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Interacting with Computers 26

Editors:Dianne Murray
Publisher:Oxford University Press
Standard No:ISSN 0953-5438
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IWC 2014-01 Volume 26 Issue 1
  2. IWC 2014-03 Volume 26 Issue 2
  3. IWC 2014-05 Volume 26 Issue 3
  4. IWC 2014-07 Volume 26 Issue 4
  5. IWC 2014-09 Volume 26 Issue 5
  6. IWC 2014-11 Volume 26 Issue 6

IWC 2014-01 Volume 26 Issue 1

A Study of Gamer Experience and Virtual World Behaviour BIBAFull-Text 1-11
  Thomas Chesney; Swee-Hoon Chuah; Robert Hoffmann; Wendy Hui; Jeremy Larner
This paper reports a study which examined the impact of computer game experience on behaviour observed inside a virtual world. A social networking world was used, which was owned and run by the research team and a dataset capturing the behaviour of 195 subjects was extracted from the world's event logs. Four broad areas were analysed: communication, movement, avatar creation and world customization. Highly significant differences were found in text communication. Less significant differences were found in movement and avatar creation, and none were found in the customization of the world.
Playing with Nonverbal Communication: Using Grasp and Facial Direction to Create Adaptive Interaction in a Game BIBAFull-Text 12-26
  Ditte Hvas Mortensen; Klaus B. Bærentsen
We examine the use of automatic adaptation to the user's grasp and facial direction in interaction with a game. Two experimental studies were conducted. The first experiment identified patterns in grasp and facial direction that can be used as objective indicators of intentions and attention. The results indicate that participants grasp a remote control according to the intended use and turn their face towards the object with which they intend to interact. The amount of time during which the participants turned their faces towards the object was influenced by the available visual information. In the second experiment, we used the patterns identified in Experiment 1 to create a game that adapted to grasp and facial direction. We compared two adaptive games with a purely command-based game. The results show that the participants in the adaptive versions of the game were significantly faster and made fewer errors but did not rate their feeling of control as higher, nor did they have a more positive affective experience.
Designing for Self-Reflection on Values for Improved Life Decision BIBAFull-Text 27-45
  Alina Huldtgren; Pascal Wiggers; Catholijn M. Jonker
Taking important life decisions is a complex task leading to long-lasting consequences. It requires balancing one's own needs and those of other stakeholders. Current digital decision support focuses little on the human decision-making capabilities. Systems are designed as analytic tools to find optimal outcomes assuming stable and known preferences. However, insights from psychology and behavioral decision research show that people construct preferences during an adaptive decision-making process and are less rational than assumed by current tools. It has been suggested that a stronger focus on personal values could lead to improved decision making, but reflection on values is difficult for people. This paper presents a first exploration of how to aid people in reflecting on their values. It serves as a starting point to develop digital value-focused decision support tools. We describe the design of a probe for value reflection and several studies with experts and end-users that led to a first set of considerations for such tools.
Dynamic Anamorphosis as a Special, Computer-Generated User Interface BIBAFull-Text 46-62
  Robert Ravnik; Borut Batagelj; Bojan Kverh; Franc Solina
A classical or static anamorphic image requires a specific, usually a highly oblique view direction, from which the observer can see the anamorphosis in its correct form. This paper explains dynamic anamorphosis which adapts itself to the changing position of the observer so that wherever the observer moves, he sees the same undeformed image. This dynamic changing of the anamorphic deformation in concert with the movement of the observer requires from the system to track the 3D position of the observer's eyes and the re-computation of the anamorphic deformation in real time. This is achieved using computer vision methods which consist of face detection and tracking the 3D position of the selected observer. An application of this system of dynamic anamorphosis in the context of an interactive art installation is described. We show that anamorphic deformation is also useful for improving eye contact in videoconferencing. Other possible applications involve novel user interfaces where the user can freely move and observe perspectively undeformed images.
Utilizing Mobile Devices' Tactile Feedback for Presenting Braille Characters: An Optimized Approach for Fast Reading and Long Battery Life BIBAFull-Text 63-74
  Zakaria Al-Qudah; Iyad Abu Doush; Faisal Alkhateeb; Eslam Al Maghayreh; Osama Al-Khaleel
This paper develops a method for presenting the standard six-point Braille characters on mobile devices that feature tactile feedback. The proposed method views each Braille character as a two-column code, each column consisting of three points. The eight various combination of raised and lowered points of the three-point column are encoded with a single pattern of vibration, with the two columns of a Braille character are separated by a period of silence. The encoding scheme for the different point-combinations in a column is inspired by Morse code (a series of dots and dashes). Dots are represented by a small-duration vibration whereas dashes are represented by a longer-duration vibration. The encoding scheme is optimized to reduce the average reading time per character and to reduce the average power consumption per character. These optimizations target increasing the speed of reading and the mobile device's battery life respectively. As a proof-of-concept, the proposed method is implemented and tested with twelve blind users and three non-blind users. The different parameters of the proposed method were tuned based on the testing results. The overall results suggest that the proposed method significantly reduces the average reading time per character and reduces the average power consumption per character when compared to existing methods that utilize the mobile device's tactile feedback for presenting Braille characters.
