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EWHCI Tables of Contents: 919293

First Moscow International HCI'91 Workshop Proceedings

Fullname:First Moscow International HCI'91 Workshop Proceedings
Editors:Larry Press; Juri Gornostaev
Location:Moscow, Russia
Dates:1991-Aug-05 to 1991-Aug-09
Publisher:International Centre for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) 125252, 21-B Kuusinen Str. Moscow, RUSSIA
Standard No:hcibib: EWHCI91
Papers:53
Pages:363
  1. I. General Principles, Metacomments
  2. II. User Interfaces
  3. III. Visualization
  4. IV. Design Tools
  5. V. Knowledge-Based Systems, Hypertext, Hypermedia
  6. VI. Human Factors
  7. VII. Tutoring Systems, Computer Learning
  8. VIII. Applications

I. General Principles, Metacomments

Open User-Interfaces, Open Applications: The Views System BIB 2-12
  Steven Pemberton
Implications of Mass-Market Equipment for HCI Research BIBA 12-17
  Larry Press
Mass-market computers are increasingly used as platforms for HCI research. At the recent CHI '91 conference, 10 of 52 papers presented experiments, prototypes or tools developed on mass-market personal computers. This paper discusses several implications of the trend to doing HCI research on mass-market platforms: increased possibility of research at small universities and labs, increased desirability of machine-readable publication, availability of research material for instruction and confirmation, increased mobility of researchers, accelerated technology transfer, narrowing the gap between research and product development, constraining of research, and ease of entry into research for less capitalized nations. The latter point is particularly relevant at an international conference such as this.
Utility and Usability: Research Issues and Development Contexts BIBA 18-22
  Jonathan Grudin
It is notoriously difficult to separate the function of interactive software from its form, to draw a line between software functionality and its human-computer interface. Nevertheless, two research communities exist in the United States, one focused on information system functionality and organizational impact, the other on human-computer dialogues or "user interfaces" to systems and applications. These communities largely draw from different systems development contexts: in-house or internal development and off-the-shelf product development, respectively. Each has its own core set of issues, theoretical constructs, and terminologies. The histories of these research and development communities are summarized, points of contact are identified, and their possible evolution is suggested.
Interactive Navigation through the HCI Information Sea BIBA 23-32
  Juri Gornostaev; Alexander Baturin
An approach to the basic rules of navigation and retrieval of HCI information is described. The major issue of our approach is harmonization between the user interface and semantic data management. The paper discusses the characteristics of HCI published information. A framework is presented for creating problem-oriented information environment for HCI researchers that combines the traditional online retrieval capabilities and new hypertext-like semantic browsing of relevant documents. The paper has a twofold purpose: to develop a prototype of the hypertext retrieval system based on a principle of linking the contents of textual documents; to make available the HCI problem-oriented databases generated for servicing the information needs of HCI scientists and engineers.
CIAO: Viewing Application Structure as the Driving Force of Human Computer Interaction BIBAK 32-39
  Pericles Papageorgiou
This paper presents CIAO, an object oriented structural and run-time architecture for direct manipulation user interfaces. It is a concurrent and event based model that demonstrates how the object paradigm can be exploited to overcome the deficiencies of contemporary object oriented direct manipulation user interface toolkits. The innovation of CIAO is that it addresses the impact of state transitions, taking place within the underlying application, on the attached user interface, by providing user interface components with information about the structure of the application. Using CIAO, interactive applications are built from four basic component types. The Input and Output that define the virtual device level, the Application that defines the problem domain and the Coordinator that defines the mapping between the virtual devices and the application.
Keywords: User interface design, User interface structural model, Object oriented model
A New Interaction Style: Flexible Scenario Interface BIBA 39-48
  I. V. Burmistrov; A. G. Shmeliov
Presents a new human-computer interaction style named Flexible Scenario Interface (FSI), reflecting psychological and cognitive ergonomics requirements of software system interfaces to endusers. Authors consider FSI along with such primary interaction styles as Q&A, menu selection, and form fillin. Advantages and shortcomings of conventional interaction styles for user support in purposeful activity of problem solving are discussed, and general requirements of interfaces for sophisticated and highly specific software systems are stated. The main conclusion is that Q&A and hierarchical menus fail in case of such programs, so authors attempt to develop a new universal interaction style -- FSI. FSI is based on Schank and Abelson scenario approach to formalized description of standard sequences of interrelated acts, and uses network representation of scenarios. There are three types of network nodes (atomic scenes, which provide bonds with application part of a program; complex scenes, or subscenarios, which can be decomposed into atomic ones; and modifiers, which influence the developing of specific scenario) and three types of links (permitted, prohibited, and recommended by the system guide) in FSI. System guide is the intelligent part of interface, which uses knowledge about standard scenarios to guide user in realization of optimum performance during its problem solving activity. The main ideas of FSI are the following: displaying of scenario graph directly onscreen; realization of user support with system guide; and visualization of scenario transformations as immediate feedback of user actions and data processing results. The use of FSI is demonstrated by Persoplan, a prototype decision support system.
Note: (in Russian)
The Modelling of Human-Computer Interaction by the Wiener-Volterra Series BIBA 48-50
  S. N. Muzykin; J. M. Rodionova; M. D. Shtykin
An analysis of human-operator adaptation with dynamic objects' digital control is presented. For the modelling of "human-computer" interaction, the Wiener-Volterra series are used. The human characters are estimated according to MSE of real and known (theoretical) Wiener kernels. The controlled objects' variety and adequate modelling allow to estimate a professional level of personal as well as a "human-computer" interface.
Note: (in Russian)

