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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 97 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Looking to the Future
Editors:Steven Pemberton
Location:Atlanta, Georgia
Dates:1997-Mar-22 to 1997-Mar-27
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-926-2 ACM Order Number 608975; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI97-2
Pages:379
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2
    1. DEMONSTRATIONS: Intelligent Systems
    2. DEMONSTRATIONS: In Search of the Right Visualization Techniques
    3. DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Worlds and Reality
    4. DEMONSTRATIONS: Visualization for Exploration
    5. DEMONSTRATIONS: Computers for Young Adults
    6. DEMONSTRATIONS: Programming with Less Programming
    7. DEMONSTRATIONS: Wearable Computers
    8. DEMONSTRATIONS: Auditory Output
    9. DEMONSTRATIONS: Visual Techniques for Image Retrieval
    10. DEMONSTRATIONS: Future Home Studies
    11. DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM
    12. DOCTORAL CONSORTIUM
    13. ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEWS
    14. PANELS
    15. OPENING PLENARY
    16. INVITED SPEAKERS

CHI 1997-03-22 Volume 2

DEMONSTRATIONS: Intelligent Systems

Artificial Intelligence Techniques in the Interface to a Digital Video Library BIBAKHTML 2-3
  Alexander G. Hauptmann; Michael J. Witbrock; Michael G. Christel
For the huge amounts of audio and video material that could usefully be included in digital libraries, the cost of producing human-generated annotations and meta-data is prohibitive. In the Informedia Digital Video Library, the production of meta-data supporting the library interface is automated using techniques from Artificial Intelligence (AI). By applying speech recognition, natural language processing and image analysis, the interface helps users locate the information they want and navigate or browse the digital video library more effectively. Specific AI-based interface components include automatic titles, filmstrips, video skims, word location marking and representative frames for shots.
Keywords: Video browsing, Information retrieval interfaces, Speech recognition, News-On-Demand, Multimedia indexing and search, Informedia, Artificial intelligence, Automatic text summarization, Video summarization, Digital library
MOBI-D: A Model-Based Development Environment for User-Centered Design BIBAKHTML 4-5
  Angel R. Puerta; David Maulsby
MOBI-D (Model-Based Interface Designer) is a software environment the design and development of user interfaces from declarative interface models. End-users informally describe tasks and data, from end-users, from which developers construct formal models of user tasks and domain objects. The system supports development of presentation and dialog specifications from such models, and allows visualization of interface designs as units encompassing all relations and dependencies among the elements of task, data and user-interface specifications. MOBI-D is the first development environment to define an interface model as a comprehensive conceptual object, to identify an interface design as a declarative component of an interface model, and to establish a development cycle based on such a model. The sharable nature of the interface modeling language of MOBI-D, along with the open architecture of its system opens the door for many research areas in HCI to explore the benefits and potential of using interface models.
Keywords: Model-based interface development, User interface development environments, Interface design, Interface models, User-centered design, Task-based design

DEMONSTRATIONS: In Search of the Right Visualization Techniques

Conversational Awareness in Multiparty VMC BIBAKHTML 6-7
  Roel Vertegaal
In this demonstration, we present a number of videoconferencing systems which differ in support for conversational awareness. We argue that such systems should convey speech, relative position, gaze direction and gaze of the participants, but not necessarily full-motion video.
Keywords: CSCW, Groupware, Videoconferencing, Awareness, Attention
An Environment that Integrates Flying and Fish Tank Metaphors BIBAHTMLWeb Page 8-9
  Dan Fleet; Colin Ware
Fledermaus VR is a system that combines the flying and Fish Tank metaphors for viewpoint control. A key component of the system is the continuous scaling of the scene so that it always appears just behind the screen. This scaling is done even when flying over a virtual landscape. Because the scene is scaled, it is always in the right position for Fish Tank VR viewing. In addition, the scaling removes some of the problems that commonly occur with stereoscopic displays, it puts objects in the appropriate place for manipulation, and it can be used to modulate the flight velocity. The system is demonstrated with a cable laying application.