Advanced Social Recommendations with SoNARS++ BIBAFull-Text 75-88
  Francesca Carmagnola; Fabiana Vernero; Pierluigi Grillo
Recommender systems support users in finding the appropriate information at the correct time. While traditional recommenders only take into account the stable preferences of target users (ego-based interests), some recent approaches in the area of social recommender systems have started to acknowledge that the mere fact of taking part in social relationships may cause individuals to modify their attitudes and behaviors, and have proposed methods for generating recommendations based on the preferences of the target users' social networks (network-based interests). However, little work has investigated how to effectively merge ego- and network-based interests. In this paper, we present SoNARS++, an advanced social algorithm that assesses the interest for an item to be recommended by combining a user's personal interests for that item with the interests for that item of the user's social network, depending on its structure and on social influence relationships among users. The results of the experimental evaluation we carried out show that SoNARS++ is comparable for its precision to a mainstream algorithm such as collaborative filtering but appears to provide users with more useful recommendations.
User Evaluation of Websites: From First Impression to Recommendation BIBAFull-Text 89-102
  Meinald T. Thielsch; Iris Blotenberg; Rafael Jaron
Content, usability and aesthetics are core constructs in users' perception and evaluation of websites, but little is known about their interplay in different use phases. In a first study, web users (n=330) stated content as most relevant, followed by usability and aesthetics. In Study 2, tests with four websites were performed (n=300), and resulting data were modeled in path analyses. In this model, aesthetics had the largest influence on first impressions, while all three constructs had an impact on first and overall impressions. However, only content contributed significantly to the intention to revisit or recommend a website. Using data from a third study (n=512,42 websites), we were able to replicate this model. As before, perceived aesthetics and usability affected first and overall impressions, while content perception was important for all analyzed website use phases. In addition, aesthetics also had a small but significant impact on the participants' intentions to revisit or recommend a website.

IWC 2014-03 Volume 26 Issue 2

Context-Driven Human-Environment Interaction (CdH-E Interaction) BIBFull-Text 103-104
  José Bravo; Diego López-de-Ipiña; Ramón Hervás
System Implications of Context-Driven Interaction in Smart Environments BIBAFull-Text 105-117
  Helena Rodrigues; Rui José
The creation of smart environments that are adaptive and responsive to the context in which they are being used has been one of the strongest ideas in ambient intelligence, but also one of the areas in which there seems to be a persistent gap between the initial promises and its real achievements. A possible reason why this is so challenging is that context-driven interaction and systems support are highly interdependent, but are rarely designed together. In this paper, we analyse the implications of context-driven interaction to the type of systems support provided by smart environments. The analysis is based on the study of previous work in this area and structured around three main dimensions of interaction with smart environments: physical integration; spontaneous interoperation and application programming abstractions. The contributions of this paper are 2-fold: a characterization of the system design space according to the requirements raised by context-driven interaction and the identification of new alternative paths for the integration of context-driven interaction into smart environments.
User-Aware Location Management of Prosumed Micro-services BIBAFull-Text 118-134
  Bernhard Klein; Diego López-de-Ipiña; Christian Guggenmos; Jorge Pérez Velasco
The MUGGES mobile service prosuming platform aims at enabling user-aware service provision and consumption from the very mobile devices in a true peer-to-peer manner, still providing centralized support to user- and location-aware micro-service searching. Thus, users will not only provide contents but also launch and host services from their own mobile devices. Explorative field trials in Spain and Finland assessing the potential of the 'prosuming concept' were carried out for several weeks with students and IT professionals. The feedback gathered from end-users showed that the MUGGES proposed location concept eases service creation and consumption, although service provisioning from mobile devices is still in its infancy.
Speaker Verification for Multi-Task Interactions BIBAFull-Text 135-144
  Yang Cai; Xiaoyu Li; Zhenjiang Gong; Tania Ros Codina
Human-computer interactions often involve multiple tasks such as navigation, searching, conversation and data retrieving. It is a challenge to identify the user in multi-tasking situations. Here, we present the algorithm for continuous verification of pre-defined users in both text-independent and text-dependent interactions. In the system, pitch features and Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients are used for voice feature extraction. Vector quantization (VQ) and Mahalanobis distance are used for voice classification. We implemented our algorithms on the Android HTC phone. Based on our experimental results, we found that our training time can be within 1 min and the test time can be within 10 s or two sentences. VQ is suitable for a quick text-dependent verification such as voice signature; Mahalanobis distance, on the other hand, is better for continuous verification such as user authentication via voice. The empirical study also shows the impact of the verification time and languages on the verification accuracy. Our empirical study suggests that speaker verification algorithms work better when a user speaks in his or her native language.
