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HCII Tables of Contents: 11-411-511-613-113-213-313-413-513-613-714-114-214-314-414-515-115-215-315-415-5

HCI International 2014: 16th International Conference on HCI, Part I: Theories, Methods, and Tools

Fullname:HCI International 2014: 16th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Theories, Methods, and Tools
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8510
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07233-3 hcibib: HCII14-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-07232-6 (print), 978-3-319-07233-3 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. HCII 2014-06-22 Volume 1
    1. Design Theories, Methods and Tools
    2. HCI and Design Education
    3. Models, Patterns and Tools for UI Development
    4. Adaptive and Personalized Interfaces
    5. Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Case Studies
    6. Visualisation Methods and Techniques

HCII 2014-06-22 Volume 1

Design Theories, Methods and Tools

Psychological Personas for Universal User Modeling in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Caio Felix de Araujo; Plinio Thomaz Aquino Junior
Applying techniques to understand the user needs and expectation in product development is important practices for find consistent strategies. However, available techniques need human interaction, is a psychologist examining a profile or usability expert capturing information about user's group. In this situation, data collection and analysis require a large effort and cost to make the purpose of knowing the user needs. This paper aims to create a set of personas from psychological profiles theory that define a generic model, clustering information about knowledge, skills, impulses and concerns, outlining action patterns of users diversity that exist today. This set of personas can be used in global solutions, considering universal usability aspects. Finally, the worldwide acceptance of psychological profiles allows updated and consistent personas, decreasing cost and increasing quality.
Keywords: Personas-Psychological; Profiles-User; Modeling-User Profile
Immediacy in User Interfaces: An Activity Theoretical Approach BIBAKFull-Text 14-22
  Sturla Bakke
In this paper the relation between the [new] concept of immediacy in user interfaces is discussed by taking an activity theoretical approach. When discussing so-called 'user-friendly' technical artefacts, the term intuitive often turns up in the human-computer interaction (HCI) discourse, as a kind of buzzword. The problem with the term intuition is that it lacks a sufficient level of precision, and could very well mean different things to different people. This paper discusses how familiar HCI concepts such as intuition and affordances in combination can form the basis of the new concept of immediacy, and how it can be justified on the basis of activity theory.
Keywords: immediacy; user-interfaces; activity theory; action
The Resilience of Analog Tools in Creative Work Practices: A Case Study of LEGO Future Lab's Team in Billund BIBAKFull-Text 23-34
  Nanna Borum; Eva Petersson Brooks; Søren R. Frimodt-Møller
This paper discusses the use of digital and analog tools, respectively, in a creative industry. The research was done within the EU-funded research project IdeaGarden, which explores digital platforms for creative collaboration. The findings in a case study of LEGO® Future Lab, one of LEGO Group's largest innovation departments, show a preference for analog tools over digital in the creative process. This points towards a general need for tangible tools in the creative work process, a need that has consequences for the development of new digital tools for creative collaboration.
Keywords: digital tools; collaboration technology; creative work practices
Using Cultural Probes to Inform the Design of Assistive Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 35-46
  Michael Brown; Allen Tsai; Sharon Baurley; Therese Koppe; Glyn Lawson; Jennifer Martin; Tim Coughlan; Meretta Elliott; Stephen Green; Unna Arunachalam
This paper discusses the practical implications of applying cultural probes to drive the design of assistive technologies. Specifically we describe a study in which a probe was deployed with home-based carers of people with dementia in order to capture critical data and gain insights of integrating the technologies into this sensitive and socially complex design space. To represent and utilise the insights gained from the cultural probes, we created narratives based on the probe data to enhance the design of assistive technologies.
Keywords: Cultural probes; Assistive technology; Dementia; Design
Is There HCI in IDTV? BIBAKFull-Text 47-57
  Samuel B. Buchdid; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
Interactive Digital TV (iDTV) is an emerging technology that faces problems that are inherent to it; for example the lack of users' experience interacting with television content. The knowledge constructed from the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) field could be an ally for dealing with interaction design for the iDTV context. This work sought to map out the main issues that have been addressed in the iDTV and HCI fields in recent years, aiming at finding ways of bringing HCI to typical iDTV interaction issues. A data collection and analysis of tag clouds created from titles found in the full programs of two major conferences in the field of HCI (ACM CHI and IFIP Interact), and the major conference in the field of iDTV (EuroITV), complemented with other ACM-DL iDTV publications revealed the individual characteristics of HCI and iDTV publications, as well as their similarities and differences. Thus, this study offers a view of iDTV relative to the HCI field as revealed by the publications words.
Keywords: Interactive Digital TV; Human Computer Interaction; Analysis; Conferences; Publications; Tag Clouds
A Knowledge-Construction Perspective on Human Computing, Collaborative Behavior and New Trends in System Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 58-68
  Isabel Cafezeiro; Carmem Gadelha; Virginia Chaitin; Ivan da Costa Marques
This article presents an analysis of collaborative behavior within the historical process of the construction of scientific thought. We start from evidence that the origin of computing was immersed in a conceptual background heavily dominated by structuring thought, resulting in a mode of thinking organized around a centralized unit, strengthening categorization, disciplinarity and a predominant dichotomous logic. However, the new settings in which computer systems are involved, such as collaborative behavior and human computation, reveal a mode of thought and organization within an acentered model of realization. Sociology of knowledge helps us to understand this dynamic, allowing us to verify that the rhizomatic model of realization embraces not only what is traditionally viewed as the setting of computer systems, but also extends to the way of thinking, organization and operation of collective relations around computer systems.
Keywords: human computing; collaborative behavior; sociology of knowledge; hybrids; rhizome
A Revised Lexical Approach for Analyzing Online Reviews BIBAKFull-Text 69-76
  Xiaowen Fang; Fan Zhao
Inspired by the lexical approach used by psychologists to study personality traits, this paper proposes a revised version of this approach for analyzing online reviews. The lexical approach is based on a lexical hypothesis stating that personality traits are reflected in the adjectives invented by people to describe them. The revised lexical approach contains five steps: collecting online reviews, parsing adjectives, extracting consumer/user observations, factor analysis, and exploring factors/patterns. The paper elaborates each of these steps. It further discusses implications of this new approach.
Keywords: lexical approach; content analysis; qualitative research; online reviews
Ergonomics in the Practice of Project Architect on Selected Examples BIBAKFull-Text 77-85
  Klaudiusz Fross
Ergonomics is present in everyday design practice. Designers use it consciously or intuitively. They also do not take into account the realization of its principles. The paper presents a variety of examples of the application of ergonomic principles in the design. It shows the various aspects of ergonomic design selected examples of projects and the implementation of the author. It discusses ergonomics in kitchen technology, medical technology hospital facilities, hotels projects, industrial plants, water parks, playgrounds, etc. The purpose of this paper is to show the diversity of ergonomic issues occurring in daily practice. Demonstration of the need to start the design of the initial findings of ergonomic parameters, modules and optimization of technological systems. Ergonomics as a vital and necessary part of the initial phase of design -- programming, which not only simplifies the design but also ensures optimum and safe use. Ergonomic design gives a measurable and tangible benefits for developers, investors and users. The paper is the author's statement, presents his point of view, ergonomic in design.
Keywords: architectural design; ergonomics in the design; building quality evaluation