II. User Interfaces

Some Problems of Human-Computer Interface Formalization BIBA 52-64
  B. Enikeev; Y. Kaganov
The report concerns with the problems of theoretical principles development of human-computer interaction. The main directions of interaction procedure formalization are formulated. They are:
  • - analysis of the interaction process as of a human-computer self-organizing
       process;
  • - definition of psychological and ergonomical factors responsible for the
       human-computer cognitive structure forming process;
  • - classification and analysis of knowledge generated in the interaction
       process. The proposed ideas are used while the development of optimum projecting integrated system interaction process.
    Note: (in Russian)
  • ViDE User Interface Management System BIBA 64-74
      Boris Stokalski; Andrzej M. Wierzba; Agnieszka Wojciechowska
    ViDE system was designed and developed from scratch at the Institute of Informatics Warsaw University in 1988-91 years. It was designed as an open UIMS, supporting Direct Manipulation (DM) on Application. The name stands for VIsual Dialog Environment. On the other hand, Latin word vide (meaning "look") stresses the importance of the graphical presentation in human-computer dialogue.
       In ViDE we achieved several important goals:
       1) The entire interaction process is handled by the system. This includes handling input events from various devices and distributing them to target objects, handling message passing between objects, screen management etc.
       2) The programmer can define classes of interaction objects. The complete definition of an interaction object class can be written in C, and contains both its presentation component and dialogue protocol. The class can be parametrized to allow for further reuse in other applications without the need of rewriting or recompiling a single line of its definition.
       3) ViDE contains as an integral part a resource manager, which allows one to write programs largely independent of application's user language (eg. German, English etc) and visual (colors, fonts etc) preferences.
       4) The system allows for separation of the dialog and pure "functional" component of application. This enables creating and testing dialog (user interface) component of application separately (perhaps by a human factors specialist). In effect it enables rapid UI prototyping.
    User Interface for Research Worker on Forth-Type Interpreter BIBA 75-80
      A. Stepanov
    The FLIS (Forth-like Interactive System) program for data processing and experimental devices management is described. The extreme flexibility is achieved by allowing advanced user's macros. The FLIS macro language supports mouse operations, multi-window graphics, high-level user defined menus, basic data operations such as loops, branching, scalar and vector arithmetic. Advanced data managing (spectra smoothing, deconvolution, etc.) is optional. Integrated editor and vocabularies in graphics mode make the FLIS-programs changing fast and easy. As an example described is using this system for optical spectra interactive processing. Size -- 150 kbyte, language -- Turbo C.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Concept and Design of End-User Interfaces for Active Management Information Systems BIBA 80-86
      A. Kotov; A. Kozlov; A. Okonishnikov
    The object of present research is to solve the problem of activity performance improvement of companies and enterprises managers and directors in area of the strategic planning and management by means of the AIM (Active Information Technology) and PDMM (Participative Decision Making Methods) employment, including Hypertext systems.
       The aim of present work is to create the concept of AMIS (Active Management Information System) and advanced UI (User Interfaces), which allows to realize AIT and PDMM and it's to solve the problem of different managerial problem-solving styles fine-tuning.
       As a result of conducted investigations the concept of AMIS was developed and necessity of creation two types of UI in the AMIS was established:
       VCBI (Vehicle's Control Board Interface), which realize the conditions of monitoring and consulting with the help of special windows in the display screen;
       GDSI (Group Decision Support Interface), which realize (on the basis of Hypertext technology) the conditions of creation by user the individual TIE (Technological Interaction Environment) and PDMM application.
       The VCBI is intended for ensuring the work of "Chief" ("the person, who decision making"). The GDSI is intended for ensuring the work of "Staff" (ASG (Analysis Situation Group) members).
       However, in either situation, if it is necessary for "Chief", to accomplish the role of analyst-expert, generator of ideas or forecasts independently, then his work also ensured by GDSI. In turn, the ASG members can profit by right of access to VCBI within the bounds defined by the level of their competence.
       At present, it is realized a number of prototypes-components, which demonstrate the possibilities of VCBI and GDSI in AMIS.
    Note: (in Russian)
    On the Requirements to the Tablet Menus Creation and Estimation BIBA 86-93
      V. O. Andreev; G. Ja. Uzilevsky
    Such notions as ease of learning, ease of use, resistance to semantic errors, powers, flexibility are explained to be pragmatic requirements for interaction languages. These are the requirements to tablet menus. The structure, style and levels of abstraction are discussed; various factors influence on the disposition of signs in menus is analised; variants of sign distribution are discovered.
       Various aspects of ease of learning and use are discussed in the paper. Power and flexibility are considered as well.
    Note: (in Russian)