Communication Protocol for Enabling Continuous Monitoring of Elderly People through Near Field Communications BIBAFull-Text 145-168
  Antonio J. Jara; Pablo Lopez; David Fernandez; Miguel A. Zamora; Benito Ubeda; Antonio F. Skarmeta
Continuous and wireless transmission of vital signs for personalized healthcare is gaining a great deal of interest from Ambient Assisted Living solutions. Personalized healthcare capabilities are limited to the patient data available, which is usually dynamic and incomplete. For that reason, regular monitoring of patients with the aim of offering a suitable analysis of patient evolution is required. Continuous monitoring requires the integration of wireless communication technologies and embedded systems into wearable and portable monitoring systems. In addition, a user interface intuitive is also required, which is easy to use and understand by the patients and caregivers. This work proposes a solution such as Near Field Communication (NFC) for personalized healthcare based on the Internet of Things. NFC is a technology integrated in smart phones that provides capabilities for identification of devices/sensors, and presents ubiquitous communication capabilities between the sensor and the device. NFC also presents challenges in terms of the performance and efficiency of data transmission, due to the constrained resources and capabilities of ubiquitous devices and the latency introduced by the NFC technology. These challenges are intrinsic to NFC since it was originally considered only for simple identification and not for continuous data transmission. In this context, this paper presents a novel monitoring system for continuous data transmission from a set of clinical devices based on NFC which has been optimized in order to make communications feasible. This novel monitoring system is also composed by a set of participatory sensing applications to support caregivers and for patients to self-monitor and self-manage their health status wirelessly. A technical evaluation based on latencies associated with use of NFC for continuous monitoring and an evaluation of usability by a group of elderly users and their caregivers, which studies the interactions between the users and the system, are demonstrated.
Development of a Technology Adoption and Usage Prediction Tool for Assistive Technology for People with Dementia BIBAFull-Text 169-176
  Sonja A. O'Neill; Sally I. McClean; Mark D. Donnelly; Chris D. Nugent; Leo Galway; Ian Cleland; Shuai Zhang; Terry Young; Bryan W. Scotney; Sarah C. Mason; David Craig
In the current work, data gleaned from an assistive technology (reminding technology), which has been evaluated with people with Dementia over a period of several years was retrospectively studied to extract the factors that contributed to successful adoption. The aim was to develop a prediction model with the capability of prospectively assessing whether the assistive technology would be suitable for persons with Dementia (and their carer), based on user characteristics, needs and perceptions. Such a prediction tool has the ability to empower a formal carer to assess, through a very limited amount of questions, whether the technology will be adopted and used.

IWC 2014-05 Volume 26 Issue 3

The Effects of Audio and Haptic Feedback on Collaborative Scanning and Placing BIBAFull-Text 177-195
  Jonas Moll; Eva-Lotta Sallnäs Pysander; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh; Sten-Olof Hellström
This paper presents a study aimed at exploring the effects of different modality combinations on collaborative task performance and employed joint task-solving strategies in a shared interface. The modality combinations visual/haptic, visual/audio and visual/haptic/audio were compared in an experiment in which users solved a task together, working in pairs in adjacent rooms. The application used contained a flat surface in a 3D interface on which piles of cubes were randomly placed in a grid. The task involved scanning for empty cells and placing continuously falling cubes until all empty cells were filled. The cubes and the flat surface were designed in such a way that they could be felt and heard and thus could be recognized by different kinds of haptic and audio feedback cues. This made it possible to scan the environment and read both absolute and relative positions in the grid. A quantitative analysis of task performance and a qualitative analysis of video recordings and interview data were performed. Results showed that task completion times were significantly faster in the visual/haptic/audio condition compared with the other conditions and that there were also significantly fewer errors, result checks of one's own actions and double checks of the partner's actions in the visual/haptic/audio condition than in the other conditions. Qualitative results show that participants work simultaneously to a larger extent in the visual/haptic/audio condition and that less communication occurred in the visual/haptic/audio condition compared with the other conditions. We argue that more modalities improved the awareness of the environment resulting in the participants feeling more confident with their interaction in the environment in the visual/haptic/audio condition. This resulted in improved task performance. The visual/audio feedback was better suited for solving the task than the visual/haptic feedback even though haptic feedback gave a significant added value in the visual/haptic/audio condition.
Citizen Motivation on the Go: The Role of Psychological Empowerment BIBAFull-Text 196-207
  Jorge Gonçalves; Vassilis Kostakos; Evangelos Karapanos; Mary Barreto; Tiago Camacho; Anthony Tomasic; John Zimmerman
Although advances in technology now enable people to communicate 'anytime, anyplace', it is not clear how citizens can be motivated to actually do so. This paper evaluates the impact of three principles of psychological empowerment, namely perceived self-efficacy, sense of community and causal importance, on public transport passengers' motivation to report issues and complaints while on the move. A week-long study with 65 participants revealed that self-efficacy and causal importance increased participation in short bursts and increased perceptions of service quality over longer periods. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings for citizen participation projects and reflect on design opportunities for mobile technologies that motivate citizen participation.
Personal Information Management: The Case for an Evolutionary Approach BIBAFull-Text 208-237
  Paul Warren
This review paper argues that users of personal information management systems have three particularly pressing requirements, for which current systems do not fully cater: (i) To combat information overload, as the volume of information increases. (ii) To ease context switching, in particular, for users who face frequent interrupts in their work. (iii) To be supported in information integration, across a variety of applications. To meet these requirements, four broad technological approaches should be adopted in an incremental fashion: (i) The deployment of a unified file system to manage all information objects, including files, emails and webpage URLs. (ii) The use of tags to categorize information; implemented in a way which is backward-compatible with existing hierarchical file systems. (iii) The use of context to aid information retrieval; built upon existing file and tagging systems rather than creating a parallel context management system. (iv) The deployment of semantic technologies, coupled with the harvesting of all useful metadata.