Color Saliency Research on Visual Perceptual Layering Method BIBAKFull-Text 86-97
  Jing Li; Chengqi Xue; Wencheng Tang; Xiaoli Wu
It is a studying worthy problem whether operators can find targets among distractors quickly and correctly with lots of information presented on user interfaces. How to use color saliency properly to optimize interface design is dis-cussed in this paper, according to the guidance of visual perceptual layering. Three laboratory experiments are conducted to assess the anti-interference performances of different colors in three dimensions (hue, brightness and saturation). The an-ti-interference performance is evaluated in reaction time by using a non-parametric statistical test, and the unit of measurement is ΔE76 Euclidean metrics on the perceptually uniform CIE L*a*b* space. The obtained results show that, (1) The pop-out of information effectively can be established by the distance of visual perceptual layering. (2) Visual saliencies of warm colors are different from those of cool colors, and the formers are more salient. High saturated warm colors are more salient than low saturated warm colors, and high bright cool colors are more salient than low bright cool colors. Furthermore, high bright cool colors are less salient than high saturated cool colors. (3) In the hue-contrast condition, with the color difference is more than 20 ΔE76, the visual saliency of target may not change with the change in color differences. Target's saliency is more effected by distractor brightness than by background brightness, whereas it is more effected by back-ground saturation than by distractor saturation.
Keywords: Color Saliency; Visual Perceptual Layering; Anti-interference Performance; Color Difference
Generating Human-Computer Micro-task Workflows from Domain Ontologies BIBAKFull-Text 98-109
  Nuno Luz; Nuno Silva; Paulo Novais
With the growing popularity of micro-task crowdsourcing platforms, a renewed interest in the resolution of complex tasks that require the cooperation of human and machine participants has emerged. This interest has led to workflow approaches that present new challenges at different dimensions of the human-machine computation process, namely in micro-task specification and human-computer interaction due to the unstructured nature of micro-tasks in terms of domain representation. In this sense, a semi-automatic generation environment for human-computer micro-task workflows from domain ontologies is proposed. The structure and semantics of the domain ontology provides a common ground for understanding and enhances human-computer cooperation.
Keywords: Human-Machine Computation; Micro-Task Workflows; Ontologies
Methodological Capabilities for Emergent Design BIBAKFull-Text 110-121
  Carl M. Olsson; Jeanette Eriksson
In this paper we revisit emergent design and review five design oriented methodologies; action research, design research, controlled experiments, participatory design and ethnographic based approaches. Based on this review, we outline implications for the use of these methodologies in conjunction with an emergent design stance. Adopting such a stance is in line with both the exploratory way in which users embrace technology and the strong acceptance that agile software development approaches have had. It is therefore, we argue, appropriate that our research methodologies are adapted to embrace this change.
Keywords: Emergent design; opportunism; methodological review; abduction
Value Pie: A Culturally Informed Conceptual Scheme for Understanding Values in Design BIBAKFull-Text 122-133
  Roberto Pereira; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
Interactive technologies have spread from the context of the workplace to our homes and everyday lives, and people use them for different purposes, through different devices, and in quite different and complex contexts. In the last years, the HCI research community has devoting attention to the subject of values, pointing out to the need for placing values in the core of technology design, and for studies that support researchers, designers and practitioners in doing so. In this paper, we introduce the Value Pie: a theoretically grounded artifact created to support the understanding and involvement of values in design. The paper presents the grounds used to create the artifact and discusses on how it can favor a comprehensive and informed understanding of values and their cultural context.
Keywords: Organizational Semiotics; HCI; Culture
The Formulation and Visualization of 3D Avatar Design, Including Three Basic Theoretical Elements: Aesthetic, User Experience and Psychology BIBAKFull-Text 134-144
  Thomas Photiadis; Panayiotis Zaphiris
This paper presents a different, until now, perspective of aesthetic experience during the process of designing 3D avatars, formulating and visualizing the combination of user-experience and psychology. The present research aims to define 3D aesthetic experience and the relation of HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) through a theoretical model delivering new insights on the process of 3D avatars' design.
   There is limited research about the procedure and the influences (emotions, mood and external factors) during the process of users designing their three-dimensional (3D) depictions otherwise known as avatars. The provided theoretical model is a combination of the three subjective factors (aesthetics, psychology and user experience) which are interrelated, and are present during such design procedures. The common element that connects all of these areas is Human Computer Interaction (HCI).
   In each area of interest, on its own, there is relevant and sufficient research. But, to a large extent their common relation to 3D environments has not been explored yet. It is the objective of this paper to explore the aesthetic experience from the designer view, in other words, is defined the 3D aesthetic experience of the user but from the side of the designer.
   An additional reason of the formulation and the focus on 3D visualization is to simplify the procedure of 3D avatar design while simultaneously embracing the influence of aesthetics, user experience and psychology; which are provided via an overview of existing research, concentrating on the procedure for 3D avatar design.
Keywords: Human Computer Interaction; Aesthetics; User Experience; Avatars; Psychology
Augmentation and the Visual Mind BIBAKFull-Text 145-156
  Hendrik Wahl
This paper discusses the User Interfaces of digital technology as locations where two different fractions of human thinking and being meet each other. A survey on either side of the boundary between logical and bodily domain reveals interdependencies, contradictions, ideological positions and approaches towards a creative process of user interaction. Based on considerations about creation, relevance and appreciation of visual expression regarding to digital graphics, User Interface and Interaction Design a perspective will proposed; focusing the unpredictability of human creativity as the Key-Element in Interaction.
Keywords: augmentation; democratization of digital technology; digital graphics; Logical-bodily-Boundary; sensomotoric interaction; sublime dispatching; Multimodal-Interface; visual demands
Scripting Interactive Art Installations in Public Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 157-166
  Yu Zhang; Joep Frens; Mathias Funk; Jun Hu; Matthias Rauterberg
Traditional dynamic arts have much to offer and it is time to explore how the elements and techniques from stage performances could contribute to interaction design. We try to apply performance techniques and elements from dynamic art forms in the design process of interactive art installations for public spaces. Currently we try not to identify new technologies; instead we investigate how the installation would blossom when approached from a performance art perspective that essentially includes the users as well as a broader physical or social context. This paper introduces the role and function of script in the field of interactive art installation in public spaces. Script inspired from traditional dynamic art forms opens up new design opportunities. This paper discusses these opportunities, followed by an example how this approach can be applied in the design of a public art installation.
Keywords: Interactive Art Installations; Public Spaces; Script; Traditional Dynamic Art Forms
Design-Neuroscience: Interactions between the Creative and Cognitive Processes of the Brain and Design BIBAKFull-Text 167-174
  Rachel Zuanon
This paper discusses the rapprochement between Design and Neuroscience at the approach to the interaction between the creative and cognitive processes of the brain and design. Presents the importance of mental images in mediating these processes. Articulates the parallels between instances of design: imaging, presenting and testing and brain: interpreter, actor and comparator. Proposes the relationship between the spiral development of the brain and of the design as an interactive action beyond the iterative condition, able to support innovative and open perspectives for projective methodologies in design.
Keywords: Design; Neuroscience; Creative Process; and Cognitive Process

