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HCII Tables of Contents: 13-714-114-214-314-414-515-115-215-315-415-5

HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on HCI: Posters' Extended Abstracts, Part II

Fullname:HCI International 2015: 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Posters Extended Abstracts, Part II
Note:Volume 28 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Communications in Computer and Information Science 529
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-21383-5 hcibib: HCII15-5; ISBN: 978-3-319-21382-8 (print), 978-3-319-21383-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 5
    1. Mobile Interaction and Smart Devices
    2. Social Media
    3. HCI in Business and Innovation
    4. Learning Technologies
    5. HCI in Health
    6. Assistive Technologies and Environments
    7. Fitness and Well-Being Applications
    8. Location and Context Awareness
    9. Urban Interaction
    10. Automotive and Aviation
    11. Design and User Studies

HCII 2015-08-02 Volume 5

Mobile Interaction and Smart Devices

Is Touch-Based Text Input Practical for a Smartwatch? BIBAKFull-Text 3-8
  Barbara S. Chaparro; Jibo He; Colton Turner; Kirsten Turner
The use of smartwatches is increasing exponentially as is consumer interest. Currently, smartwatches offer the ability to read text messages, notifications, and email once they are synchronized with a smartphone. Text input, however, is limited to voice or predefined response phrases and no input keyboard is typically provided. A general consensus is that the interface of a smartwatch may be too small to implement a QWERTY keyboard. This study examined user performance and acceptance with two commercially available QWERTY keyboards, Swype and Fleksy, on a smartwatch. Contrary to the suspicion about the small screen of a smartwatch for text input, results indicate users can type accurately at speeds averaging 20-30 words per minute after brief practice, which is comparable to the typing speed of novice smartphone users.
Keywords: Smartwatch; Text input; Fleksy; Swype; Touch; Wearable
User Recognition and Preference of App Icon Stylization Design on the Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 9-15
  Chun-Ching Chen
At limited area of smartphone display, it is critical that app icon should provide good recognition and user preference. Based on the key components of an icon, this study investigated app icon design across different mobile operating systems (Apple iOS, Google Android and Windows Phone 8, with different icon design principles respectively) to understand recognition performance and user preference of different icon types. In this study, current mobile apps icons collected from app stores were characterized and examined based on different composition of "stylization" (three categories: pictorial illustration, graphic rendering and graphic symbology) and "border shape" (two categories: open and close border). The six different compositions of icons were then implemented functionally on a smartphone to test recognition time, accuracy and subjective opinion. Results show that participants prefer pictorial illustration icons, but have no significant preference on border shape. For the recognition, users perform better time on simplified stylization, but make more errors relatively. Results indicate that open border shape icon is beneficial for recognition. In conclusion, icons designed with open border shape and graphic rendering is better for users' recognition and preference on the smartphone.
Keywords: Stylization; App icon; Graphical user interface
Towards Personalized Interfaces for Mobile Applications Using a Natural Text-Based Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 16-21
  Yi Ji; Chek Tien Tan; Ernest Edmonds
In this paper a minimal interface for mobile application is provided that is built upon a domain specific interaction language. The domain specific interaction language provides textual interaction customization language which supports its users input any word or sentence related to the interaction that the users want to make. The textual interaction customization language supports the mobile devices users to construct a semantic and minimal interface.
Keywords: Personalized interface; Natural language; Text-based interaction; Creativity; User interface design
Can Color Tell? Smartphone LED Notification Color and Users' Perception of the Situation BIBAKFull-Text 22-26
  Minsun Kim; Yongjae Kim; Jaeyoung Ji; Jiyoung Hong; Jinhae Coi; Kwang-Hee Han
In this study, we investigated whether the use of LED colors that are cognitively congruent with the notification situations can help smartphone users to intuitively understand the situation. We examined whether cognitive loads placed on smartphone users differ between when single color is used and when RGB colors are jointly used to better match the situations. We predicted that participants will more quickly and correctly understand the situations when RGB colors are used than when single color is used because the use of RGB colors will improve their memory (i.e., the process of encoding and retrieval) due to the high cognitive congruency between LED colors and situations. In an experiment, we randomly assigned participants to single-color LED notification groups (i.e., red color group and white color group) and RGB color notification group and measured their cognitive loads by assessing their task performance (e.g., response time and error rate) and subjective ratings. We found no overall difference in participants' cognitive loads between groups. However, in an additional analysis, we found a significant difference exists in early rounds of experiment although the difference disappeared as participants accumulate more rounds of experiences. Our results suggest that the use of proper LED colors can help smartphone users to more effectively and efficiently understand the situations; however, the positive effect will be low for those who have more experiences of LED notification lights. We believe our study provides important implications to the study on the design of LED notification lights.
Keywords: LED notification lights; Notification situation; Cognitive load; Cognitive congruency; LED color
A Suggestion for a Smartphone Video Player Interface BIBAKFull-Text 27-31
  Gyu Hong Kyung
This paper proposes a new video player controlling application with an easy and user-friendly interface. Two existing video players, highly rated in Google Play, are analyzed. Based on the analysis, a prototype video player with an interactive interface was provided. This newly created video player that places importance on the control's button size, placement and spacing between the keys, implements control buttons that appear where the user's finger touches the display screen. To understand the usability of current video players and determine whether the new design has an impact, a survey of 51 people was conducted. The outcome revealed that the suggested video player provided the best usability for the video control. The result of this paper suggests that the proposed video player could be used as a framework for designing a user interface to enhance the usability of video players.
Keywords: Video player; Interface; Control
Implications of HCI in Energy Consumption Between Native and Rich-Client Applications for Navigations Widgets in Tablets BIBAFull-Text 32-38
  Ana Belem Márquez Quintos; Amilcar Meneses Viveros; Erika Hernández Rubio
The mobile platforms could be classified among those using virtual machine and that not use to run native apps. A native app is developed in a specific way for an specific mobile platform. The Rich-Client Applications are structured multilayer form. Developers and users have the problem of working with the constraints of mobile devices such as the energy consumption. The developers have tried to do user-centered designs. Analyzes have been conducted to justify the feasibility of developing mobile device applications natively or rich-client. This paper presents a comparative study of navigation widget in rich-client applications against native iOS and Android applications is presented. The results presented do not make a quantitative comparison between native iOS and Android applications.
Adaptive UI from Human Behavior Pattern on Small Screen Interface: Focused on Double-Swipe Interface BIBAKFull-Text 39-44
  Hee-Seung Moon; Da Young Ju
Recently, various smart devices are released and user's task environment is changing from desktop-sized interface to mobile device. This research proves possibility of AUI optimized for touch screen device. This paper is aimed to lead enhanced AUI with improved performance and gesture error ratio. We made experiments about users' intuitive behavior pattern on restricted interface, especially focused on double-swipe. Main contribution of this research is approach to AUI by focusing on input method from small mobile device kinds of smart watch.
Keywords: Adaptive UI; Personalization; Gesture behavior pattern; Small screen interface; Double-Swipe interface
Hyper Panel System: Display System for Poster Layouts with Detailed Contents BIBAKFull-Text 45-50
  Hiroshi Suzuki; Akira Hattori; Hisashi Sato; Haruo Hayami
In this paper, we propose a hyper-panel system that can display a poster layout with detailed contents. This system combines the features of a tablet terminal, a paper-based poster, and I/O devices. We developed a peculiar device that we named the viewpoint tags. It can get axis of the devices on a paper poster by using super sonic sensor. We explain the concept of the proposed system and verify the effectiveness of this system, which was confirmed by using a prototype.
Keywords: Poster; Digital signage; Tablet PCs; Interaction; HTML5
Operation Sound Influence on Tablet Device Character Input Operation BIBAKFull-Text 51-56
  Won-Seok Yang; Haruumi Kondo; Wang-Mi Seok
On the other hand, because tactile feedback from the touch interface is poor, there is a lack operation it is difficult comfort see if it is running correctly problems. To solve this problem, research to improve the operability of the touch interface through auditory feedback has been conducted. On the other hand, it is clear that auditory feedback from touch interface operation in order to accelerate work is at the center of physical factors; however, not much progress in being made for research on emotions and the psychological effects of the user. In this study, we clarify the operation sound effect on the character input operation of tablet devices. From the results, we produce a tool that can examine the impact on character input operation through various operation sounds.
Keywords: Touch device; Operation sound; Feedback; POMS