    III. Visualization

    Visualization of Scientific Abstractions as a Technique for New Knowledge Generation BIBA 96-101
      A. A. Zenkin
    It is well known that an apt drawing is, sometimes, capable of generating new ideas in a human mind. The modern Interactive Computer Graphics (ICG) allows the effective use of the cognitive function (in contrast to the more traditional illustrative one) of the ICG even in the most abstract fields of science. A "knowledge-generating" man-machine ICG-system, DSNT, -- the Dialogue System for ICG-investigations in the additive Number Theory, -- was worked out on the basis of the cognitive ICG concept. In a framework of the DSNT-system, an original method was developed for the dynamic visualization of abstract number-theoretic objects in the form of certain colour-musical ICG-images or so-called pythograms of these objects. Under certain conditions, such the pythograms create new mathematical ideas and hypotheses in an investigator's imagination and even prompt the ways for their strict proofs (and do this very well in a framework of the famous classical Waring's problem).
    Note: (in Russian)
    Postprocessors for Visualization of Thermal and Strain State Calculations for Two- and Three-Dimensional Objects of Strained Solid Mechanics BIBA 102-103
      V. B. Boiko; P. P. Voroshko; A. J. Medinez
    Mobile and reliable software has been developed for postprocessor visualization of the geometry of discrete models of strained solid mechanics 3-D problems and the results of their solution by the original FEM mixed schemes of high accuracy.
       IBM PC/XT/AT allow construction of central and parallel finite element (FE) model projections, representation of its topology and visualization of FE parameters, representation of scalar and vector fields on the surface of the body in the initial state and of that subjected to deformation.
       The postprocessor capabilities are shown using as an example visualizing of a nonsteady-state heating of the turbine shell of intricate shape at different moments of its service regime.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Graphical Algorythms Representation by π-Schemes and PITHAGORAS Software Complex BIBA 104-106
      V. V. Prokhorov
    The report concerns with the graphic language of π-schemes is being described which was developed by the author first of all for visual representation of algorythmic knowledge. π-language in its basis is close to the language of structuregramms by Nessey-Shneidermann, but it seems to be more convenient for recording, gives clearer impression on algorythm structure and may be as well used to display functional relations and data structures. The language of π-schemes is oriented exclusively on the structural approach to algorythms (non-structural approach is impossible) and on the technology of development "from bottom to top'. Record in language consists of hierarchical scheme of procedures definition, algorythmic schemes of procedures definition and structural data schemes.
       The concept of π-technology is supported by the software complex PITHAGORAS developed by IMM Ur.O of the Acad. of Sciences, USSR, Sverdlovsk.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Model Visualization BIBA 106-115
      V. L. Averbukh; L. A. Igumnov; L. A. Solov'eva
    The report concerns with the mathematical models visualization system with includes visualizer language, problem-oriented terminals (PO-terminals) design subsystem and PO-terminal -- applied problem interface. There is a description of visualization technology, dynamic visualization method and the principles of visualizer realization. The method being described has been realized in the system ELGA which uses mainframes Elbrus-KB and Elbrus-SVS, graphic displays GAMMA-S and personal computers (workstations) of IBM PC-type.
    Note: (in Russian)
    An Object Oriented Graphical User Interface for Spatial Data Management BIBA 116-119
      Ian Douglas
    This paper describes a prototype system for managing data relating to objects located within a spatially mapped entity such as a building. An object oriented graphical user interface is used to give a user an intuitive means of accessing and storing data, the object oriented approach provides the potential for systems to be developed using computer generated architectural drawings. The system represents a method whereby buildings maintenance staff with little or no computer experience may gain intuitive access to data held on a computer.
    Elements of Realspace Imaging: A Proposed Taxonomy BIBA 120-127
      Michael Naimark
    Along with the marriage of motion pictures and computers has come an increasing interest in making images appear to have a greater degree of realness or presence, which I call "realspace imaging." Such topics as high definition television, 3D, fisheye lenses, surrogate travel, and "cyberspace" reflect such interest. These topics are usually piled together and are unparsable, with the implicit assumptions that "the more resolution, the more presence" and "the more presence, the better." This paper proposes a taxonomy of the elements of realspace imaging. The taxonomy is organized around six sections: 1) monoscopic imaging, 2) stereoscopic imaging, 3) multiscopic imaging, 4) panoramics, 5) surrogate travel, and 6) realtime imaging.
    The Automatic Animation of Concurrent Programs BIBA 128-137
      Blaine A. Price; Ronald M. Baecker
    Much of the program visualization research to date has been devoted to hand-crafted animations of small sequential programs for use in computer science education. Instead, our work focuses on the development of automatic concurrent program visualization tools for use in software engineering. This paper describes a framework for concurrent program animation and a prototype tool based on this framework. Our user testing experiments with the prototype showed a significant increase in programmer insights when compared with conventional tools.