HCI and Design Education

Charting the Landscape of HCI Education in Brazil BIBAKFull-Text 177-186
  Clodis Boscarioli; Milene S. Silveira; Raquel Oliveira Prates; Sílvia Amélia Bim; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
One of the issues the Brazilian HCI community has paid great attention to is HCI education in the country. One of the efforts has been to understand, through the use of surveys, how HCI has been taught in Brazil. So far, two reports on HCI education profile in Brazil have been presented: one from 2009 that described HCI courses being taught, and another from 2012 that was in response to a SIGCHI demand and targeted a broader audience, not taking into account specificities of the Brazilian context. Therefore, the need for an updated analysis of HCI education in Brazil was identified and a new survey applied. In this paper we present the initial analysis of the results of this survey and delineate what HCI courses have been offered at undergraduate or graduate levels around the country and their topics they cover.
Keywords: HCI Education; Brazilian HCI community
Human-Computer Interaction Education and Diversity BIBAKFull-Text 187-198
  Tom Gross
Human-Computer Interaction has evolved into an established field of teaching and research. Its multidisciplinary and cross-continental roots combined with its broad scope and multiplicity of paradigms, methods, tools, and application areas have led to a huge diversity. In the community there are currently debates about the pros and cons of this diversity and some voices claim for unifying theory and practice and standardising teaching curricula. In this paper I discuss HCI education, and analyse the past, present, and future of HCI in order to derive implications for HCI education.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Diversity
Tangible Disparity -- Different Notions of the Material as Catalyst of Interdisciplinary Communication BIBAKFull-Text 199-206
  Michael Heidt; Linda Pfeiffer; Andreas Bischof; Paul Rosenthal
Communicating tangible technology designs hinges on an adequate notion of materiality. However, academic disciplines involved employ wildly differing notions of the material. This issue effects communicative boundaries within interdisciplinary teams tasked with development of tangible digital artefacts. In order to address this problem, we provide an analysis of differing disciplinary modes of conceptualisation and theorisation. Following these considerations, we discuss theoretical artefacts able to serve as communicative interfaces between the disciplines in question.
Keywords: materiality; interdisciplinarity; cultural informatics; critical technical practice
Improvement of Novice Software Developers' Understanding about Usability: The Role of Empathy Toward Users as a Case of Emotional Contagion BIBAKFull-Text 207-218
  Fulvio Lizano; Jan Stage
There are several obstacles when it comes to integrating Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) activities into software development projects. In particular, a lack of understanding on the part of novice software developers regarding usability is one of the most cited problems related to this integration. Observation of usability evaluation by these developers has been cited in the literature as an alternative to improve their understanding about usability due to the fact that, among other things, this improves the level of empathy with users. In this paper we present the results of a quasi-experiment which explores the origin of this improvement. Our study suggests that the empathy of novice developers towards users could be originated by Emotional Contagion (EC) of these developers. This EC occurs unconsciously in activities where these developers can observe users working with the software. The present research is an initial approximation as to the relation which EC and empathy have in order to improve the novice software developers' understanding of usability.
Keywords: Software development; usability; understanding of usability; empathy towards users; emotional contagion
Fast and Not Furious BIBAKFull-Text 219-229
  Luiz Lopes Lemos Junior; Fábio Evangelista Santana; Fernando Antonio Forcellini; Luiz Fernando Vaseak Machado; João Paulo Castilho
Two projects sequentially made planed and constructed of a wheelchair-low-cost and a car to run at the academic Gravity Racing Championship. The intention of them is provide to the Brazilian market a more durable and cheaper standard manual wheelchair and a racing car to access for a wheelchair and its driver. They were designed in CAD program for product engineering (modeling in 3 axis). The mechanical elements of movements were bought and retrofitted to the innovative structures. As the racing car was a 4 wheels model, the steering was inspired in the same used in kart models and the breaks and wheels were cycling components. The loading and unloading system was made by the driver without assistance of anyone (a ramp helps the person to load the wheelchair in the car and the person set the ramp up for safety). The car was not equipped with any propulsion equipment because the championship rules admit only the influence of gravity.
Keywords: Wheelchair; Mechanical Construction; Racing Car for Wheelchair; Vehicle for Wheelchair; Mechanical Manufacturing; Paraplegia
Teaching and Learning HCI Online BIBAKFull-Text 230-241
  Enric Mor; Muriel Garreta-Domingo; Enosha Hettiarachchi; Nuria Ferran
This paper presents the experience of designing and launching an online HCI certificate program. The program was opened in March 2011 and it is currently in its fourth edition. It is a one-year certificate program addressed to practitioners and people working in user experience related fields. The data collected about our students confirm that there is a need for formal HCI education in these sectors and that students enroll in the program to formalize their knowledge acquired on the ground and to deepen it. Taking into account the two main user profiles of online learners (executives and hobby), the program only has "executives". Student satisfaction level on previous editions are very positive and we are currently applying an informal user-centered design approach to the design of the program that helps to refine it iteratively.
Keywords: Education; training; curriculum; online education; teaching; learning; user-centered design
Comparison of Creativity Enhancement and Idea Generation Methods in Engineering Design Training BIBAKFull-Text 242-250
  Motyl Barbara; Filippi Stefano
The research presented in this paper aims at evaluating how simple and intuitive are the learning, understanding, and application of some creativity enhancement methods by non-expert users in an engineering design context. The three methods under investigation are TRIZ, C-K theory and SCAMPER. To evaluate the training experience the authors set an evaluation framework based on Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Evaluation and used a questionnaire to collect students' experiences. The results show that the understanding and the consequent application of the three creativity enhancement and idea generation methods are judged positively by the participants. In particular, TRIZ method represents the most appreciated at all, while SCAMPER stands out for its intuitiveness and easiness of use. Finally, C-K theory is revealed as the newest one and very promising for future developments.
Keywords: TRIZ; C-K theory; SCAMPER; training evaluation; engineering education
Studio-Based Learning as a Natural Fit to Teaching Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 251-258
  Paula Alexandra Silva; Martha E. Crosby; Blanca J. Polo
The creative element of HCI tends to be neglected due to the rapid advancement of hardware platforms as well as software development. HCI books cannot keep up with this rapid growth, nor can they provide students with the necessary tools to succeed. Considering these facts, HCI instructors need to implement techniques that not just complement but also enhance learning while preparing students for the real world. Studio-based learning, being a constructivist pedagogy that includes critiques and reflection can greatly enhance HCI Education.
Keywords: HCI Education; HCI Pedagogy; HCI Methodologies; Studio-Based Learning
Teaching Design for All Through Empathic Modeling: A Case Study in Tallinn University BIBAKFull-Text 259-269
  Vladimir Tomberg; Mart Laanpere
The goal of the paper is to illustrate best practices that can be used in Design for All courses. We implemented the empathic modeling approach in HCI study programme by letting the students simulate users with disabilities in the physical settings in order to increase their understanding of Design for All in their work as HCI designers. The data was collected from students with online questionnaire and open reflections after the course.
Keywords: Accessibility; Design for All; Empathy; Empathic Modeling; Teaching DfA

