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JCSCW Tables of Contents: 0102030405060708091011121314151617

Computer Supported Cooperative Work 7

Editors:Kjeld Schmidt
Publisher:Kluwer Academic Publishing
Standard No:ISSN 0925-9724
Links:www.wkap.nl | Table of Contents
  1. JCSCW 1998 Volume 7 Issue 1/2
  2. JCSCW 1998 Volume 7 Issue 3/4

JCSCW 1998 Volume 7 Issue 1/2

Interaction and Collaboration in MUDs

Introduction: The State of Play BIB 1-7
  Paul Dourish
Moving Practice: From Classrooms to MOO Rooms BIBAK 9-45
  Vicki O'Day; Daniel Bobrow; Kimberly Bobrow; Mark Shirley; Billie Hughes; Jim Walters
We discuss design considerations in moving practice through the boundary from physical to virtual places. Although the examples are grounded in a school environment, we believe that the design tradeoffs apply to any networked collaborative space. The context for discussion is Pueblo, a MOO-based, cross-generation network learning community centered around a K-6 elementary school. The development of practice in Pueblo draws upon teachers' and students' experience with semi-structured classroom participation frameworks -- informal structures of social interaction which foster certain ways of thinking, doing, and learning through guided activities and conversations. We have translated several familiar frameworks into the Pueblo setting, using the classroom versions as models to be adapted and transformed as they are aligned with the affordances of the MOO. We identify four design dimensions that have emerged as particularly interesting and important in this process: audience, asynchrony and synchrony, attention and awareness, and prompts for reflection. We illustrate design choices in each dimension using several of the participation frameworks that have been translated into Pueblo. We discuss the relation between MOO affordances and design choices and provide examples of successful and unsuccessful alignment between them.
Keywords: Classroom practice, Learning community, MUD, MOO, Network community
Community Support for Constructionist Learning BIBAK 47-86
  Amy Bruckman
MOOSE Crossing is a text-based virtual reality environment (or "MUD") designed to be a constructionist learning environment for children ages eight to thirteen. The constructionist philosophy of education argues that learning through designing and constructing personally meaningful projects is better than learning by being told. Children on MOOSE Crossing learn computer programming and improve their reading and writing by working on self-selected projects in a self-motivated, peer-supported fashion. In experience with over 180 children and 90 adults using the system since October 1995, we have found that the community provides essential support for the children's learning experiences. The community provides role models; situated, ubiquitous project models; emotional support to overcome technophobia; technical support; and an appreciative audience for completed work. This paper examines the nature of that support in detail, and argues that community support for learning is an essential element in collaborative work and learning on the Internet.
Keywords: Collaboration, Learning, CSCL, MUDs, Community, Constructionism
Computing, Social Activity, and Entertainment: A Field Study of a Game MUD BIBAK 87-122
  Jack Muramatsu; Mark S. Ackerman
Are game and entertainment systems different than work-oriented systems? What drives the user's experience in a collaborative game? To answer these questions, we performed a participant-observation study of a combat MUD, a game similar to Dungeons and Dragons. Our interest is in how this social world is arranged and managed (rather than, for example, in how participants form or display individual identities). The study explores the social arrangements and activities that give meaning and structure to the participants. We found that conflict and cooperation were the dominant social activities on this MUD, much more so than sociability. The game's management played a critical function in maintaining and promoting these activities. Moreover, novelty and entertainment were important for the design of both the system features and the sociality itself.
Keywords: Amusement, Combat MUDs, CSCW, Entertainment, Games, MUDs, Participant-observation, Play, Social worlds, System design
Network Communities: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed... BIBAK 123-156
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Vicki L. O'Day; Annette Adler; Mizuko Ito
Collaboration has long been of considerable interest to both designers and researchers in the CHI and CSCW communities. This paper contributes to this discussion by proposing the concept of network communities as a new genre of collaboration for this discussion. Network communities are robust and persistent communities based on a sense of locality that spans both the virtual and physical worlds of their users. They are a technosocial construct that requires understanding of both the technology and the sociality embodying them. We consider several familiar systems as well as historical antecedents to describe the affordances these systems offer their community of users. Based on our own experience as designers, users and researchers of a variety of network communities, we extend this initial design space along three dimensions: the boundary negotiations between real and virtual worlds, support for social rhythms and the emergence and development of community. Finally we offer implications for designers, researchers and community members based on our findings.
Keywords: Affordance, Identity, Media space, MOOs, MUDs, Network community, Technosociality