Sentence Completion for Understanding Users and Evaluating User Experience BIBAFull-Text 238-255
  Sari Kujala; Tanja Walsh; Piia Nurkka; Marian Crisan
Projective techniques are used in psychology and consumer research to provide information about individuals' motivations, thoughts and feelings. This paper reviews the use of projective techniques in marketing research and user experience (UX) research and discusses their potential role in understanding users, their needs and values, and evaluating UX in practical product development contexts. A projective technique called sentence completion is evaluated through three case studies. Sentence completion produces qualitative data about users' views in a structured form. The results are less time-consuming to analyze than interview results. Compared with quantitative methods such as AttrakDiff, the results are more time consuming to analyze, but more information is retrieved on negative feelings. The results show that sentence completion is useful in understanding users' perceptions and that the technique can be used to complement other methods. Sentence completion can also be used online to reach wider user groups.
Automatic Cognitive Load Detection from Face, Physiology, Task Performance and Fusion During Affective Interference BIBAFull-Text 256-268
  M. Sazzad Hussain; Rafael A. Calvo; Fang Chen
Cognitive load (CL) is experienced during critical tasks and also while engaged emotional states are induced either by the task itself or by extraneous experiences. Emotions irrelevant to the working memory representation may interfere with the processing of relevant tasks and can influence task performance and behavior, making the accurate detection of CL from nonverbal information challenging. This paper investigates automatic CL detection from facial features, physiology and task performance under affective interference. Data were collected from participants (n=20) solving mental arithmetic tasks with emotional stimuli in the background, and a combined classifier was used for detecting CL levels. Results indicate that the face modality for CL detection was more accurate under affective interference, whereas physiology and task performance were more accurate without the affective interference. Multimodal fusion improved detection accuracies, but it was less accurate under affective interferences. More specifically, the accuracy decreased with an increasing intensity of emotional arousal.
An fMRI Study to Analyze Neural Correlates of Presence during Virtual Reality Experiences BIBAFull-Text 269-284
  Miriam Clemente; Beatriz Rey; Aina Rodríguez-Pujadas; Alfonso Barros-Loscertales; Rosa M. Baños; Cristina Botella; Mariano Alcañiz; César Ávila
In the field of virtual reality (VR), many efforts have been made to analyze presence, the sense of being in the virtual world. However, it is only recently that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to study presence during an automatic navigation through a virtual environment. In the present work, our aim was to use fMRI to study the sense of presence during a VR-free navigation task, in comparison with visualization of photographs and videos (automatic navigations through the same environment). The main goal was to analyze the usefulness of fMRI for this purpose, evaluating whether, in this context, the interaction between the subject and the environment is performed naturally, hiding the role of technology in the experience. We monitored 14 right-handed healthy females aged between 19 and 25 years. Frontal, parietal and occipital regions showed their involvement during free virtual navigation. Moreover, activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was also shown to be negatively correlated to sense of presence and the postcentral parietal cortex and insula showed a parametric increased activation according to the condition-related sense of presence, which suggests that stimulus attention and self-awareness processes related to the insula may be linked to the sense of presence.
Emotion Prediction from Physiological Signals: A Comparison Study Between Visual and Auditory Elicitors BIBAFull-Text 285-302
  Feng Zhou; Xingda Qu; Jianxin (Roger) Jiao; Martin G. Helander
Unlike visual stimuli, little attention has been paid to auditory stimuli in terms of emotion prediction with physiological signals. This paper aimed to investigate whether auditory stimuli can be used as an effective elicitor as visual stimuli for emotion prediction using physiological channels. For this purpose, a well-controlled experiment was designed, in which standardized visual and auditory stimuli were systematically selected and presented to participants to induce various emotions spontaneously in a laboratory setting. Numerous physiological signals, including facial electromyogram, electroencephalography, skin conductivity and respiration data, were recorded when participants were exposed to the stimulus presentation. Two data mining methods, namely decision rules and k-nearest neighbor based on the rough set technique, were applied to construct emotion prediction models based on the features extracted from the physiological data. Experimental results demonstrated that auditory stimuli were as effective as visual stimuli in eliciting emotions in terms of systematic physiological reactivity. This was evidenced by the best prediction accuracy quantified by the F1 measure (visual: 76.2% vs. auditory: 76.1%) among six emotion categories (excited, happy, neutral, sad, fearful and disgusted). Furthermore, we also constructed culture-specific (Chinese vs. Indian) prediction models. The results showed that model prediction accuracy was not significantly different between culture-specific models. Finally, the implications of affective auditory stimuli in human-computer interaction, limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.

IWC 2014-07 Volume 26 Issue 4

Guest Editorial BIBFull-Text 303-304
  Gheorghita Ghinea; Wu-Yuin Hwang; Cristina Hava Muntean; Jiangang Cheng
A Novel Sensor-Based Methodology for Learner's Motivation Analysis in Game-Based Learning BIBAFull-Text 305-320
  Ioana Ghergulescu; Cristina Hava Muntean
Learner's motivation is one of the main aspects that need to be addressed for a successful learning process. Consequently, learner motivation assessment and measurement have attracted significant research interest in the e-learning area in general and game-based learning in particular. Traditional methodologies for learner motivation analysis rely on data collected through questionnaires. However, this approach does not fit well in the context of game-based learning, because an out-of-game questionnaire breaks the game user's flow and immersion. This paper presents a novel electroencephalography (EEG) sensor-based methodology that supports real-time non-disturbing automatic measurement and analysis of learner's motivation in game-based learning.