Models, Patterns and Tools for UI Development

HCI Prototyping and Modeling of Future Psychotherapy Technologies in Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 273-284
  Sheryl Brahnam
This paper describes the virtual MSU SL Prototyping Center for Psychotherapy Technologies in development at Missouri State University and explores the value of using Second Life (SL) as a prototyping tool for HCI research. The power of SL is illustrated in our use of it to envision applications and usage scenarios for an integrative system for psychotherapy technologies called MyPsySpace, a highly flexible and customizable system that can be used by independent therapists trained in a wide range of theoretical orientations.
Keywords: futures studies; second life prototyping; psychotherapy; virtual reality; drama therapy; expressive arts therapy; scenarios
Combining Design of Models for Smart Environments with Pattern-Based Extraction BIBAKFull-Text 285-294
  Gregor Buchholz; Peter Forbrig
There are two different types of approaches for smart environments. The first group provides an infrastructure that contains mechanisms from artificial intelligence that allow to adapt to certain behavior of users and to support them by performing their tasks. These approaches work fine if the conditions in the environment are not experiencing too many changes. However, when different types of activities have to be supported and participants change a lot there is the problem of getting enough training data to recognize the users' activities with sufficient reliability. In such cases, designing support by providing models for activities of participating users seems to be a solution. Thus, mechanisms from artificial intelligence can be supported by reducing the search space for possible actions.
   Designing of activity models can be performed by employing the top-down approach through predefined generic patterns or alternatively the bottom-up mechanism by looking at traces of performed activities (scenarios). Again patterns play an important role as they allow the identification of important parts of traces that lead to parts of models. The identification of such trace sections can be done almost automatically. The mapping to parts of models however, has to be done in an interactive way. Human decisions are necessary to provide good models. Different strategies can be supported by tools in order to make decisions within the models ranging from abstract levels down to the most detailed level.
   This paper will provide a discussion of the outlined approach.
Keywords: task models; smart environment; model generation
Evaluation of Model-Based User Interface Development Approaches BIBAKFull-Text 295-307
  Jürgen Engel; Christian Herdin; Christian Märtin
The PaMGIS framework was developed at Augsburg University of Applied Sciences and is aimed at supporting user interface designers without profound software development skills to specify the diverse models which allow for at least semi-automated generation of user interface source code. Currently these are task, dialog, interaction, and layout models as well as user, device, and environment models. The complexity of the model definitions is reduced by the application of patterns of various types and different abstraction levels. These patterns are specified by means of the PaMGIS Pattern Specification Language (PPSL) that is a further refinement of the Pattern Language Markup Language (PLML). Amongst other descriptive information PPSL specifications incorporate sophisticated pattern relationships and model fragments, which are deployed as soon as an individual pattern is applied. In this context we have evaluated existing model-based user interface development frameworks in order to elicit new ideas to improve the applicability of PaMGIS.
Keywords: Model-based user interface development; pattern-based development; user interface modeling; user interface generation; HCI patterns
Engineering Variance: Software Techniques for Scalable, Customizable, and Reusable Multimodal Processing BIBAKFull-Text 308-319
  Marc Erich Latoschik; Martin Fischbach
This article describes four software techniques to enhance the overall quality of multimodal processing software and to include concurrency and variance due to individual characteristics and cultural context. First, the processing steps are decentralized and distributed using the actor model. Second, functor objects decouple domain- and application-specific operations from universal processing methods. Third, domain specific languages are provided inside of specialized feature processing units to define necessary algorithms in a human-readable and comprehensible format. Fourth, constituents of the DSLs (including the functors) are semantically grounded into a common ontology supporting syntactic and semantic correctness checks as well as code-generation capabilities. These techniques provide scalable, customizable, and reusable technical solutions for reoccurring multimodal processing tasks.
Keywords: Multimodal processing; interactive systems; software architecture; actor system; DSL; reactive manifesto; software patterns
HCI-Patterns for Developing Mobile Apps and Digital Video-Assist-Technology for the Film Set BIBAKFull-Text 320-330
  Christian Märtin; Anthony Stein; Bernhard Prell; Andreas Kesper
Digital cinema technology is now widely accepted by directors, directors of photography, producers, film crews, and during the post-production process. On the film set high-resolution digital motion picture cameras have entered the field. In order to exploit the full creative and organizational potential of the advanced digital production technology and to support the whole shooting process, digital video-assist systems are connected to the cameras, monitors, and auxiliary components on the set to form a computer-supported film set (CSFS). The CSFS around Vantage Film's PSU® family of advanced video-assist systems offers intelligent support for all the roles and tasks on the film set. This paper focuses on the design of the PSU® product generations. Contextual design, agility, and patterns, both for designing control and user interface functionality, have been used extensively in the development process. This is demonstrated for the iPad-based mobile PSU® Satellite and some GUI patterns that were used for different features of the touch-screen based user interface.
Keywords: Digital video-assist; design patterns; HCI-patterns; digital motion picture cameras; iPad; iOS; touch-screen user interface; computer-supported film set
IntNovate a Toolkit to Ease the Implementation of Every Interaction Paradigm on Every Device BIBAKFull-Text 331-339
  Bruno Merlin
With the evolution and diversification of devices and platforms, we observed an evolution of the interaction paradigm usage, but also the emergence of several specific SDKs and toolkits. We present a toolkit, IntNovate, aiming at facilitating every interaction techniques and every interface paradigms in a large set of devices. The toolkit enables to create traditional widget applications, but also incorporates gaming techniques to turn easy animation integration, see-through interactions and direct manipulations. It is compatible with J2SE, J2EE, J2ME and android environments. A first evaluation compared an HMI development using both J2SE and IntNovate none form based application development and illustrated the IntNovate advantages in this context.
Keywords: Toolkit; graphic; direct interaction; multiple devices; multiple platforms
One Interface, Many Views: A Case for Repeatable Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Weston Moran
Our project looks at modern approaches to template and pattern design in web applications. We designed and implemented a single UI and UX across multiple devices and use cases. We holistically looked at front-end design and the cross over to backend template structure. The UX paradigm was tested to validate the performance gains and efficacy of the concept. The approach was designed to improve the experience, efficiency and understanding for the user as they utilize our application in multiple environments and across all facets of the navigation.
Keywords: User Interface; Repeatable Patterns; Pattern Library; User Experience; Style Guides
Picture-Driven User Interface Development for Applications on Multi-platforms BIBAKFull-Text 350-360
  Vinh-Tiep Nguyen; Minh-Triet Tran; Anh-Duc Duong
Graphical user interfaces are usually first sketched out manually as hand drawing pictures and then must be realized by software developers to become prototypes or usable user interfaces. This motivates our proposal of a smart CASE tool that can understand hand drawing sketches of graphical user interfaces, including forms and their navigations, then automatically transform such draft designs into real user interfaces of a prototype or an application. By using the ideas of modeling and model-transformation in model driven engineering, the authors also propose a mechanism to generate graphical user interfaces as forms targeting different platforms. Experimental results show that our sketch recognition to understand hand drawing graphical user interfaces can achieve the accuracy of 97.86% and 95% in recognizing 7 common UI controls and arrows for navigation respectively. Our model transformation engine can generate user interfaces as forms for applications on 3 different platforms of mobile devices, including Windows Phone, Android, and iOS. This approach follows the trend to develop a new generation of smart CASE tools that can understand and interpret conceptual software design models into concrete software elements and components to assist the software development process in a natural way.
Keywords: picture-driven; graphical user interface; code generation; mobile device; multi-platform
PeNTa: Formal Modeling for Multi-touch Systems Using Petri Net BIBAKFull-Text 361-372
  Francisco R. Ortega; Su Liu; Frank Hernandez; Armando Barreto; Naphtali Rishe; Malek Adjouadi
Multi-touch technology has become pervasive in our daily lives, with iPhones, iPads, touch displays, and other devices. It is important to find a user input model that can work for multi-touch gesture recognition and can serve as a building block for modeling other modern input devices (e.g., Leap Motion, gyroscope). We present a novel approach to model multi-touch input using Petri Nets. We formally define our method, explain how it works, and the possibility to extend it for other devices.
Keywords: Multi-touch; Petri Nets; Modern Input Devices
An Iterative and Incremental Process for Interaction Design through Automated GUI Generation BIBAKFull-Text 373-384
  David Raneburger; Roman Popp; Hermann Kaindl; Alexander Armbruster; Vedran Šajatovic
Model-driven generation of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for multiple devices requires a model representing an interaction design. High-quality interaction models are a prerequisite for achieving a good level of usability for the corresponding applications. Our tool-supported process facilitates the exploration and evaluation of interaction design alternatives in an iterative and incremental manner, using automated GUI generation to achieve a running application more quickly and with reduced effort in comparison to manual (prototype) development. This allows the designer to quickly find a suitable alternative and to build more complex applications incrementally.
Keywords: Interaction design; automated GUI generation; iterative and incremental process