Social Media

Virtually Augmented Social Skills Training BIBAKFull-Text 59-64
  Kevin Ambrose
This poster will detail a pilot study conducted at the City University of New York assessing the usability of a virtual environment for teenagers. In this study, the PI sought to test the viability of social skills measures for this population, find glitches in the code of tasks built into the virtual environment, and seek feedback from participants on improvements to be made to the intervention. The results of this study will aid in the creation of a social skills intervention designed for individuals with autism spectrum disorders.
Keywords: Second life; Virtual environments; Autism; Social skills
Acceptance and Quality Perception of Social Network Standard and Non-standard Services in Different Cultures BIBAKFull-Text 65-70
  Katsiaryna S. Baran; Wolfgang G. Stock
Language and culture play important roles in social computing and social media research. Due to network effects, on national or regional social network service (SNS) markets there is only one "standard," which is broadly accepted by the users. Sometimes users additionally check out another SNS (a "non-standard") but do not or only rarely use it after adoption. For typical evaluation dimensions of perceived quality (ease of use, usefulness, trust, fun) and dimensions of acceptance (adoption, use, impact, diffusion) we analyze the importance of the evaluation dimensions and the correlations between all dimension for both, the standard and a non-standard SNS as well as for two cultures, namely Russia and Germany. In our study, the SNS standards are Facebook in Germany and Vkontakte in Russia, the non-standards are Vkontakte in Germany and Facebook in Russia.
Keywords: Social network services; TAM; UTAUT; ISE; Perceived quality; Acceptance; Facebook; Vkontakte; Standard; Culture
Between the Profiles: Another such Bias. Technology Acceptance Studies on Social Network Services BIBAKFull-Text 71-77
  Katsiaryna S. Baran; Wolfgang G. Stock
Unfortunately, social science surveys are often confronted with biases. Due to network effects, on network markets, e.g. on markets of Social Network Services (as Facebook), only one company, the "standard," dominates a local (or even the global) market. Common models of evaluation and acceptance of information systems (as variants of the Technology Acceptance Model, TAM) capture systems' quality on dimensions of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, trust, and fun. In an empirical investigation on different user groups, we found that the users were not able to present unbiased quality estimations of "their" standard system and other, non-standard systems. They were captured in their standard, leading to the conception of the "standard-dependent user blindness" (SDUB). So users' quality statements on information systems on network markets are a highly vulnerable area of surveys.
Keywords: Technology acceptance model (TAM); Social network service (SNS); Survey; Bias; Standard-dependent user blindness (SDUB); Facebook; Vkontakte
The Proteus Effect: Influence of Avatar Appearance on Social Interaction in Virtual Environments BIBAKFull-Text 78-83
  Yulong Bian; Chao Zhou; Yu Tian; Peng Wang; Fengqiang Gao
In virtual interactions, avatars can affect people's perceptions, attitudes, and behaviors consciously or unconsciously, which is known as the Proteus effect. The study created a new paradigm of "virtual scenario simulation" to investigate the impact of avatars on social behavior in different social interaction contexts. Experiment 1 investigated the impact of avatars on social participation level in participating-social-interaction contexts. Experiment 2 extended the work to maintaining-interaction context. Results showed that: (1) both situational factor (social interaction contexts) and individual factor (shyness level) could affect the occurrence of the Proteus effect. (2) The Proteus effects were moderated by the social interaction contexts. (3) In the maintaining- interaction context, the Proteus effects were moderated by the level of shyness.
Keywords: Proteus effect; Virtual environment; Avatar; Shyness; Social interaction
Mettle: Reframing Messaging as a Felt Anticipation BIBAKFull-Text 84-90
  Amy Yo Sue Chen; Rung-Huei Liang
For the past few years, instant messaging (IM) has become the mainstream of social media due to its convenience and efficiency. People, however, tend to exchange message rapidly without further thinking and caring about others or environments. Hence, we develop a non-instant messaging (non-IM) model where anticipation is naturally born. To find design opportunities, we put design probing into practice and found out an emotional expression problem, and that there were still other meaningful perceptions. As a result, we made a prototype of our preliminary concepts aiming to articulate anticipation and sense of place. After the interview with users, we made an adjustment in proposed design to meet users' needs. The whole working process was done with Research through Design (RtD) method. Our work targets at optimizing this dialogical research so that everyone can create and share their personal felt experiences easier via Mettle.
Keywords: Experience design; Anticipation; Non-instant messaging; Sense of place; Emotional communication
Social Media Use and Impact on Interpersonal Communication BIBAKFull-Text 91-96
  Yerika Jimenez; Patricia Morreale
This research paper presents the findings of a research project that investigated how young adult interpersonal communications have changed since using social media. Specifically, the research focused on determining if using social media had a beneficial or an adverse effect on the development of interaction and communication skills of young adults. Results from interviews reveal a negative impact in young adult communications and social skills. In this paper young adult preferences in social media are also explored, to answer the question: Does social media usage affect the development of interaction and communication skills for young adults and set a basis for future adult communication behaviors?
Keywords: Social media; Social interaction; Interpersonal communications; Young adults
Emotional Selling on Social Media: The 'Punctum' of Personality and Photographs BIBAFull-Text 97-102
  S. M. S. Mustafah; H. Khalid; A. S. Ismail
Instagram marks a shift in operation from a collection of in situ photography towards a mode of engagement for small home-based businesses to promote their products. We unfold two significant aspects that influence customer engagement on Instagram: photographs and personality. Photographs with 'punctum' often capture users' attention and engage them. Findings from this study also suggest that negative emotions influence user engagement through provocation, sarcasm, and frustration, but do not necessarily promote buying behavior.
Towards the Easy Analysis of Mass Media Audience Reaction on Social Networks via Discursive Category Tools BIBAKFull-Text 103-106
  Stefanie Niklander; Ricardo Soto; Broderick Crawford
The Mass Media involves information and communication products targeted to a wide audience. Today such communications products are also available on Internet where people can react to a given information by posting critics, congratulations, opinions or whatever they want via social networks. Such reactions are considered valuable information for instance to government and companies. However, this information is hard to automatically process as people commonly use ironies, stereotypes, metaphors expressed in informal writing plenty of chat abbreviations, emoticons, and slang words. In this paper, we illustrate how tools based on discursive categories can be used to analyze such reactions and thus to process and understand the information behind them.
Keywords: Social networks; Discourse category tools; Mass media
A Proposal of an SNS to Support Individual Practices in a Voluntary Community BIBAKFull-Text 107-112
  Kohei Otake; Masashi Komuro; Yoshihisa Shinozawa; Tomofumi Uetake; Akito Sakurai
Widespread popularization of social networking services (SNSs) prompted, for example, a voluntary community such as an orchestra club of a university to use an SNS to support their activities. However, it is not all-purpose and lacks functions to improve members' individual skills. Appropriate practice is a great help but we hardly find functions to motivate practices by, for instance, mutual evaluation, members' advice, and creating competing environment. In this paper, we focus on members' individual practices in an orchestra club and propose a SNS to foster and maintain their motivations to practice based on the analysis result of current conditions. As the first step of the system development, this paper introduces design of a prototype system and the results of a preliminary evaluation.
Keywords: Social networking service; Gamification; Voluntary community
Providing Tools to Enable Information Audit in Social Networks BIBAKFull-Text 113-117
  Alexandre Pinheiro; Claudia Cappelli; Cristiano Maciel
In the moment that social networks arise as a new source of information, we also started to concern about the information shared in this environment. It is difficult to users of social networks to distinguish the accuracy of the information spreaded. The combination of auditability features and research directions in human-computer interaction area will guide the development of tools for evaluating information. We present prototypes of tools that once available, will allow users to decide about the credibility of information that they access and share.
Keywords: Auditability; Social networks; User tools
A Longitudinal Field Study on Kiss Mediation Interface for Long Distance Relationships BIBAKFull-Text 118-122
  Elham Saadatian; Hooman Samani; Ryohei Nakatsu
In this paper we present a longitudinal field study of "kiss messaging interface" designed and developed for people in long distance relationships (LDRs). Mediators of intimacy are a novel class of telecommunication systems that enable people in LDR to express affection and intimacy despite being non co-located. To better understand how people experience these interfaces in the realistic and outside the lab environment, and how they blend in the users context, longitudinal field studies are required. To address the need of studying the mediators of intimacy in their natural usage context, a longitudinal field study is performed and design insights are explored under actual daily contexts over a three-weeks period. Also the study on the mediator of kiss technological probe, provided us with the user expectations from the mediators of the kiss which could also contribute towards the design of other similar technologies.
Keywords: User experience; Telepresence; Affective computing
Trust Towards Social Media in Emergencies: A Perspective of Professional Emergency Personnel in Europe BIBAKFull-Text 123-128
  Hermann Szymczak; Pinar Kuecuekbalaban; Daniela Knuth; Silke Schmidt
Research shows that people increasingly rely on social media in emergencies and disaster situations. This is not surprising, considering how social media and mobile social computing have become an integral part of daily life for many people. As a consequence, authorities responding to emergencies are often expected to make use of social media as well, e.g. to monitor information related to specific incidents on social networks such as Twitter, or respond to requests made on such platforms. To gain a better understanding of this subject, we investigated the perspective of professional emergency personnel. Specifically, we asked members of various PSOs (Public Safety Organizations) from eight different countries in Europe (n=1.223) about their view on using social media in the context of emergencies. The present study was conducted as part of the SOTERIA project (Online and Mobile Communications for Emergencies), a multinational project funded by the European Commission. Our data shows that members of PSOs themselves would trust information provided on social media significantly less than they expect the public to trust information on social media during emergencies. With the exception of Poland, this difference occurred across countries and might indicate an inclination of PSOs to consider social media as a tool to broadcast information rather than to collect information. As a practical consequence, a possible bidirectional exchange of information between the public and PSOs might be hampered by this attitude and valuable information not taken into consideration.
Keywords: Crisis communication; Europe; Disaster; Emergency; Social media; Trust

HCI in Business and Innovation

Creativity in Agile Software Development Methods BIBAKFull-Text 131-135
  Broderick Crawford; Kathleen Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Claudio León de la Barra
Creativity is an inherent aspect to the development of new products, therefore a critical capacity for software development. Indicators to measure creativity are grouped into two main areas: (1) those related to the creative result itself and its quality (including novelty and usefulness) and (2) those related to the creative team itself (considering indicators such as individual and group satisfaction, development of cognitive skills, group interaction, ...). From this perspective, the aim of this work is to introduce some ideas for assessing the creativity of software products.
Keywords: Creativity; Software engineering; Measures of creativity
Use of Quality Management Principles in the Shaping of Work Environment BIBAKFull-Text 136-142
  Adam Górny
Adherence to the systemic approach to improving working conditions is increasingly becoming a central prerequisite for the successful operation of business organizations. By adopting systemic principles to improve the quality of working conditions, organizations gain access to effective tools for eliminating hazards and strenuousness and consequently acquire the ability to grow and improve themselves [8]. Any measures adopted within that framework are undertaken in recognition of the roles and tasks of employees seen as the internal clients of specific processes. In this paper showed important conditions, ensured effectiveness of work conditions improve by the systemic approach. In particular, reference was made to capabilities, which impacted on improving conditions of work. This activities was related to the principles of quality management system.
Keywords: Quality management; Work environment; Management principles
NEC's Approach to Social Value Design BIBAFull-Text 143-148
  Izumi Kohno; Masahiro Nishikawa; Takaya Fukumoto; Takashi Matsuda
NEC's Social Value design (SVD) depicts an abundant future for people and society through the provision of solutions that use advanced technology. SVD is studied from the two perspectives of the "User Experience" and the "Social Experience," and provides society and our business customers with "Innovation". We use human-centered design and design thinking to enforce SVD. We introduce our solutions and systems as achieved results of SVD approach.
Assessment of Business Analytics Trust Through Examination of Personal IT Use BIBAKFull-Text 149-153
  Benjamin Larson; Casey Cegielski
IT consumerization has brought social media (SM) and personal mobile devices into many workplaces. This has prompted researchers to examine the benefits and risks of this trend. However, little research has examined how personal experiences with technology such as social media may affect decision making on the job. This study examines the potential impact of individuals' trusting beliefs (competence, benevolence, and integrity) regarding algorithms and social media communities (SMC) on initial trust in SM-based business analytics (BA), as well as on relative advantage over non-SM based BA. Study results suggested that the initial trust was influenced by the belief in the competency of personal algorithms as well as trust in SMC. It also indicates that increased trust in SMC influences relative advantage. Implications and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Keywords: Trust; Business analytics; Big data; Consumerization; Social media
Leadership in Agile Software Development Methods BIBAKFull-Text 154-158
  Claudio León de la Barra; Sergio Galdames; Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Kathleen Crawford
There is a common agreement that Leadership is represented by two main ideas: direction and influence. The first related to the knowledge of where the organization should be oriented and the second with the capacity to mobilize others towards that direction. Recent research has rejected these assumptions, stating emphatically that the power of organizations and teams are not in these mythical figures (as the super leader), but in the knowledge shared by all its members. Thus, finding the right direction and success on the path undertaken shall not rest in the hands of one person, but in the capabilities of the entire group.
   This paper analyses how this approach to leadership can be observed in software development teams, specifically through agilists methods (Extreme Programming).
Keywords: Software development; Extreme programming; Leadership; Distributed leadership
Interactive Tool to Find Focal Spots in Human Computer Interfaces in eCommerce BIBAFull-Text 159-163
  VenkataSwamy Martha; Zhenrui Wang; Angela Jiang; Sam Varghese
eCommerce is one of the popular electronic services available in the vast Internet world. eCommerce endpoints, also called eCommerce websites, in general, are a composition of several web pages. Within eCommerce endpoints, there exist specific web page types that are abnormal in their consumption of information and user behavior called focal spots. Finding a focal spot is key for understanding and improving the human interaction interface on eCommerce endpoints. In order to make business decisions concerning these focal spots, decision analytics teams are employed to identify focal spots with abnormal consumer perception and to address areas in which to expand business. We propose a methodology for transforming user activity data into useful business analytics to find focal spots if any. In this work, we developed a prototype of a one-stop solution for non-technical users to understand customer response analysis on a given eCommerce endpoint. The proposed system, 'eCommerce Consumer Analytics Tool (eCCAT)', consists of a data extraction and automated analysis component and a visualization component. The interactive tool further provides a way to find a page in the eCommerce endpoint with an extreme key performance indicator.
Usability Evaluation of an M-Commerce System Using Proxy Users BIBAKFull-Text 164-169
  Gabriela Novak; Lars Lundberg
We have done a usability evaluation of a mobile commerce system developed by Ericsson in Sweden. The main market for the system is in developing countries in Africa. Consequently, there is a geographical distance between the developers and the users, and it is difficult to involve actual users in usability tests. Because of this, a team of solution architects that work with the product was used as proxies for the actual users in the usability test. When the test was completed, a group of actual users came to Sweden to attend a course. In order to get additional input to the usability evaluation, the usability test was repeated with the actual users. The results from the two groups were very similar, and our conclusion is that the proxy user group was a good alternative to actual users.
Keywords: Proxy users; Surrogate users; Usability testing; Mobile commerce
Current State of HCI Practice in the Estonian Software Development Industry BIBAKFull-Text 170-175
  Abiodun Ogunyemi; David Lamas; Hegle Sarapuu; Isaias Barreto da Rosa
The information society is expected to use information technologies extensively. This expectation often results to pressure on the software industry to develop rapidly, software systems to provide e-services to the society. Unfortunately, many unusable systems are developed and deployed to the society in the process. In Estonia, more than 90% of the inhabitants use IT for various activities, and most government and business services are delivered through the Internet. Further, the field of human-computer interaction (HCI) is still very young, and Tallinn University, remains the only institution in the Baltic zone, running a programme (masters) in HCI. This study presents the preliminary results of a recently conducted online survey on the extent of uptake of HCI practices. The outcomes of the study show that awareness and knowledge of HCI are still very low in the Estonian software industry.
Keywords: HCI; Human-centred design; User experience; Human-centred software engineering
How Non-technological Innovation Reinforces the Effect of Technological Innovation on Firm Performance?: An Empirical Study of Korean Manufacturing Industry BIBAKFull-Text 176-182
  Hyun-Sun Ryu; Jung Lee
By using empirical data collected from 870 manufacturing firms in Korea, the present study investigates the relationships between technological innovation (i.e., product and process innovations) and non-technological innovations (i.e., organizational and marketing innovations) and its overall innovation success with innovation initiatives. We highlight the business value of non-technological innovations by proposing its moderating effect on innovation success. We then argue that technological innovation exhibits a strong impact on innovation success only when non-technological innovations adequately strain the relationship between them. This study enhances the understanding of innovation in organizations by showing that the effective interaction between technological and non-technological innovations helps firms succeed in innovations and enhance firm performance.
Keywords: Innovation; Technological innovation; Non-technological innovation; Innovation success; Firm performance
Innovation Lessons: Implications of Nikola Tesla's Life for Today's Engineers, Scientists, and Technology Designers BIBAKFull-Text 183-186
  Maximus Schmorrow; Dylan Schmorrow
Nikola Tesla was one of the greatest inventors of all time. His life was full of interesting twists and turns. He is most famous for inventing the Alternating Current motor, Tesla Coil, and the Bladeless Turbine, to name a few. Other inventors inspired him, such as, Thomas Edison and George Westinghouse. His trust in the people that inspired him eventually impacted him negatively. Nikola Tesla made mind-blowing discoveries and inventions that are still used today. His first break-through was creating a rotating magnetic field to make an Alternating Current without having to use a commutator. He also invented the Tesla Coil, which was able to produce a high voltage of electricity for transporting the electricity farther distances. These coils can be seen at the tops of electrical poles that hold electrical wires and cables sometimes for miles. Tesla's final invention was the bladeless turbine, able to produce energy using fluids, gases and centripetal force. His most popular invention was the Alternating Current motor, which did not use a dynamo or a commutator, but the rotating magnetic field. This would prove to be one of Tesla's greatest contributions. This paper examines the life of Nikola Tesla and document the ups and downs he faced while becoming one of the greatest inventors of all times. Although there have been many attempts to extract ubiquitous lessons learned from his life, this paper is unique in it's international focus (i.e., impact on North American innovation from European thought leadership) and serves as a mechanism for discussing the implications for HCI (i.e., process, design and social interactions). It also provides specific innovation lessons from his life and provides a summary of the implications of these lessons for 21st century engineers, scientists and technology designers.
Keywords: Innovation; Engineers; Scientists; Tesla; Invention; Discovery; Inventors; Lessons learned; HCI; Systems design; Technology; Designers; Implications
The Importance of Using Gestalt and Grid in Building Brands BIBAKFull-Text 187-191
  João Carlos Riccó Plácido da Silva; Luis Carlos Paschoarelli; José Carlos Plácido da Silva
The lack of a targeted projetual method has hindered the new professionals in developing new brands. The use of specific techniques of graphical validating enables the reduction of concordance errors in a graphic mark. This study demonstrates the importance of two techniques of visual theory that assist the development of projects in this area. Being evaluated in already existing brands on the market, which proves the most important items in this graphic development process, demonstrating because they are effective.
Keywords: Brands; Gestalt; Grid; Projetual method
Change of Government R&D in HCI Categories in Korea BIBAKFull-Text 192-197
  Seung-Kyu Yi
As the convergence between machine/electronics and humanities/biology is increasing, HCI is expected to become a significant trend in terms of both technology and socio-economy in the future. The aim of this paper is to briefly illustrate the growing importance of government R&D in Korea as a high R&D intensity country. The R&D spending scale of HCI was examined from 2009 until 2013. In addition, changes of the research characteristics were analyzed in terms of different indices, such as research and experimental development stages, the type of research-conducting agent, a classification in terms of 6 kinds of technologies (6T), and socio-economic objectives of research. In this study, HCI related categories were carefully selected using the Korean national classification system of science and technology. Through empirical evidence, this study will provide practical implications for future HCI technologies in terms of government R&D strategy.
Keywords: Korea; Government R&D; S&T classification system; R&D spending on HCI

