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IWC Tables of Contents: 151617181920212223242526

Interacting with Computers 25

Editors:Dianne Murray
Publisher:Oxford University Press
Standard No:ISSN 0953-5438
Links:Table of Contents
  1. IWC 2013-01 Volume 25 Issue 1
  2. IWC 2013-03 Volume 25 Issue 2
  3. IWC 2013-05 Volume 25 Issue 3
  4. IWC 2013-07 Volume 25 Issue 4
  5. IWC 2013-09 Volume 25 Issue 5
  6. IWC 2013-11 Volume 25 Issue 6

IWC 2013-01 Volume 25 Issue 1


Getting Down to Details: Using Theories of Cognition and Learning to Inform Tangible User Interface Design BIBAFull-Text 1-20
  Alissa N. Antle; Alyssa F. Wise
Many researchers have suggested that tangible user interfaces (TUIs) have potential for supporting learning. However, the theories used to explain possible effects are often invoked at a very broad level without explication of specific mechanisms by which the affordances of TUIs may be important for learning processes. Equally problematic, we lack theoretically grounded guidance for TUI designers as to what design choices might have significant impacts on learning and how to make informed choices in this regard. In this paper, we build on previous efforts to address the need for a structure to think about TUI design for learning by constructing the Tangible Learning Design Framework. We first compile a taxonomy of five elements for thinking about the relationships between TUI features, interactions and learning. We then briefly review cognitive, constructivist, embodied, distributed and social perspectives on cognition and learning and match specific theories to the key elements in the taxonomy to determine guidelines for design. In each case, we provide examples from previous work to explicate our guidelines; where empirical work is lacking, we suggest avenues for further research. Together, the taxonomy and guidelines constitute the Tangible Learning Design Framework. The framework advances thinking in the area by highlighting decisions in TUI design important for learning, providing initial guidance for thinking about these decisions through the lenses of theories of cognition and learning, and generating a blueprint for research on testable mechanisms of action by which TUI design can affect learning.
Indoor Human Navigation Systems: A Survey BIBAFull-Text 21-33
  Navid Fallah; Ilias Apostolopoulos; Kostas Bekris; Eelke Folmer
Whereas outdoor navigation systems typically rely upon global positioning system (GPS), indoor systems have to rely upon different techniques for localizing the user, as GPS signals cannot be received indoors. Over the past decade various indoor navigation systems have been developed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of existing indoor navigation systems and analyzes the different techniques used for: (1) locating the user; (2) planning a path; (3) representing the environment and (4) interacting with the user. Our survey identifies a number of research issues that could facilitate large-scale deployment of indoor navigation systems.
Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Supervisory Control BIBAFull-Text 34-47
  M. L. Cummings; C. Mastracchio; K. M. Thornburg; A. Mkrtchyan
Operators currently controlling unmanned aerial vehicles report significant boredom, and such systems will likely become more automated in the future. Similar problems are found in process control, commercial aviation and medical settings. To examine the effect of boredom in such settings, a long-duration low-task-load experiment was conducted. Three low-task-load levels requiring operator input every 10, 20 or 30 min were tested in a 4-h study, using a multiple unmanned vehicle simulation environment that leverages decentralized algorithms for sometimes-imperfect vehicle scheduling. Reaction times to system-generated events generally decreased across the 4 h, as did participants' ability to maintain directed attention. Overall, the participants spent almost half of the time in a distracted state. The top performer spent the majority of time in directed and divided attention states. Unexpectedly, the second-best participant, only 1% worse than the top performer, was distracted for almost one-third of the experiment, but exhibited a periodic switching strategy, allowing himself to pay just enough attention to assist the automation when needed. Indeed, four of the five top performers were distracted for more than one-third of the time. These findings suggest that distraction due to boring, low-task-load environments can be effectively managed through efficient attention switching. Future work is needed to determine optimal frequency and duration of attention state switches, given various exogenous attributes, as well as individual variability. These findings have implications for the design of and personnel selection for supervisory control systems where operators monitor highly automated systems for long durations with only occasional or rare input.
The Perceived Hazard of Earcons in Information Technology Exception Messages: The Effect of Musical Dissonance/Consonance and Pitch BIBAFull-Text 48-59
  T. S. Amer; Todd L. Johnson; Jo-Mae B. Maris; Gregory L. Neal
The audio channel in computing interactions has been the focus of a variety of research interest in recent years. This paper examines one form of audio interface, earcons, in the context of information technology (IT) exception messages. Users of IT commonly encounter exception messages during their interactions with application programs. Exception messages often are accompanied by earcons which are aural messages of a musical nature used in the human-computer interface to provide information and feedback. Utilizing the notions of musical dissonance/consonance and pitch earcons were designed that vary as to their degree of aural disagreeableness and pitch. It is hypothesized that dissonant earcons (possessing aural disagreeableness) and low pitch earcons would be perceived as communicating a higher degree of hazard associated with an underlying computing problem signaled by an exception message. Results indicate support for the hypotheses. The implications are that it may be possible to increase the degree of hazard matching in IT environments by designing earcons to communicate different levels of perceived severity of an underlying computer problem.
Mediated Cues of Group Emotion during Knowledge-Work Tasks: Effects on Subjective and Physiological Responses BIBAFull-Text 60-73
  Mikko Salminen; Niklas Ravaja; Kari Kallinen; Timo Saari
We examined how mediated cues of group emotion influence the emotional state of the members of a non-co-located group when performing knowledge-work tasks in a laboratory. The emotion displayed was determined by the experimenter and the participants were led to believe that there were three other group members simultaneously performing the same tasks (four routine tasks and four planning tasks) in different rooms. Prevailing emotional state of the group (depressed, nervous/stressed, pleasantly excited and pleasantly relaxed), allegedly based on self-report, was displayed in textual format on a web page before the first task and after each task. Facial electromyographic (EMG) activity and electrodermal activity (EDA) were recorded during task performance. Negative cues of group emotion elicited lower self-reported pleasure, lower perceived confidence in the other group members, higher corrugator supercilii EMG activity and higher EDA compared with cues of positive group emotions. Planning tasks elicited higher self-reported pleasure and arousal, lower corrugator EMG activity, and higher EDA compared with routine tasks. The results suggest that mediated textual cues of group emotion can lead to emotional contagion to the individual group members during distributed knowledge work.
Predicting and Detecting the Relevant Contextual Information in a Movie-Recommender System BIBAFull-Text 74-90
  Ante Odic; Marko Tkalcic; Jurij F. Tasic; Andrej Košir
Context-aware recommender system (CARS) is a highly researched and implemented way of providing a personalized service that helps users to find their desired content. One of the remaining issues is how to decide which contextual information to acquire and how to incorporate it into CARS. While the relevant contextual information will improve the recommendations, the irrelevant contextual information could have a negative impact on the recommendation accuracy. By testing the independence between the contextual variable on the users' ratings for items, we can detect its relevance and impact on the feedback for the item consumed in that specific context. In this article, we propose several new theoretical concepts that should help deciding which information to use, as well as a methodology for detecting which contextual information contributes to explaining the variance in the ratings, based on statistical testing. The experiment was conducted on the real movie dataset that contains 12 different pieces of contextual information. We used two statistical tests with power analysis for the detection, and three contextualized matrix-factorization algorithms with slightly different reasoning for the prediction of ratings. The results showed a significant difference in the prediction of ratings in the context that was detected as relevant by our method, and the one that was detected as irrelevant, pointing to the importance of the power analysis and the benefits of the proposed method in the case of a small dataset.
Effects of Perceived Prototype Fidelity in Usability Testing under Different Conditions of Observer Presence BIBAFull-Text 91-101
  A. Uebelbacher; A. Sonderegger; J. Sauer
The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of perceived prototype fidelity in usability tests by comparing two prototypes that differed with respect to their perceived proximity to the final system. The impact of the perceived developmental stage of the product was examined for participants' performance, perceived usability, emotions and psychophysiology. Eighty participants were tested, operating an electronic city guide on a mobile phone. In a 2x2x2 mixed design, the system was either presented as an early prototype or as the final system. In addition, observer presence (no observers vs. three observers) and task difficulty (high vs. low) were experimentally manipulated. Overall, the findings did not indicate major differences for perceived prototype fidelity. However, an interaction between the observer presence and prototype fidelity indicated that the observer presence had a more negative impact on the performance when testing a final system than an early prototype. Furthermore, the observer presence resulted in a psychophysiological stress response. The findings suggest that test outcomes are quite robust against different prototype perceptions but that the observer presence needs careful consideration.
An Exploratory Study Examining the Appropriateness and Potential Benefit of the Nintendo Wii as a Physical Activity Tool in Adults Aged ≥ 55 Years BIBAFull-Text 102-114
  Alison Kirk; Freya MacMillan; Mark Rice; Alex Carmichael
This study investigates the physical exertion of playing the Nintendo Wii® (Wii) and determines the appropriateness and potential benefit of it as a physical activity tool for older adults. Twenty healthy adults (aged 61±6 years) took part in a single session using a selection of the Wii Sports and Wii Fit games. During the gameplay session, heart rate and perceived exertion were measured. Pre- and post-session, we investigated mood using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and cognitive function (i.e. aptitude, abstract reasoning and problem solving) using the test of non-verbal intelligence (TONI-IQ) and trail B tests. We also gathered subjective feedback from participants using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires. Three of the game activities (hula-hoop, rowing squat and leg extension) were identified to reach a moderate level of heart rate intensity, with one activity (jogging) corresponding to a vigorous level. We identified that post-session PANAS-positive subscale scores were greater than pre-session scores (P<0.01). There was a reduction in the time to complete the TONI-IQ test from pre- to post-session (P<0.05). Findings from these data identify that some Wii activities were of an intensity required for health benefits; a single Wii activity session can result in positive mood changes and the Wii interface is generally acceptable and appropriate for this older age adult group. Further randomized controlled and longer term intervention trials are needed to determine the effectiveness of exergame activity programmes.

