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EWHCI Tables of Contents: 919293

East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI'92

Fullname:East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Editors:Juri Gornostaev
Location:St.-Petersburg, Russia
Dates:1992-Aug-04 to 1992-Aug-08
Publisher:International Centre for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) 125252, 21-B Kuusinen Str. Moscow, RUSSIA
Standard No:hcibib: EWHCI92
Papers:65
Pages:479
Activity Theory: Retrospect and Prospect BIBA 1-5
  Vladimir P. Zinchenko
The paper presents an historical overview, a brief outline of basic principles and an analysis of possible lines of future development of activity theory, the leading approach in formerly Soviet psychology. The paper consists of three logical parts. The theoretical and philosophical origins of activity theory, as well as the social conditions of its emergence and formation, are described in the first part. The second part deals with the conceptual system of the three level structure of activity, elaborated by A. N. Leontiev. Some perspectives of the future development of activity theory are discussed in the last part within a general context of problems of humanization in science and society.
Concepts of Activity Theory for the Cultural-Historical Study of Cooperative Work BIBA 6
  Arne Raeithel
The original theory of object-oriented human activity proposed by A. N. Leontyev (1903-1979) has been expanded in recent years by several scholars in order to be more useful for the study of collaborative or cooperative work. Instead of looking mainly at one single working person and her or his social relations, the focus of analysis is widened to encompass "communities of practice" and "activity systems". These may be understood as "cultural forms" in which the actions of the cooperating persons unfold. A consequence of this shift of emphasis is that the physical instruments and semiotic means used in collaboration and communication regain the prominent role they had in the early formulations of L. S. Vygotsky (1896-1934). In this paper I will argue that such an expansion of activity theory is much better suited for the study of cooperative work than the present mainstream cognitive psychology because it recognizes the importance of external symbolic memory devices. They present the shared knowledge structures to the community of actors and should really be regarded as vital parts of an external, public or social mind that each actor uses for the regulation of action and conduct besides her or his more covert and personal mental organization.
Human Computer Interaction in Context: The Activity Theory Perspective BIBA 7-13
  Victor Kaptelinin
In recent years there has been growing interest in higher level factors of human computer interaction (HCI). This interest causes the need for a conceptual scheme providing an integrated psychological description and analysis of mental processes involved in HCI, as well as of social and developmental context of computer use. The present paper discusses the perspectives for applying some principles of Russian activity theory to the field of HCI. It is argued that activity theory allows "vertical" integration of different levels of psychological analysis and stresses some important points that are usually missed by the cognitive approach.
HCI Research Debate and Activity Theory Position BIBA 13-22
  Kari Kuutti
During the last years the mainstream framework for HCI research -- the information-processing cognitive psychology -- has gained more and more criticism because of serious problems in applying it both in research and practical design. In a debate within HCI research the capability of information processing psychology has been questioned and new theoretical frameworks searched. This paper presents an overview of the situation and discusses about potentials of Activity Theory as an alternative framework for HCI research and design.
A Reference Model for Interactive System Construction BIBA 23-30
  Len Bass; Joelle Coutaz; Claus Unger
IFIP WG2.7 User Interface Engineering is presently working on a report intended for the developers of interactive systems and development environments. The report is mainly concerned with raising issues stemming from the end user's view of an interactive system. These issues are intended to form a kind of 'checklist' for the constructors of interactive systems. They correspond to key decisions in system development and require a response from the system developer, demonstrating that the issue has been considered.
Gravitas: An Object-Oriented Discovery Learning Environment for Newtonian Gravitation BIBA 31-41
  Royston Sellman
Gravitas is an Object-Oriented Discovery Learning Environment in which learners build systems of gravitating masses in a two-dimensional space and observe their dynamics. These masses are implemented as true objects in the sense that they have their own private data, and their own private methods for generating behaviour and appearance. We call them massObs, and preliminary studies with a small number of users suggest that they may support new ways of learning some physical concepts.
   A novel feature of the program is that it has two distinct interfaces. First, a graphical interface which is very easy to learn and allows the system to be driven by mouse operations. The second we call the programming interface as it takes the form of extensions to the programming language Logo. The functionality of the two interfaces is identical but they support very different patterns of interaction: the graphical interface is quick and direct; the programming interface encourages more complex operations. Studies of the system in use seem to indicate a synergy between the two interfaces which allows users to make better progress than would be the case with one.
Development of the Japanese Language CAI Courseware "Japanese Writing" BIB 41-45
  L. Reznikova; Yu. Golovchenko; B. Shevelyuk
Adaptive Visualization in an Intelligent Programming Environment BIBA 46-50
  Peter Brusilovsky
Program visualization is a useful tool for a programming learning environment. An adaptive visualization tool should visualize at the given moment of learning those language features only, that are new for the given student. In this paper we suggest how to use the student's current state of knowledge, represented in the form of the student model, to organize an adaptive program visualization. We describe the system ITEM/IP, which supports adaptive program visualization for any language teaching order preferred by the teacher or the student.
