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JCSCW Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213

Computer Supported Cooperative Work 3

Editors:Kjeld Schmidt
Publisher:Kluwer Academic Publishing
Standard No:ISSN 0925-9724
Links:www.wkap.nl | Table of Contents
  1. JCSCW 1994 Volume 3 Issue 1
  2. JCSCW 1994 Volume 3 Issue 2
  3. JCSCW 1994 Volume 3 Issue 3/4

JCSCW 1994 Volume 3 Issue 1

Alleviating convergence problems in Group Support Systems BIBAFull-Text 1-28
  Mark Pendergast; Stephen C. Hayne
Not all Group Support Systems are identical, as is demonstrated by their software implementations. We discuss two existing implementations of group support tools and the process models underlying them. We demonstrate that fundamental to both processes is the merging or integration of individual data. Based on this and other empirical research, the Shared Context Model (SCM) of cooperative work is adopted and we show that it supports existing processes and others. We expect that groups will find merging their work easier with the SCM. This model is presented and embedded in the architecture and implementation of four group tools. Because these tools are destined to be used by dispersed groups, synchronously or asynchronously, an object-based communication and control mechanism is incorporated. Finally, as graphics and multi-tasking have been shown to be increasingly important, the tools are implemented in Microsoft Windows for personal computers attached to local area networks.
Commentaries and a response in the Suchman-Winograd debate BIBFull-Text 29-29
Accountability and discipline: A comment on Suchman and Winograd BIBFull-Text 31-35
  Philip E. Agre
Commentary on Suchman article and Winograd response BIBFull-Text 37-38
  Thomas W. Malone
What's wrong with speech-act theory BIBFull-Text 39-42
  Graham Button
Radicalism, beliefs and hidden agendas BIBFull-Text 43-46
  R. H. R. Harper
A comment on Lucy Suchman's "do categories have politics?" BIBFull-Text 47-50
  D. W. Randall
SimLanguage BIBFull-Text 51-54
  John Leslie King
Ethnography and design BIBFull-Text 55-59
  Jonathan Grudin; Rebecca E. Grinter
Can speech acts walk the talk? BIBFull-Text 61-64
  Bill Curtis
On making explicit BIBFull-Text 65-68
  Michael Lynch
Categories, debates and religion wars BIBFull-Text 69-72
  Giorgio de Michelis
Categories: Concept, content, and context BIBFull-Text 73-78
  Wanda J. Orlikowski
"Do Winograd and Flores have politics?" BIBFull-Text 79-83
  David Bogen
Speech acts and voices: Response to Winograd et al. BIBFull-Text 85-95
  Lucy Suchman

JCSCW 1994 Volume 3 Issue 2

Cooperative work in mission operations: Analysis and implications for computer support BIBAFull-Text 103-145
  Patricia M. Jones
This paper describes cooperative work in real-time flight operations in the SAMPEX Mission Operations Room at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This domain is an example of distributed supervisory control, where a team of human operators supervises a dynamic, complex, highly automated system. Such operational environments differ in important ways from artifact-centered collaboration (e.g., collaborative drawing, writing, design). This paper explores those differences and also articulates the need for activity management tools for dynamic control environments. Candidate models from the human-machine systems engineering literature are proposed to provide the underlying structure for such tools.
Unpacking collaboration: the interactional organisation of trading in a city dealing room BIBAFull-Text 147-165
  Christian Heath; Marina Jirotka; Paul Luff; Jon Hindmarsh
It is has been widely recognised that whilst CSCW has led to a number of impressive technological developments, examples of successful applications remain few. In part, this may be due to our relative ignorance of the organisation of real world, cooperative activity. Focusing on share trading in a securities house in the City of London, we explore the interactional organisation of particular tasks and the ways in which dealers interweave individual and collaborative activity. These observations suggest ways in which we might reconsider a number of central concepts in CSCW and begin. to draw design implications from naturalistic studies of work and interaction.
From high tech to human tech: Empowerment, measurement, and social studies of computing BIBAFull-Text 167-195
  Philip E. Agre
"Empowerment" has become a pervasive term of art in business practice, particularly in the United States. The term traces its roots to the organizing models evolved by populist social movements, but within business discourse it refers to an emerging organizational philosophy that largely replaces conventional hierarchies with nominally autonomous teams. Proponents of empowerment frequently cite information technology as a crucial enabler of this shift without, however, spelling out fully the logic of the connection. A reconstruction of this logic provides evidence for the emergence of a novel vision of work-discipline, the empowerment and measurement regime. This regime is discussed in relation to market dynamics, Taylorism, and research on the social organization of information technology and its use.
Cola: A lightweight platform for CSCW BIBAFull-Text 197-224
  Jonathan Trevor; Tom Rodden; Gordon Blair
Despite the reliance of cooperative applications on the facilities provided by distributed systems, little consideration is given by these systems to the support of cooperative work. This paper examines the provision of appropriate mechanisms to represent cooperative work within a distributed platform. Based upon a examination of existing models of cooperative activity and the experiences of their use, a lightweight model of activities is suggested as the basis for the supporting platform. Rather than concentrate on the exchange of information, this lightweight model focus on the mechanisms for sharing of objects. This focus enables a clear separation between the mechanisms provided by the distributed platform and the policy which is the responsibility of the cooperative applications.