IWC 2013-03 Volume 25 Issue 2

Organic User Interfaces

Special Issue: Organic User Interfaces BIBFull-Text 115-116
  Roel Vertegaal; Ivan PoupyrevAudrey Girouard
Anthropomorphic Resonances: On the Relationship Between Computer Interfaces and the Human Form and Motion BIBAFull-Text 117-132
  Bert Bongers
This article places the notion of organic user interfaces in a historical context of developments in architecture, art and design, and illustrates the organic design of several recent projects. These examples are drawn from the author's own practice, in musical instrument design, video interfaces and installations, liquid architecture, interactive textiles and 3D printed individually shaped user interfaces. The reciprocal relationship between the human form and function and interface design is discussed, in the historical context of aesthetic and practical responses to technological developments, through the concept of anthropomorphic resonances. The approach proposed and illustrated through the examples aims to shape the (passive as well as the dynamic) shape of the organic user interface to establish these resonances. The use of active feedback and haptic presentation is presented as a way of creating a dynamic organic shape.
The Design of Organic User Interfaces: Shape, Sketching and Hypercontext BIBAFull-Text 133-142
  David Holman; Audrey Girouard; Hrvoje Benko; Roel Vertegaal
With the emergence of flexible display technologies, it will be necessary for interface designers to move beyond flat interfaces and to contextualize interaction in an object's physical shape. Grounded in early explorations of organic user interfaces (OUIs), this paper examines the evolving relationship between industrial and interaction designs and examines how not only what we design is changing, but how we design too. First, we discuss how (and why) to better support the design of OUIs: how supporting sketching, a fundamental activity of many design fields, is increasingly critical and why a 'hypercontextualized' approach to their design can reduce the drawbacks met when everyday objects become interactive. Finally, underlying both these points is the maturation of technology to that of a computational material; when interactive hardware is seamlessly melded into an object's shape, the 'computer' disappears and is better seen as a basic design material that, incidentally, happens to have interactive behavior.
Designing Interactive Paper-Craft Systems with Selective Inductive Power Transmission BIBAFull-Text 143-153
  Kening Zhu; Hideaki Nii; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh; Karin Aue; Adrian David Cheok
Paper, as a traditional material for art and communication, shows great potential as a medium for organic user interfaces, with its ubiquity and flexibility. However, controlling and powering the sensors and actuators that enable interactive paper-crafts has not been fully explored. We present a method of selective inductive power transmission (SIPT) to support interactive paper-crafts. The novelty of this method is that the power transmitter can be controlled to selectively activate one specific receiver at a time through inductive power transferring with multiple receivers. This was achieved by changing the output frequency of the power transmitter to match the impedance of the receivers. The receivers could be embedded or printed to drive paper-crafts. Based on inductor-capacitor oscillating circuit and a function generator with a power amplifier, we developed two different prototypes of SIPT. By comparing the performance of both prototypes, we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of the two systems, and their applications in different contexts of paper-crafts. In addition, we proposed the instructions for using SIPT in developing interactive paper-crafts. With this technology and instructions, we hope to facilitate users to easily design new types of paper-craft systems without being concerned about the arrangement of wire connections to power supply on a massive scale.
'MoleBot': An Organic User-Interface-Based Robot That Provides Users with Richer Kinetic Interactions BIBAFull-Text 154-172
  Woohun Lee; Narae Lee; Ju-Whan Kim; Myeongsoo Shin; Jungsoo Lee
We introduce a new type of organic user interface that displays a 3D robotic creature, 'MoleBot' to provide a ludic experience inspired by traditional board games. To ensure fluid motions of the molehills cast by the 'MoleBot', the table surface combines horizontal rigidity with the vertical flexibility of over 15,000 movable pins. Users are enabled to kinetically interact with this creature via a joystick or gestural commands. We conducted user study sessions with 12 participants and classified the observed spontaneous play activities into 4 distinct categories: (1) enjoying simple ludic experience, (2) competing in skills, (3) mimicking realworld sports and (4) playing with a companion. In addition, a focusgroup interview with six video scenarios was conducted to explore the idea of potential applications and it was suggested that the 'MoleBot' can be used in interactive board-gaming environments and kinetically informative tabletops.
AmbiKraf Byobu: Merging Technology with Traditional Craft BIBAFull-Text 173-182
  Roshan Lalintha Peiris; Jeffrey Tzu Kwan Valino Koh; Mili John Tharakan; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Adrian David Cheok
In this paper, we present a synergy of technology and traditional craft made possible with AmbiKraf Byobu. AmbiKraf is a non-emissive, color-changing fabric technology that allows subtle animations on fabrics. Byobu is a traditional Japanese room-divider screen, usually painted by artisans and crafts people. We first discuss the organic qualities of AmbiKraf technology that particularly lend itself to traditional art and craft practice. These qualities include the animation of ambient, non-intrusive and calming motifs using non-emissive display characteristics. We then discuss in detail how AmbiKraf technology is implemented and paired with the art form of Byobu. Interaction with the system is also briefly touched upon, as well as discussion regarding the cultural implications and mutual benefit of combining technology with traditional craft. Through the use of AmbiKraf technology embodied by the Byobu, we hope to provide a convincing example that sensitively combines traditional textile crafts with new technology in order to help redefine the meaning and role of traditional textiles.
Theatre, PlayDoh and Comic Strips: Designing Organic User Interfaces with Young Adolescent and Teenage Participants BIBAFull-Text 183-198
  Janet C. Read; Daniel Fitton; Matthew Horton
This paper presents the process and outputs from a participatory design activity with secondary school children whose task was to design organic user interfaces (OUIs) for use in energy-aware applications. Although experienced in participatory design sessions with children and teenagers, the design team faced three new challenges in this work: how to convey the idea of OUIs, how to facilitate the pupils to design OUIs and how to interpret the OUI design ideas. To convey the ideas of OUI, the Obstructed Theatre method, used in other studies with children and teenagers, was used. In this work, the salient features of the OUI conveyed in the theatre were: its malleability, its potential to bend and change shape, its association with the body and its novelty. To facilitate the design, three scenarios of increasing user interface complexity were conveyed in the theatre; and three different media (i) slime and pipe cleaners, (ii) PlayDoh and small Lego bricks, (iii) fabric and sticky shapes that afforded the creation of designs representing future organic interactive technologies were deployed. To enable the design team to make sense of the resulting designs, a Comic Strip approach was used to capture the changes in the designs as they demonstrated interaction. The paper explores this work from three perspectives; first, the effectiveness of the Obstructed Theatre approach to convey requirements of OUIs, secondly, the effectiveness of the three media used in the design sessions to encourage design solutions for OUIs and thirdly, the quality and relevance of the design ideas generated in the sessions and communicated to the design team using the Comic Strips and their applicability to other contexts. The paper concludes with some thoughts on methods and materials that could be used to encourage design ideas for OUIs and offers some of the participants more innovative ideas for the research and development community.