Learning Scientific Inquiry Skills through Real-Life Problem-Solving BIBK 50-56
  Beth Adelson
Keywords: Educational interfaces, Development of systems based on user needs
Cognitology Didactic Tutorial HCI (A Synergetic Approach) BIBA 57-67
  B. N. Enikeev; Y. T. Kaganov
The report is devoted of tutorial and teaching interface. This problem is one of the most difficult problems on designing HCI systems. We see reasonable to explore this problem from point of view of cognitive psychology and didactics. Human-computer dialogue is very fruitful field to study general approach to the dialogue. Cognitive psychology and didactics is added by synergetic approach are becoming very powerful means for construction of dialog structures. Interaction human-computer as generally dialog interaction is nonlinear process. It can be regarded from point of view theory of dynamic systems. This approach give possibility to realise deep essence of dialog interface.
Teaching Application Design BIBAK 67-75
  George F. Coulouris; Peter Johnson; Hilary Buxton; Jean Dollimore
This paper argues that it is possible and desirable to introduce the requirements emerging from interesting and relevant applications at an early stage in the undergraduate computer science curriculum, and to use them as a context for generating awareness of problems and solutions in relevant subdisciplines of computer science.
   A first year undergraduate course is described that introduces concepts relevant to the design of interactive computer applications from computer graphics, databases for modelling, human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence. The concepts are introduced through case studies based on "Blocks World" and "Tube Route Finder" application scenarios and are integrated and consolidated through a series of practical exercises. The exercises are based on a software framework constructed in HyperCard and students produce working solutions in HyperTalk, the language embedded in HyperCard.
Keywords: Design, Human-computer interaction, Computer graphics, Databases, Artificial intelligence, Software framework, HyperCard
LECAT ("LEarning-CAlculating-Testing") -- An Interactive System for Training in General Engineering Subjects BIBA 75-78
  V. Kuzlyakina
The represented shell of the teaching programme "LECAT" is intended for general engineering disciplines studying of which includes carrying out calculation and graphic work or special design projects. The system makes it possible to connect up a few disciplines and to operate in various modes for teachers and for learners. The package is able to perform the following operations:
  • - presentation of information in various themes of a discipline studied,
  • - organization of testing in compliance with an original methodics in 3 levels
       (the initial training, an increase the knowledge, the remained knowledge),
       the rating being taken into account
  • - connecting up a package of design and manual calculation testing programmes
  • - viewing the results of testing on the themes
  • - an output of reference information on the usage of the package. Moreover, teachers are given an opportunity to correct lists of groups and testing questions, to look through the results of testing both of a whole group and of an individual. The information is displayed with a help of multi-window technology, a menu of different types in a wide colour range.
       The "LECAT" system may be easily put into service in any department and in any discipline, because files providing material filling of the system are independent of the shell proper.
  • Facing Information Technologies: Teenagers' Experience BIBA 78-82
      Alexandre Giglavyi
    The proverbial challenge which a teenager faces in modern society is commonly referred to as "fighting complexity". As sophisticated information systems and services emerge, their developers preach the need for handy and flexible end-user interfaces. Still the combinatorial explosion of information technologies defeats the broadly hyped image of Windows-happy naive user. In fact, this explosion is inevitably bound to multiply the number of subcultural layers. IT-related professions merge and erode; kids feel the necessity of becoming generalists far better than the adults do. A living model of a school which was created to meet the demands of information-based society is presented.
    A Cognitive Graphical Interface for Intelligent System Development BIBA 82-84
      T. Gavrilova; S. Eremenko; A. Zolotarev
    The paper presents KEW, The Knowledge Engineer's Workbench, the emphasis in which is put on the graphical interface for structural analysis. This program is visual programming tool for the critical early phases of expert system development, that consists of the test-system, the hyper-text tutorial and cognitive graphical blackboard. All three parts are user-depended and scenario-generated. The user model is defined by special psychological and professional tests. The cognitive component is closely connected with individual strategy of conceptual analysis that depends for instance on the asymmetry of the brain hemispheres and the personal cognitive style features (field-independness, for example).