Adaptive and Personalized Interfaces

A Model and Guidelines for the Interface Design Process for Adaptive Web Applications (IDPAWA) BIBAKFull-Text 387-398
  Claudia Regina Batista; Vania Ribas Ulbricht; Adhemar Maria do Valle Filho
This paper shows a model and guidelines for the Interface Design Process for Adaptive Web Applications (IDPAWA) proposed to guide and aid the designer on taking decisions during the interfaces development. The model schematically describes five steps of an interactive process: analysis, concept, development, prototype and test. In order to support the model, eight guidelines were developed to deal with the requirements and configuration of adaptive techniques.
Keywords: Design Process; User Interface; Visual Design; Adaptive Web Applications
A Model to Promote Interaction between Humans and Data Fusion Intelligence to Enhance Situational Awareness BIBAFull-Text 399-410
  Leonardo Botega; Cláudia Berti; Regina Araújo; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris
The operator of a Command & Control (C2) system has a crucial role on the improvement of information that is processed through data fusion engines to provide Situational Awareness (SAW). Through direct access to data transformations, operators can improve information quality, by reducing uncertainty, according to their skills and expertise. Uncertainty, in this work, is considered an adverse condition, which can make the real information less accessible. Although relevant solutions have been reported in the literature on innovative user interfaces and approaches for quality-aware knowledge representation, these are concerned mostly on transforming the way information is graphically represented and on quantitatively mapping the quality-aware knowledge acquired from systems, respectively. There are few studies that deal more specifically with accessibility for decision-makers in safety-critical situations, such as C2, considering the aspect of data uncertainty. This paper presents a model to help researchers to build uncertainty-aware interfaces for C2 systems, produced by both data fusion and human reasoning over the information. Combined to environmental and personal factors, a tailored and enriched knowledge can be built, interchangeable with systems intelligence. A case study on the monitoring of a conflict among rival soccer fans is being implemented for the validation of the proposed solution.
Visualization Adaptation Based on Environmental Influencing Factors BIBAKFull-Text 411-422
  Dirk Burkhardt; Kawa Nazemi; Jose Daniel Encarnacao; Wilhelm Retz; Jörn Kohlhammer
Working effectively with computer-based devices is challenging, especially under mobile conditions, due to the various environmental influences. In this paper a visualization adaptation approach is described, to support the user under discriminatory environmental conditions. For this purpose, a context model for environmental influencing factors is being defined. Based on this context model, an approach to adapt visualizations in regards of certain environmental influences is being evolved, such as the light intensity, air quality, or heavy vibrations.
Keywords: Adaptive Visualization; Information Visualization; User-centered Interaction; User Experience; Sensor Fusion
Intelligent Document User Interface Design Using MVC and UIML BIBAKFull-Text 423-432
  Lawrence Henschen; Ning Li; Yunmei Shi; Yuhan Zhang; Julia Lee
We describe a method for generating dynamic user interfaces for document processing systems by using MVC as a guide and UIML as the method to describe the model, view, and controller. Our approach implements the notion of intelligent documents, that is, documents whose processing is richer than processing applied to paper documents. Using our approach, the interface may include new operations not included in the normal document processing system. Moreover, the functions used to implement those operations may be any service available on the web. Finally, because we use UIML, the interface and implementation of services is easily changeable. Thus we achieve the goal of any document originated from anywhere in the world (globalization) being displayed in a usable way (usability) in any environment in a dynamic and platform independent way.
Keywords: intelligent document; user interface; MVC model; UIML; dynamic configuration
Log-Based Personalization Tool as an Assistive Technology BIBAKFull-Text 433-444
  Vagner Figueredo Santana; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
Solutions for personalizing websites by automatically changing user interfaces (UI) to fit users' needs have been proposed by the industry and the academy in order to provide individualized user experience. However, the users' perception of changes in the tailored UI is still a topic to be studied. This work presents a tool developed to capture logs, generate, and apply individual adjustments, personalizing websites as people use it. In addition, the tool is proposed as a log-based personalization assistive technology and it is published to the community. The tool was evaluated in depth, qualitatively, counting with the participation of 4 blind users fluent in using the Web, knowing personalization existing features, and fluent on using computers. They were invited so that the understanding of outcomes and limitations of the personalization features offered could be better understood. Based on the results, we highlight possible scenarios where similar approaches could be used to assist people with disabilities and reinforce the importance of considering the users' perception of changes automatically performed in UIs.
Keywords: Self-tailoring website; adaptive website; website evaluation; user interface evaluation; remote evaluation; accessibility; usability; event logs
A Practical Solution for the Automatic Generation of User Interfaces -- What Are the Benefits of a Practical Solution for the Automatic Generation of User Interfaces? BIBAKFull-Text 445-456
  Miroslav Sili; Christopher Mayer; Martin Morandell; Matthias Gira; Martin Petzold
Older adults benefit from information and communication technology solutions in the Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) domain. The offered user interfaces for these ICT solutions often do not take the special needs, preferences and the physical and mental capabilities of older adults into account. The project AALuis focuses on solutions to increase accessibility, adaptability and usability of user interfaces in the AAL domain. The paper describes the functionality of the AALuis layer and the different steps involved stakeholders have to cover to benefit from the user interface generation framework. A detailed comparison between the traditional user interface design and the AALuis approach lists similarities and identifies differences in the user interface generation process.
Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; Human-Computer Interaction; User Interface; Framework; Task Model; Automatic Adaptation
Proposal of Collaborative Learning Support Method in Risk Communications BIBAKFull-Text 457-465
  Hiroshi Yajima; Naohisa Tanabe; Ryoich Sasaki
In this paper, we propose the supporting method of the risk communications that use the collaborative learning. Using collaborative learning, participant of risk communication can acquire not only knowledge that participant is interested in, but also the intention and knowledge of other party who do not concern the participant's concern. In the process of collaborative learning, participants of risk communication get the mutual understanding about risks. The feature of this method is to use the "Externalization" form that use concept map and the construction drawing of the opinion understanding made from Fishbone.
Keywords: Risk Communication; Collaborative Learning; Participant