IWC 2013-05 Volume 25 Issue 3

The Social Implications of Embedded Systems

Introduction to the Special Section: The Social Implications of Embedded Systems BIBAFull-Text 199-203
  Stuart Moran; Irene López de Vallejo
When interacting with any technology that differs significantly from what its users are comfortable and familiar with, there is likely to be an increased risk of undesirable and unexpected effects on their lives. Embedded systems are a prime and timely example of such dramatic change, where computing devices are placed inside everyday objects, thus making them 'smart' by enhancing their capabilities, whilst simultaneously fading their functionality into the background and out of sight. These devices will become connected to different systems and to each other, forming complex networks of smart devices that will ultimately become the core infrastructure of future technologies. The direct form of interaction with existing computer systems stands to be 'turned on its head', where actively and directly interacting with computing technologies will no longer be a necessity. Given the intended wide-scale spread and use of this technology, it stands not only to be embedded in the world in a physical sense, but also become embedded in our social lives as well. This will amplify the potential undesirable consequences of the systems, placing a strong need to understand and measure the social impact of these technologies.
Exploring Interpretations of Data from the Internet of Things in the Home BIBAFull-Text 204-217
  Michael Brown; Tim Coughlan; Glyn Lawson; Murray Goulden; Robert J. Houghton; Richard Mortier
The 'Internet of Things' (IoT) can be expected to radically increase the amount of potentially sensitive data gathered in our homes. This study explores the social implications of the presentation of data that could be collected within the household. In particular, it focuses on how ambiguities in these data, combined with existing interpersonal relationships, could influence social dynamics. Thirty-five participants were each presented with three separate household scenarios, involving ambiguous data that were collected and presented via near-future IoT technologies. Each participant was asked to respond to a series of open and closed questions about how they would interpret the data, how they would react to it and their general opinions of the technologies presented. Through qualitative and quantitative analysis of their responses, we contribute an understanding of how people interpret information about those around them. We find a common willingness to make inferences based on ambiguities within the data, even when participants are aware of the limitations of their understanding. We also find that sharing data produced via tagging of everyday objects raises a high level of privacy concern, and that, in a somewhat incoherent stance, users are more comfortable in sharing data publicly than in a targeted fashion with commercial organizations. Our findings also suggest that the age of the target user group has a greater effect on ease of use judgements than the nature of the technology, and we find some evidence that user's interpretations can be biased by an individual's age.
Audience Measurement of Digital Signage: Quantitative Study in Real-World Environment Using Computer Vision BIBAFull-Text 218-228
  Robert Ravnik; Franc Solina
We present a quantitative study of digital signage audience measurement using computer vision. We developed a camera-enhanced digital signage display that acquires audience measurement metrics with computer vision algorithms. Temporal metrics of a person's dwell time, display in-view time and attention time are extracted. The system also determines demographic metrics of the gender and age group. The digital signage display was deployed in a real-world environment of a clothing boutique, where demographic and viewership data of 1294 store customers were recorded, manually verified and analysed. The analysis shows that 35% of customers specifically looked-at the display, having the average attention time of 0.7 s. Interestingly, the attention time was substantially higher for men (1.2 s) than for women (0.4 s). Age group comparison reveals that children (1-14 years) are the most responsive to the digital signage. Finally, the analysis shows that the average attention time is significantly higher when displaying the dynamic content (0.9 s) when compared with the static content (0.6 s).
Terms of Agreement: Rethinking Consent for Pervasive Computing BIBAFull-Text 229-241
  E. Luger; T. Rodden
With its emphasis on 'smart environments', the vision of pervasive computing raises critical concerns with respect to consent. When sensors capture data about people, and digital systems interpret and respond to that data below the line of user visibility, two fundamental questions arise. First, are current notions of consent relevant in the emerging class of pervasive systems and, secondly, what are the practical consequences of dealing with consent for such environments? This paper reflects on the key principles of consent and the challenges raised by pervasive systems through a review of multidisciplinary perspectives on consent and technology. The developing complexity and decreasing visibility of pervasive computing systems, coupled with the increasing value and sensitivity of personal data, mean that it is no longer sufficient to design systems that assume users capable of making informed decisions at a single moment. In particular, the unprecedented sensitivity of contextual data, and the potential harms associated with inferences made on the basis of that data, highlights the need to revisit our design principles. Many of these discussions are nuanced and implicate a broad range of perspectives; however, it is clear that there is unlikely to be a 'moment of consent' in pervasive systems. In order to progress this agenda we offer the following set of recommendations to designers, as considerations for future systems design: (i) electronic consent mechanisms (ECMs) must cease to be designed around 'moments in time' and allow for negotiation, (ii) systems should enable establishment of user expectations and development of norms, (iii) systems should be sensitive to third-party interactions and (iv) we should move beyond designing for user control towards designing for user autonomy.