    What Do I Want? And How Do I Get There?: Performance and Navigation in Information Retrieval Tasks with Hypertext Documents BIBA 85-95
      Keith Instone; Laura Marie Leventhal; Barbee Mynatt Teasley; John Farhat; Diane S. Rohlman
    Two of the most important issues emerging in hypertext research deal with what do I want? and how do I get there? We have been exploring the issues of performance and navigation in a series of empirical studies of information retrieval using two hypertext documents, HyperHolmes and HyperAl. HyperHolmes is a hypertext version of an encyclopedia and can be navigated in many different ways, including searching, hypertext links, incoming links, and through an overlay of hierarchical overviews. HyperAl is a stack of a library card catalogue for an elementary school library and has similar design features and functionality to HyperHolmes. We have conducted several studies of information retrieval using these documents to identify factors that affect performance and patterns of navigation. In two performance studies, our results highlight that the task to be performed and characteristics of the users influence accuracy and speed of information retrieval. In navigation studies, we have found that users tend to follow hierarchical navigation patterns as they are learning to use hypertext documents. With practice, these users tend to follow less hierarchical navigation patterns.
    Representing and Understanding in Hypertext Systems BIBA 95-99
      S. F. Dobrinevski
    The main obstacle for effective orientation in hypertext is the requirement of having a commonly used and uniformly interpreted map or index. The idea of this paper is to move from "common understanding" to "private understanding". In such a framework local mapping and authorized routes are considered as a convenient tool for orientation in vast hypertext spaces.
    Key Design Issues in Integrated Hypertext Software BIBA 100-102
      S. F. Dobrinevski; D. V. Kazberuk; B. L. Kontsevoy; S. V. Melnichuk
    The reported software incorporates such essential features as multiple structures and representations, permanent environment visualization, local mapping and authorized routes. Handling large hypertexts is based on the operational approach instead of direct structure representation. The design is implemented in software for scientific research and for special database on legislation.
    Practical Experiences of Using a Hypertext Design Tool BIBA 103-114
      Lyn Pemberton; James S. Goodlet
    This paper describes the experience of using a hypertext design tool, SussexIBIS, in the early design stages of a software production project. In the first section we give a brief description of SussexIBIS and the context in which it was developed, while the main section of the paper shows the tool in use during a reconstructed work session. Finally, we set out the deficiencies of the tool and suggest modifications which would bring it closer to our original ideal specification.
    The Hypermedia Effect: More Than Just the Sum of Its Parts BIBA 115-127
      Diane McKerlie; Jenny Preece
    Many claims and much "hype" surround the term "hypermedia". Foremost amongst these claims are that hypermedia will revolutionize learning and users' abilities to interact with, search for, and tailor information to suit their own needs. These claims are similar to those made about "hypertext" in the past. In this paper we offer definitions for the terms "multimedia" and "hypermedia" and examine some of the above claims using examples from a collaborative research and development project at the Open University and Rank Xerox EuroPARC. Our point of view is that, whilst there is certainly considerable "hype", nevertheless hypermedia is indeed different. It is "more than just the sum (i.e. the overall effect) of the parts" (e.g. sound, video, graphics, text etc.). Further research and creative exploration are needed to understand how best to harness the potential of combining multiple media into well designed hypermedia systems.
    Hypertext Structural Analysis BIBA 127-130
      A. S. Lakayev; M. M. Subbotin; D. M. Subbotin
    There are two discernible basic trends in processing and application of hypertext-packed information. The first one involves elicitation of sought data from the hypertext -- by navigating across it. The second one aims at analyzing, evaluating and interpreting the total information accumulated and presented in the hypertext.
       The first of the two approaches is implemented with the systems that permit navigation along the hypertext network by way of button manipulation, support information retrieval by browsing, or reading of the hypertext just for the sake of cognition.
       The second direction deals with the design of intellectually-sophisticated systems to support analysis and systematization of the accumulated information.
       NoteCards, SynView and gIBIS are examples of the systems that implement the aforementioned objectives. The State Scientific and Technical Center of Hypertext Information Technologies (STC - GINTECH) is working precisely along this direction.
       The information contained in a hypertext as a whole may be represented in two ways: as a logically sequential presentation of a linear text and as visible networks ("information images"). There is an extensive literature on the hypertext linearization problem [1, 2, 3]. As a rule, it deals with the content presentation in a sequence that would facilitate its perception. Also, the task boils down to finding an adequate way of material statement.
    DRUIDE -- Document Retrieval Using Information from Document Elements BIBA 130-137
      Miriam Mulders; Stephan Raaijmakers; Leon Verschuur
    Human retrieval strategies are more complex than scanning for keywords. Readability and retrievability of (parts of) documents highly depend on the presence and quality of document structure. Current retrieval systems, however, only provide keyword search. DRUIDE is a retrieval system that allows the information seeker to combine keywords with structuring functions, like sections, references, etc. DRUIDE offers three modi, each having its pros and cons: graphical mode, natural language, and formal language. A formal-logical language was defined suitable for representing document structure as well as the meaning of natural-language queries. DRUIDE stores documents created with a markup based document processor. The system has been implemented in TEX and PROLOG. In the future, DRUIDE will mainly function as an application for natural language research in a man-machine environment.
