; Jane Li; Kenton O'Hara; Susan Hansen
This paper reports our findings from a study of multidisciplinary team meetings for the treatment and ongoing management of breast cancer patients. The focus of the fieldwork was the meetings within and between a large group of multidisciplinary health professionals from two hospitals in Sydney, a large public teaching hospital and a much smaller private hospital. The paper examines the common work of the meetings and the variation within and between local practices and sites in the doing of this work, both in the local settings of each hospital and in the video-mediated setting when the local meetings are linked. Variations in the physical setup of the meetings, the presentation of the patient cases and the preparation of images used in patient discussion are identified, traced to their various sources and examined within their particular sociotechnical context. This is followed by a discussion of how local variation contributed to the particular challenges of the video-mediated meetings as experienced by the participants and how they might be addressed. Our motivations are to contribute both to the growing case studies of multidisciplinary team meetings within healthcare settings and to the important work being done to generate conceptual and design approaches that can support the development and successful use of CSCW technologies across highly variable local settings.
Keywords: cooperative work practices; health care; health informatics; local practices; local variation; multidiscipinary team meetings; settings for collaboration; shared images; video-mediated meetings

Book Review

My Life as a Night Elf Priest. An Anthropological Account of World of Warcraft. Bonnie Nardi 2010. The University of Michigan Press. (pp. 236). ISBN 978-0-472-02671-5 BIBDOI 515-518
  Stefano De Paoli

JCSCW 2010 Volume 19 Issue 6

Special Issue: Information Infrastructures for Healthcare

Information Infrastructures for Health Care: Connecting Practices Across Institutional and Professional Boundaries BIBDOI 519-520
  Jørgen P. Bansler; Finn Kensing
e-Infrastructures: How Do We Know and Understand Them? Strategic Ethnography and the Biography of Artefacts BIBAKFull-Text 521-556
  Neil Pollock; Robin Williams
In health research and services, and in many other domains, we note the emergence of large-scale information systems intended for long-term use with multiple users and uses. These e-infrastructures are becoming more widespread and pervasive and, by enabling effective sharing of information and coordination of activities between diverse, dispersed groups, are expected to transform knowledge-based work. Social scientists have sought to analyse the significance of these systems and the processes by which they are created. Much current attention has been drawn to the often-problematic experience of those attempting to establish them. By contrast, this paper is inspired by concerns about the theoretical and methodological weakness of many studies of technology and work organisation -- particularly the dominance of relatively short-term, often single site studies of technology implementation. These weaknesses are particularly acute in relation to the analysis of infrastructural technologies. We explore the relevance to such analysis of recent developments in what we call the Biography of Artefacts (BoA) perspective -- which emphasises the value of strategic ethnography: theoretically-informed, multi-site and longitudinal studies: We seek to draw insights here from a programme of empirical research into the long-term evolution of corporate e-infrastructures (reflected in current Enterprise Resource Planning systems) and review some new conceptual tools arising from recent research into e-Infrastructures (e-Is). These are particularly relevant to understanding the current and ongoing difficulties encountered in attempts to develop large-scale Health Infrastructures.
Keywords: e-infrastructures; Biography of artefacts (BoA) approach; Strategic ethnography; Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems; Health infrastructures
The Role of Integration in Health-Based Information Infrastructures BIBAKDOI 557-584
  Gunnar Ellingsen; Kristoffer Røed
In this paper, we contribute with empirical insight into the complexity of establishing and sustaining integration between different information infrastructures in health care. An overall concern is to elaborate on how, despite many obstacles, the integration effort moves forward. We see this as a collective achievement, where users have an essential role in terms of mobilizing and coordinating the other actors as well as maintaining the integration. These activities are not limited to a specific project; they emerge from and are part of day-to-day practice. Empirically, we focus on a large integration initiative between the laboratory systems at the University Hospital of Northern Norway and the electronic patient records used by general practitioners in the Northern health region. Together with the vendor, Well Diagnostics, the hospital initiated a project aimed at establishing a new laboratory requisition system that enabled GPs to send requisitions electronically to the hospital laboratories. Theoretically, we draw on the concept of information infrastructures, and supplement this with Actor Network Theory.
Keywords: integration; information infrastructures; healthcare; laboratory requisitions; negotiation; transformation; users
Prescriptions, X-rays and Grocery Lists. Designing a Personal Health Record to Support (The Invisible Work Of) Health Information Management in the Household BIBAKFull-Text 585-613
  Enrico Maria Piras; Alberto Zanutto
For many years the introduction of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in medical practice has been considered the best way to provide efficient document sharing among different organizational settings. The actual results of these technologies, though, do not seem to have matched expectations. The issue of document sharing has been lately readdressed by proposing the creation of patient-controlled information and communication technologies, Personal Health Records (PHRs), providing laypeople the tools to access, manage and share their health information electronically by connecting to the existing EHRs and other institutional information systems. In this scenario, patients are called to play a major role in coordinating healthcare professionals by providing them the information they need. From a CSCW perspective the PHR offers an interesting case to reflect on cooperative work that requires new infrastructures that intersect organizational settings and extend into domestic environments. So far though, there has not been enough research to shed light on the self-care activities carried out in the households and how these integrate with the organizational practices of doctors and institutions. Our analyses show that health record keeping is an articulation work necessary for meetings with doctors to proceed smoothly. To do so, people integrate the information contained in medical documents by working on them with annotations, underlinings and integrations. Moreover, we show that health record keeping is a spatialized activity that is inextricably interwoven with the everyday routine and objects. Finally, we provide a tentative classification of three different strategies laypeople use to sort out health records: minimum effort, adaptive, networking.
Keywords: Personal health record; Healthcare infrastructures; Health record management; Invisible work; Self-care; Qualitative research; Electronic health record
Infrastructuring and Ordering Devices in Health Care: Medication Plans and Practices on a Hospital Ward BIBAKDOI 615-637
  Claus Bossen; Randi Markussen
In this paper, we analyse physicians' and nurses' practices of prescribing and administering medication through the use of paper-based, and digitalized medication plans. Our point of departure is an ethnographic study of the implications of upgrading an electronic medication module (EMM) that is part of an electronic health record (EHR), carried out at an endocrinology department. The upgrade led to a temporary breakdown of the EMM, and a return to paper-based medication plans. The breakdown made visible and noticeable the taken-for-granted capabilities of medication plans in their paper-based and digital versions, and the distribution of functionalities between medication plans and clinicians. We see the case as an opportunity to analyse infrastructuring in health care, the process by which medical practices and artefacts become parts of social and technological networks with longer reaches and more channels through which coordination among distributed actors is enabled and formed. In this case, infrastructuring means an extended scope and intensity of the coordinative capabilities of medication plans, and an increased vulnerability to, and dependency on events outside the immediate loci of interaction. We particularly note the capacity of the EMM to facilitate different kinds of ordering of information and practices, and propose the conceptualizing of such digitalized artefacts as 'ordering devices'. Ordering devices order information, stipulate action, and coordinate interaction across and within social worlds, and achieve this through the flexible support of different kinds of ordering.
Keywords: computerized physician order entry; electronic patient records; electronic medication module; ethnography; health care; hospitals; information infrastructures; infrastructuring; ordering; ordering devices