Learning Technologies

Usability of Mobile Applications in Saudi Higher Education: An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 201-205
  Nada Al-Wabil
This paper reports on a comprehensive survey of mobile applications offered by higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia. In this study, we examine the accessibility, User Experience (UX) design, and usability of services offered by these applications. In recent years, research has shown growing trends in mobile application adoption and usage in the context of higher education in Saudi Arabia. Evidence from the local context suggests that mobile applications have potential to increase retention of students, enhance teaching and learning, and facilitate the provision of services. Our understanding of mobile application services offered by public and private higher education institutions in Saudi Arabia is inadequate. Therefore, we present a synthesis of mobile applications and a categorization of types, platforms, target users, and examine their usability. The study included mobile applications and services offered by twenty six public universities and nine private universities. Design implications of our usability review for these mobile applications that are offered by higher education institutes for students, faculty and administration are discussed.
Keywords: E-learning; Mobile applications; Arabic interface; Saudi Arabia
On-the-fly Notes: Instructor to Student Transfer of In-Class Produced Notes BIBAKFull-Text 206-211
  Nancy Alajarmeh
This paper introduces a system that utilizes the capabilities of smart devices to create and transfer in-class made notes to the cloud in a real time manner. This system comes as an extension to the services made by traditional Learning Management Systems (LMS). The described system, used alone or joined with any LMS, facilitates immediate sharing and access to the notes produced in-class and it allows students to view these notes later at their convenience.
Keywords: E-learning; Education; Instruction; Class notes; Smart devices; Learning management systems; Blended instruction
Facebook as a Learning Tool in Formal Learning Process BIBAKFull-Text 212-217
  Alaeddin M. H. Alawawdeh; Stewart James Kowalski
Social networks and the huge number of users in worldwide offer great social and business potential. In this research, we aim to find the required features in social networks (Facebook) to enhance it as learning tool. Firstly, we observed the exist Facebook features that can be used in the learning process in comparison with the LMS (Fronter). Afterwards, we propose some required feature in Facebook based on the experiment that we ran on students. Those students had been studying Introduction to Information Security course in the second year of bachelor degree in our university.
Keywords: Facebook; eLearning; Learning tools; Formal learning process
The Use of Facebook as an Assisting Tool in Teaching Computer Science Courses BIBAKFull-Text 218-223
  Anwar Alhenshiri; Hoda Badesh
This paper describes the results of a study in which two Facebook pages were investigated as assisting tools in teaching two computer science courses. The intention was to measure the importance of utilizing a social networks widely used by students for improving the engagement factor of students with the course content. The results of the study showed that students although use Facebook for social purposes such as exchanging messages, their use of the course pages was of less significance. Students, although followed the pages as expected, their engagement was only for the purpose of seeking announcements or questions listed by the instructor, i.e. they used the page as a bulletin board.
Keywords: Social network; Facebook; Students; Learning; Education; Engagement; Human factors
The Current Use of Cell Phone in Education BIBAKFull-Text 224-229
  Elham Alsadoon; Hamadah Alsadoon
This study aimed to explore the current use of cell phones in education among Saudi students in Saudi universities and how students perceive such use. Data was collected from 237 students at King Saud University. Descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data. A T-test for independent groups was used to examine whether there was a significant difference between males and females in their perception of using cell phones in education. Findings suggested that students have a positive attitude toward the use of cell phones in education. The most accepted use was for sending notification to students through a system provided by King Saud University. This electronic system allows instructors to easily send any SMS or email to their students. The use of cell phone applications came in the second rank of using cell phones in education. Students have already experienced the benefits of having these applications handy wherever they go.
Keywords: Cell phone; Mobile learning; E-learning; Higher education
The Instructional Model Framework of Undergraduate Industrial Design Core Course BIBAKFull-Text 230-234
  Wenzhi Chen
Design is a powerful weapon for companies, and it is important to educate excellent designers for industry. The purpose of this study was to explore instructional design and to develop an instructional model for undergraduate industrial design core (studio) courses. The study was divided into two phases. First, 18 instructors were interviewed to collect qualitative data to formulate a framework of the instructional model. Then, a survey was conducted with a questionnaire designed according the framework and references to collect quantitative data to verify the model. The questionnaire was sent to 245 industrial design instructors, and 105 were returned. Finally, an instruction model for industrial design core course was formulated. The information provided in this study can deepen the understanding of instructional planning and provide a reference for teaching in design education.
Keywords: Industrial design; Design education; Instruction model; Teaching problems
Developing Simple Tools for Measuring and Evaluating Students' Works with a Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 235-240
  Ryota Fukutani; Akinobu Ando; Shota Itagaki; Hiraku Abiko
In this study, we developed a simple set of tools for a teacher to efficiently and easily evaluate and measure the accuracy of the result of students' craft works. This tool is developed for running on a smartphone, and has three functions; 1. Measuring the flatness of surfaces, 2. Measuring the accuracy of connected parts, and 3. Taking photos of the working process and final result. The result of the evaluation is sent to LMS (Learning Management System) and stored. It works as a part of an integrated management system. Despite only having three functions, this tool can solve chronic problems and drastically reduce the workload for general Japanese teachers. Without this tool, one teacher is solely accountable for checking and evaluating a vast number of students' works in a very short period of time.
Keywords: Smartphone; Technology education; LMS (Learning Management System); Evaluation of flatness of material surface; Evaluation of joint angle
A Content-Based Approach for Supporting Teachers in Discovering Dependency Relationships Between Instructional Units in Distance Learning Environments BIBAKFull-Text 241-246
  Fabio Gasparetti; Carla Limongelli; Filippo Sciarrone
eLearning courses are usually built in such a way that training resources are organized for making the learning process effective. In most cases, the top-level learning objective will have prerequisites which must be satisfied. Those prerequisites should be formally identified by a hierarchy of dependencies built accordingly. We evaluate a series of hypotheses for understanding the feasibility of automating this task by means of a general-purpose content-based approach that exploits semantic analysis techniques.
Keywords: Sequencing; Distance learning; Semantic analysis
Understanding of the Students' Behavioral Intention to Use Online Discussion Site (ODS) Using Rasch Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 247-252
  Azizah Jaafar; Prasanna Ramakrisnan
In this paper, we analyzed students' behavioral intention to use online discussion site (ODS) using existing measurement. As this online discussion site is widely used in education for student-student and student-lecturer interaction, we need to understand how this site is accepted by the students. This study proposes a statistical method for understanding student responses toward intention to use ODS. We analyze the intention to use ODS by using existing seven indicators: online course design, user interface design, previous learning experience, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use perceived interaction and intention to use. All the 23 validated items from the seven indicators were combined into a single construct to measure intention to use by using Rasch analysis. The student's intention to use online discussion available in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) e-learning portal was investigated. The responses received was investigated using Rasch analysis. The analysis displayed visually all the 23 item through person-item distribution map (PIDM) with WINSTEP 3.68.2 software. This reveals the likelihood of student intention to use ODS. Using the PIDM we can easily identify most and least agreed items in a measurement model. Thus this analysis can be applied in any study to identify the items that need further improvement based on user's actual responses.
Keywords: Intention to use; Online discussion site (ODS); Rasch analysis
Pump It up! -- Conception of a Serious Game Applying in Computer Science BIBAKFull-Text 253-258
  Daniela Janßen; Christian Tummel; Anja Richert; Daniel Schilberg; Sabina Jeschke
Student attrition in mechanical engineering at German universities currently lies at about 40%. A lacking sense of practical relevance for a future career are often named as reasons to quit studies. Over the past decade online games have become very popular for educational purposes. The approach of game-based learning, however, has proven to be suitable to motivate students. At RWTH Aachen University engineering students are imparted the relevance of computer science for their field through an e-learning environment including the online game Pump it up! The paper describes the conception and game design of the game including didactical and technical requirements related to it.
Keywords: Serious games; Game-based learning; Virtual worlds; Higher education; Computer sciences
Badminton's Multimedia Courseware of Interactive Design Based on the MOOCs Mode BIBAFull-Text 259-264
  Mao Jie
Interactive play an important role in the design of multimedia courseware. The multimedia courseware in this paper is based on the platform with PowerPoint 2010. It completed and implemented by PowerPoint. It is the most common software to make courseware; its interactive interface is friendly; it has simple operation. I use VBA technology to design the aspects of interactive and achieve the design about human-computer interaction of sports multimedia courseware and make a combination with computer multimedia technology and physical education teaching. What's more, it provided the means of applied computer technology for Physical Education. It has the promotion of high value and widely used.
Development of STEAM Educational Games Focused on Aesthetic and Bodily Expression in K-12 Science Class BIBAKFull-Text 265-270
  Hyung Sook Kim; Hale Kim; Yong Hyun Park
The purpose of this study is to introduce gesture recognition-based STEAM educational games using Kinect. The game is instructional media for evoking a student's interest and helping students understand in a STEAM education class. We suggested a STEAM education program that consisted of visualization of the science knowledge through aesthetic and bodily expression for middle school science class. In the development process of this STEAM program, the main challenge was an instruction method of scientific knowledge of human body anatomy and physiology. Gesture recognition-based game including science learning material should be an excellent educational tool to make student comprehend and understand complex science knowledge. In addition, the game is an excellent tool to visualize the contents. The gesture recognition-based educational game and the STEAM program were offered to model demonstration middle schools, entitled as 'STEAM leaders' schools' in South Korea. The result of the trial lesson is this game motivated and increased students' activities and learning. 55.8% of the students responded that this program was satisfied and gesture-recognition based game were interesting. We believe that this educational game is suitable for STEAM education in science, dance and physical education class. Gesture recognition-based game by Kinect would be an excellent answer for the next generation's instructional media.
Keywords: Gesture recognition-based game; NUI; Bodily expression; STEAM education; Science; Dance; Kinect
Out-of-Class Online Language Learning Partnership Between Russian and American Students: Analysis of Tandem Project Results BIBAKFull-Text 271-276
  Marina Kogan; Nina Popova; Konstantin Shestakov; Lonny Harrison
A telecollaborative project between Russian and American students is analyzed in terms of its organization, technology, and linguistic and intercultural aspects involved. Conditions for creating a collaborative environment are described, with the conversational topics, intended outcomes, and some pitfalls of the project being accentuated. The main conclusion of the project is the necessity of introducing intercultural aspects well in advance in order to teach students to distinguish the cultural dimension of their communication in the tandem sessions of the project.
Keywords: Communicative skills; Native speaker; Non-native speaker; Instructor; Telecollaborative project; Student groups; Language level; Videoconference; Drawbacks of the project; Mistake correction
Non-calibrated Peer Assessment: An Effective Assessment Method for Student Creative Works BIBAKFull-Text 277-282
  Jinshuang Li; Yu Zhang; Kening Gao
In online education, peer and self assessment has got a lot of attention because it serves as a useful tool for scaling the grading of open-ended works. But peer and self assessment does not always produce accurate results because of some reasons. Firstly, experts and students may grade at different scale; Secondly, students are inclined to rate themselves higher than to rate others; Thirdly, some students may not take the assessment seriously; Fourthly, correcting for grader biases also need complex computation. In this paper, we present a non-calibrated peer grading method to solve the problems mentioned above. We make 4 experiments with 5-category rating scale showing that our method can get good performance, which convinces that it can be an effective assessment method for student creative works.
Keywords: Non-calibrated peer assessment; Wisdom of crowds; Online education; Peer assessment; Self assessment
Cooperative Writing Peer Feedback in Online Moodle System BIBAKFull-Text 283-289
  Hsin-Yi Lien
This study investigated the effects of three cooperative peer feedback environments on the English writing performance of tertiary level nonnative English speakers and their perceptions of web-based cooperative writing. Using a counter-balance design, thirty tertiary level students were randomly assigned to use three different online writing tools: a wiki, a forum and a workshop using the Moodle system. All participants completed three cooperative writing tasks and two individual writing tasks as pre and posttests. The results revealed that participants provided different types of feedback, eliciting actual revision from their peers, which contributed to better cooperative writing. Peer feedback benefited overall writing performance as well as idea generation, organization, writing conventions, sentence fluency, word choice and voice. An analysis of questionnaires indicated that students harbor positive attitudes toward the three online cooperative writing tools.
Keywords: Cooperative writing; Peer feedback; Online moodle system
Using Digital Document Network System for Group Learning Activities BIBAKFull-Text 290-294
  Kenji Matsunaga; Kyoko Yoshida
With the increasing volume of privately-owned digital documents it is becoming more important to manage the documents for effective use. For document management, we propose a digital document network system. The system has been improved for use as a group-learning assistance system. In this paper the functions added to the system are explained. The validity of the system was evaluated by observing the behaviors of the students who used the learning assistance system for their learning and by interviewing them.
Keywords: Digital document; Group learning
See the Flex: Investigating Various Display Settings for Different Study Conditions BIBAKFull-Text 295-300
  Michael Saenz; Joshua Strunk; Kelly Maset; Erica Malone; Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo
We present FlexAR, a kinetic tangible augmented reality (TAR) [5] application for anatomy education in varied learning situations. Learning anatomy is fundamental to every health profession as well as related domains such as performance, physical therapy, art, and animation. For example, dancers need to learn anatomy to care for their bodies and learn to move efficiently. Anatomy has traditionally been taught in two dimensions, particularly for those in non-medical fields such as artists and physical education practitioners. Medical students often gain hands-on experience through cadaver dissections [8]. However, with dissection becoming less practical, researchers have begun evaluating techniques for teaching anatomy through technology. Our goal is to develop TAR interfaces to enhance the effectiveness of learning gross anatomy in group and individual study settings. We believe that once expanded FlexAR could be effective as a standalone or supplementary tool for both group and individual learning.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Tangible user interface; Education; Human anatomy
Development of Intuitive Force Presentation Method Using Stopper Mechanism for Skill Training BIBAKFull-Text 301-306
  Masamichi Sakaguchi; Mingoo Lee
In skill training, there are many information and most of skill training depends on watching the skill. However the novice can not acquire the force information by watching the skill. So the trial and error process is required for the skill training. We describes some methods guiding the exerting force of novice to exert the target force at target position. The methods present spring from the target position for the novice exerting target force. Because watching the skill is also important in skill training, the presenting methods intend for presenting the force information without the visual information. The spring element makes the novice actively exerting force. And the stopper and latch element display how much pushing down the spring. The force guiding method use mechanical elements controlled by the brake linear actuator like the spring, stopper and latch. In this paper, the concept and purpose of the method and the validity of the method are described.
Keywords: Skill training; Skill transfer; Force guiding; Force presentation; Robot-mediated training
Towards a Visual and Tangible Learning of Calculus BIBAKFull-Text 307-312
  Patricia Salinas; Eliud Quintero; Xavier Sánchez; Eduardo González Mendívil
The Augmented Reality Application we present here is an educational resource meant to help transform the teaching of Mathematics. It takes advantage of the didactic potential of this emergent technology in order to create graphical representations for mathematical reasoning. We identified the spatial visualization skill as a cross-curriculum content that has been taken for granted, and we took on the task of designing an educational resource to improve the development of this skill. The application involves some topics that belong to conventional courses of Calculus I, II and III at College.
Keywords: Augmented reality; Calculus; Technology; Visualization
Effect of Interactive E-Learning on Pupils' Learning Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics BIBAKFull-Text 313-317
  Yuan-Zheng Wang; Chii-Zen Yu
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of interactive e-learning on pupils' learning motivation and achievement in mathematics. To compare the effect of e-learning and traditional instruction on children's learning motivation and achievement in mathematics, a quasi-experimental design was adopted in this study, with pretests and posttests being administered to different groups of students. Third grade students in a class at an elementary school in Chiayi County were selected as the study subjects. They were assigned to the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group received a assistant instruction which with the e-learning platform. The control group received a traditional assistant instruction. The conclusions of this study are listed below: First, the comparison of e-learning and traditional instruction on the learning effects has statistically difference and promote significantly. Second, the students' learning motivation has been significantly increased with using the e-learning for assistant teaching.
Keywords: E-learning; Mathematics instruction; Learning motivation; Learning achievement