Regular Papers

A Design, Tests and Considerations for Improving Keystroke and Mouse Loggers BIBAFull-Text 242-258
  Jonathan H. Morgan; Chen-Yang Cheng; Christopher Pike; Frank E. Ritter
We start by reviewing several logging tools. We then report improvements to a keystroke logger we have developed for the Mac and PC, Recording User Input (RUI). These improvements include changes to its interface, increased accuracy and extensions to its logging ability. RUI runs in the background recording user behavior with timestamps and mouse location data across all applications -- thus avoiding problems associated with video logs and instrumenting individual applications. We provide a summary and comparison of tests for loggers and present procedures for validating logger timing that quantifies timing accuracy using an external clock. We demonstrate these tests on RUI and three other applications (Morae, Camtasia and AppMonitor). We conclude by providing some general specifications and considerations for creating, testing, evaluating and using keystroke and mouse loggers with respect to different experimental questions and tasks.
Effect of Interface Dynamism on Learning Procedural Motor Skills BIBAFull-Text 259-269
  Olurotimi Richard Akinlofa; Patrik O'Brian Holt; Eyad Elyan
The effectiveness of dynamic versus static visualizations in computer-based training (CBT) systems has generated a lot of research effort with divergent findings. The work reported in this paper examines a novel paradigm that learning a procedural motor skill may be enhanced by instructional visualizations that optimizes the construction of mental task models. We investigated the interaction of different interface visualizations of a CBT system with the cognitive characteristics of trainees by comparing three conditions of interface dynamism in a mechanical motor skills learning task. Ninety-one participants across three treatment groups performed a disassembly motor task. After controlling for effects of spatial visualization abilities, participants who used training interfaces with dynamic information content completed the post-learning motor task faster and more accurately than those who used interfaces with a static visual content. These findings suggest that instructional interfaces having motor coordinating information, which is intrinsic to the execution of procedural motor tasks, are more suitable for CBT of novice trainees. It may also imply the possibility of a common approach to the design and implementation of CBT systems, which is independent of learner's cognitive abilities.


Erratum BIBAKFull-Text 270
Corrections to tables 1 and 2 in Shin (2010), IWC, 22(5), 428-438.
Keywords: Correction