    IV. Design Tools

    Prolog Tracers and Information Access BIBA 140-145
      Mukesh J. Patel; Benedict du Boulay; Chris Taylor
    We report the effect of differences in format of Prolog tracers on Prolog problem solving tasks. Three different tracers (Spy, TPM*, and EPTB) were tested to check for their relative effectiveness in aiding solution to five different Prolog problems. 43 subjects attempted to solve each problem with each trace (15 problems in total). Preliminary analysis of solution times and response data indicates that EPTB performed best across all problems. An account for this finding is presented, as is one for a number of interactions between problem type and trace format. These support the general conclusion that not only is format a significant determiner of access to information, but that it can affect users cognitive ability to solve problems associated with Prolog programming.
    VIZOR 2.02 -- A Tool for Quick Development of Interactive Systems for Scientific Modelling and Design Computing on IBM PC/AT or Compatible BIBA 145-151
      D. A. Kulik
    Basic principles of operation of VIZOR 2.02 integrated package that offers broad possibilities for screen form assembling, data browsing and updating; development of context-sensitive help system; management of databases containing indexed records of variable length; input-output into text and binary files of several formats; calculation process control have been discussed. Notions of data object and record type descriptors are crucial for the concept of package component integration. The dialogue interface of VIZOR does not interfere with operation of the application part of the system. Using VIZOR can considerably accelerate the implementation of complex software systems for scientific and design computing.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Customizing Application Programs BIBAK 152-157
      Allen Cypher
    Users of personal computers often perform a large number of individual steps to carry out routine tasks. We discuss approaches to simplifying routine tasks, and then describe in detail a program which automates iterative tasks.
    Keywords: Programming by example, Demonstrational interfaces, User programming, Intelligent interfaces, Adaptive systems, Agents, Programmer assistants, Automation
    Rapid Prototyping and a User Based System Design Methodology Based Upon a Work System Definition (A Practitioner's Experience) BIBA 158-168
      Eric Wagner
    The use of such terms as "user friendly" or "ergonomically designed" computer products and systems are seen often enough in marketing campaigns. This has of course led to newer fields of activity within systems design involving MCI (man-computer interaction) rapid prototyping tools, methods of identifying and involving the user in the design process and of course validation and evaluation procedures of prototype systems before they are accepted for use. During the five years of our activities as a Swedish company specializing in Human-Computer Interaction we have during that time experienced some of the problems and of course some of the positive aspects of a user oriented systems design philosophy employing rapid prototyping methodologies and basing development work upon a multidisciplinary analysis procedure. This paper is intended as a means of sharing some of these experiences, describing our methods and the tools that we employ in developing user interfaces.
    Tool Complex for Development of Multi-Media Information System "MULTIMAGE" BIBA 169-175
      V. Pekar; V. Tkachenko; V. Rijuke
    Tool complex for the development of multi-media informational systems "MULTIMAGE" is meant for design of graphical informational systems which include pictorial, textual, numeral and other kinds of information. The complex enables to develop multimedia informational systems of many new types, like databases with considerably heterogeneous information, informational and reference systems with graphical information, audioinformational systems and others.
    Note: (in Russian)
    The Technology for the Interactive Software Development with the Dialogue Constructor DiaCon BIBA 176-182
      Yu. B. Salkinder
    In this paper the technology of the dialogue systems development with the interactive support during all the cycle of the creation and the improvement is presented. The technology is based on the separation of the dialogue structure information from the functional part of the system, and it includes the interactive specification of the user interface, global control and data interchange in the form of the dialogue script. The dialogue script structure is described.
       The technique of rapid prototyping is provided. The designed prototype of the system -- the dialogue script -- serves as a base to the system being developed.
       The use of interactive designing of the dialogue script with regard of WYSIWYG makes this process much easier and allows to reduce the requirements to the designer skills. Adding to the dialogue script facilities of global control makes the developed systems more flexible and allows to reorganize and restruct the ready-made system without re-compiling and re-linking.
       The implementation of the software tool -- the Dialogue Constructor DiaCon, adhering to this technology, is described.
    Modelling Interaction Tools in the Views Architecture BIBA 183
      Eddy Boeve
    Views is a user-interface system in which the user interface is a layer above applications, guaranteeing consistency of the interface, and with a data-layer implementing external object representations, allowing exchange of objects between applications without loss of structure. Although Views offers an architecture to deal with user-interface aspects on a high level, in this report is shown that also low level interaction can be modelled with the architecture provided.
    The Fractal Approach to Programming: The Interactive Processor for Modern Data and Knowledge Bases as an Example BIBA 183-194
      I. Abramow; A. Kostenko
    The common character of software development and functioning mechanisms and also data and knowledge representation is noted. It reveals the need in structure invariants of an intelligent system to provide its best reliability and flexibility. The definition of fractal program is given and possible ways of implementation are proposed with the interactive table processor as an example. The demands for an integrated media of information activity automation are formulated within the fractal approach based on some traditional programming techniques review and analysis of the information structures interaction in the real world.
    Note: (in Russian)
    An Approach to Modularity in Programming and VCLI Design BIBA 195-200
      D. S. Skorodumov
    The report concerns with a new approach to modularity in programming. The new approach is based on logical methods and may be applied to VCLI design. Some results are given of the use of the method to design large application systems.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Design Space Analysis: Representing the Design Rationale for User Interfaces BIBA 200-206
      Allan MacLean
    Design Space Analysis is a central component of a framework we are developing to represent the design rationale for designed artifacts. Our current work focusses more specifically on the design of user interfaces. A design space analysis is represented using the QOC notation, which consists of Questions identifying key design issues, Options providing possible answers to the Questions, and Criteria for assessing and comparing the Options. In this short paper we give an overview of our approach and some examples of the research issues we are currently tackling.
    Automated Description of Subject Region and Consistency Checking for the Tasks of Experiment Automation BIBA 207-216
      Ludmila M. Dolmatova
    This paper describes using of instrumental system SETNEW for generation and verifying description of complex subject region during the dialogue with expert. This description allows several levels of abstraction and a wide variety of work with objects. The possibility of joint use of rules by the means of rule interpreter and frame-type objects with declarative and procedural slots is demonstrated. Consistency checking is provided by system including type and context verifying.