    Application of a Graph Model to Hypertext Querying BIBA 138-148
      Bernd Amann; Michel Scholl
    We present a model for data organized as graphs with typed nodes and edges. Regular expressions over the types of the node and edge labels are used to select walks in the hypertext graph. An outline of the application of this model and its query language to the implementation of hypertext documents is given by using an extended example of a travel agency application.
    Perspectives on CSCW: From HCI and CMC to CSCW BIBA 148-158
      Liam J. Bannon
    This paper provides a perspective on the emergence of a new field of research entitled Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), tracing it to a growing realization within several communities of problems in existing approaches. The focus in this particular paper is on problems within the human-computer interaction (HCI) field, and on how the broader range of disciplinary perspectives evident in CSCW research can be seen to offer some resolution, or at least offer some new approaches, to the "crises" within the field. Along the way, we will also make some reference to another loose research community grouped under the heading of computer-mediated communication (CMC), and show how this work can be seen as a contributory step towards the development of the CSCW research field. The purpose of the paper is thus to help place the emergence of this "new" field within a framework that outlines both continuities and discontinuities with other established research traditions.
    Real-Time Issues in Multi-Agent Computer Systems BIBA 158-166
      Philip J. A. Scown
    HCI issues for Simultaneous Multi-Agent Real-Time (SMART) systems are considered in contrast to conventional Office Automation applications. Findings from a number of large organisations, using large computer based information systems, are used to explore SMART system issues. The key area of study was the interaction between Multi-Agent aspects of system use and Real-Time issues. A number of users were interviewed across a variety of functions and levels. The results indicate a number of issues in the area of system management and that there are conflicts between batch and real-time components of the macro-system. The need for users to have a variety of system models depending on system type are considered.
    Participation in CSCW Systems BIBA 167-177
      Larry Press
    Participation in a CSCW system is critical and often difficult to achieve. The paper begins with a survey of barriers to participation. In spite of these barriers, individuals have, to varying degrees, a propensity to cooperate. CSCW systems will favor relatively cooperative individuals, and the second section of the paper explores this propensity from a biological perspective. The paper then discusses measures to elicit participation in CSCW systems, with an emphasis on organizational culture. CSCW systems will favor organizations with a cooperative culture. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of industrial and national culture.
    STEPS -- A Methodological Framework for Cooperative Software Development with Users BIBA 178-189
      Christiane Floyd; Guido Gryczan
    The paper presents the basic concepts of STEPS (Software Technology for Evolutionary and Participative System Development) a methodological framework for software development focussing on software in its relation to the work tasks of users. STEPS was first elaborated by the authors and their colleagues at the Technical University of Berlin, and since 1991 and is being continued at the University of Hamburg.
       This approach concentrates on the methodical support for developers and users and their cooperation in software development. Learning and communication in software development and use are seen in relation to the technical aspects of software construction. Software products are viewed as families of versions to be (re-)designed, (re-)implemented and (re-)evaluated in successive development cycles. Design replaces production as an overall metaphor for software development. Mutual learning in design as well as the extensive use of prototyping facilitate the embedding of software systems in meaningful work processes in the user organization.
    Towards a Framework for Modelling Human-Computer Interactions BIBA 189-196
      Philip J. Barnard; Michael D. Harrison
    In human-computer interaction, techniques are available for modelling users, systems and work tasks. However, there are few techniques or concepts that specifically address the form and contents of interactions per se. This paper outlines the concept of an Interaction Framework. The main functions of such a framework are to support intercommunication between specialist modellers and to assist in the design process itself. In this paper the approach is outlined. Its possible value in supporting interdisciplinary communication and in the development of design ideas is illustrated by reference to the "unselected window" phenomenon. Empirical evidence is cited in support of a particular set of interactional principles and their broader implications discussed.
    Models and Standards for Human-Computer Interfaces BIBA 197-209
      Igor Ushakov
    A great deal of attention has been paid recently by various national and international standards organizations toward harmonization of different types of user interfaces (UI). A unified approach is necessary for the benefit of the user community and for controlled UI technology. As a first step, a classification and taxonomy of UI techniques based on existing and potential new technologies are needed. This work is currently being done by several standards organizations and some models and drafts of standards have been proposed. This paper surveys some of the models and concepts put forward by the ECMA, IEEE, and ISO committees concerned with the standardization of UI technology.
    Modelling Perspectives in User Interface Design BIBA 210-217
      Stephanie Wilson; Panos Markopoulos; James Pycock; P. Johnson
    Task models, abstract models of interaction and architect models are valuable tools for the designers of interactive systems. This paper presents a survey of modelling techniques for human-computer interaction and discusses their lack of integration. A framework is required which will encompass these models and express their correlation, providing the basis for a user interface design methodology. The integrated models may then be incorporated in a prototyping environment which supports the methodology. One aspect of such a methodology is also discussed in the paper: the use of task models for both design idea generation and design evaluation.