IWC 2013-07 Volume 25 Issue 4

Commentary on Scale Derivation

Introduction to the Special Issue: The Tricky Landscape of Developing Rating Scales in HCI BIBFull-Text 271-277
  Gitte Lindgaard; Jurek Kirakowski
GEQ (Game Engagement/Experience Questionnaire): A Review of Two Papers BIBAFull-Text 278-283
  Kent L. Norman
In recent years, research on the psychological aspects and assessment of video games has become more and more important due to their impact in entertainment and education. The development of psychometric instruments to measure different factors of a player's engagement and skills in playing video games and to measure different factors of the game's playability and attractiveness is essential to this research. This article reviews two papers on measuring the player's subjective experiences playing the game by IJsselsteijn et al. (2007, Characterising and Measuring User Experiences in Digital Games. ACE Conference '07, June 13-15, Salzburg, Austria) and the player's level of engagement in playing games by Brockmyer et al. (2009, The Development of the Game Engagement Questionnaire: A Measure of Engagement in Video Game-playing. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol., 45, 624-634). While approaching the topic with very different purposes and methodologies, both papers contribute important ideas and useful scales that should be used by researchers in the field.
Gauging Engagement in Video Games: Does Game Violence Relate to Player Behavior? Report on a Study BIBAFull-Text 284-286
  John J. Bosley
A study designed to define and measure the construct of 'engagement' with video games is reported, using a verbal questionnaire named the game engagement questionnaire (GEQ). The engagement construct is derived from an elaborate model of cognitive processes. Scale construction employed classical scaling techniques and the educationally oriented Rasch analytic procedures, and the authors assert that these procedures demonstrate that game engagement is quantifiable by the GEQ score. These analyses meet conventional psychometric standards, but they fail to clearly demonstrate construct unidimensionality. The theory behind the construct is complex and its relevance is not clear. Furthermore, restriction of attention to the violent aspects of games requires revalidation of the GEQ using non-violent (or less violent) games. The study restricted its attention to games with violent content, and showed that greater measured engagement in play of such games does manifest itself in higher scores on an existing aggression questionnaire (AQ). They infer that this association may be an indicator of the risk that deep engagement in violent video games could lead to actual aggressive behaviors on the part of players. This review acknowledges that GEQ is potentially useful for measuring some aspect of game engagement, but views the inferential linkage of engagement with aggressive behaviors based on questionable evidence concerning how game experiences are linked cognitively with emotional responses and behavioral changes outside of the game environment.
Comments on the Article 'Characterising and Measuring User Experiences in Digital Games' by IJsselsteijn et al. (2007) BIBAFull-Text 287-289
  Noirin Curran
The article under review was written by a group of researchers at the Game Experience Research Lab based in Eindhoven University of Technology. Four aims are outlined; (1) To describe the challenge of adequately characterizing and measuring experiences associated with playing digital games; (2) To discuss the applicability of traditional usability metrics to user-centred game design; (3) To highlight the concepts of flow and immersion as candidates for evaluating game play; (4) To describe the multi-measure approach they employ to this end.
The Development of the Game Engagement Questionnaire: A Measure of Engagement in Video Game Playing: Response to Reviews BIBAFull-Text 290-293
  Christine M. Fox; Jeanne H. Brockmyer
This paper begins with an argument that most measure development in the social sciences, with its reliance on correlational techniques as a tool, falls short of the requirements for constructing meaningful, unidimensional measures of human attributes. By demonstrating how rating scales are ordinal-level data, we argue the necessity of converting these to equal-interval units to develop a measure that is both qualitatively and quantitatively defensible. This requires that the empirical results and theoretical explanation are questioned and adjusted at each step of the process. In our response to the reviewers, we describe how this approach was used to develop the Game Engagement Questionnaire (GEQ), including its emphasis on examining a continuum of involvement in violent video games. The GEQ is an empirically sound measure focused on one player characteristic that may be important in determining game influence.
The Psychometric Approach to User Satisfaction Measurement BIBAFull-Text 294-298
  Niamh McNamara
Measuring user satisfaction is an important activity for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) professionals and there exists a plethora of instruments for this purpose. The aim of this paper is to propose three criteria that practitioners can use when evaluating questionnaire quality prior to selecting an instrument for use in an evaluation. These criteria are: (1) the presence of a clear conceptualization of satisfaction based on a sound theoretical framework, (2) the use of the psychometric method in the questionnaire development process and (3) the extent to which the questionnaire developers have considered the usefulness of the final instrument in an evaluation setting. Two recently published satisfaction questionnaire are discussed in light of these three criteria.
Critical Review of 'The Intranet Satisfaction Questionnaire: Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure User Satisfaction with the Intranet' BIBAFull-Text 299-301
  James R. Lewis
In 2009, Bargas-Avila, Lötscher, Orsini and Opwis published The Intranet Satisfaction Questionnaire (ISQ). In their research, Bargas-Avila et al. (2009, Intranet satisfaction questionnaire: development and validation of a questionnaire to measure user satisfaction with the intranet. Comput. Hum. Behav., 25, 1241-1250.) identified an important aspect of HCI for which there was no existing standardized satisfaction questionnaire -- the evaluation of corporate Intranets. To fill this void, they developed the ISQ after two rounds of careful, detailed item development and analysis. The resulting instrument has 13 items with two subscales: Content Quality and Intranet Usability, with a large-sample estimated reliability (coefficient alpha) of 0.89. They used the 13-item version of the ISQ to evaluate the Intranets of six companies, varying in size and sector. Despite some analytical weaknesses associated with its psychometric evaluation, it appears to work well for its intended purpose.
Comments on Lascu and Clow (2008) BIBAFull-Text 302-303
  Jeff Sauro
Lascu and Clow provide a helpful literature review into web site satisfaction, detail a repeatable process for other researchers and propose their own scale of website interactivity with four subscales with low-to-strong internal reliability. The major disadvantage of the new scale is one-third of the 15-item questionnaire measures aspects of customer service center quality. Although such measures of 'Customer Centeredness' are important, it tends to be less universally helpful to many large e-commerce websites which have little telephonic interaction with their customers.