   An evaluation case study with participants playing an educational game was conducted in order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed sensor-based methodology and to compare the proposed methodology with the intrinsic motivation inventory-based questionnaire methodology. The results analysis has shown that the sensor-based methodology outperforms the traditional questionnaire-based methodology. The traditional questionnaire-based methodology is limited to analysing learner's motivation on short game-playing durations, while losing its feasibility when analysing learner's overall motivation over a long game-playing duration. Results have shown that learner's motivation changes in time during the game-play period and the learner's self-report of his/her motivation, assessed through the questionnaire-based methodology, tends to reflect only the last moments before the questionnaire is answered. Conversely, the proposed EEG sensor-based methodology is more suitable to analyse learner's motivation on both short and long game-playing durations (e.g. game tasks, game levels, etc.), with the additional benefit of not interrupting the game-play and not breaking the game flow and the learner's immersion with the game.
Note-Taking for 3D Curricular Contents using Markerless Augmented Reality BIBAFull-Text 321-333
  Mau-Tsuen Yang; Yu-Chiao Chiu
With the advance of pedagogical materials from printed textbooks to e-textbooks, the methods of note-taking should also be improved. For e-Learning with 3D interactive curricular contents, an ideal note-taking approach should be intuitive and tightly coupled with the curricular contents. Particularly, augmented reality (AR) technology is capable of displaying virtual contents in real-life images. Combining head-mounted displays with cameras and wearable computers, AR provides chances and challenges to improve note-taking for situated learning in contextual surroundings. We propose an AR-based note-taking system tailored for 3D curricular contents. A learner can take notes on a physical tabletop by finger writing, manipulate curricular contents using hand gestures and embed the complete notes in the corresponding contents in a 3D space. An analytic hierarchy process demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed 3D note-taking system. Especially, note-taking using finger writing and hand gestures with 3D maneuver is better than other alternatives in terms of relevance, usefulness, intuition and novelty.
A Virtual Experiential Learning and Students' Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Ability BIBAFull-Text 334-347
  Shwu-Huey Wang; Mei-Chung Lin; Chin-Wen Liao
In order to provide students with an experiential learning experience and understand the effect of a three-dimensional (3D) virtual learning environment in students' ill-structured problem-solving ability, the study designed a 3D virtual company (3DVC) for the participants to be a general manager to solve several complex problems for different departments. The study selected one class of business students to participate in the experiment. The entire procedure comprised pretest, 3DVC training and posttest. The results were analyzed through a paired sample t-test to understand if there is any significant difference between pretest and 3DVC, and pretest and posttest. The results showed that the participants made a significant improvement in ill-structured problem-solving ability after the 3DVC training. The results provide important references for educators that a 3D situational learning environment is beneficial in improving students' ill-structured problem-solving ability.
A Progressive Prompting Approach to Conducting Context-Aware Learning Activities for Natural Science Courses BIBAFull-Text 348-359
  Chih-Hung Chen; Gwo-Jen Hwang; Chin-Han Tsai
Owing to the popularity of mobile, wireless communication and sensing technologies, issues related to contextual mobile learning have widely been discussed in recent years. In the meantime, researchers have indicated the importance of developing effective strategies for guiding students to learn in context-aware learning environments. In this study, a progressive prompt-based context-aware learning approach is proposed to improve the learning performance of students. An experiment was conducted on a natural science course of an elementary school to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. From the experimental results, it is found that the proposed approach could effectively enhance the learning achievement of the students in comparison with the conventional context-aware learning system with single-stage prompts. It is also interesting to find that the proposed approach, by providing more challenging tasks, encouraged the students to put more effort into examining the contextual information and interpreting the learning content.
Learning with the Body: An Embodiment-Based Learning Strategy Enhances Performance of Comprehending Fundamental Optics BIBAFull-Text 360-371
  I-Chun Hung; Lung-I Lin; Wei-Chieh Fang; Nian-Shing Chen
Theories of embodied cognition argue that mental modal simulations in the brain, body, environment and situated actions are composed of central representations in cognition. Based on embodied cognition, body movements of performing natural science experiments can provide learners with external perceptions for better knowledge construction. At present, the way of using a keyboard/mouse to conduct simulation exercises just reproduces physical experimental procedures on a computer. However, it lacks for utilizing environmental factors and bodily states as external information to help brain constructing knowledge during the experiment simulation processes. For example, learners interact with the multimedia content of fundamental optics simulation exercises by using conventional controller-based methods such as moving a mouse or pressing a hot key. Using a controller as a routine interaction device while learners associate their external bodily perceptions with internal knowledge schema does not benefit cognitive processing. To cope with this problem, an embodiment-based learning strategy is designed to provide simulated practices by learners' gestures so that they can interact with the digital content directly. Through the learning system, fundamental optics knowledge can be constructed using holistic schematization of mental modal simulations in the brain, body, environment and situated actions. A total of 51 fifth-year students were divided into 'embodiment-based learning group' and 'keyboard-mouse learning group' for a quasi-experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. This study designed an embodiment-based learning strategy to help learners perform optics simulation exercises and improve their learning performance. The result shows that the embodiment-based learning group outperformed the keyboard-mouse learning group on learning performance. Besides, learners usually need to invest additional mental effort before they overcome the run-in period to getting used to a new technology. No significant difference in cognitive load between the two groups was found, which implies the embodiment-based learning strategy is an effective learning design.