Evaluation Methods, Techniques and Case Studies

Towards Qualitative and Quantitative Data Integration Approach for Enhancing HCI Quality Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 469-480
  Ahlem Assila; Káthia Marçal de Oliveira; Houcine Ezzedine
Over the two past decades, various HCI quality evaluation methods have been proposed. Each one has its own strengths and its own shortcomings. Different methods are combined to enhance the evaluation results. To obtain better coverage of design problems and to increase the system performance, subjective and objective methods can complement each other. However, the variability of these methods features poses a challenge to effectively integrate between them. The purpose of this paper is to enhance the evaluation of HCI quality by suggesting new approach intended for improving evaluation results. This method supports a mapping model between evaluation data. It aims to specify new quality indicators that effectively integrate qualitative and quantitative data based on a set of pre-defined quality criteria. Qualitative (items) and quantitative data are respectively extracted from highly cited HCI quality questionnaires and from existing tools.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interface; HCI evaluation; subjective; objective; qualitative; quantitative; integration; mapping; data; indicator
Efficiency in Performing Basic Tasks Using Word Processing Programs by the Elderly as a Measure of the Ergonomic Quality of Software BIBAKFull-Text 481-488
  Krzysztof Hankiewicz; Marcin Butlewski
Computers and the opportunities they offer are no longer the domain of the young, and the ability to use a multitude of computer software has become a basic skill both in private and professional life. Therefore, it is no wonder that increasing attention is paid to the design of interfaces adapted well to groups of users with specific needs, like the elderly. Such measures are broadly reflected in scientific works, however, commonly available software is rarely marked by an adequate concern for the needs of seniors. Additionally, the elderly usually gain access and opportunity to work on a computer during old age, being outpaced by their younger, and somewhat more predisposed to computer technology, colleagues. The prevalence of computer needs and growing number of elderly people means that seniors are condemned to using computers. How effectively and enthusiastically they will use them will be largely dependent on the ergonomic quality of the offered software.
Keywords: elderly design; ergonomic evolution; software usability
Guidelines for Usability Field Tests in the Dynamic Contexts of Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 489-499
  Stephan Hörold; Cindy Mayas; Heidi Krömker
Public transport is one of many fields of application where a system is not used in only one context of use, but in different and varying contexts. Evaluating these systems in lab-based tests can only cover a small part of the real context. This paper describes a usability field test of a mobile passenger information application in public transport, the challenges of testing in a highly dynamic context, and also solutions to overcome these challenges. As a result, a classification of the variety of dynamic factors in public transport and guidelines for typical test contexts in public transport are derived from the gained experiences and empirical findings.
Keywords: usability; field test; public transport; tasks; context
Integrating Usability Evaluations into Scrum: A Case Study Based on Remote Synchronous User Testing BIBAKFull-Text 500-509
  Fulvio Lizano; Maria Marta Sandoval; Jan Stage
The tendency to empower users in the software development process encourages the continuing search for ways to reconcile the interests of agile methodologies and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) activities. The practice of agile methods, e.g. Scrum, is normally focused on high productivity, sometimes leaving aside other important aspects of software development such as usability. On the other hand, HCI methods usually attempt to reach solid conclusions through extensive and formal studies, which can consume significant resources and time. In this paper we present an instrumental single case study which offers an example of how usability evaluations can be integrated into a Scrum project by using Remote Synchronous User Testing (RS). Our approach suggests that the RS process should be conducted by the same developers who integrate the developing team. Our results indicate that RS can be used as a strategy to efficiently and easily integrate usability evaluations into Scrum projects. The most valuable benefit obtained in this integration is related to the opportune feedback offered by usability testing, which can be incorporated to the developing process immediately as is provided through agile principles. Other elements of our approach could help solve other problems normally present in other efforts made in order to integrate usability evaluations into agile methods. The major problem in our case study was related to the difficulty presented by software developers in terms of changing their usual focus when they have to conduct usability evaluations.
Keywords: Software development; usability evaluation; Remote Synchronous User Testing (RS); SCRUM; integrating RS into SCRUM
Evaluating an Automatic Adaptive Delivery Method of English Words Learning Contents for University Students in Science and Technology BIBAKFull-Text 510-520
  Shimpei Matsumoto; Taiki Kurisu; Tomoko Kashima; Masanori Akiyoshi
Today's e-Learning, blending portable digital devices and common PC devices under well-maintained Internet infrastructure, provides convenient learning environment where everyone can learn when they need. In particular, self-study with simple multiple-choice questions with LMS (Learning Management System) is available with no need to score by lecturer because usual LMS implements automatic scoring capability. Since LMS is useful for both lecturers and students, in Japan it has been already accepted as being indispensable in educational institutions around universities. However, this type of learning can only support just gathering of knowledge, but not assist the improvement of the skill to leverage knowledge. Currently it has not been enough to provide e-Learning with capabilities of both knowledge acquisition and utilization, so to realize it the authors started the development of user adaptive learning service which deals with English learning. This paper focuses on the automatic delivery of learning contents for each user's mobile device, and verifies practical effectiveness of item response theory for user adaptive learning contents provision. This paper develops a server program to automatically deliver learning materials consisted of some multiple choice questions. Based on the result of preliminary experiment, for realizing e-Learning service with learner adaptation functionality, the conceptions to evaluate each user's learning effort and to realize the learning of knowledge acquisition are discussed.
Keywords: push-based e-Learning; mobile learning; English words learning; user adaptive; item response theory
Can Users Speak for Themselves? Investigating Users Ability to Identify Their Own Interactive Breakdowns BIBAKFull-Text 521-532
  Bernardo A. M. Mattos; Raquel L. S. Pereira; Raquel O. Prates
The Communicability Evaluation Method (CEM) is based on Semiotic Engineering HCI theory and involves observing users in a controlled environment and capturing with software the user-system interaction. The analysis involves 3 steps: (1) tagging: watching the user-system interaction video, identifying the communicative breakdowns, associating one of CEM's utterance (from a predefined set of 13) to the breakdown; (2) interpretation: interpreting the problems that are being indicated by the tagging performed in the first step; (3) semiotic profiling: reconstructing the intended communication being conveyed by the system and the problems identified. Originally CEM requires the evaluator to perform all 3 steps. In this paper we investigate the possibility of users themselves performing the tagging step of the analysis and the costs and benefits of such a procedure. If users are able to identify and tag breakdowns they can directly communicate the problems they have experienced. Our results have shown that user tagging is possible and pointed to various directions in which it could be very useful. We present the case study performed, the results found and discuss costs and benefits of such procedure.