Response to the Reviews on Bargas-Avila et al. (2009) 'Intranet Satisfaction Questionnaire: Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure User Satisfaction with the Intranet' BIBAFull-Text 304-306
  Sébastien Orsini; Klaus Opwis; Javier A. Bargas-Avila
This article contains the response to the reviews regarding the development and validation of the Intranet Satisfaction Questionnaire (ISQ), which measures user satisfaction with the Intranet. Where appropriate additional data analysis and interpretation is provided, the data show further evidence for the good validity, reliability and sensitivity of this tool. In addition, we provide a short preview of a follow-up publication and show that the ISQ can differentiate effectively between bad and good Intranets.
Website Interaction Satisfaction: A Reassessment BIBAFull-Text 307-311
  Dana-Nicoleta Lascu; Kenneth E. Clow
Construct identification and definition are among the primary challenges in the process of scale development. The Website Interaction Satisfaction scale (Lascu, D.N. and Clow, K.E. (2008) Web site interaction satisfaction: Scale development considerations. J. Internet Commer., 7, 359-378), developed in an attempt to reconcile the well-established e-satisfaction measures in the marketing literature and the user information satisfaction measures in the information systems literature, is facing such challenges. This article discusses the process involved in developing the Website Interaction Satisfaction scale and addresses potential scale limitations as identified by McNamara ((2013) The psychometric approach to user satisfaction measurement. Interact. Comput., 25, 294-298) and Sauro ((2013) Comments on Lascu and Clow 2008. Interact. Comput., 25, 302-303) Specifically, the article sheds additional light on the processes used to outline and delineate the construct domain and to develop and refine the item pool, and on the process used in testing the measure.
A Commentary on Short Questionnaires for Assessing Usability BIBAFull-Text 312-316
  Paul Cairns
Usability is an important aspect of any interactive system, but only one aspect leading to its success. Thus, when evaluating a system, it is useful to have short questionnaires that can lead to reliable, sensitive and valid measures of usability. In this commentary, I discuss two papers that aim to develop two such measures: one is for a four-item usability metric and the other a single-item usability. Whilst care is taken in both cases to produce suitable metrics, the processes have flaws that influence the value of these metrics. The underlying problem seems to lie with the application of psychometric methods when there are better methods available in this context. Even allowing for this, in the end there remains the problem of construct validity that undermines any such efforts.
Creating a Short Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX) Scale BIBAFull-Text 317-319
  John J. Bosley
This paper describes development and initial validation testing of new 4-item usability assessment tool, 'Usability Metric for User Experience' or UMUX. UMUX is intended to measure usability as one component in a multicomponent software assessment suite. It needs to be short, in comparison with the longer, widely-used tool it is designed to replace, to keep the overall software assessment acceptably brief. The basic process of scale construction described is psychometrically adequate. However, UMUX validation in a live test of two corporate software systems known to differ in usability shows that the UMUX score variance is quite large. There were also major qualitative differences between the tested systems. These non-usability-related differences may have influenced both UMUX and SUS scale scores enough, in unknown ways, to make additional UMUX testing on more comparable systems imperative before UMUX is fielded for use.
Critical Review of 'The Usability Metric for User Experience' BIBAFull-Text 320-324
  James R. Lewis
In 2010, Kraig Finstad published (in this journal) 'The Usability Metric for User Experience' -- the UMUX. The UMUX is a standardized usability questionnaire designed to produce scores similar to the System Usability Scale (SUS), but with 4 rather than 10 items. The development of the questionnaire followed standard psychometric practice. Psychometric evaluation of the final version of the UMUX indicated acceptable levels of reliability (internal consistency), concurrent validity, and sensitivity. Critical review of this research suggests that its weakest element was the structural analysis, which concluded that the UMUX is unidimensional based on insufficient evidence. Mixed-tone item content and parallel analysis of the eigenvalues point to a possible two-factor structure. This weakness, however, is of more theoretical than practical importance, given the overall scale's apparent reliability, validity, and sensitivity.
A Single-Item Measure of Website Usability: Comments on Christophersen and Konradt (2011) BIBAFull-Text 325-326
  Jeff Sauro
Christophersen and Konradt show that a single-item measure of usability can retain most of the information garnered in multi-item scale. While there is some loss of information and reliability, the authors show that when a single item is needed, it can be reliable, sensitive (discriminate between good and bad usability) and valid (correlates with other known measures of usability).
Response to commentaries on 'The Usability Metric for User Experience' BIBAFull-Text 327-330
  Kraig Finstad
The Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX) is a four-item Likert scale aimed at replicating the psychometric properties of the System Usability Scale (SUS) in a more compact form. As part of a special issue of the journal Interacting with Computers, the UMUX is being examined in terms of purpose, reliability, validity and structure. This response to commentaries addresses concerns with these issues through updated archival research, deeper analysis on the original data and some updated results with an average-scoring system. The new results show the UMUX performs as expected for a wide range of systems and consists of one underlying usability factor.
Measuring Psychological Constructs Using Single-Item Scales: Answers to Experts' Comments and Additional Questions BIBAFull-Text 331-333
  Udo Konradt; Timo Christophersen
This article is an answer to a commentary on Christophersen and Konradt's (2011. Reliability, validity, and sensitivity of a single-item measure of online store usability. Int. J. Hum. Comput. Stud., 69, 269-280) study on a single-item measure of online store usability. The authors suggest that while their research has demonstrated the psychometric quality of their measure, greater efforts should be made to perform more rigorous tests of measures by applying main and supplemental psychometric quality criteria. In addition, it is suggested that future research should also (i) examine the type of construct by using formative and reflective measurement models; (ii) put forward relevant cognitive processes during answering questions and (iii) make use of behavioral and physiological data to complement user's self-reports.