HCI in Health

Learning-Training System for Medical Equipment Operation BIBAKFull-Text 321-327
  Ren Kanehira; Kazinori Kawaguchi; Hideo Fujimoto
A clinical engineer has to do a lot of work including the management, the operation, and the maintenance of various medical equipments, requiring highly specialized techniques and up-to-date knowledge. However, it is very difficult for him to master such an enormous amount of knowledge within the limited time as university student, particularly the ability for trouble shooting to ensure safety. In order to solve these problems, this study presents an education system for clinical engineers with a representative education and training case for the operation of heart-lung machines. Although two contents, i.e., the basic operation and trouble shooting, respectively, should be included in such a training system, we pay more attention to the basic operation in this paper.
Keywords: Computer training system; E-learning system; Skill science; Medical equipment; Clinic engineer
A New Assessment Model of Mental Health BIBAKFull-Text 328-333
  Jingqiang Li; Ning Zhao; Bingxia Hao
Traditionally, mental health has been considered as a mental state with absence of mental illness symptoms. According to the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health, mental health is a complete state, which includes the presence of a positive state of human capacities and functions as well as the absence of disease or infirmity. However, these models haven't investigated the mechanism of action of the regulatory or intermediary factors behind individual's current state of mental health. From this point, this article constructs a new assessment model of mental health: Neuro-Trait-State-Balance model (NTSB). The NTSB model considers three aspects as follows: (1) assessing the dominant performance (adaptive state) and implicit mechanism (adaptive trait) to clarify the present situation of mental health; (2) assessing the neural mechanism of the adaptive trait and analyzing the relationship between the characteristics of higher nervous activities and mental health to clarify the implicit mechanism; (3) assessing the degree of needs balance to know the variation trend of mental health state. In addition, it can indirectly improve the intervention strategies of mental health.
Keywords: Mental health; Assessment; Adaptive trait; Adaptive state
"Fit" Determining Nurses' Satisfaction of Nursing Information System Usage BIBAKFull-Text 334-339
  Hsien-Cheng Lin; Chen-Chia Chen
In the digital age, nursing units must more than ever be able to utilize nursing information system (NIS) to enhance efficiencies, effectiveness, and decision-support, and get timely answers to questions, when they arise in daily clinical and administrative practice. Previous researchers have suggested that satisfaction status is established on the degree of fit, when achieve a good fit between the users' requirements and technological capabilities to attain optimal use satisfaction. Thus, this study attempts to understand how impact of fit of individual requirement-technological capability on user satisfaction through the holistic perspective of fit within the nursing context. The results indicate that the fit of users' perceptions-technological capabilities interaction is a more important factor than individuals' factor of users' perceptions or technological capabilities in users' satisfaction of information system usage.
Keywords: Fit; Satisfaction; Nursing information system
Research on Health Management System Based on Clouding Computing BIBAFull-Text 340-344
  Qi Luo; Tianbiao Zhang
Cloud computing involves deploying groups of remote servers and software networks that allow centralized data storage and online access to computer services or resources. The health management system based on clouding computing was proposed in the paper. The system is composed of the following modules such as client module, expert module, healthy management organizations module, accumulated points and rank management module, task listing and evaluation module, cloud server network platform module. Though application in the system, the individual user data has no longer stored in the medical institution, but the individual user data has stored in the cloud server, which can be accessed anytime and anywhere. A large number of servers are composed of statistical and learning distributed platform. Behavior information and physical data can be extracted from the mass data automatically, which can be output factors and standardization of physical data. The same type of samples is extracted, which can achieve a group of experts and users by many-to-many model. Health standards databases are constructed though bidirectional user and expert evaluation. The system is an open and interactive system among user, health management organization and expert.
Designing A Mobile Application for Complementary and Alternative Medicine: A Usability Approach BIBAKFull-Text 345-349
  Miloslava Plachkinova; Guillaume Faddoul; Samir Chatterjee
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is growing rapidly, and this trend has a significant impact on conventional healthcare. The lack of CAM disclosure between patients and physicians presents a serious challenge for successful treatment. The current study addresses this problem by proposing a CAM mobile application designed with a focus on usability. The goal of the study is to provide a platform where patients, physicians, and CAM practitioners can communicate, exchange ideas, and share their experiences. The mobile application is centered on the needs of the different user groups, and it provides an easy to navigate interface with responsive design, which is based on best practices in human-computer interaction. The study extends current knowledge by incorporating design science principles in the application development process and focuses on the usability of the proposed artifact to ensure successful communication on CAM between patients, physicians, and CAM practitioners.
Keywords: Complementary and alternative medicine; Mobile healthcare; Mhealth; Usability; Human computer interaction; HCI; Design science
Innovations in OSH Trainings -- Social Skills of Safety Instructor Versus On-line Training BIBAKFull-Text 350-355
  Joanna Sadlowska-Wrzesinska; Izabela Gabryelewicz
A systemic approach to the issue of safety which participation of both workers and managerial staff is a part of is a trusted way of creating safety culture. The implementation of safe work in everyday practice is not easy, but possible. The OSH specialist plays a key role here, as changing workers' attitudes and values is an effective way to improve safety at the workplace. The OSH specialist must have high professional qualifications, including social competence. He most often acts as a safety educator or safety instructor. The article presents results of the research conducted on a group of 215 workers. The workers underwent the obligatory OSH training, after which the increase of their knowledge was analysed. What is more, their subjective preferences as to the form of OSH training were later determined.
Keywords: OSH training; OSH instructor; E-learning
On the Sharing of Nursing Care Information with Employees in Japanese Companies BIBAKFull-Text 356-360
  Yumiko Taguchi; Yoko Ogushi
In this study we consider ways of sharing nursing information that enable companies to understand the nursing care burdens of their employees. To explore our topic we review the measures companies take for their caretaking employees, the employees' roles as caretakers, the views of employees who have experienced nursing care, and various case studies.
Keywords: Caretaker with fulltime employment; Sharing of nursing care information with employees
Preliminary Guidelines to Build a Wearable Health Monitoring System for Patients: Focusing on a Wearable Device with a Wig BIBAKFull-Text 361-365
  Junwoo Yoo; Nockhwan Kim; Jeongho Keum; Ji Hwan Ryu; Minjae Park; Jihoon Lee; Byung-Chull Bae; Jundong Cho
We have previously developed a wearable health monitoring system embedded in a wig. In this paper we introduce our system and derive preliminary guidelines to build such wearable devices for healthcare purposes. The major goal of the system is to monitor and detect falling in addition to measuring heart rate, body temperature, and current location of a patient who is wearing the device, and send text messages to pre-configured recipients in emergency. Preliminary guidelines were developed using a focused group interview with healthcare experts, which include form factor, wearing area, motivation, target, and additional functions. We are currently in the process of developing an improved device based on the derived insights.
Keywords: Wearable systems; Connected healthcare; Fall detection