JCSCW 1998 Volume 7 Issue 3/4

Participatory Design

Preface BIB 163-165
  Jeanette Blomberg; Finn Kensing
Participatory Design: Issues and Concerns BIBAK 167-185
  Finn Kensing; Jeanette Blomberg
We characterize Participatory Design (PD) as a maturing area of research and as an evolving practice among design professionals. Although PD has been applied outside of technology design, here we focus on PD in relation to the introduction of computer-based systems at work. We discuss three main issues addressed by PD researchers; the politics of design; the nature of participation; and method, tools and techniques for participation. We also report on the conditions for the transfer of "PD results" to workers, user groups, and design professionals that have characterized PD over time and across geopolitical terrains. The topic of the sustainability of PD within an organizational context is also considered. The article concludes with a discussion of common issues explored within PD and CSCW and frames directions for a continuing dialogue between researchers and practitioners from the two fields. The article draws on a review of PD and CSCW literatures as well as on our own research and practical experiences.
Keywords: CSCW, Design professionals, Participatory design, Politics of design, Sustainability
When Survival is an Issue: PD in Support of Landscape Architecture BIBAK 187-203
  Preben Holst Mogensen; Dan Shapiro
This paper reports on an ongoing project involving researchers from Lancaster University and a branch of a landscape architecture firm. It explores some of the possibilities pursued in the project as well as the conditions they encountered. Specifically, it describes the introduction of support for graphic work and electronic communication in a context characterised by continuous financial pressure, downsizing, and the need for short term gains. It seeks to contribute to the accumulation of experience within the participatory design community by reporting on an ongoing project as regards its objectives in relationship to its context.
Keywords: Design, Possibilities, Conditions, Landscape architecture, Participatory design
Shoppers and Tailors: Participative Practices in Small Australian Design Companies BIBAK 205-221
  Toni Robertson
The focus of this paper is the relations between the work practices and technology needs of small Australian design companies and the discourses of Participatory Design. Because these companies use off-the-shelf technology, these relations are shaped not just by factors specific to company size, but also by the geographic and cultural separation between the situation of use and the situation of design. User participation focuses on shopping decisions, and the fitting of purchased technology to the local work situation. While many aspects of job design can be extremely flexible within small companies, participation in the design of computer systems is bounded by the available products and the options for continuing design-in-use that are embedded within them. The paper starts from the recognition that participative practices are important in the design of any job. From this perspective the discourses of Participatory Design that are relevant to small companies are those that support the participative design of work, irrespective of the national or industrial location of the people involved.
Keywords: Participative practices, Participatory design, Small companies, Shopping, Tailoring, Visual designers, Workplace democracy
CAVEAT Exemplar: Participatory Design in a Non-Profit Volunteer Organisation BIBAK 223-241
  Brenda McPhail; Terry Costantino; David Bruckmann; Ross Barclay; Andrew Clement
This paper reports a university course-based case study undertaken with a volunteer organisation. Our goals were to explore the use of participatory design in a non-profit volunteer setting; to reflect on the experience of learning and applying participatory methodologies; and to create a prototype, using off-the-shelf database software, that could become a sustainable organisational information system. We found system design methodologies that stress cooperation and consensus especially appropriate when working with volunteers, who expect control over their work in exchange for their time and effort. The Future Workshop was particularly valuable in developing group insight into work and consensus around system priorities. The study resulted in a prototype which has evolved, through in-house refinement, into a working system.
Keywords: Case study, Volunteer organisation, Off-the-shelf software, PD and education
Participatory Design at a Radio Station BIBAK 243-271
  Finn Kensing; Jesper Simonsen; Keld Bødker
We address design of computer support for work and its coordination at the Danish Broadcasting Corporation. We propose design solutions based upon participatory design techniques and ethnographically inspired analysis within a full scale design project. The project exemplifies an ambitious, yet realistic, design practice, that provides a sound basis for organisational decision making and for technical and organizational development and implementation. We focus on cooperative aspects within and among the editorial units, and between editorial units and the editorial board. We discuss technical and organisational aspects of the design, seen in light of recent CSCW concepts, including coordination and computational coordination mechanisms, technologies of accountability, and workflow from within and without.