IWC 2013-09 Volume 25 Issue 5


Intuitive Multi-Touch Gestures for Mobile Web Browsers BIBAFull-Text 335-350
  Wonkyu Park; Sung H. Han
This study attempted to find intuitive gestures for mobile web browsers and identify the basic elements that constitute multi-touch gestures for mobile devices. Thirty-six mobile phone users participated in an experiment in which they were asked to provide hand gestures appropriate for web browsing commands and explain the reasons. A total of 642 gestures were collected for 18 web browsing commands. Identical gestures were classified into the same group, and the degree to which the participants agreed on each gesture (agreement level) was evaluated. The average agreement level was 0.16. Six important gesture elements were also identified from the collected gestures. These elements are expected to be very useful in describing complex gestures formally and in providing designers with helpful guidelines, such as identifying dominant elements. This study successfully collected gestures that are intuitive to users, but further research is necessary to design the final gesture set.
Amail: Design and Evaluation of an Accessible Email Tool for Persons with Aphasia BIBAFull-Text 351-374
  Abdullah Al Mahmud; Jean-Bernard Martens
In this paper, we describe the iterative design and exploratory evaluation of 'Amail', an email tool designed for persons with aphasia. It is inspired by interviews with persons with aphasia and their partners and has been improved through discussions with experienced speech therapists. Our user studies show that aphasics find current email communication tools too challenging to use. The most pronounced barrier is the lack of writing support. Based on these findings, we designed an email application with language support and limited functionality that is easier to use than existing solutions. The email program has been evaluated in two complementary ways: (i) by collecting system logs as objective data and (ii) by conducting questionnaires and interviews with aphasics to understand their opinions, expectations and concerns. Our evaluation confirms that aphasics find the email tool easy to use and the language support is indeed a substantial help when composing emails. Moreover, participants demonstrated an increased confidence when composing messages using Amail. Suggestions for adaptations that could further improve the support for the target group were also collected.
Working with an Invisible Active User: Understanding Trust in Technology and Co-User from the Perspective of a Passive User BIBAFull-Text 375-385
  Jie Xu; Enid Montague
Distance collaboration technologies affect the way active and passive users interact in technology-mediated systems. Decreases in social and contextual cues in distance collaboration may have a large impact on passive users' perception of active users and the technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate passive users' trust in active users and trust in technology under varied technological conditions and active user performance. A laboratory experiment was conducted using simulated psychomotor tasks distance collaboration scenarios. Participants observed an active user, who performed tasks without being physically present. Their subjective report on trust in the active user, trust in technology and perceived active user's workload, as well as physiological responses, including eye movement, electrodermal activity and cardiovascular activity, were gathered. The results showed that technology conditions affected passive users' subjective reports, specifically; the participants exhibited higher arousal in the affect arousal system during the observation. Furthermore, the passive users seemed to evaluate their trust in the active user according to their trust in technology. This implies that in a distance collaboration context, technology use could affect interpersonal relationships between active and passive users.
Shared Input Multimodal Mobile Interfaces: Interaction Modality Effects on Menu Selection in Single-Task and Dual-Task Environments BIBAFull-Text 386-403
  Shengdong Zhao; Duncan P. Brumby; Mark Chignell; Dario Salvucci; Sahil Goyal
Audio and visual modalities are two common output channels in the user interfaces embedded in today's mobile devices. However, these user interfaces are typically centered on the visual modality as the primary output channel, with audio output serving a secondary role. This paper argues for an increased need for shared input multimodal user interfaces for mobile devices. A shared input multimodal interface can be operated independently using a specific output modality, leaving users to choose the preferred method of interaction in different scenarios. We evaluate the value of a shared input multimodal menu system both in a single-task desktop setting and in a dynamic dual-task setting, in which the user was required to interact with the shared input multimodal menu system while driving a simulated vehicle. Results indicate that users were faster at locating a target item in the menu when visual feedback was provided in the single-task desktop setting, but in the dual-task driving setting, visual output presented a significant source of visual distraction that interfered with driving performance. In contrast, auditory output mitigated some of the risk associated with menu selection while driving. A shared input multimodal interface allows users to take advantage of multiple feedback modalities properly, providing a better overall experience.
Satisficing and the Use of Keyboard Shortcuts: Being Good Enough Is Enough? BIBAFull-Text 404-416
  Susanne Tak; Piet Westendorp; Iris van Rooij
Keyboard shortcuts are generally accepted as the most efficient method for issuing commands, but previous research has suggested that many people do not use them. In this study we investigate the use of keyboard shortcuts further and explore reasons why they are underutilized by users. In Experiment 1, we establish two baseline findings: (1) people infrequently use keyboard shortcuts and (2) lack of knowledge of keyboard shortcuts cannot fully account for the low frequency of use. In Experiments 2 and 3, we furthermore establish that (3) even when put under time pressure users often fail to select those methods they themselves believe to be fastest and (4) the frequency of use of keyboard shortcuts can be increased by a tool that assists users learning keyboard shortcuts. We discuss how the theoretical notion of 'satisficing', adopted from economic and cognitive theory, can explain our results.