Empowering Classroom Observation with an E-Book Reading Behavior Monitoring System Using Sensing Technologies BIBAFull-Text 372-387
  Yueh-Min Huang; Chia-Cheng Hsu; Yen-Ning Su; Chia-Ju Liu
Classroom observation is a way for teachers to better understand and thus improve what happens in their classes. Reading is a complex cognitive process, and one that is often difficult to observe. However, e-books present one way to overcome this problem, as they can be used to better understand students' reading strengths and weaknesses, thus making it possible to offer more effective reading guidance. Therefore, this study proposed an E-book Reading Behavior Monitoring System based on sensing technology and e-books, with the following three stages: the analysis of a real classroom situation, system design and implementation, and an evaluation of the functionality and usability of the proposed system. This system uses a webcam and touch screen with the artificial bee colony algorithm to record data of the students' reading fixation and reading rates, which can then be used as a reference by teachers to provide individual reading guidance. Finally, this study carried out a series of experiments to evaluate the usability and functionality of the proposed system through a case study, system simulation, expert evaluation and actual assessment. The results show that the proposed system has both good usability and functionality with regard to its aim.

IWC 2014-09 Volume 26 Issue 5

Hierarchical Menu Selection with a Body-Centered Remote Interface BIBAFull-Text 389-402
  Benoît Bossavit; Asier Marzo; Oscar Ardaiz; Alfredo Pina
Menus are a key mechanism for organizing different commands in graphical user interfaces. Nowadays low-cost devices that allow using different interaction techniques in remote interfaces have become widespread. Nevertheless, their corresponding menus are direct adaptations from traditional ones. As a consequence, they are inaccurate and slow, and also produce tiredness. In this paper, we design, implement and evaluate a menu selection technique for remote interfaces, the Body Menu. This technique permits whole-body interaction and is specifically designed to take advantage of the proprioception sense. The Body Menu attaches virtual menu items to different parts of the body and selects them when the users reach these zones with their hands. We use the Microsoft Kinect to implement this system. Additionally, we compared it with the most representative menus, studied the best number of body parts to be used and analyzed how children interact with it.
Wayfinding without Visual Cues: Evaluation of an Interactive Audio Map System BIBAFull-Text 403-416
  Esther Loeliger; Tony Stockman
We present the evaluation of an interactive audio map system that enables blind and partially sighted users to explore and navigate city maps from the safety of their home using simulated 3D audio and synthetic speech alone. We begin with a review of existing literature in the areas of spatial knowledge and wayfinding, auditory displays and auditory map systems, before describing how this research builds on and differentiates itself from this body of work. One key requirement was the ability to quantify the effectiveness of the audio map, so we describe the design and implementation of the evaluation, which took the form of a game downloaded by participants to their own computers. The results demonstrate that participants (blind, partially sighted and sighted) have acquired detailed spatial knowledge and also that the availability of positional audio cues significantly improves wayfinding performance.
Designing for Spontaneous and Secure Delegation in Digital Payments BIBAFull-Text 417-432
  Paul Dunphy; Andrew Monk; John Vines; Mark Blythe; Patrick Olivier
Delegation is the practice of sharing authority with another individual to enable them to complete a specific task as a proxy. Practices to permit delegation can range from formal to informal arrangements and can involve spontaneous yet finely balanced notions of trust between people. This paper argues that delegation is a ubiquitous yet an unsupported feature of socio-technical computer systems and that this lack of support illustrates a particular neglect to the everyday financial practices of the more vulnerable people in society. Our contribution is to provide a first exploration of the domain of person-to-person delegation in digital payments, a particularly pressing context. We first report qualitative data collected across several studies concerning banking practices of individuals over 80 years of age. We then use analytical techniques centred upon identification of stakeholders, their concerns and interactions, to characterize the delegation practices we observed. We propose a Concerns Matrix as a suitable representation to capture conflicts in the needs of individuals in such complex socio-technical systems, and finally propose a putative design response in the form of a Helper Card.
Validation of a Framework for Enriching Human-Computer-Human Interaction with Awareness in a Seamless Way BIBAFull-Text 433-449
  Montserrat Sendín; Juan-Miguel López-Gil; Víctor López-Jaquero
Computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) environments enable users to interact with each other by using computers to conveniently share relevant data across the user interface. Awareness is an essential requirement in CSCW to convey precise information about the context in which the work in group is taking place, contributing thus to collaboration between users. In this kind of environments, we need to go beyond traditional human-computer interaction to embrace human-computer-human interaction (HCHI). It is necessary to devise flexible mechanisms to support HCHI in dealing with the diversity of contexts and group concerns. Furthermore, these mechanisms should endeavor to provide a seamless integration with current development techniques. This work presents a multi-purpose framework to include group awareness in HCHI systems in a seamless way. Proposed framework is based on the Dichotomic View of Plasticity approach. An experiment was conducted with two different versions of a specific groupware platform: the original platform and a new version of it, extended by means of the proposed framework. The goal was twofold: (i) to verify the benefits of applying this framework and (ii) to validate, in terms of user satisfaction, the improvement regarding groupware features introduced in the extended version. The results of the experiment backed up our hypothesis by showing that proposed framework is able to add awareness support to existing human-computer-Human (HCH) interfaces in a seamless way. It is also showed that added awareness components effectively contributed to achieve a higher level of collaboration among users.