    V. Knowledge-Based Systems, Hypertext, Hypermedia

    An Explanation Capability for a Structured Knowledge-Based System BIBA 218-227
      Patrick J. Brezillon
    Many architectures attempt to support at least part(s) of the problem of explanation production, while other works address either fundamental ideas or specific points. Our interest is focused on a particular management of user's interruptions on the knowledge base, not directly on the content of the explanatory discourse which is produced. The idea is to exploit the explicit representation of knowledge structures in the knowledge base to produce this particular case of explanation. Such a management is based on two notions: the notion of interpretation, and the notion of transition relevance point (TRP). Interpretation and TRP are a way of introducing an explanatory dialogue between the user and the inference engine on the KBS reasoning. We have implemented these notions in an inference engine called METAL and we have applied it to an industrial application, the SEPT knowledge-based system.
    Natural Interface Building within a Knowledge Base BIBA 228-241
      A. V. Sviridenko
    The paper concerns with the basic principles of building an environment for knowledge engineer support during big knowledge base design. The environment had to have functions to manipulate knowledge fragments analogous to the two features of natural intelligence -- abstraction and knowledge "pack".
       The discussed principles are implemented in the software system ASKER including two main parts -- structural editor and subsystem for synthesis of natural-language texts.
       Structural editor serves for building of notions tree and network of links between these notions. The principal features of the editor are (1) interactive design of filters which give the ability to display only a part of available information and (2) connected editing of linked notions.
       The subsystem for text synthesis is vital for knowledge base completeness control and refinement. Text synthesis bases on correspondence control of knowledge base's structures and expert's cognitive structures during recognition of a real object in the domain.
       ASKER 1.0 is implemented as a commercial software product for IBM PC.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Scrolling or Leafing Through: Book Window BIBA 242-248
      Ken-Ichi Okada; Kaoru Kinoshita; Yutaka Matsushita
    Though human beings are good at managing and memorizing many objects spatially, we do not use the spatial information to retrieve the data by computer at present, since most computers can show the data on the screen area by scrolling or popping up the next frame. Such schemes cannot manage information spatially. In this paper, we describe the "BookWindow", a window system with leafing through pages, that shows information stored in a computer by using the animation of leafing through pages without scrolling. The BookWindow provides a highly interactive interface by using a book metaphor, that is, a speed controller and direction buttons for leafing through pages, underline function, and electronic bookmarks, by which we can access to an expected page through our recall of the page image. Thus using such a window system based on book metaphor, we can realize the features of book media electronically and improve our information access environment.
    Intellectual System of Knowledge-Based Design for High Pressure Experimental Mounting BIBA 249-259
      Ludmila M. Dolmatova
    A conceptual framework of knowledge acquisition system named SETNEW is discussed. The main goal of the system is to assist the expert to describe the objects of subject region and empirical or theoretical regularities acting upon them in order to solve the problems of complex automation of high-pressure/high temperature experimental installation. Our approach to knowledge acquisition includes using of rules by the means of rule interpreter and using of frame-type objects with declarative and procedural slots. Multi-level representation of objects and rules is suggested.
    Use of Hypertext for a Tutor System Design BIBA 260-266
      I. Gouliaeva
    It was necessary to develop a tutor system for work with object-oriented system that was implemented in the Institute for Informatics Problems (USSR Academy of Sciences) because lack of information about such a system. A tutor system was implemented with the use of hypertext ideas.
       Hypertext system implementation experiment in object-oriented environment made clear an adequacy between object-oriented principles and hypertext ideas that was expressed in simplicity and easiness of this implementation.
       The tutor system using experiment made clear real ways of development of such a system, possibility of its application as a shell for information system design for a concrete problem.
       Hence it is confirmed a main intention of object-oriented programming system concluded in rather quick prototyping of problem solving that allow to debug project decisions.
       As perspective we assume to solve a problem about visual information representation in a hypertext system that firstly depends on development of object-oriented system itself in the direction of graphical possibilities.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Three Models of the Interactive Hypertext BIBA 266-268
      S. Egorov
    The report concerns with the problem whether it is possible to design a hypertext for applied systems operating shell. There is a proposal to realize a tool system "Interactive Hypertext Machine" (IHM 89). The system uses Hyper MIX language which provides the user with a simple and powerful means of blocks and connections description.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Interface of Hypermedia System to Understand Software Being Utilized BIBA 268-276
      N. Sidorov; A. Sherepa; W. Kopach
    Reusable software systems require extensive understanding the source code system support.
       This paper describes a tool system for understanding the source code of reusable components and software being utilized. It discusses an approach to problem of understanding by hypertext systems and are combined three method reading of the source code. Our objective is to take advantage of hypertext technology and develop computer integrated software systems that support understanding software being utilized.
       We have built tools to generate hypertext information. We are using these tools for developing a software understanding and reverse engineering system.
       This paper an overview of our tools and prototype system for Modula-2.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Hypertext: Tensor Approach BIBA 276-278
      A. V. Nesterov
    A description of hypertextual system as the system designed for storage, transport, interaction, analysis and synthesis of documents for general use, represented in any material form and organised as a complete totality of its various elements: objects, links and operations with the elements, constructed at the basis of tensor analysis is presented.
    Note: (in Russian)