IWC 2013-11 Volume 25 Issue 6


Silver Surfers, E-government and the Digital Divide: An Exploratory Study of UK Local Authority Websites and Older Citizens BIBAFull-Text 417-442
  Jyoti Choudrie; Gheorghita Ghinea; Vivian Nwamaka Songonuga
Governments around the globe are striving to provide e-government, online products and services to all the citizens of their respective countries. This has meant that there is a shift in the conventional mode of public service delivery from a face-to-face and telephone mode to electronic means. However, not all the citizens are making use of these changes, and the one demographic group that is currently attracting immense interest related to their welfare, health and other such issues is the older age group. Using this as a reason, the aim of this exploratory and explanatory research was to understand the e-government initiatives in the UK, more specifically in London. To conduct this research, a mixed qualitative and quantitative research approach was pursued. It was concluded that the benefits of the Internet to many of the users is relative, depending on the age, perceptions and level of innovativeness of the user. It was learnt that in relation to quality, the local authority websites do contain useful and relevant information for the elderly. However, this information is difficult to access, mainly due to the lack of knowledge, skills in the use of computers or Internet. From this research, it is expected that a contribution to academia will emerge in the form of a better understanding of issues related to e-government, the digital divide and older citizens. For industry, the contributions of this research are the identification and understanding of issues related to online products and services and the older citizen. For policy-makers, this research proffers an understanding of issues related with demand and supply of online products and services that governments are currently providing.
The Influence of a Location-Aware Mobile Guide on Museum Visitors' Behavior BIBAFull-Text 443-460
  Joel Lanir; Tsvi Kuflik; Eyal Dim; Alan J. Wecker; Oliviero Stock
Many museums offer their visitors the use of a mobile guide to enhance their visit experience. Novel mobile guides have the potential to provide personalized, context-aware, rich content to museum visitors. However, they might also affect the way visitors behave and interact. While many studies have examined novel features that these guides can provide to enhance the visit experience, few have looked into the impact that a mobile guide might have on the actual behavior of the visitors. We describe a field study conducted with 403 actual museum visitors, over a period of 10 months comparing behaviors of visitors who used a mobile multimedia location-aware guide during their visit and that of visitors who did not use any electronic aid. Results indicate that visitors' behavior was altered considerably when using a mobile guide. Visitors using a mobile guide visited the museum longer and were attracted to and spent more time at exhibits where they could get information from the guide. In addition, we provide empirical evidence of the decoupling effect that a mobile guide has on pairs of visitors. Using a mobile guide caused visitors to reduce proximity and to interact less with their fellow group members. Finally, we discuss what may be done to reduce this negative social effect.
Software Refactoring Process to Accommodate User-Interface Adaptivity in Existing Applications BIBAFull-Text 461-484
  Anthony Savidis; Constantine Stephanidis
Adaptive user-interfaces are capable of: (a) composing themselves at runtime according to a given deployment profile typically encompassing user and usage-context information and (b) possibly dropping user-interface components and activate better alternatives in their place in response to dynamic profile modifications. While adaptive behavior increasingly gains interest for a wide range of software products and services, its support is very demanding requiring adoption of user-interface architectural patterns from the very early software design phases. While previous research addressed the issue of engineering adaptive interactive applications right from scratch, there is an important methodological gap as we lack processes for the systematic evolution of existing non-adaptive applications to adaptive ones. We present a stepwise transformation process of the user-interface source code by incrementally upgrading all relevant implementation structures towards user-interface adaptivity. Because all transformation actions have been chosen to be standard refactorings the conduct of the process is well-defined while adoption preserves the original application architecture and quality of the source code.