Keywords: Participatory design, Ethnography, Coordination, Coordination mechanisms, Organisational context
Participatory Design in Consulting BIBAK 273-289
  Johannes Gartner
This article addresses the use of participatory design (PD) techniques in non-research projects from the perspective of consulting. The central categories for analyzing the course of action and the relationship of actors are risks perceived by consultants, customers, and clients. The basis of this article is a large number of consulting projects where participatory techniques were used. Overall it seems feasible to use PD in consulting. Still using PD, especially as a consultant in systems-design, has to be considered risky for both consultants and customers. Therefore techniques that reduce risks are crucial. Several such techniques are well known (steering committee, milestones, prototyping). Some additional, more PD-specific techniques are discussed. The analysis further led to the issues of organizing the technical process and the group process. Both processes are important when using PD in consulting. The technical process assumes responsibility and thereby requires involvement in order to secure contracts. At the same time this conflicts with the group process where neutrality is needed. Therefore, separation of facilitation from design by working in teams of two is considered. This also supports the expertise needed for such projects as it is sometimes difficult to find individuals with both qualifications.
Keywords: Participatory design, Consulting, Systems development
User Advocacy in Participatory Design: Designers' Experiences with a New Communication Channel BIBAK 291-313
  Peter Mambrey; Gloria Mark; Uta Pankoke-Babatz
We report on participatory design activities within the PoliTeam project, a large project which introduces groupware into the German government. Working with a representative small group of users in different worksites, an existing system was adapted to user and organizational needs, with the plan to improve and expand the system to a large scale. We integrated new approaches of user advocacy and osmosis with an evolutionary cycling process. User advocates and osmosis were techniques used to explore the users' needs during actual system use. These techniques were incorporated into the system development. In this paper, we present experiences with this approach and reflect on its impact on the design process from the designers' point of view.
Keywords: System design, Participatory design, User advocacy, Evolutionary system design
Network Community Design: A Social-Technical Design Circle BIBAK 315-337
  Vicki L. O'Day; Daniel G. Bobrow; Mark Shirley
Network communities are especially interesting and useful settings in which to look closely at the co-evolution of technology and social practice, to begin to understand how to explore the full space of design options and implications. In a network community we have a magnified view of the interactions between social practice and technical mechanisms, since boundaries between designers and users are blurred and co-evolution here is unusually responsive to user experience. This paper is a reflection on how we have worked with social and technical design elements in Pueblo, a school-centered network community supported by a MOO (an Internet-accessible, text-based virtual world). Four examples from Pueblo illustrate different ways of exploring the design space. The examples show how designers can rely on social practice to simplify a technical implementation, how they can design technical mechanisms to work toward a desirable social goal, how similar technical implementations can have different social effects, and how social and technical mechanisms co-evolve. We point to complexities of the design process and emphasize the contributions of mediators in addressing communication breakdowns among a diverse group of designers.
Keywords: Network community, MOO, MUD, Learning community, CSCW design, Work practice, Participatory design, Sociotechnical systems, Computer supported cooperative learning, CSCL
Community Participation in Health Informatics in Africa: An Experiment in Tripartite Partnership in Ile-Ife, Nigeria BIBAK 339-358
  Mikko Korpela; H. A. Soriyan; K. C. Olufokunbi; A. A. Onayade; Anita Davies-Adetugbo; Duro Adesanmi
Participatory Design has mainly been practiced in Europe and North America. Our seven-year experience in Nigeria suggests that user participation is also a must in developing countries. However, the scope of participation needs to be expanded. For instance, in health informatics the communities served by the health facility in question need to be involved along with computer professionals and health providers. This paper presents the results of an experiment in tripartite partnership in systems design for Primary Health Care by designers, users/providers, and community representatives in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The experience was extremely encouraging.
Keywords: Africa, Communities, Health information systems, Participation