Assistive Technologies and Environments

An Evaluation of AccessBraille: A Tablet-Based Braille Keyboard for Individuals with Visual Impairments BIBAFull-Text 369-374
  Hanan Alhussaini; Stephanie Ludi; Jim Leone
Braille is a different symbolic alphabet that is used by people with visual impairments to communicate. Since the use of smartphones has become an essential part of peoples' lives, we should benefit from this connection and use smartphones as a training tool. AccessBraille is an iPad application that helps users practice Braille in different interactive ways. The goal of AccessBraille is to provide training for novice Braille individuals who want to practice Braille. A usability test was conducted to evaluate the usability of the app, validate the app's capability of facilitating the practicing of Braille characters and discover ways to enhance the app design and use. Data was collected and later analyzed to assess the difficulty involved with task completion.
An Assisted Living Home for Alzheimer's Patient in Saudi Arabia, A Prototype BIBAKFull-Text 375-380
  Sulaf Almagooshi; Mona Hakami; Maha Alsayyari; Wafa Alrajhi; Sarah Alkoblan
Number of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasing every day. As it target and destroy brain cells. And in order to avoid the high cost of care institutions of Alzheimer's patients, we should provide a safe environment for them. Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) technologies can provide such environments. AAL is used to supervise and assist people with disabilities who cannot rely on themselves as patients of Alzheimer's. In this paper we present a prototype of a house that has been equipped with Arduino micro-controller to suit the Alzheimer's patients. By monitoring the behaviour of the patients, the system will interact by sending a message for the caregiver if a risk action was detected. The evaluation of the early prototype system involved evaluating the monitoring system as well as the devices.
Keywords: AAL; Alzheimer; Arduino; Physical computing
Requirements Engineering of Ambient Assisted Living Technologies for People with Alzheimer's BIBAKFull-Text 381-387
  Afnan AlRomi; Ghadah AlOfisan; Norah AlRomi; Sulaf AlMagooshi; Areej Al-wabil
A rapid growth in the ambient assisted living technologies (AALTs) is being witnessed due to the aging society. Evidence suggests that AALTs empower the elderly's involvement with their surroundings, and hence; improves the quality of their living. Therefore, public service organizations (e.g. The Saudi Alzheimer's Disease Association (ALZ)) have been established with the aim to raise awareness about AD, in order to reach a comfortable lifestyle for all elders with AD. Moreover, this fact is the motivation behind addressing our problem in the paper. Each AALT has its own special requirements in usage, care, extensibility, reusability, scalability and adaptability. More importantly, there are many other factors that have great influence on those requirements. In this paper we will investigate some of these factors, such as: the environment, the caregiver's experience, and the elder's age, culture, and social structure. Furthermore, adaptability and cultural factors are the pivots of our study, to show their influence on designing AALT and specifying their requirements.
Keywords: AAL; Alzheimer; Requirement engineering; Design consideration
"See Medication": An Arabic Assistive Mobile Application for Asthmatic Visually Impaired Patients BIBAKFull-Text 388-391
  Afnan F. Alsadhan; Sarah M. Bin Mahfodh; Nada M. Alsuhebany; Hind A. Bin Ajlan; Hana A. Al-Alashaykh; Asma A. Alzahrani; Rafeef M. Aqel
This paper introduces the development of See Medication system that helps visually impaired patients or low-vision patients who are suffering from asthma to know about their medications by VoiceOver. "See Medication" is an interactive healthcare system that works as a channel between mainly asthmatic visually impaired patients and pharmacists. This system consists of two components: mobile application and website. It is available in two languages: Arabic and English, in order to serve a broader population. The aim of the application is to improve the quality of utilizing asthma medications and raising the independence of visually impaired patients.
Keywords: Asthma; Visually impaired; iOS app; Pharmacy
Development of Serious Game for the Upper Arms Rehabilitation: "Balance Ball Rhythm Game" Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 392-398
  Sung-Taek Chung; Sung-Wook Shin; C. J. Lim
Accuracy, repeatability and activity are very critical factors for rehabilitation of hemiplegic patients. Rehabilitation exercise should be done regardless of space, time and cost. Recently, interesting functional games, which induce active participation, have gained increasing attention. In the current study, a balance ball has been developed that can contract the user muscle and help in natural joint rotation by stimulating the upper arm muscle of hemiplegic patients. Additionally, a functional game was also developed that can engage the patients with rhythm game and training contents. The balance ball can detect the upper arm motion by an acceleration sensor and offered sense of reality and immersion with buttons and haptic sensors. The game applied Fitts' law to test accurate motion and two tutorial contents that induced their motion based on MFT. The level of difficulty can also be chosen to help intensive training for the motion with low scores from the tutorials and the patients can even do the upper arm rehabilitation exercise while listening to music.
Keywords: Motion detect; Accelerometer; MFT (Manual function Test); Serious game; User interface
Towards a Google Glass Based Head Control Communication System for People with Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 399-404
  James Gips; Muhan Zhang; Deirdre Anderson
We have developed Noggin and Glass Gab, two Google Glass based systems to allow people with disabilities to choose Yes or No and spell out messages just by moving their head. Our goal is to allow people who cannot speak and do not have reliable control of their hands to communicate just with head movements. The advantage of using Google Glass is that the user, perhaps in a wheelchair, does not need a notebook computer or tablet computer. The system displays a pointer on the Google Glass screen and Yes and No buttons (Noggin) or an onscreen keyboard (Glass Gab). The user moves the pointer by head movement. Selection is made using dwell time, by having the pointer dwell over the buttons or letters for a second. The user can have Google Glass speak the message. Head motion is detected using the three axis gyroscope built into Glass.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Access to mobile interaction; Adaptive and augmented interaction; Alternative I/O techniques; Architectures and tools for universal access; Interaction techniques; Wearable technology
A Comparative Study: Use of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) Device by People with Cerebral Palsy in Interaction with Computers BIBAKFull-Text 405-410
  Regina Heidrich; Francisco Rebelo; Marsal Branco; João Batista Mossmann; Anderson Schuh; Emely Jensen; Tiago Oliveira
This article presents a comparative study among people with cerebral palsy and healthy controls, of various ages, using a brain-computer interface (BCI) device. The research is qualitative in its approach. Researchers worked with observational case studies. People with cerebral palsy and healthy controls were evaluated in Portugal and in Brazil. The study aimed to develop a study for product evaluation in order to perceive whether people with cerebral palsy can interact with the computer and to gauge whether their performance is similar to that of healthy controls when using the brain-computer interface. Ultimately, it was found that there are no significant differences between people with cerebral palsy in the two countries, as well as between populations without cerebral palsy (healthy controls).
Keywords: Brain computer interface; Interaction; Cerebral palsy
Indoor Wheelchair Navigation for the Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 411-417
  Manar Hosny; Rawan Alsarrani; Abir Najjar
Visually impaired (VI) people face many daily life challenges. It is often difficult for them to recognize where they are, and they may feel disoriented or completely isolated. Moreover, people who have other motor disabilities besides visual impairment face even more difficulty. For example, when using a wheelchair, they usually need a personal assistance to help them navigate to their destination, since they cannot use a cane or other manual assistive devices. To help these people, we aim to develop an indoor wheelchair navigation system. The system is divided into three components: a positioning system, a navigation system and a VI system interface. In the current research, we focus on the design of the navigation system, which will build the optimal path for a VI user on an electric wheelchair. To navigate, the user chooses a destination and their route preferences. A specially designed algorithm will construct an optimized path to the destination, by processing a map of the environment and the route preferences. The algorithm will take into account particular route features customized to the needs of the VI, such as: being free of obstacles, having few turns, being close to walls, and accommodating clues and landmarks. Our navigation system uses the A* shortest path algorithm for path construction, after adapting the objective function to take into account multiple criteria that fit the requirements of a visually impaired. The output of the algorithm is the moving directions, which will be fed back to the wheelchair as commands to direct its movement to the desired destination.
Keywords: Indoor navigation; Visual impairment; Path planning; Human computer interaction; Wheelchair navigation; Optimization; User centered design
Assessment of Electronic Write-in Voting Interfaces for Persons with Visual Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 418-423
  Ashley Ongsarte; Youxuan Jiang; Kyla McMullen
In 2002, the Help America Vote Act (HAVA) mandated that all Americans should have an equal opportunity to vote with privacy and security. However, current electric voting technologies have unsuccessfully provided barrier-free access for people with visual impairments to write in a desired candidate's name without assistance. The present work describes a new e-voting technology where voters independently use a mouse to interact with a virtual audio keyboard that provides the ability to type, check, and modify a write-in candidate choice. The goal of this work is to create an accessible, accurate, and independent keyboard based interaction mechanism for visually impaired voters. The interface was assessed using 16 participants. Performance was measured in terms of voting speed, accuracy, and preference. The system was compared to a voting technology that uses a linear method to select letters. Results indicated that performance using the linear write-in interface was significantly better than the virtual keyboard. The results also revealed an interesting distinction between human muscle memory and spatial memory.
Keywords: Visual impairments; Write-in voting; Accessibility; Spatial memory
Tool for Alternative and Augmented Communication: A Study Implemented in Hospitals Environment to Support Pedagogical Therapies BIBAKFull-Text 424-429
  Ednilson G. Rossi; Janaina C. Abib; Luciana A. Rodrigues
Communication is a basic need of human beings. It is required in professional, social and personal relationships, establishing a fundamental aspect for survival. Communication can be considered a set of signs that refers to behaviors that occur among two or more persons and which provide a way to create meanings between them. When individuals have no forms of communication or have some form of communication, but this is not enough to maintain communication links, establishing social relationships, it is necessary to use some resources to promote communication, integrating this individual in social life. Adapt and create alternative ways of communication is essential for people with disabilities or lack of oral communication to interact with their peers into the work, social and personal environments. For these adaptations it is common to use alternative and augmented communication tools (AACT), for example, uses of alternative communication boards and applications to support the communication process, using images, videos and technological resources to support the communication. The objective of this research is propose the development of prototypes with medium fidelity to facilitate patients with disabilities to learn and communicate, and understanding their distinctions in learning and interacting during communication process.
Keywords: Communication process; Alternative and augmented communication; Communications technologies
Access All Areas: Designing a Hands-on Robotics Course for Visually Impaired High School Students BIBAKFull-Text 430-435
  Valerie Stehling; Katharina Schuster; Anja Richert; Sabina Jeschke
In recent years, student laboratories have been established as effective extracurricular learning areas for the promotion of educational processes in STEM fields. They provide various stimuli and potentials for enhancements and supplements in secondary school education [8]. Most courses, however, do not offer full accessibility to all students. Those who e.g. suffer from visual impairment or even sightlessness find themselves not being able to participate in all tasks of the courses. On this account, the Center for Learning and Knowledge Management and Institute of Information Management in Mechanical Engineering at RWTH Aachen University have redesigned one of their robotics laboratory courses as a first step towards accessibility. This paper presents the work in progress of developing a barrier-free course design for visually impaired students. First feedback discussions with the training staff shows that even little changes can sometimes have a huge impact.
Keywords: School laboratories; Barrier free; LEGO mindstorms; Visual impairment; Highschool students
Visual Approach of a Mobile Application for Autistic Children: Little Routine BIBAKFull-Text 436-442
  Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad; Iman Nur Nabila Azahari
With the rise of mobile technology, visual approach can be implemented in mobile applications in order to help Autistic children. Nonetheless, those mobile applications that does not entirely uses actual pictures in their visual approach method that helps these children with their core drawback, which is the lack of independence. Therefore, this paper aims to present a visual approach of a mobile application, Little Routine, to assist autistic children. Requirement gathering is conducted through literature review of research papers, interviews and observations. At the same time, the methodology is based on rapid application development (RAD). Little Routine has been developed based on the requirements from the experts and literature. The tool used to develop the prototype is App Inventor and Android Software Development Kit. Later, usability test was conducted with a specialist, teachers and children to examine the effectiveness of the mobile application. The results showed that the respondents were satisfied with the mobile application. It is hoped that the application will assist autistic children in their daily routine.
Keywords: Mobile application; Autistic; User testing; Visual approach
Development of a Game that Visually-Impaired People Can Actively Enjoy BIBAKFull-Text 443-447
  Sadahide Yoshida; Kyoko Yoshida
Recreational activities have an effect of improving the quality of life, but the recreational activities that visually-impaired people can enjoy are quite limited. "Passive" recreational activities that one can enjoy by reading, watching, or hearing (in particular those that visually-impaired people can enjoy) have increased through the development of synthesized voices. However, there are still only a few recreational activities such as sports and games that they can proactively participate in and enjoy. Videogames are one of such "active" recreational activities popular among visually-impaired people, however, interviews revealed that it requires a huge amount of effort for them to enjoy videogames. In the present study we developed a game that visually-impaired people could also actively enjoy.
Keywords: Dance game; Visually-impaired people; Kinect