    VI. Human Factors

    Skill Automation and User Interface Transparency BIBA 280-283
      V. Kaptelinin
    The report gives arguments to prove the importance of the user interface "transparence". There is an analysis of psychological factors which provide the interface "transparence".
       Psychological requirements to the structure of human-computer interaction are formulated in the report.
       This paper presents the theoretical background for the supposed research project. The purpose of the project is to apply the cognitive psychology's recent achievements in the field of skill automatization to the problems of human-computer interaction. The paper consists of four parts. Tn the first part criteria of the user interface quality are discussed and the importance of the interface transparency is emphasized. Different approaches to transparency are analysed in the second part. It is shown that the transparency is determined by the extent to which the relevant skills are automated. Third part of the paper is devoted to the specific concepts and techniques of cognitive psychology which could be used for more efficient organization of development, evaluation and learning the user interfaces. The paper concludes with methodological discussion of the issues related with empirical investigation of skill automatization in users.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Paradoxes of Psychology of the Beginner-User and Some Errors of the Beginner-Instructor BIBA 284-288
      M. B. Plaks
    Some paradoxes of the beginner's psychology such as loss of assurance in the own power, unwillingness to learn and unacceptance of effective training methods are discussed. The author concludes that most people have got accustomed to the action not to trying to find the sense.
       Few ways to find the optimum training methodology are suggested. The task-oriented approach, minimizing notions to be explained, gradual differentiation of similar terms, generalized analogies are among them.
       There is no secret that a process of knowledge may be divided into three stages:
  • 1. primary study ("everything is clear"),
  • 2. contradiction revealing ("nothing is clear"),
  • 3. internal regularity revealing ("something is clearing up"), the last stage
        being reached not always. The experiments on the instruction methods carried out during a year and a half by our training centre permitted the third stage of the study of user's psychology to be approached. The investigation does not pretend to be scientific nor represents global generalizations, however, some conclusions resulted from that were checked up by practice and may be of certain interest. The report is constructed in accordance with three stage above.
  • Development of Creative Abilities of Students on the Basis of Computer Technology BIBA 289
      A. N. Burov
    Questions connected with computer technology usage for the development of creative abilities of students are considered in this article.
       The chief directions of studies conducted can be presented in the following way:
  • 1. Development of the abilities for general education contributing to rapid and
        efficient mastering of corresponding knowledges in different school
        subjects. It concerns first of all the development of the habits of
        reading, memory and some other psychological peculiarities promoting the
        enhanced efficiency of instruction.
  • 2. Development of creative reasoning in the sphere of science and technology.
        Teaching of methods of creativity activation when solving scientific and
        technological problems and tasks. At present there have been already elaborated courseware with recommendations for the instructor that correspond to principally new methods of instruction and have no analogies neither in our country nor abroad in its efficiency.
       We have the following courseware:
  • 1. "Learn to read" -- intended for the instruction of reading habits of junior
        schoolchildren without "speech noise movements". Psychologico-pedagogical experiments conducted proved stable 2-3 fold increase in reading efficiency after 1-2 weeks of everyday training.
  • 2. "Learn speed reading" -- intended for the instruction of speed reading
        habits of senior schoolchildren, students, post-graduates as well as
        engineers and other technical and scientific research workers. Original computer methods allow 50-70-100% increase in the speed of visual checking of text information after 15-20 minutes of special training. One of the versions of such courseware was awarded with a medal at the international competition in 1990.