    Why Computer Interfaces are Not Like Paintings: The User as a Deliberate Reader BIBA 217-224
      Marian Petre; Blaine Price
    Designers seeking to improve human-computer interfaces, particularly those concerned with programming environments, often assume that "graphics" will always result in an improvement over "text." Such claims are especially difficult to assess, given that people have used the terms "text" and "graphics" in different and conflicting ways throughout the literature. This paper suggests a preliminary, consistent terminology for discussing "graphical interfaces" (including so called "visual programming systems") to highlight some of the issues involved in using "graphics" in notations and interfaces. It discusses evidence from empirical studies showing that using "graphics" doesn't necessarily lead to improvement and may introduce its own problems. The paper concludes with a discussion of the successful integration of "graphics" and "text".
    Analysis of Visual Programming Graphical Representations BIBA 225-228
      V. L. Averbukh; D. V. Pivovarov
    Visual programming is based on such feature of human mentality as its strongly visual orientation. The main definitions of this discipline are presented.
       The concepts of semiotics and other disciplines studying visual sign systems may be useful in visual programming as for new ideas and analogies searching as for system evaluating and analysis. The examples of such analogies are presented.
       The parameters to analyse and evaluate visual programming graphical representations are suggested.
    Multimedia and Multimodal User Interfaces: A Taxonomy for Software Engineering Research Issues BIBA 229-240
      Joelle Coutaz
    This article aims at clarifying the distinction between multimodal and multimedia computer systems. A dimension space is proposed that accounts for a classification of such systems as well as for identifying the implications from the software architecture point of view. The discussion is illustrated with the analysis of current multimedia and multimodal systems and points out some useful areas for future research such as the fusion of modalities at multiple levels of abstraction.
    Speech in Computer Mediated Communication BIB 240-243
      A. Eu. Voiskounsky
    The Development of Music Compositional Software Tailored to the Young Learner BIB 244-255
      Robert C. MacGregor
    Principles and Guidelines for Computer Systems to Support Collaborative Writing: A Sociological Perspective BIBA 262-270
      Rhona Louisa Newman
    Sociological studies suggest five guidelines for computer systems to support collaborative writing, based on three ideal types of collaboration, and on the principles that collaboration is achieved through the joint social construction of reality, that computerisation can have unintended consequences for social practices and institutions, and that information is "rarely innocent". The guidelines are illustrated by material from the author's published studies and from elsewhere in the literature.
    The Video Viewer Interface Design: A Prototype for Sharing Video Across a Network BIBA 271-276
      Amanda Ropa; Bengt Ahlstrom
    This paper describes a media-based approach to designing interfaces for communication tools in a multimedia, collaborative environment. First a case study was performed to investigate how users used different media in their collaborative work. This study allowed users to use video, graphics, and text in a free-form space. Based on that study, a prototype called the Video Viewer was designed to specifically support users' video needs. The Video Viewer focuses on augmenting the current workspace through allowing users to easily view video information across a broad band network.
    An Experimental Study of Encounters and Interactions in a Virtual Environment BIBA 276-286
      Norihiko Matsuura; Go Fujino; Ken-ichi Okada; Yutaka Matsushita
    In this paper, we describe a new approach to the use of a virtual environment to support distributed collaborative work. We focus explicitly on tools to enable informal communications in contrast to most of the existing approaches of groupware applications. The establishment and maintenance of personal relationships is as indispensable in a virtual environment as in a physical environment, because the personal relationships lead to the acquisition of new communication channels and the probability of future joints. We describe the concept of interactions in a virtual environment and two sample tools for the 1 shared space in this virtual environment which provide the opportunities for spontaneous, informal encounters and interactions with both acquaintances and strangers in order to support the formation and maintenance of personal relationships.
    SpreadWin: An Object Oriented User Interface for Psychological Assessment BIBA 286-296
      I. V. Burmistrov
    This paper describes a novel approach to user interface for psychological assessment systems. The proposing SpreadWin interface is based on a consequent use of the object model for the static structuring and the mechanism of propagation of changes through the hierarchy of informationally-related objects for the dynamic structuring of the user interface. Paper focuses on the user interface for assessment management system that plays the key role in the integrated assessor's work place.
    Design of a User Agent for Multi-Service Integration BIBA 297-302
      Julian Newman
    Simultaneous access to multiple remote services is an increasingly widespread user requirement. It has long been recognised that the usability of telematic services can be enhanced by providing a uniform interface hiding the complexity and variety of the different services. At present, however, most remote services are not designed to operate in client-server mode, but to talk directly to a human user via a terminal or emulator, using a dialogue assuming minimal display capabilities. A User Agent operating in such an environment needs to handle and conceal from the user many complex dialogue sequences, to translate from the crude data-object representations of the remote dialogue to the more intuitive representations of the local graphical user interface, and to respond gracefully to error conditions in the communications system (including local and wide-area networks, hosts, gateways etc). The design must therefore be based on models at three different levels: applications, communications and user dialogue. This paper describes the design and prototyping of such a multi-service User Agent for an MS-Windows environment, integrating three remote services together with local Windows applications.