Keywords: Evaluation; user participation; communicability; semiotic engineering; communicability evaluation method (CEM)
Reflections on the Cross-Platform Semiotic Inspection Method BIBAKFull-Text 533-544
  Rodrigo de A. Maués; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Evaluating cross-platform systems can be quite challenging. Unfortunately, despite the increasing number of such systems and therefore growing need for evaluation methods, little work has been done on the matter. We have extended the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM), a Semiotic Engineering evaluation method, to evaluate cross-platform systems, producing the CP-SIM variant. However, despite its support in identifying and classifying several potential issues particular to cross-platform systems, the cross-platform aspects of the method (called 'horizontal analysis') were only briefly illustrated by an analytical study in the original work. This paper provides deeper reflection and a more detailed account of the horizontal analysis in order to support evaluators in using the method. It also situates CP-SIM among related work on cross-platform system evaluation.
Keywords: Cross-platform; user interface design; communicability; semiotic inspection method; semiotic engineering
Evaluating Methods and Equipment for Usability Field Tests in Public Transport BIBAKFull-Text 545-553
  Cindy Mayas; Stephan Hörold; Christina Rosenmöller; Heidi Krömker
Usability experts require high quality of evaluation data, in order to achieve detailed and meaningful results. In particular, evaluation in public environment, e.g. in public transport, involves influences of different contexts. In order to observe these context factors, a wide range of technical test equipment, for instance eye-tracking or video glasses, are available. This paper describes the evaluation of different combinations of test methods and equipment for a field test in public transport. The goal of this study is to identify a test setup which enables a natural behavior of the test persons and a high quality of data.
Keywords: usability; field test; methods; test equipment; context
ErgoSV: An Environment to Support Usability Evaluation Using Face and Speech Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 554-564
  Thiago Adriano Coleti; Marcelo Morandini; Fátima de Lourdes dos Santos Nunes
Usability test is a group of activities that should be performed by all designers in order to identify interaction problems. Filming and Verbalization are two techniques widely used due to the reason that they provide real information about the software interaction capacity. Filming is performed using one or several cameras and the verbalization is done encouraging the participant to verbalize what he/she is thinking about the software. Both techniques register the data in video and audio files to be analyzed forward. Although these techniques has been widely used, the analysis process is considered slow, difficult and expensive because the evaluator may need to review all the data registered from the first second until the end of the test to identify possible usability problems and this task could take from 2x to 10x the test time. This paper presents the ErgoSV Software, a tool to support usability evaluation test using speech processing that recognize specific keywords pronounced by the participants and face images processed during the test. These data are used to provide organized and relevant information to support the data analysis and the identification of interfaces with possible usability problems. Experiments performed in three different softwares presented that this tool reduced the time of analysis to 1,5 times the test time considering the keywords as the main data. This research is supported by FAPESP.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Usability Test; Face Recognition; Speech Processing; Automatic analysis information
Identifying Intention and Perception Mismatches in Digitally Augmented Museum Settings BIBAKFull-Text 565-576
  Hanna-Liisa Pender; David Lamas
The key aim of introducing information and communication technology (ICT) in museum settings is to enhance the visitors' experience. However, the concrete strategies or best practices for digitally augmenting the museums remain to be determined. The main role of the ICT solutions in a museum context should be the mediation of the communication between the visitors and the museum artefacts to support the meaning making process. However, a large number of existing solutions fail to fulfil this task. In this paper we evaluate two digital interactive displays in different museums with Semiotic Engineering methods to detect mismatches between designers' intentions and visitors' perceptions in this communication process.
Keywords: Evaluation methods and techniques; semiotic inspection method; communicability evaluation method; museums
Heuristics for Assessing Emotional Response of Viewers during the Interaction with TV Programs BIBAKFull-Text 577-588
  Kamila Rios da Hora Rodrigues; Cesar Augusto Camillo Teixeira; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris
The analysis of emotional cues can provide practitioners a more accurate understanding of the user's experience. The literature mentions several techniques for gathering affective data which do not involve questioning users. However, most of them have drawbacks as they can be intrusive, expensive or require additional evaluation. To minimize these problems, methods using inspection based on heuristics have been employed. These methods, on the other hand, do not consider emotional responses. There are gestures and facial expressions which are inherent in the interaction with this kind of media and must be taken into account. We propose the TV Emotion Heuristics (TVEH), a set of 23 heuristics that represent viewer's behavioral patterns when interacting with TV programs or movies. These heuristics allow a comprehensive assessment of the viewers' emotional responses. This paper reports the creation process of the TVEH and describes how to apply the method. Two case studies are reported using the proposed heuristics and we discuss some of the lessons that have been learned.
Keywords: Heuristic Evaluation; Emotional Response; Interactive Media; TV Emotion Heuristics; Assessment Methods
Evaluation of Industrial Touch Interfaces Using a Modular Software Architecture BIBAFull-Text 589-600
  Philipp Tiefenbacher; Fabian Bumberger; Gerhard Rigoll
In the highly automated industry process surveillance is crucial for understanding current states and decisions of certain parts of the industrial line. Specific parts of the industrial line, however, may have their own user interfaces right beside of the machine. Thus obtaining a holistic impression of the state of the industrial line might be complicated. So on the one hand, important functionalities should be summarized into one user interface. On the other hand, the user interface must be mobile and easily accessible to have the information on site of the inspected part of the machine. In this work, we propose three different navigation concepts for touch interfaces and evaluate them on a thinkable story board based on tasks of an industrial plant. These concepts can be compared this way, as the single functional components of the interfaces are the same. All three concepts are evaluated on two different mobile devices with a 7" and a 12" screen. We show that the objective metrics of all concepts are invariant to the screen size. The subjective results in regard to the screen size, however, differ for the most flexible user interface (UI). We determine the best concept based on users' preferences and the obtained objective metrics.