  • Effects of Type A/B and Field Independence/Dependence in Performance of a Simulated Life Critical Computer Task BIBA 290-298
      Marilyn T. Welles
    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of Type A/B personality characteristics, Field Independent/Dependent perceptual styles, and their interactions on the performance and perceived workload of simulated air traffic control tasks. The simulated air traffic control tasks were a decision-making task and a concurrent monitoring task. These tasks were designed to be representative of that class of computer-based activities involving human information processing in operational environments characterized by critical consequences, requirements for rapid decision making and response, multiple tasks, fluctuating workloads, and stress. For the decision-making task, four stimulus/response modalities were used: Audio/Manual, Audio/Speech, Visual/Manual and Visual/Speech. The concurrent monitoring task used visual input and manual response. The personality characteristic of being Type A or Type B was not significant for either task; the perceptual style of being Field Independent or Field Dependent was significant for the decision-making task but not for the monitoring task. Field independent subjects were the faster. While not significant, the effect of crossing the personality characteristics of Type A/Type B with the perceptual styles of Field Independent/Field Dependent produced a result on speed of decision time which suggests that the slowest mean times for decision-making performance were produced by Type A/Field Dependent subjects, while the fastest were produced by Type A/Field Independent subjects. There was no tradeoff between speed of decision making and error rates; the faster subjects produced fewer errors. Type A/Field Dependent subjects experienced the greatest psychological stress; Type A/Field Independent ones the least.
    The Influence of Human Factors on the Effectiveness of Soft- and Hardware Systems BIBA 299-304
      R. D. Khabibullin; L. A. Khabibullina; F. M. Mutygullin
    The effective functioning of any intellectual system requires consideration of human factors. The work with visual display terminals is accompanied by great loading on the visual system of users. As showed our investigation the time for darkness adaptation of users of computer's visual display terminals is longer than that for the persons of control group whose work is not connected with visual display terminals. The results have been interpreted in terms of sensitivity of human visual system to the glimmering of symbols on display screen, to the bright light of visual display terminal and to a sharp difference of luminance between paper documents and screen of display. Visual fatigue causes the fatigue of central nervous system, appearance of mistakes and deterioration of work. Therefore it is important to create subsystem of estimation of the functional state of users to adapt technical system to psychophysiological abilities of users. Some tests are realized in the subsystem: critical flicker frequency, determination of time for darkness adaptation, correcting probe, compensatory tracking task, analysis of maintained movement activity (tremoregram), analysis of pulsogram. This set of tests can be regarded as means for ergonomic appreciation of hard- and software components of computing.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Psychosemantic Metrics of the VDT Screen BIBA 304-307
      Victor N. Andreef; Tatjana P. Zinchenko
    The perception of the face of video display terminal has been investigated. The hypothesis has been put forward that different areas of screen field have various emotional meaning. In the first experiment experts being tested placed "windows" with different information (instructions, prompts, operations etc.) arbitrarily on the screen. It has been found that preference is given to instruction "window" placed by most subjects in the lower part of the screen. In the second experiment using the technique of semantic differential subjects were offered to estimate the degree of expression of their sense quality by fixing each of 20 areas of the screen. They were given 19 pairs of adjectives (pleasant-unpleasant, light-heavy etc.) In the course of factor analysis five factors have been determined interpreted as activity-passivity, dynamics-statics, clearness-vagueness, tension-relaxation, abstractiveness-concreteness.
       The hypothesis of the research has confirmed that perceptional area initiated by the screen of video display terminal is not homogeneous and has a phychosemantic metric. The technique of distributing information in the screen field of video display terminal is proposed.
    Note: (in Russian)