Fitness and Well-Being Applications

Investigating the Role of Haptic Stimulation in Mobile Meditation Tools BIBAKFull-Text 451-456
  Antoinette Leanna Bumatay; Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo
Previous studies have shown that mindfulness meditation and paced breathing are effective tools for stress management. There are a number of mobile applications currently available that are designed to guide the breath to support mindfulness meditation and paced breathing practices. However, these focus mainly on audio/visual cues and are mostly non-interactive. Our goal is to develop a mobile meditation tool focusing on haptic cues. To investigate the effectiveness of the system, we conducted user studies. This study explores the following questions: How effective is haptic guidance on its own? And how may the addition of haptic feedback enhance audio based guidance? Preliminary analysis support the value of haptic guidance in mobile meditation tools.
Keywords: Meditation; Technology; Haptic device
A Usability Evaluation of Fitness-Tracking Apps for Initial Users BIBAKFull-Text 457-462
  Ana Carolina Tomé Klock; Isabela Gasparini
Nowadays, there are many different mobile apps designed to help people start and continue practicing physical activities. This paper aims to analyze the usability of the most used apps for walk through inspection methods, focusing especially on the core tasks available. This paper presents the problems found and the comparison between the five analyzed apps. Through the results, the goal of this study is identifying the usability problems to help improving user interaction with physical activity monitoring apps.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; Inspection method; Heuristic evaluation; Ergonomic criteria; Fitness-tracking apps
Research on Intelligent Exercise Prescription System for Civil Servant BIBAFull-Text 463-466
  Qi Luo; Wei Deng
Public servant refers to the people who work in the government institutions of various levels and execute the mission of state administrative functions and powers. Civil servant is in sub-health status and is high dangerous group of some chronics. Civil servant has a highly recognition about the value of sport for health and has desire to participate in it. But because some objective and subjective reasons, Civil servant cannot participate in exercise and is lack of targeted and scientific. The intelligent exercise prescription system for civil servant has been proposed by the following method such as literature, expert interviews, experimental test, software engineering method, data mining, system dynamics modeling. The intelligent exercise prescription system based theory on artificial intelligence and assessment of fitness-health include these achievements. The intelligent exercise prescription system is the life-style and rest/work system and chronics of civil servant taken into account deeply so as to ensure the feasibility and targeted and scientific of exercise prescription.
Prototype of a Shoulder and Elbow Occupational Health Care Exergame BIBAKFull-Text 467-472
  Wilson Nava; Cesar Andres Ramos Mejia; Alvaro Uribe-Quevedo
The use of gaming in non-entertainment scenarios have impacted learning, therapy, exercising and training scenarios, among many others. In terms of occupational health care, it can provide motivation and monitoring, while complementing surveys and medical examinations. The success of the exercise depends on several factors, from understanding the guides, the demonstrations and its causes and consequences. Related works in this area have approached this problem with different type of games and motion tracking to boost engagement and the acquisition of data. This work presents the development of a shoulder and elbow exergame using motion capture as a complimentary tool to traditional means of occupational health care exercising. The presented solution in this project tracks the user upper limb to provide feedback that may help improve the exercising experience through charts that can be sent to a health care specialist.
Keywords: Data; Game; Tracking
An Investigation of the Usability and Desirability of Health and Fitness-Tracking Devices BIBAKFull-Text 473-477
  Ashton Pfannenstiel; Barbara S. Chaparro
This study investigated the usability and functionality of 6 different fitness tracking wristbands that have been suggested to improve and encourage healthy behaviors. While many previous studies assess the accuracy and behavioral effects of fitness tracking devices, limited research has been done to analyze the usability and desirability of these products. Participants were asked to rate their impressions of six fitness tracking devices -- the Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone Up24, Fitbit One, Basis B1 Band, Misfit Shine, and the Tom Tom Multisport -- before and after usage. Participants were also asked to describe the main factors contributing to their overall preference and likelihood to purchase and/or use each device. Results indicate that participants are initially more likely to favor, small, lightweight devices that have a display. After wearing the devices, the most valued features were attractiveness, long battery life, waterproof, and a heart rate monitor. The study suggest that a "one size fits all approach" to the design of fitness tracking devices may not be the most effective method to promote the actual use of the technology.
Keywords: Wearables; Beauty technology; Usability methods and tools; Mobile products; ISO; Usability
Development of an Open Electronics User Interface for Lower Member Occupational Health Care Exergaming BIBAKFull-Text 478-483
  Estefania Ramos-Montilla; Alvaro Uribe-Quevedo
According to the World Health Organization 15% of the global population suffers some form of musculoskeletal disorder. To prevent such affection, workers are encouraged to engage into active pauses during work hours to lower the risk of suffering any type of disorder. Although aware of the consequences, workers tend to avoid active pauses due to lack of time or motivation, unclear guides or ignorance regarding the effects of bad occupational health habits. An approach to overcome such challenges can be found in exergames, as they provide means to increase user motivation and clear instructions by taking advantage of motion tracking to better execute the active pauses. Wearable sensor are currently providing affordable solutions that track data more accurately in contrast to gaming devices, in this work, an open electronics interface is implemented within an exergame to motitave the execution of lower member active pauses within an office environment.
Keywords: Health; Sensor; Tracking
Impact of Intermittent Stretching Exercise Animation on Prolonged-Sitting Computer Users' Attention and Work Performance BIBAKFull-Text 484-488
  Sy-Chyi Wang; Jin-Yuan Chern
The prevailing use of computers and the Internet has contributed to popular symptoms of visual impairment, musculoskeletal injuries, and even emotional disorders nowadays. While certain ergonomics software packages have thus been designed to avoid or relieve the symptoms, some studies raised concern about possible decline in attention and work performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of the computer stretch/massage software on extended computer users' attention and work performance. The Neuroscience brainwave monitor was used to evaluate the participants' attention. Thirty college students who work more than 4 h a day in front of computer were recruited and evenly distributed to two groups. The participants in the experimental group were asked to perform the task on computer for 30 min with a stretch program on, which was set to pop-up every 10 min for about 30 s each. The control group took no breaks or interventions. The results show that the computer break software did not decrease the participants' attention scores. Meanwhile the experimental group demonstrated higher work performance scores. It is suggested that during prolonged sitting computer work, breaks and body movements are necessary for better attention and work performance.
Keywords: Stretching exercise animation; Brainwave; Attention score; Work performance

Location and Context Awareness

Dynamic Adaptation of Personalised Recommendations Based on Tourists' Affective State BIBAKFull-Text 491-496
  Petr Aksenov; Andres Navarro; David Oyarzun; Theo Arentze; Astrid Kemperman
The presented work in progress is on the inclusion of information about tourists' emotions in personalising their cultural program recommendations. Emotions are estimated unobtrusively and in real time from facial expressions during tourists' interaction with a dedicated 3D- and AR-based application for cultural tourism. The affective data so collected is used for creating an affective map of an area, where each attraction (point of interest) is assigned an affective score in accordance with the involved affective model. The main goal of our work is to use these affective scores in determining and recommending attractions and activities which suit, among other criteria, the tourist's current or desired affective state.
Keywords: Affective computing; Emotions; Recommendation; Tourism; Utility
Dynamic Operations Wayfinding System (DOWS) for Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 497-502
  Ronald L. Boring; Thomas A. Ulrich; Roger T. Lew
A novel software tool is proposed to aid reactor operators in responding to upset plant conditions. The purpose of the Dynamic Operations Wayfinding System (DOWS) is to diagnose faults, prioritize those faults, identify paths to resolve those faults, and deconflict the optimal path for the operator to follow. The objective of DOWS is to take the guesswork out of the best way to combine procedures to resolve compound faults, mitigate low threshold events, or respond to severe accidents. DOWS represents a uniquely flexible and dynamic computer-based procedure system for operators.
Keywords: Nuclear power plant; Computer-based procedures; Wayfinding; Severe accident
Context-Aware Systems for Complex Data Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 503-507
  Adam Fouse; Stacy Pfautz; Gabriel Ganberg
Increasingly there is a need to analyze a large quantity of diverse, multidimensional data in a timely, efficient manner. A computational awareness of context can improve the speed and accuracy of complex data analysis, and promote more effective human-machine collaboration. We describe ongoing work to develop a framework that monitors human-machine interactions, analyzes context, and augments the system (such as prioritizing information, providing recommendations, adapting an interface, adjusting the level of automation, proactively fetching data, managing notifications, sharing context with others, personalizing the system, etc.). We believe that we can facilitate complex data analysis by adapting systems to meet analysts needs based upon the varying demands of the tasks, priorities, resources, time, user state, and environment.
Keywords: Context-aware systems; Recommender systems; Complex data analysis; Interactive visualization
User Situation-Aware Mobile Communication Method BIBAKFull-Text 508-513
  Jungkih Hong; Scott Song; Dongseok Kim; Minseok Kim
Communicating information through electrical mobile devices solely relies on static functions provided by the mobile devices. For example, when a caller uses the call function on a mobile device, the other caller at the receiving side has only two static functions to execute namely reject or answer. Under most of communication environment, the caller does not recognize the receiver's current context. In this paper, we propose SCS (Situation-aware based on Communication Service) platform to provide an appropriate method to express useful information based on user context like speak-able, read-able, gesture-able situations through mobile devices. In addition, the proposed method enables automatic configuration of personal preference and device attributes and living environment conditions reflecting current situation awareness [1].
Keywords: Situation-aware; Communication service; Mobile device; User context
Design Guideline on Location Based User Emotion Sharing Map Service BIBAKFull-Text 514-518
  GeeYoung Noh; DongNyeok Jeong; Sangsun Park; Jundong Cho
In this paper, we present our preliminary initial investigation about a Heart-map system that detect user's emotion and visualize to cartography map on mobile service. For this project, we developed a wearable prototype to recognize emotions. Based on the prototype, we propose mobile application guideline for this concept functions. Then, We present the results of a in-depth interviews, scenario story board study with ten local people that we conducted with local people, and indicate guidelines for the Function of a Emotion-map systems. Through this project, individuals' emotion and evaluation could look at possibility that social network service (SNS) based on user's specific location. Furthermore, this research can suggest that effective emotion SNS based on system design guideline.
Keywords: Emotion map; Location sharing; Socialization; Mobile application
AR-Technology-Based Locationing System for Interactive Content BIBAFull-Text 519-524
  Satoshi Saga; Ryota Oki; Shusuke Kawagoe; Wanjia Zheng; Jiacheng Sun
In this research, we propose an interactive display system that has a simple implementation. The system is composed of a smartphone, PC, display, and cloud service; it realizes a CAVE-like immersive system by employing simple devices. Relative location information is acquired by the user's smartphone and a marker (or markers). Based on this information, the system renders the appropriate image in real time. In this paper, we describe the implementation and operation of the proposed system.
A Computational Location Model Based on Relative Information BIBAFull-Text 525-530
  Ruowei Xiao; Kazunori Sugiura; Zhanwei Wu
In this paper, we proposed the concept "relative location" as a complementary presentation to the traditional "absolute location", which were considered the traditional expression of locations and have pervaded the current locations based services (LBS). Two methods were introduced to make relative location computable and more useful. Prototypes with Data visualization interface were designed and evaluated to test usability of the proposed methods. User experiments shown that integrating relative location information into computing system may help to improve usability of location based applications.