    User Interface Research: An Ergosemiotical Approach BIBA 303-313
      G. Ja. Uzilevsky; V. P. Zinchenko
    An ergosemiotic approach to user interaction research is described. Information processing model of human communication is presented with the application to user interface metaphors. Functions of user interface, ergosemiotical requirements to the latter, the division of interaction languages into the languages of subject domain users and languages of human-computer communication are discussed. Various problems of the latter formation, including classifications of screen and table menus and windows are considered.
    Human Factors in the "ELOIS" System Functioning BIBA 313-314
      Nadezda Chemeris; Tamara Koval
    The "ELOIS" system is intended for creating and using computer-assisted language learning (CALL) courses. There are three categories of its users -- authors, students and managers and correspondingly three subsystems -- "AUTHOR", "EXPERT" and "DIRECTOR". These subsystems were designed as tools for persons, who are not well familiar with computer technology and programming languages. The lack of this knowledge is recompensed by means of the subsystems interface.
    Gender Differences and Cognitive Style in Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 315-324
      Konrad Morgan; Robert L. Morris; Hamish MacLeod; Shirley Gibbs
    The authors attempt to review research which has tried to explain and identify the reasons for the differences in attitudes, acceptance and performance with regard to computer systems. The paper covers such areas as individual differences, gender differences, cultural or social class differences, computer attitudes, cognitive style, and psychological differentiation.
    Sensitivity of Preadolescents to Complex Activity in the Computer Mediated Telecommunication Environment BIB 324-327
      A. Belyaeva; I. Verenikina
    An Experimental Comparison of Three Natural Language Colour Naming Models BIBA 328-339
      Damian Conway
    The problems inherent in providing natural language generation of colour names are discussed. Three models for generating natural language descriptions of HSL colours are described. The effectiveness of these models in describing colours is compared experimentally. It is concluded that a rigid syntactic mapping of HSL components to orthogonal linguistic axes is generally inferior to exhaustive enumeration of colours or custom selection of adjectival colour modifiers. Interesting variations of model preference for different hues and different numbers of adjectival modifiers are noted.
    Rational Design of Domain Models: A Dialogue with Experts BIBA 340-343
      Ludmila Dolmatova
    This paper presents preliminary approach to formal description of knowledge acquisition process. Requirements to Knowledge Acquisition Systems are discussed. The process of conversation with expert is considered in terms of efficiency and optimality.
    Computer-Mediated Communication: The Importance of Group Salience and Individual Identifiability BIBA 343-351
      Jacqui Taylor; John MacDonald
    This research investigates the way that computer-mediated communication systems (CMC) affect group and individual work, in particular how task characteristics and e-mail structure affect inter-personal communication processes and aspects of self-perception. Previous research indicates a relationship between de-individuation, a loss of personal identity and the use of CMC systems. We extend this research by examining how a person's internal and external de-individuated state is affected when group salience and individual identifiability are manipulated. Unlike previous research, which has used laboratory-based methodologies, this study was conducted using a 'naturalistic' approach in a real working CMC environment. The results indicated that both the style and content of communications were affected by the experimental manipulations. The self-perception and group polarisation data were contrary to those found in previous research. The effect of the identifiability manipulation was in the predicted direction whereas group immersion produced few significant effects. The results are discussed in terms of group processes and the implications for the utilisation of CMC systems. Some suggestions are made for future research in this area.
    Studying Context: A Comparison of Activity Theory, Situated Action Models, and Distributed Cognition BIBA 352-359
      Bonnie A. Nardi
    An important insight is beginning to illuminate many studies of human-computer interaction: system design will benefit from explicit study of the context in which users work. The unaided individual divorced from a social group and from supporting artifacts is no longer the model user. But with this realization about the importance of context come many difficult questions. What exactly is context? If the individual is no longer central, what is the correct unit of analysis? What are the relations between artifacts, individuals, and the social groups to which they belong? This paper compares three approaches to the study of context: activity theory, situated action models and distributed cognition. We consider the basic concepts each approach promulgates, and evaluate the usefulness of each for the design of technology.
    Capturing Visual Design Expertise Interactively by Example BIBAK 360-366
      Henry Lieberman
    A problem in applying artificial intelligence techniques to visual design domains is that much of the knowledge possessed by experts is best expressible in terms of visual examples. The traditional expert systems methodology requires this knowledge to be communicated from a design expert to a knowledge engineer, who then translates this knowledge into rules and other textual descriptions. This process is awkward and error-prone.