    VII. Tutoring Systems, Computer Learning

    The Automated Training System "Physics" BIBA 310-313
      I. Yu. Petrova; A. Chakushin
    The automatized training system "Physics" is intended to check up the knowledge of students studying in institutes, technical colleges and schools, and to form the knowledge of physics of these who want to enter the technical higher schools using the letter and numeric and graphic information.
       The system may be helpful in individual study of physics; in demonstration of physical phenomena (physical process modelling); in acquiring experience to solve typical problems of physics; in individual testing of knowledge and habits; in testing the student on different sections of physics.
       The system supports five types of answers of trainees: physical formula, numeric value checking up, selection and location of the graphic figure, one-three words, the specified key pressing.
       The software has been designed using the language TURBO C++. The PC system requirements are: IBM PC compatible, RAM not less then 640 K, EGA/VGA monitor, one drive with floppy disks, hard disk (2 MB of memory).
    Note: (in Russian)
    Software Complex for Teaching Japanese BIBA 313-317
      A. Kotova; L. Prjakhina; L. Reznikova
    There is a description of Japanese learning computer system. Tutoring program consists of a self-instruction manual, a reference-book and a test-book. Self-instruction manual enables to get a picture of any sign on the display as a graphic input of a hieroglyph contours. Reference-book provides display of Japanese hieroglyphs. Test program gives Latinized words which the student is to put in KANA symbols. The system collects information on the student's work results.
    Note: (in Russian)
    The Computer Mathematics Course for the 7-10th Grades with the Use of "Yamaha MSX-2" PC BIBA 318-322
      N. E. Kalendaryova; Yu. V. Mikheev; S. V. Trepakov
    The computer programs in mathematics with the use of "YAMAHA MSX-2" PC are intended for holding of mathematics lessons in the computer room. Each computer program is devoted to certain logical unit of mathematics, contains a set of concrete problems and means for its solution in accordance with learned material. There is solution imitation liked usual in the majority of programs and the work with computer is a dialogue in which the general chances are given for pupils to choose actions, therefore a pupil makes the solution way independently. The computer either performs indicated actions or messages why they are impossible.
       The programs are naturally included into current educational process for giving lessons for solution and also repeat on mathematics.
       At present the authors created several programs for solution problems in solid geometry and they continue work for complex addition.
    Note: (in Russian)
    ANALYSER Test and Perfection System for Programming Languages Study BIBA 322-331
      I. Dvojeglazov; A. Donchenko
    The report describes a test system ANALYSER designed to check programming languages knowledge. The system analyses programs developed by the user. ANALYZER provides checking of PASCAL and FORTRAN programming languages knowledge. The checking course includes up to 50 thoroughly selected tasks for each language. Two working languages are built in the system: DD for task description and DD-SCENARIO for test course scenario description. There are as well suggestions for further development of ANALYZER.
    Note: (in Russian)
    Window-Based User Interface for the Computer Learning Environment BIBA 331-334
      V. G. Brusilovskaya; P. L. Brusilovsky
    In this paper one of possible approaches to interface design for computer learning environment is discussed. Computer environment provides a student with a computer laboratory for exploratory learning in the domain studying. To design the interface for learning environment the paradigm which regards environment as a set of instruments was adopted. For each instrument a certain type of window is created. Every type of window implements a certain function, one of possible views on the domain, one of possible domain investigation means. Such functional window-based user interface enables one to consider entire environment as a "bag with instruments".
       In this paper the environment for studying the foreign language lexicon is considered to be an example of learning environment. The system supplies windows of different types such as "a word with translation", "a view into dictionary", "a buffer", "morphological analysis", etc. The future development of this environment is also discussed.
    Note: (in Russian)
    MERLIN: An Intelligent Tutoring Shell BIBA 334-338
      Carlo Tarantola
    MERLIN is an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS) shell. The whole system architecture comprises a knowledge elicitation module that is under development. This paper describes only the tutoring part of which a prototype already exists.
       MERLIN has its origins in a joint effort, called AJUTOR [ref], between Digital Equipment Corporation, Valbonne (France) and MARS (Microgravity Advanced Research Center), Naples (Italy). AJUTOR was designed to train people, with a selected professional profile, in the domain of microgravity.
       AJUTOR knowledge comprised:
  • basic gravity dependent phenomena below the earth gravity level
  • knowledge on microgravity components (e.g. facilities, platforms, etc.)
  • experiment setup and necessary prerequisites
  • fluid dynamics theory hints
  • hints of other scientific theories involved in microgravity
  • VIII. Applications

    Direct Computer Modeling vs. Traditional Methods of Mathematical Modelling of Physical Processes BIBAK 340-352
      A. Soyghin
    For a long period of time numerical simulation of physical processes in continuous media based generally on solution of differential equations. But equations themselves are oversimplified models of real phenomena. Nowadays powerful computers can allow to reproduce physical processes directly as processes of information interchanges between elements (objects) of data that represent elements of real physical media.
    Keywords: Numerical simulation, Computer modeling, Computational physics
    Interactive System for Objects Recognition Based on Graphic Interface BIBA 353-357
      E. Butakov; S. Lelekov
    The new approach to the classification problems is based on the knowledge of experts and the use of a personal computer. The main principles of such an approach are:
  • - development of an effective user interface;
  • - realization of logical output and explanation process;
  • - supply with a tutor system. The ways of realization of these principles are described in the report.
    Note: (in Russian)
  • Information Processing Model in the Sight Systems of Robotechnical Complexes BIBA 357-359
      B. Odejanko
    Most of the technical sight systems are realized on the basis of separate mechanisms of the information processing by "living" sight systems. The given report describes a model which helps to explain the process of the information processing by natural sight systems from common positions.
    Note: (in Russian)