Urban Interaction

Acceptance of Integrated Active Safety Systems in China BIBAKFull-Text 533-538
  Junliang Chen; Zhengjie Liu; Paul A. Mendoza; Fang Chen
Yearly almost 60,000 people are killed in traffic accidents in China due to the rapid growth of the number of vehicles and bad driving habits. There is a need to increase safety and cars are being equipped with new active safety technology known as Advanced Driver Assistant Systems (ADAS), which can help driver by warning before accidents occur. A simulator study with 16 participants was carried out at a driving simulator, which equipped with an integrated visual interface prototype developed by Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. The interface presents information visually to the driver before any critical situation with help from three Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, Forward Collision Warning (FCW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Lane Departure Warning (LDW). Questionnaires and open-ended interviews were held to subjectively measure the participants' attitude toward the sound warnings and visual interface. Questionnaire results showed that most participants thought the sound warning could facilitate their driving while most users' attitude towards the visual display warning were comparatively neutral. In order to better understand how ADAS technology can be designed to suite Chinese drivers, their behaviors and preferences. There is more work need to do.
Keywords: Advanced driver assistant system; Infotainment equipment; Active safety system; User acceptance
Interactive Navigation System for the Visually Impaired with Auditory and Haptic Cues in Crosswalks, Indoors and Urban Areas BIBAKFull-Text 539-545
  Tianqi "Tenchi" Gao Smith; Christopher Rose; Jeffrey "Wayne" Nolen; Daniel Pierce; Alexander Sherman
This Federal Highway sponsored study is aimed at creating an integrated human-computer system that the visually impaired could use to navigate through chaotic urban areas, indoors environment, as well as complex crosswalks. The system incorporates several redundant positioning systems in order to provide a robust solution to way finding. The main system components include global positioning system (GPS), visual odometry, pedometry, iPhone, Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) radios, and tactile belt. The user will wear a laptop that contains a data processing program that collects data real-time from the devices and provides navigational feedback to the user's iPhone app and tactile belt.
Keywords: Visually impaired; Navigation; Global positioning system (GPS); Visual odometry; Pedometry; iPhone application; Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) radio; Tactile belt; Inertial Motion Unit (IMU)
Domestic Electricity Consumption Visualized as Flowing Tap Water to Raise the Feeling of Waste BIBAKFull-Text 546-550
  Yukio Ishihara; Makio Ishihara; Fumi Hirayama; Keiji Yasukawa
In this study we visualize electricity consumption as flowing tap water in order to encourage people to save electricity by raising the feeling of waste. To save electricity, the mainstream is to present its consumption and quick feedback. Additionally we try to evoke the feeling of waste using flowing tap water. We build a prototype system to convert the amount of electricity being consumed into that of flowing tap water. Finally it is shown that the flow rate of tap water changes according to the amount of electricity consumption.
Keywords: Flowing tap water; Electricity consumption; Peripheral information; Ambient display
Novel Route Depiction Method Based on Light Information for Map Applications BIBAKFull-Text 551-557
  Namgyu Kang; Kana Takahashi
In recent times, the number of users who use map apps on their smartphones has rapidly increased. When a pedestrian travels to a destination, he/she uses a nearby landmark for finding the route. However, in almost all map apps, routes are depicted considering daytime conditions. This implies that when a pedestrian uses such map apps at nighttime, he/she would need more information to determine whether a route is safe, such as the route's luminance level. Therefore, to address this need, we propose a new route depiction method based on light information. Furthermore, we verify the effectiveness of the proposed method through evaluation experiments involving 25 women participants. Experimental results show that the proposed method affects a user's choice of route; moreover, the proposed method is not only easy to understand and use but is also highly rated in Kansei aspects such as fun, interesting, and safety assistance.
Keywords: Map application; Light information; Depiction; Kansei value
Exploration of Building-Occupant Communication Methods for Reducing Energy Consumption in Buildings BIBAKFull-Text 558-563
  Saba Khashe; Arsalan Heydarian; Joao Carneiro; Burcin Becerik-Gerber
Buildings consume enormous amounts of our nation's total energy use (38%). Previous work showed that occupant actions and behaviors have significant impacts (more than 40%) on building energy demand. Our main goal is to transform buildings into interactive living spaces that communicate with their occupants via agents and influence the way the occupants interact with their building to enable energy efficiency. As a first step towards this goal, we investigated effective communication methods aimed at influencing building occupants' energy-related behaviors. We hypothesized that human-building communication would be more persuasive if the interaction is seen as more social. To investigate the influence of social influence methods (e.g., foot in the door, rule of reciprocity, and direct request) on occupants' energy consumption behavior, experiments were conducted in which immersive virtual environments (IVEs) were used to model real-life office settings.
Keywords: Social influence methods; Immersive virtual environment; Compliance; Social features
Survey Report of Wayfinding Experience Within Cities in China BIBAKFull-Text 564-569
  Fung Ha Sandy Lai
Wayfinding is a kind of systematic communication system which helps people find their way by using elements of words, signage, maps, graphics, digital media, etc. This survey report focuses on how users use existing wayfinding design systems and wayfinding means in transportation services within cities in China. The method of paper surveys and online surveys were adopted to examine the effectiveness of existing wayfinding systems. Some elements of wayfinding systems such as the usability of the character design of 'Pinyin' (using Latin letters to help pronounce Chinese words), graphical information and digital means were also addressed. There were 196 valid interviews obtained in the paper survey at Beijing South Railway Station, and 35 valid responses from online survey which were given by foreigners with travel experience in China. Preliminary results indicated that the mobile internet is the most preferred wayfinding tool. Consistency, legibility and safety are important wayfinding principles.
Keywords: Wayfinding design; Mobile internet; Interactive information kiosk
Algorithm to Estimate a Living Area Based on Connectivity of Places with Home BIBAKFull-Text 570-576
  Yuji Matsuo; Sunao Hara; Masanobu Abe
We propose an algorithm to estimate a person's living area using his/her collected Global Positioning System (GPS) data. The most important feature of the algorithm is the connectivity of places with a home, i.e., a living area must consist of a home, important places, and routes that connect them. This definition is logical because people usually go to a place from home, and there can be several routes to that place. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can estimate living area with a precision of 0.82 and recall of 0.86 compared with the grand truth established by users. It is also confirmed that the connectivity of places with a home is necessary to estimate a reasonable living area.
Keywords: Living area; Dementia; Watch-out; GPS
Design of Interactive Instruction Systems for Travelers and Short-Term Visitors BIBAKFull-Text 577-581
  Nuttaporn Noithong; Makio Ishihara
The purpose of this manuscript is to study about Interface design to develop an instruction system for tourists and short-term visitors. An instruction consists of 3 structures: sequence, selection and loop structures, and it is represented in 4 visual representations. Through the experiment in usability, this manuscript finds the best representation of instructions. The result shows that for sequence structure, representation P1(number) is the best, but representation P4(slide) is the best for selection structure.
Keywords: Instruction system; Visualization; Interface design
Lessons Learned from the Development of a Rural Real Time Passenger Information System BIBAKFull-Text 582-586
  Konstantinos Papangelis; Somayajulu Sripada; John D. Nelson; Mark Beecroft
In recent years, the advances in real-time transport telematics systems that use computer, communication, navigation and information systems, make the dissemination of the passenger information more effective and efficient. This led to real time passenger information systems to become more and more common. This paper explores the aforementioned in a rural context and presents lessons learned during the development of a rural real time passenger information system.
Keywords: Real time passenger information systems; Co-design; Rural areas
A Market Analysis of Urban Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 587-591
  Gianluca Zaffiro; Melissa Bracuto; Martin Brynskov; Michael Smyth
Urban Interaction Design draws upon knowledge and approaches from a range of disciplines involved in the design of urban spaces, connecting them and establishing their interactions as a principle. It is also rooted in the wider field of interaction design, from which it takes much of its emphasis on behaviors at the human scale, putting the citizen at the center of the process of creating solutions in networked urban spaces. The paper presents the results of a preliminary survey that seeks to articulate, through best case examples, the challenges and opportunities for the field of Urban Interaction Design in the context of Smart Cities.
Keywords: Smart cities; User-centric approach; Interaction design
Innovation Research on Service Design Collaboration Paths Oriented to Smart Cities -- A Case Study in Living Lab BIBAKFull-Text 592-597
  Yangshuo Zheng; Zhiyong Fu; Taiping Zhu
This paper takes "Living Lab" as research example, analysis the social role of urban residents from "passive acceptance" to "active participation", and product design trends are changing from "traditional closed" to cross-border "open collaboration", and discuss the constitutes value system for Living Lab. With particular emphasis in article, Service design takes an irreplaceable internal driving force for the sustainable development of smart city and systematic social innovation. Smart city design should adhere to the user-centered service design, and continuously explore collaborative public participatory innovation paradigm.
Keywords: Smart city; Service design; Prosumer; Living lab

Automotive and Aviation

Multiple Scales Pilot Action Pattern Recognition During Flight Task Using Video Surveillance BIBAKFull-Text 601-604
  Lu Ding; Jia Bo; Qi Wu; HaiYan Liu; Shan Fu
Pilot action analysis is one of the most important aspects in objective measurement of flight crew workload. Pilot action patterns include distribution of action area, action duration, time and space interval between each of the actions, body posture, cross actions, action path and operation procedures. There are two main problems of pilot action pattern recognition. One is the issue of multiple scales in both time and space. The other is to locate action accurately. This paper presents a method of analyzing pilot action patterns during flight tasks by using video surveillance. Video data is obtained by setting up a single camera in real flight mission. We consider the cockpit as an intelligent environment and develop a new method to analyze pilot action patterns. The concept of intelligent environment is included. First, vision based pattern recognition method is used to locate moving targets in video. Then we use logical based method to recognition actions. The experiment results show that our approach is effective in workload assessment.
Keywords: Multiple scale; Activity recognition; Ontology; Pilot action patterns
Attentional Switch Characteristics are Correlated with the Performance of Simulated Aviation Task BIBAKFull-Text 605-609
  Feng Du; Jie Zhang; Mengnuo Dai
The present study explored what attentional switch characteristics are correlated with simulated aviation task performance. We measure the attentional switch characteristics based on three AB indices. When two targets are presented in a RSVP stream, the impairment in identification of the second target (T2) after correct report of the first target (T1) is attentional blink (AB). First, the overall switch cost is the AB magnitude which is the difference between the highest and lowest accuracy of T2 given correct report of T1 (T2/T1) across five T1-T2 intervals. Second, the general cost of processing T1 is measured by the average accuracy of T2/T1 across intervals. Finally, the AB dwell time is measured by the temporal interval when the accuracy of T2/T1 reach the lowest level across five T1-T2 intervals. The Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MATB) is used to simulate aviation tasks. The results show (1) AB dwell time is significantly correlated with the RT of monitoring dashboard; (2) average accuracy of T2/T1 is correlated with the performance of multiple tasks in the MATB including monitoring dashboard, resource management and tracking tasks. These results indicated that several AB indices might be useful for predicting the simulated aviation performance.
Keywords: Attentional switch characteristics; Attentional blink; Multi-attribute task battery; Simulated aviation performance
Measuring Trust of Autonomous Vehicles: A Development and Validation Study BIBAKFull-Text 610-615
  David Garcia; Christine Kreutzer; Karla Badillo-Urquiola; Mustapha Mouloua
Recent advances in technology have improved the ability of vehicles to act autonomously, thereby enabling the implementation of these systems into the lives of the everyday consumer. For example, in the past three years nearly several major vehicle manufacturer, supplier, and technology company have announced projects involving autonomous vehicles (AVs). While the notion of AVs has been popular within the military, the urgency to make them commonplace has gathered pace as companies outside the auto industry have illustrated the feasibility and benefits that AVs offer. However, in order to predict user adoption of these autonomous features, attitudes towards them must be understood. Thus, the purpose of the present in-progress study is to develop and validate a scale to quantify trust towards autonomous vehicles. Upon the completion of data collection, the data will be subjected to a factor analysis. It is hypothesized that the scale ratings will converge to a single underlying dimension. It is also hypothesized that there will be differences in trust among the levels of vehicle autonomy.
Keywords: Autonomous vehicles; Trust; Unmanned vehicles; Robotics
The Effects of Automation Reliability and Multi-tasking on Trust and Reliance in a Simulated Unmanned System Control Task BIBAKFull-Text 616-621
  Svyatoslav Guznov; Alexander Nelson; Joseph Lyons; David Dycus
This study examined the effects of automation reliability and multi-tasking on trust and reliance in a simulated unmanned system scenario. Participants performed an insurgent search task with the help of an automated aid that provided information about targets with varying levels of reliability (high, medium, and low). In addition, a multi-tasking condition was implemented in which a radio communication assignment designed to increase cognitive demand was performed. Results indicated that participants were not able to accurately assess the true reliability of the automated aid in any condition, and were unable to discriminate between low and medium reliability. Results from the multi-tasking manipulation show that participants were more reliant upon the automated aid when the secondary task was present. Overall, this study provides insight into the patterns of trust calibration errors that may negatively affect performance in human-machine teams, particularly when additional task pressure is present.
Keywords: Unmanned systems; Automation reliability; Trust; Reliance; Multi-tasking
Enhancement of Performance by Automotive Display Design that Applied Proximity Compatibility Principle (PCP) BIBAKFull-Text 622-627
  Atsuo Murata; Takaaki Akazawa
The aim of this study was to propose an effective method for displaying driving environment and properly transmitting this to drivers. The display was designed by changing two types of proximity, that is, the proximity of the display and the proximity of the task itself. The proximity of the display was controlled as the type of the display or the distance between two displays. The proximity of the task was controlled as the difference of two tasks performed on the two displays. The participants (a total of eight graduate or undergraduate students) were required to carry out simultaneously a main simulated driving task and secondary tasks controlled by the two proximity factors above. The secondary tasks were one of the followings: reaction task to the approach of a following vehicle, lane changing task, reaction task when the distance to a destination is within the predetermined distance, and speed maintaining task. As a result, it has been demonstrated that the performance under the dual task condition does not always obey the predicted result by proximity compatibility principle.
Keywords: Automotive display; Proximity of display; Proximity of task; Proximity compatibility principle (PCP)
A Cognitive Systems Engineering Perspective on Fighter Cockpit Design Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 628-633
  Susanna Nilsson; Britta Levin; Staffan Nählinder; Jens Alfredson; Ulrika Ohlander; Johan Holmberg
In this paper a method for evaluating fighter aircraft cockpit design solutions is suggested, taking into account the specific needs and limitations that come from working in the context of developing modern fighter aircraft cockpit design. In this context flight simulators are an essential tool for evaluation. A general problem when using simulators for evaluations is the amount of data generated, and how to approach this data. There is a need to develop methods to manage the data and extract relevant data in order to make it usable in the design and development process. The approaches described also aim at connecting the simulator data to the overall joint goals of the pilot-fighter-aircraft system in accordance with the CSE approach to systems development.