JCSCW 1994 Volume 3 Issue 3/4

Collaborative writing and technological change: Implications for writing practice and system design BIBFull-Text 225-228
  Mike Sharples; Bertram C. Bruce
The interfunctionality of talk and text BIBAFull-Text 229-246
  Lydia Plowman
Understanding more about how socially distributed cognition operates within a group of writers has implications for the design of technologies to support collaborative writing. This paper presents a chronology of a writing episode in which the communicative practices of collaborating writers and the representations they use to mediate cognition are investigated. The talk generated by the participants discussing how to write an essay provides data for illuminating the group's interactions and is a focus for investigating how this talk becomes metamorphosed into writing. The analysis charts the evolution of a co-authored text through a cycle of activity which is both cognitive and social in orientation and demonstrates the interfunctionality of talk and text for the processes involved in collaborative writing. This suggests that computer systems which support only text-based communication could limit the ways in which talk acts as a mediator for cognition and thus constrain important aspects of collaborative writing.
Collaborative writing in multiple discourse contexts BIBAFull-Text 247-269
  Sibylle Gruber; Joy Kreeft Peyton; Bertram C. Bruce
Research in computer-supported writing has traditionally compared electronic communication with oral, face-to-face communication to identify the benefits and weaknesses of each, as if they entailed dichotomous choices. In this article, we challenge that view and argue instead that any form of communication and its educational usefulness is shaped by the situation in which it is used, the backgrounds and goals of the participants, the institutional and technological setup, and the intended purpose of the medium. Three modes of communication in one graduate course are examined -- oral discussion, synchronous written discussion on a local area network, and asynchronous written postings on an email list set up for the class. It was found that patterns of participation, topic introduction, and topic development differed across the three communication modes, but that the three were interwoven with each other and embedded within the larger classroom context and forms of knowledge creation in the class. Thus, rather than examining different communication media separately, researchers interested in understanding computer-supported collaborative writing need to look at how different media are used to create a "meta-medium," which is established by the discourse community involved.
Accommodating mixed sensory/modal preferences in collaborative writing systems BIBAFull-Text 271-295
  David S. Kaufer; Christine M. Neuwirth; Ravinder Chandhok; James Morris
Writers use the abstractions of words to create meaning. But the activity of writing spans multiple concrete senses and modes. Technology-enhanced collaborative writing systems need to be sensitive to the preferred senses and modes of information in which writing teams want to work. Some preferences seem rooted in the senses (seeing vs. motor coordination); others seem based in the preferred modality of inputting or outputting information (speaking vs. writing; listening vs. reading). Still others seem based in the role of the writer on the team (author or commenter). We offer a framework for understanding some of these preferences and a prototype editor (the Prep Editor) we have been using to study them empirically.
Collaborative document annotation using electronic mail BIBAFull-Text 297-325
  Dan Diaper; Martin Beer
The primary purpose of this paper is to describe an approach to software development, the small scale approach, that is particularly appropriate for groupware that has a target user population that is truly global. Many of the reasons why the small scale approach is appropriate are described.
Comparative study on the effects of groupware and conventional technologies on the efficiency of collaborative writing BIBAFull-Text 327-357
  Antonios Michailidis; Roy Rada
In this paper the concept of efficiency in collaborative writing is considered in detail and a definition of efficiency is proposed. The definition of efficiency leads to the development of a research framework that delineates five operational measures of efficiency: (a) writing activities efficiency, (b) coordination efficiency, (c) quality of output, (d) absence of breakdowns, and (e) satisfaction with group performance. A comparative study is subsequently presented on the effects that groupware and conventional technologies have on the efficiency of collaborative writing. The hypothesis is advanced that groupware can improve the efficiency of collaborative writing over conventional technologies. The results seem to support the hypothesis and indicate that (a) the groupware system examined in this study (MUCH system) offers efficiency benefits in terms of coordination, (b) MUCH users tend to face communication breakdowns while users of conventional technologies tend to face task-related breakdowns, (c) the documents produced with MUCH are of higher content quality, more coherent, and of higher rhetorical effectiveness than the documents produced with conventional technologies, and (d) the comparison of MUCH with conventional technologies shows no significant difference in terms of their effects on group performance satisfaction.
Design issues and model for a distributed multi-user editor BIBAFull-Text 359-378
  Michael Koch
The collaborative editing of documents is a very common task nowadays. Writing groups are often distributed over many locations because of the globalization of organizations and the increasing interdisciplinarity of tasks. Since many writers already use computers for their jobs, providing computer support for the collaborative writing process has been identified as an important goal. Numerous tools for computer supported collaborative writing have already emerged but in most cases have not come into widespread usage. In this article the requirements of users for a collaborative editor are analyzed. Providing as much flexibility as possible to the users is identified as a basic need. According to the requirements summary a model for a group editing environment is presented. The model covers cooperative work in local and wide area networks using synchronous and asynchronous cooperation. Finally, an application of the model is presented in the form of the multi-user editing environment Iris.
Identification and use of guidelines for the design of computer supported collaborative writing tools BIBAFull-Text 379-404
  Steve Jones
As groupware and workflow technologies become widely accepted, it is important to identify and clarify best practice at all stages of the development of those systems. One approach to the promulgation of best practice is to develop clear and effective guidelines for application in system development.