The Relationship Between Design Factors and Affective Response in Personalized Blog Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 450-464
  Chun-Cheng Hsu; Ming-Chuen Chuang
The blog has become one of the most important virtual spaces where people express their uniqueness and define themselves in social groups. Bloggers place great emphasis on the visual interface of blogs, and both usability and affective factors are important considerations for a successful blog. This study aims to determine major dimensions influencing user affective responses to personalized blog interfaces, and the corresponding design factors that bloggers or platform developers may apply to effectively manipulate them. This study used the Affective/Kansei Engineering approach and two multidimensional scaling algorithms to evaluate the affective responses of users. In conclusion, this study first defined the three dimensions of an affective perceptual space, and their corresponding design factors and affective responses. Secondly, it investigated the relationship between the visual features of 18 typical blogs and the 12 typical affective response vectors in this space. This study also discussed blog interface design guidelines for bloggers and developers. These findings highlight the application potential for developing customized blog template or automated database template generation systems.
Branded Interactions: Predicting Perceived Product Traits and User Image from Interface Consistency and Visual Guidance BIBAFull-Text 465-487
  Tao Yang; Davide Bolchini
Our connection to the digital world relies on brands, but human-computer interaction research seems still detached from such crucial phenomenon. On the web, stakeholders and designers operate with the assumption that great user interfaces benefit the perception of the brand behind the system, yet understanding which design factors affect which aspects of the brand image remains a largely uncharted territory. To investigate this problem, we manipulated interface consistency and visual guidance of an anonymized university website and gauged the user perception (N=261) of three well-known branding constructs: brand as product, user image and brand personality. Unexpectedly, consistency did not significantly predict brand image, while the effect of visual guidance on brand perception showed a remarkable gender difference. When visual guidance was significantly worsened, females became much less satisfied with the university in terms of brand as product (teaching, research quality and student support) and user image (students' characteristics and social skills). In contrast, males' perceptions of the university's brand image stayed the same in most circumstances. The reason for this gender difference was revealed through a set of two-group path models, which inspires new research directions to unpack even more the nexus between branding and interaction design.
Gender, Representation and Online Participation: A Quantitative Study BIBAFull-Text 488-511
  Bogdan Vasilescu; Andrea Capiluppi; Alexander Serebrenik
Online communities are flourishing as social meeting web spaces for users and peer community members. Different online communities require different levels of competence for participants to join, and scattered evidence suggests that females and minorities as participants can be under-represented. Additional anecdotal evidence suggests that women withdraw from unfriendly online communities. Owing to the limited amount of empirical evidence on the matter, this paper provides a quantitative study of the phenomenon, in order to assess the representation and social impact of gender in online communities. This study positions itself within recent and focused international initiatives, launched by the European Commission in order to encourage women in the field of science and technology. Focusing on technical support networks around web content management tools (e.g. Drupal and WordPress) and on questions & answers websites (e.g. StackOverflow), this paper unearths a spectrum of online communities, in which women participate to various degrees.

IWC 2014-11 Volume 26 Issue 6

An Embodied View of Flow BIBAFull-Text 513-527
  Pablo Romero; Eduardo Calvillo-Gámez
Flow is a psychological construct that has been used to describe states of optimal experience. It has been remarkably influential in user experience studies in areas of computing such as technology acceptance, video gaming, e-shopping, web marketing and e-learning, among others. Frequently, however, the interpretation of the flow concept as well as its major characteristics have been made in an ad hoc manner; there is no overall agreement on how the flow concept should be conceptualized; and often different studies conceptualize flow in very different ways. We claim that those interpretations have been made without a careful consideration of the original concept and that, frequently, they are the product of conceptual misunderstanding. We propose a view that might help researchers interested in flow in computing to understand the source of those discrepancies as well as to design new studies of flow. The view is based on notions of phenomenology and embodied interaction and provides a framework to analyse and situate work on flow in computing. We conclude by pointing out some areas of further research associated with this view.
Anxiety Induction in Virtual Environments: An Experimental Comparison of Three General Techniques BIBAFull-Text 528-539
  Luca Chittaro
Anxiety induction and elicitation of associated physiological arousal with virtual environments (VEs) is important in diverse domains. This paper evaluates three general anxiety induction techniques. The first augments the VE with a health bar that is often displayed in video games to indicate when the user's avatar gets hurt. The second augments the VE with aversive audio-visual stimuli, which are employed in first-person shooter games when the user's avatar gets hurt and include preset heartbeat sound. The third introduces in the previous technique a biofeedback mechanism to control heartbeat sound. The results we obtained on a VE that reproduces a fire evacuation indicate that the third technique produces much higher physiological arousal than the other two, and measures of users' state anxiety are consistent with physiological results. We discuss possible reasons that could explain why the exploitation of auditory heartbeat biofeedback contributes to make the third technique more effective, by linking our study to research and theories of affect and emotions.