       An alternative is to capture design knowledge more directly through an interactive graphical interface, by having the design expert manipulate concrete design examples in a graphical editor. The editor is equipped with an interface agent that records the users actions, and produces a generalized description of the procedure. The design procedure thus learned can subsequently be applied to examples that are similar to, but not identical to those on which the system was originally taught.
       This approach is illustrated in this paper by a description of the graphical editor Mondrian, which uses programming by example to capture interface actions that represent an expert's problem solving behavior. The paper presents an example in a desktop publishing domain, where the system is taught a procedure for rearranging a layout of newspaper articles.
    Keywords: Knowledge engineering, Machine learning, Programming by example, Interface agents, Graphic design, Desktop publishing
    ASKER: A Knowledge Structuring Environment BIBA 366-373
      Andrew Sviridenko
    One of the main aims of the ASKER project was to reduce the complicity of a large knowledge base to the level of human perception. For this purpose several functions were designed to support one of the fundamental human capability -- knowledge folding.
       Unfortunately, only part of the ideas we have on effective knowledge engineer support system had been implemented as the aim to develop a commercial software product was pursued also. ASKER 1.5 is implemented in Turbo Pascal 6.0 for IBM PC and compatible, Copyright (C) by Andrew Sviridenko & Raj Ponomarenko.
       Knowledge folders implemented proved to be an effective way to fight with information overflow during knowledge elicitation sessions with a domain expert. The ideas represented are confirmed not only by theoretical investigation but also by the practice of using ASKER during knowledge acquisition sessions with doctors and environmental experts.
    A Multi-Modal Interface for Man Machine Interaction with Knowledge Based Systems-MMI BIBA 373-377
      Evert Kuijpers; Michael Wilson
    The MMI² interface demonstrator supports user interaction with a KBS for designing computer networks using Natural Language through keyboard (English, French and Spanish); Command Language; Graphics with Direct Manipulation; and Mouse gesture. It contains an advanced dialogue manager which controls the interaction process, making decisions as to user/system initiative, appropriate response mode, and context driven interpretation. User modelling facilities provide an appropriate range of interactions relative to the user's level of competence. The result is a cooperative, multi-modal dialogue between system and user.
       The demonstration shows the integrated MMI² system supporting the graphical design of a local area network and subsequent interaction with the underlying expert system. It includes examples of interaction in each of the different modes of communication as well as examples of mixed-modal interactions, and also makes use of the advanced dialogue capabilities to allow the system to behave cooperatively in its responses.
    Building Explanation during Expert-Computer Interaction BIBAK 378-385
      Patrick Brezillon
    A class of industrial Knowledge-Based Systems (KBSs) are developed for helping a user in his task. Attempts to endow such systems with explanatory capabilities have been a failure because computer-human interactions are not fully considered. New architectures must be developed for introducing real computer-human interactions. We focus in this paper on interactive explanations in KBSs that are one of the important aspects of computer-human interaction. We propose in this paper such an architecture where several tools like acquisition, assimilation, documentation can be integrated with explanation and computer-human interaction. Solving the problem by this way arises from a real cooperation between the user and the system, and the user may intervene in the development of the explanation provided by the system. We address in this paper the main characteristics of participants -- namely, a Manager, the application knowledge base, and the user -- in interactive explanation.
    Keywords: Architecture of knowledge-based system, Interactive explanation, Computer-human interaction, User's interruption
    Dynamic Query Refinement: An Alternative to Expert Systems in Interactive Information Retrieval BIB 386-388
      S. V. Popov; N. V. Maksimov; M. Y. Epstein
    A System Ergonomics Design Methodology for HCI Development BIB 388-407
      Eric Wagner
    Rapid Prototyping, Structured Methods and Incorporation of Human Factors into System Development BIBA 407-417
      Kee Yong Lim; John Long
    In recent years, two apparently opposing approaches for improving human factors incorporation into system development halve emerged, namely rapid prototyping and structured analysis and design methods. Arguments for and against configuring human factors inputs with respect to each of these approaches have become blurred. To clarify the issues, the paper examines how well existing problems of human factors input are addressed by the approaches. In so doing, a case for structured analysis and design methods is established. A specific solution to the problems is then proposed comprising the development and subsequent integration of a structured human factors method with a particular structured analysis and design method. The human factors method is then reviewed and illustrated using a case-study concerning the design of a network security management system.
    User Interfaces in Direct Computer Modeling BIBA 418-420
      Alexander M. Soyghin
    Using of computer facilities enables to get rid of archaic mathematical models of physical processes in continuous media. And what is more important, makes models suitable for implementation on microcomputer level. Physical sense of new modeling is direct and supported by object-oriented data types.