Design and User Studies

Information Assurance Practices in Saudi Arabian Organizations BIBAKFull-Text 637-642
  Abdulaziz Alarifi
While the Web, cell phone 'apps' and cloud computing put a world of information at our fingertips that information is under constant threat from cyber vandals and hackers. Although awareness of information threats is growing in the Western world, in places like Saudi Arabia, information security is very poor. Unlike Western pluralistic democracies, Saudi Arabia is a highly-censored country, with a patriarchal and tribal culture, which may influence its poor information security rating. This paper examines the level of Information Security (InfoSec) practices among the IT departments in organizations in Saudi Arabia, using an online survey, based on instruments produced by specialist organizations on information security such as the Malaysian Cyber Security Organization, the Excellence of Information Assurance Centre, and Alelm organization in Saudi Arabia. The survey attracted 124 respondents and the results indicated that information security in Saudi Arabian organizations is quite low. Several of the areas of weakness in InfoSec appear to be related to the level of censorship or the patriarchal and tribal nature of Saudi culture. This study has clearly indicated that information security in Saudi Arabia faces some serious risks from a range of threat types. There is a need to reduce the risks faced and provide good strategies for further protection from threats quickly. This study has proposed the InfoSec Cultural Adaptation Process model (InfoSec CAP) as a process to inform a culturally appropriate response to this challenge. The vision of this research was to provide a tool that would protect and enhance the InfoSec in Saudi Arabia in the short and long terms. This was provided in the InfoSec CAP model. The use of the model will help to establish a strong information security practice and to provide a further information protection. It will also help embed the identified concepts in information security practice globally.
Keywords: Information security; Information assurance; Information systems; Information security management
User Exploration of Search Space Using Tradeoffs BIBAKFull-Text 643-647
  Zachi Baharav; David S. Gladstein
We describe a system for representing search results as an interactive graph, in contrast to the common static representation as an ordered list. The search terms are represented as Key-Nodes, and the results are represented as connected Record-Nodes. The user can then explore tradeoffs by assigning different importance values to Key-Nodes. We suggest algorithms for placement of Record-Nodes in the graph to ensure both smooth change of the representation in response to changes in user preferences, and clustering of results. The work was implemented using Haskell and a client-side Web interface.
Keywords: Search; Graph; Graph representation; Tradeoff
Usability Evaluation of the Smart TV BIBAKFull-Text 648-652
  Wen-Te Chang; Kuo-Chen Huang; Ching-Chang Chuang
The development of Smart TV creates better quality of life. However, only few previous studies provided the experimental results or suggestions on the usability and satisfaction of the interface designs. There were 72 participants. The subjects were intended-random recruited depending on sex (36 male and 36 female), and age (24 senior and 48 young) factors. The study result indicated that a three-way interactive effect among age, topology and task complexity was found to be significant, especially on the senior and linear topological interface condition (the difference of easy and middle level tasks eliminated). The study result benefit the study related to the interactive effect on the age, topology and task complexity.
Keywords: Smart TV; Interface evaluation
Usability of the Submission Process in a Journal System BIBAKFull-Text 653-656
  Ronnie Fagundes de Brito; Milton Shintaku
Electronic open access journals are adopted by many Brazilian institutions, with over 1600 journals developed with the Open Journal System (OJS) at various universities. In this scenario, the submission process of article's documents in this system becomes focal point for usability analysis, because it is the step that constitutes the initial stage of interaction of various users profiles. Thus, this study aims to measure the level of satisfaction of the authors who submit manuscripts to OJS, with the aim of contributing to studies of this system. Therefore, a survey is presented using the System Usability Scale questionnaire. Satisfaction criteria are evaluated with the submission process by authors of a university journal portal. Results show that OJS appears intuitive, however some difficulties can be identifying in the process, even if the overall evaluation of the system is good. The study contributes to the discussion on the usability of OJS, aimed at improving this system that is widely used in Brazil.
Keywords: System usability survey; Open Journal Systems
Survey on Copyright Infringement of Digital Contents: A Case Study of Japanese University Students BIBAKFull-Text 657-660
  Rieko Inaba; Remi Yamazaki
This study clarified the actual use of infringed content for university students in Japan using a survey on the target video and audio contents. In this study, the following became clear. (1) The use of digital content has been pervasive. The demand for music-related content is high. (2) Most users watch and listen to digital contents without consideration for copyright infringement. Indeed, users indicated feeling no guilt and concern for the risks involved when accessing infringed materials. These results show that many users lack a proper understanding of copyright laws.
Keywords: Copyright infringement; Digital contents; Japanese university students
A Branch-Type Slider and its Application BIBAKFull-Text 661-664
  Makio Ishihara; Erika Koriyama; Yukio Ishihara
This manuscript proposes a branch-type slider for indoor navigation and builds a proof-of-concept system, and conducts an experiment in usability. A branch-type slider is a horizontal bar that divides into multiple sub-bars. The result shows that the branch-type slider can be applied to indoor navigation if the user interface is carefully designed.
Keywords: Branch-type sliders; Indoor navigation; Mobile application; Interface design
Airbrush Metaphor and its Application BIBAKFull-Text 665-669
  Makio Ishihara; Yuta Nakazaki; Yukio Ishihara
This manuscript proposes a way of coordinating a schedule with airbrush metaphor and builds a proof-of-concept system. Its design and a brief demonstration are presented, and an experiment in usability is conducted. The result shows that the airbrush metaphor is capable of expressing ambiguity of schedules and effectively applied to a way of coordinating a schedule.
Keywords: Airbrush metaphor; Schedule coordination; Web application; Interface design
Manipulating Animation Speed of Progress Bars to Shorten Time Perception BIBAKFull-Text 670-673
  Yuma Kuroki; Makio Ishihara
This manuscript introduces the basic idea of how to shorten the perceived time of progress bars' animation. The perceived time is not always proportional to the actual elapsed time. It is affected by a variety of psychological factors, and it is manipulable and distortable under certain circumstances. This manuscript explains how the perceived time is shortened by progress bars' animation, and shows that manipulating animation speed of progress bars has the potential to shorten the time perception.
Keywords: Perceived time; Progress bars; GUIs; Interface design
The Differences of User Perceived Interactivity Between Two Features of Web Site Design BIBAKFull-Text 674-679
  Juihsiang Lee
The purpose of this study is to examine the differences between two features of perceived interactivity -- interactivity-as-process vs. interactivity-as-product on ACG portal site design. Three dimensions of interactivity (user control, responsiveness and connectedness) and consumers' perceived value composed of utilitarian and hedonic values on ACG resources searching, finally determining the level of overall satisfaction on using interactivity features in ACG portable site service design. A total of 450 respondents participated the online survey by questionnaire and the usable samples were 445. The results indicate three differences between two features of interactive web design -- by users on ACG portal site.
Keywords: ACG website; Perceived interactivity
Comparing and Exploring New Text Entry and Edit Methods for Smart TV BIBAKFull-Text 680-683
  Jingtian Li; Young Mi Choi
Smart TVs are becoming an increasingly important multimedia device for home entertainment. The need of effective input methods for television text entry or edit is growing as the number of smart TV explodes. In this paper we evaluate and compare four current input methods (traditional remote controller, touchpad, physical keyboard, and smart device virtual keyboard) for smart TV. Based on the result of research, we propose an approach that provides a more effective method of text entry and edit.
Keywords: Smart TV; Text input method; Text edit; User experience
Ergonomic Visualization of Logistical Control Parameters for Flexible Production Planning and Control in Future Manufacturing Systems BIBAKFull-Text 684-689
  Jochen Nelles; Sinem Kuz; Christopher M. Schlick
The research presented in this paper focuses on modeling and visualization of logistical control parameters. In the developed application, the internal logistical control parameters cycle time, timeliness, inventory, and capacity were considered. A novel concept to visualize these parameters was developed on the basis of the well-known funnel model. The original model was enhanced by and compared to a further developed model. Our approach to visualize the internal logistical control parameters is based on a paddle-wheel model. An online survey with both models and different visualizations of the internal logistical control parameters was carried out to compare both models and the different visualizations. Both models are investigated with regard to comprehension and visual learning versus verbal learning. In the poster session, we will present further development of the paddle-wheel model to show the cause-effect relationship between the individual internal logistical control parameters and draw a comparison with the original funnel model.
Keywords: Mental model; Situation awareness; Verbal learner; Visual learner; Production planning and control; Internal logistical control parameters
Can You Judge a Video Game by Its Cover? BIBAKFull-Text 690-696
  Mikki H. Phan; Jibo He; Barbara S. Chaparro
Studies have shown that first impressions of websites can lead to lasting opinions regarding usability and trustworthiness. However, little research has been conducted concerning first impressions of video games. In this study, 20 college-age students were asked to view and rate images of 48 game box covers after a brief exposure while their eye movement patterns were recorded. Results revealed that participants can reliably form different impressions (e.g., fun vs. boring) about certain video games based on a brief viewing of the game box cover. Analysis of eye tracking data revealed that participants viewed the front image, side title strip, and front game title the most. Relationships among the different subjective attributes (e.g., design quality, entertainment value) are reported.
Keywords: Video games; Box cover; Game quality; Subjective ratings; Eye tracking; Eye movement pattern; First impressions
Questionnaire for User Habits of Compute Clusters (QUHCC) BIBAKFull-Text 697-702
  Johanna Renker; Stephan Schlagkamp; Gerhard Rinkenauer
There is an increased interest to improve existing schedulers of compute clusters. Trace data are used to analyze the performance of compute clusters and to develop improved algorithms, but the interaction of the user and the compute cluster is not considered yet. Therefore, the current study investigates user behavior and satisfaction with regard to compute clusters. The resulting data are used to model users and to run a scheduler simulation with these modeled users. A new questionnaire for User Habits of Compute Clusters (QUHCC) with 7 scales and 53 questions was developed for this purpose. Results indicate that there is considerable potential to improve the performance of computer systems, viz. users satisfaction is limited, because different kinds of user strategies are necessary to improve the performance of the system. Future work includes the further validation and improvement of the questionnaire.
Keywords: Questionnaire; High performance computing; User strategies; User satisfaction
Usability Assessment of a Suicide Intervention-Prevention Mini-Game BIBAKFull-Text 703-708
  Joan M. Savage
Video games are growing in popularity and are fulfilling genuine human needs that the real world is currently unable to satisfy. Games teach, inspire and engage us in ways that reality is not. This study evaluated a video game designed to educate players concerning suicide prevention. It is aimed at educating on how to identify and address someone who might be contemplating suicide. Six veterans with varied demographics played Suicide Intervention-Prevention Mini-Game (SIP-M) and showed improvement in knowledge concerning suicide intervention-prevention. Participants found the game entertaining, informative and felt better equipped to identify and handle someone who might be contemplating suicide. SIP-M is discussed in the larger context of a virtual environment where veterans can participate in activities and receive information about a variety of mental and physical disorders.
Keywords: Design: human centered design and user centered design; Entertainment: gamification; Technology: graphical user interface; Technology: interaction in virtual and augmented reality environments
Acceptance of Waiting Times in High Performance Computing BIBAKFull-Text 709-714
  Stephan Schlagkamp; Johanna Renker
In high performance computing, users submit computing jobs to a parallel computing infrastructure. Resources for jobs must be allocated according to the job's requirements. At times of high workload, waiting times are unavoidable. Hence, we investigate user acceptance of waiting times in high performance computing. We analyze data provided by Questionnaire for User Habits of Compute Clusters (QUHCC) among high performance computing users (n=24). On the one hand, the results indicate that increasing processing times of jobs lead to greater acceptance of waiting times. On the other hand, the percental difference between processing times and waiting times decreases for increasing job lengths. We suggest that scheduling strategies should respect our findings.
Keywords: User satisfaction; Service levels; High performance computing; Waiting times
Analysis on the Influencing Factors of the Comprehensibility of Graphical Symbols BIBAKFull-Text 715-721
  Chuan-Yu Zou; Fan Zhang; HuiMin Hu
With the development of modernization and urbanization in China, more and more buildings develop into a huge collection group with massive functions. People often have to face difficulties and anxieties in locating their destinations. As a non-verbal presentation of information, graphical symbols are often used to help people in wayfinding. It's comprehensibility that determines the effect of information transmission of graphical symbols. This research collected comprehension data of thirty-two symbols in China. To explore statistically significant relationships between symbol comprehension and influencing factors, Pearson's Chi-square tests, logistic regression analysis, and correspondence analysis were conducted. From the test results of two different variants of rental bicycle, it shows that concrete symbols are more likely to be understood correctly than abstract symbols. Furthermore, the respondents with higher education level have less difficulty than those with lower education level in comprehending graphical symbols.
Keywords: Graphical symbol; Comprehension test; Wayfinding