Visualisation Methods and Techniques

3D Face-Aware Electronics with Low-Resolution Imaging BIBAKFull-Text 603-610
  Yu-Jin Hong; Jaewon Kim; Junghyun Cho; Ig-Jae Kim
What if your electronics with cheap cameras can reveal 3D faces of captured people? In daily life, we use a lot of consumer electronics employing cameras such as a mobile phone, a tablet PC, a CCTV, a car black box, and so on. If such devices provide 3D facial shapes of 2-dimensionally framed people, it would benefit new applications and services in higher dimensional imaging, security, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction), AR (Augmented Reality), and mobile applications like phone games. This paper introduces a novel method to realize the functionality in computational electronics with low-resolution imaging.
Keywords: 3D face reconstruction; Smart devices; High-resolution imaging; Image processing
Timeline Localization BIBAKFull-Text 611-622
  Ilona Nawrot; Antoine Doucet
The research findings provide evidence that time-oriented data visualizations can contribute to faster information processing, better understanding and improved recall. Thus, they are used in many application domains -- medicine, law enforcement, traffic and navigation control to name but a few. Simultaneously, human's time perception varies depending inter alia on culture, language, personal experience and situational factors. Although, the differences caused by the aforementioned aspects were acknowledged and addressed in the Human Computer Interaction (HCI) field for decades their impact on time-oriented data visualizations was largely neglected.
   To fill this gap, we investigate the influence of time spatializations (organization of time along axes) on the response time and accuracy of inferences based on time-oriented data visualizations. Moreover, we examine users' preferences toward different time arrangements. Our findings show that user-adapted organization of time along axes can speed up the decision-making process and increase the user experience.
Keywords: timeline; localization; time perception; time spatialization; performance; preferences
Design Criteria for Public Display User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 623-630
  Alessandro Bendinelli; Fabio Paternò
Recent technological advances have made large displays available on the mass market at affordable prices. We present a set of design criteria that support those who want to exploit such displays effectively to select the relevant content and present it in such a way to take into account the features of the specific devices and the context in which they are used. The discussion is exemplified with concrete example application of the design criteria.
Keywords: Public Displays; Guidelines and heuristics; Presentation design
Recommender System to Support Chart Constructions with Statistical Data BIBAKFull-Text 631-642
  Taissa Abdalla Filgueiras de Sousa; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
Research on statistical data visualization emphasizes the need for systems that assist in decision-making and visual analysis. Having found problems in chart construction by novice users, we researched the following question: How can we support novice users to create efficient visualizations with statistical data? To address this question, we proposed ViSC, a recommender system that supports the interactive construction of charts to visualize statistical data. It explores a visualization ontology to recommend a set of graphs that help to answer information-based questions related to the current graph data. By traversing the recommended graphs through their related questions, the user implicitly acquires knowledge both of the domain and of visualization resources that represent the domain concepts of interest well. We report here a qualitative study conducted to evaluate ViSC using two methods: the Semiotic Inspection Method (SIM) and a Retrospective Communicability Evaluation (RCE). We first analyze how the questions influence the users' traversal through the graph and then address the broader question. We concluded the questions were important to generate efficient visualizations and thus, an efficient solution to help novice users in chart constructions.
Keywords: Statistical data visualization; recommender systems; semiotic engineering; human-computer-interaction
Deterministic Local Layouts through High-Dimensional Layout Stitching BIBAKFull-Text 643-651
  Martin Steiger; Hendrik Lücke-Tieke; Thorsten May; Arjan Kuijper; Jörn Kohlhammer
In this paper we present a layout technique for dynamic views of large static graphs. It aims to minimize changes between two consecutive frames and most importantly, it is deterministic. First, a set of small layout patches is pre-computed. Then, depending on the users view focus, a subset of these patches is selected and connected to generate the final layout. In contrast to the state-of-the-art approach that operates in the 2D screen space only, we perform this process in high-dimensional space before projecting the results into the 2D plane. This gives additional degrees of freedom and consequently a smoother transition process between two consecutive frames. Whenever the user visits an area of the graph for a second time, the layout will still look the same. This enables the user to recognize areas that have already been explored and thus preserve the mental map.
Keywords: dynamic graph; projection; explorative analysis; mental map
SyncBox -- Synchronizer and Interface for High-Speed Macro Photography BIBAKFull-Text 652-661
  Krzysztof Szklanny; Armand Stanczak; Pawel Wojtków; Sergio Cosentino; Alicja Wieczorkowska
The goal of this work was to create a fully automated synchronizer for macro photography, dedicated to water drop photography [2], [11]. An open-source electronics prototyping platform called Arduino was used for this purpose. The elaborated system includes a water system, a drop kit, and the synchronizer itself, attached to a digital photo camera. This system, named SyncBox, is simple, easy to use and fairly inexpensive. SyncBox can be operated using Dripper (the application interface) by a single mouse click, the pictures taken can be downloaded to a computer, and uploaded to the Internet. The proposed solution can be used as an interface for high-speed photography for water drop pictures, suitable for both amateur and professional purposes. The construction of the device, the interface, and exemplary pictures taken are shown in this paper. We conclude the paper with the proposed future works to make the entire system even more user friendly.
Keywords: Macro Photography; High-Speed Photography; Water Drop Photography