    Top-Down Object-Based User Interface Definition and Design Paradigms BIBA 421-428
      Andy Holyer
    Currently, the main emphasis in User Interface design tools is on the low-level manipulation of Interaction Components, such as widgets. This paper proposes a design architecture which approaches User Interface development in a top-down manner, to avoid particular shortcomings in current design methodologies.
    Specifying Functional and HCI Requirements with Electronic Multimedia BIBA 429-436
      Scott P. Overmyer
    When requirements specifications are developed for interactive information systems, the final specification is usually a transformation of the original requirements data into a language which is foreign to end-users. Often, the problem is that the specification is written in the language of engineers, which is that of the solution space as opposed to the problem space. This makes it difficult for users to validate that the specification accurately represents their requirements for an automated system. It is hypothesized that the ability to specify requirements in the form of objects which are close representations of the real-world problem space (e.g., icons, video, photographs, graphs and charts), would be extremely useful when attempting to maximize requirements communication between system development stakeholders. The idea of this research is to explore the use of a multimedia requirements specification system which allows stakeholders to arrange, organize, reorganize and manipulate elicited requirements as easily recognized representations of objects from a user's problem space.
    Designing Requirements for the Educational Component of Human-Computer Interface BIB 436-440
      V. A. Daibov; D. S. Scorodumov
    Intelligent Interfaces for Parallel Programs: A Fractal Approach BIBA 440-445
      D. Skorodumov
    An approach to developing a new class of languages for parallel programming that support symmetry, uniformity and identity of program structures of their text, time and internal representations is defined in [1,2]. Numerous equivalent classes of NP-problems result in finding other kinds of computational identity. It is shown that combinatory topological models of knowledge representation formalize the existing fractal types and define new ones in terms of homomorphic correspondences of new types of fractality in structures of programs, algorithms, problems, data, knowledge and computer system architectures. Combination of geometrical, artificial intellect and fractal methods gives rise to new forms of modularity and abstract data types. Problems of creating intellectual interface to design parallel algorithms and programs are discussed.
    Integrating Theory Development with Design Evaluation BIB 446-452
      John M. Carroll; Mark Kevin Singley; Mary Beth Rosson
    Enhancing the HCI of Relational Databases by the Use of Temporal Concepts BIBA 453-462
      Yuan Sun; A. G. Stockman; M. C. Woodward
    The paper first identifies a number of data frames of temporal data and describes how these can be modelled using a time-sequence (TS) approach. The TS model is used to extend the relational model to provide specific processing schemes for the different frames of temporal data. It is shown how the properties of such data can be exploited by use of the model, giving increased flexibility for processing of temporal data within a user friendly environment. It is shown how this approach can be adapted to handle the backup and recovery of temporal data. The structure of each frame is described, followed by the implementation strategy and examples of queries. A unique user interface with temporal intervals and functions is also described.
    Design of Object-Oriented Data Visualization System BIBA 463-470
      Vitaly A. Kalmychkov; Alexander V. Smolyaninov
    The report is devoted to the data visualization system design and implementation, which provides the means for design of the image of the user's numeric information on the personal computer.
       The problems of design, architecture and operation of data visualization system which provides to user convenient means for constructing the numeric information image of required type is considered. Image constructing is executed by means of required sizes fields placing and filling of them by necessary content (coordinates system, graphs, inscriptions). User's interface with instrument system is object-oriented: after object (field or its content) choice user can manipulate of it, executing only those operations, that are determined for it as object of appointed function. Ergonomical and comfortable constructing is ensured by careful coordinated system of possible actions on each of image constructing stage and supported by icons menu and textual menu.
    A User Interface Design Environment BIBA 470-471
      Andy Holyer
    The UIDE project aims to produce a set of tools to enable users without specialist graphics skills to create sophisticated graphical user interfaces. It is written using Poplog (explained below) on Unix Workstations under the X windowing system with ports to other targets to follow.
    Movie Interfaces BIBA 471
      S. Joy Mountford
    Users will soon be able to do all sorts of new things with computers in multiple ways, using multiple types of information. One of the exciting changes in the Macintosh is in the ability to present data inside the computer that is temporal or time-based, such as movies or sounds. This will change the user's interactive capabilities with the computer substantially. The user will be able to 'play' the interface and not just view dynamic events, but can now create their own dynamic interfaces. The computer offers the promise of being more engaging that currently if the expectations of movie and TV viewers are really met. The problem is how to best design these technologies to be able to support the user to do whatever they wish.
    Object Oriented Graphic Editing BIBA 472-475
      M. V. Donskoy
    The paper presents the new approach to an editor's design that is focused on the semantic of edited objects instead of traditional focus on the graphic presentation. The main idea is that the semantic representation is to be more complex that the graphic view. As an example of the semantic representation the hierarchical structure is chosen.