Formative Evaluation of IT-based Services: A Case Study of a Meal Planning Service BIBAFull-Text 540-556
  Johan Blomkvist; Johan Åberg; Stefan Holmlid
To evaluate and develop a service supported by an IT (information technology) system the intention to use the future service should be in focus. The technology acceptance model (TAM) and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can both provide knowledge about users' intention to use a service, making them good models to base formative decisions on. Unlike TAM, TPB is concerned with specific information related to the service context, and provide knowledge about what makes IT useable. We used an adapted version of the TPB as the foundation for a formative service evaluation technique called F-SET. We applied the F-SET to a case where two subsequent versions of a service prototype were evaluated. The first prototype was a description of the service supported by Hi-Fi design sketches showing what a web-based meal planning tool could look like. The second prototype consisted of both service processes and the web-based meal planning tool. To find relevant factors that influence future use of such a service, a survey of 28 informants was conducted with the first prototype. The second prototype involved five families who used the service for two weeks. The feedback provided by the families, based on the factors identified in the pre-test, influenced the future direction of the service development. Feedback from the informants was distributed between the service and the IT system, and the most common factors that influence the intention to use the service were time, price, usefulness and availability. Feedback included both positive and negative comments, as well as bugs and suggestions for improvements. We discuss potential improvements and what kind of information to expect from the different constructs of the TPB.
Measuring Anxiety Towards Wiki Editing: Investigating the Dimensionality of the Wiki Anxiety Inventory-Editing BIBAFull-Text 557-571
  Benjamin R. Cowan; Mervyn A. Jack
Although wikis are common in both the workplace and in Higher Education, little research has studied the wiki user experience. Recent literature highlights that users may be anxious about editing wiki content; yet in most of this research this anxiety has not been measured quantitatively. Although computer anxiety metrics exist to measure anxiety towards technology, they lack specificity and relevance to the wiki editing context. This paper reports two studies used to research the validity and reliability of the wiki anxiety inventory-editing (WAI-E), an inventory developed and used to measure anxiety in wiki editing (Study 1) and to explore the factor structure of the WAI-E and the validity and reliability of the resulting subscales (Study 2). Study 1 shows that the WAI-E, when used as a uni-dimensional structure, shows high reliability and validity. The principal component analysis conducted in Study 2 showed that the measure converged on a three-factor solution with factors measuring positive affect, editability anxiety and contribution judgement anxiety. The subscales showed high reliability and validity. It therefore seems that although the validity and reliability of using the WAI-E as a uni-dimensional construct are high, the use of the metric as such hides the true structure and nuances of the concept of wiki anxiety.
Determining the Efficacy of Multi-Parameter Tactons in the Presence of Real-world and Simulated Audio Distractors BIBAFull-Text 572-594
  Huimin Qian; Ravi Kuber; Andrew Sears; Elizabeth Stanwyck
This paper describes two studies that examine the ways in which parameters of touch can be manipulated to support human-mobile interaction, providing designers with greater awareness regarding the range of tactile icons (tactons) for integration with interfaces. The first study examined the efficacy of presenting tactons via low-cost eccentric rotating motor vibration technologies, often used in the design of wearable interfaces. Findings highlight the role of intensity in supporting tactile recognition as well as the impact of duration, interval, and intensity on task time. In our second study, we build on these results by comparing the impact of simulated and real-world auditory distractors on the perception of four parameter tactons. Findings indicate the negative effects of realistic ambient sounds on recognition accuracy, time taken and cognitive workload, but the results also indicate that some tactile designs (e.g. those encoded with stronger intensities) better resist the effects of these auditory distractions. Our research suggests that mobile devices should be evaluated under real-world scenarios to ensure that tactile feedback presented via a mobile device meets the needs of mobile users.
Evaluation of a Mobile Projector-Based Indoor Navigation Interface BIBAFull-Text 595-613
  Ming Li; Katrin Arning; Oliver Sack; Jiyoung Park; Myoung-Hee Kim; Martina Ziefle; Leif Kobbelt
In recent years, the interest and potential applications of pedestrian indoor navigation solutions have significantly increased. Whereas the majority of mobile indoor navigation aid solutions visualize navigational information on mobile screens, the present study investigates the effectiveness of a mobile projector-based navigation aid that directly projects navigational information into the environment. A benchmark evaluation of the mobile projector-based indoor navigation interface was carried out, investigating a combination of different navigation devices (mobile projector vs. mobile screen) and navigation information (map vs. arrow) as well as the impact of users' spatial abilities. Results showed the superiority of the mobile screen as a navigation aid and the map as a navigation information type. Especially users with low spatial abilities benefited from this combination in their navigation performance and acceptance. Potential application scenarios and design implications for novel indoor navigation interfaces are derived from our findings.
Online Disclosure of Personally Identifiable Information with Strangers: Effects of Public and Private Sharing BIBAFull-Text 614-626
  Jayant Venkatanathan; Vassilis Kostakos; Evangelos Karapanos; Jorge Gonçalves
Safeguarding personally identifiable information (PII) is crucial because such information is increasingly used to engineer privacy attacks, identity thefts and security breaches. But is it likely that individuals may choose to just share this information with strangers? This study examines how reciprocation can lead to the disclosure of PII between strangers in online social networking. We demonstrate that the widespread use of public, one-to-many, communication channels such as 'wall posts' and profile pages in online social networks poses an exception to the assumption that reciprocation happens on one-to-one channels. We find that individuals not only reciprocate and share PII when the disclosure of such information is private and directed towards them by a stranger, but also when the stranger shares this information through a public channel that is not directed towards anyone in particular. Implications for privacy and design are discussed.