DEMONSTRATIONS: Virtual Worlds and Reality

Demonstrations and Guided Tours of Virtual Worlds on the Internet BIBAKHTML 10-11
  Bruce Damer
Multi-user virtual worlds are proliferating on the Internet. These are two and three dimensional graphical environments inhabited by users represented as digital actors called "avatars". Through this medium, a wide variety of Internet users are participating in a large scale social experiment and collaborating on a variety of projects. The inhabited virtual world is an exciting new medium for HCI professionals including interaction and graphic designers, and educators and researchers focused on distance learning and teleworking. It also appeals to children and ordinary users of the Internet as a vast new digital playground and a venue for personal expression. This demonstration will introduce participants to a variety of inhabited virtual worlds and give them hands-on experience in collaboratively building and interacting with other users in the worlds.
Keywords: Virtual worlds, Social computing, Avatars, Collaborative workspaces, VRML, Three dimensional interfaces
Alice Sat Here BIBAKHTML 12-13
  Emily Hartzell; Nina Sobell
In this paper, we describe Alice Sat Here, a telerobotic installation in which participants in physical space and cyberspace are afforded extended means of interaction. Using live video served to the World Wide Web, telerobotic camera control (pan and tilt controlled remotely over the Web), and a wheeled electric throne driven by gallery visitors, Alice Sat Here becomes an interface at the intersection of physical space and cyberspace. By designing an installation as a physical metaphor for the Web, we hope to sensitize the public to the dynamics at work on the Web (surveillance, control), and to challenge the collective imagination of the kinds of experiences the Web can offer.
Keywords: Collaboration, Interaction, Control, Surveillance

DEMONSTRATIONS: Visualization for Exploration

Exploring Search Results with Envision BIBAKHTML 14-15
  Lucy Terry Nowell; Robert K. France; Deborah Hix
Envision is a multimedia digital library of computer science literature, with full-text searching and full-content retrieval capabilities. The Envision system is noteworthy for two characteristics: 1) the high quality of the search results returned by our free text search system and 2) a highly usable user interface that provides powerful information visualization facilities, enabling users explore patterns in the literature, changing the display as their interests change.
Keywords: Information visualization, Interface metaphors, Interface metaphors, User interface design, Digital library
Knowledge-Based Support for Visual Exploration of Spatial Data BIBAKHTML 16-17
  Gennady L. Andrienko; Nathalia V. Andrienko
The knowledge-based system IRIS is designed to help users in analysis of spatially referenced statistical data. For this purpose the system provides the user with automatically built thematic maps presenting the data visually. The process of map design is governed by the domain-independent visualisation knowledge base. The user receives the opportunity to concentrate on data exploration instead of the process of planning and building data presentations. Implementation of the interface part of the system in Java language allows to run the system in the World Wide Web (WWW).
Keywords: Data visualisation, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Knowledge-based systems, World Wide Web

DEMONSTRATIONS: Computers for Young Adults

Interactive Ethnography: Digital Photography at Lincoln High School BIBAKHTML 18-19
  Bonnie A. Nardi; Brian Reilly
We demonstrate our CD-ROM, "Digital Photography at Lincoln High School: An Interactive Ethnography," as well as a web-based example of interactive ethnography. The goal of the work is to demonstrate a new medium for presenting the results of ethnographic studies to a wide audience. The richness of the ethnographic experience is easily lost in a text-only format. The CD-ROM uses audio, video, text, QuickTime VR, scanned images and digital photos to bring alive the experiences of the students and staff in the digital photography class.
Keywords: Multimedia, Ethnography, CD-ROM, Digital photography
Soft Toys with Computer Hearts: Building Personal Storytelling Environments BIBAKHTML 20-21
  Marina Umaschi
SAGE is an authoring tool that allows children to design their own wise storytellers to interact with. It explicitly aims to enable them to explore their inner world, as well as to learn about storytelling and technology. In order to foster emotional engagement and explore the integration of physical and computer interfaces, the sage storyteller was embodied in a interactive stuffed animal.
Keywords: Personal storytelling, Authoring environments, Physical interfaces, Metaphorical objects, Learning
Merging the Benefits of Paper Notebooks with the Power of Computers in Dynomite BIBAKHTML 22-23
  Bill N. Schilit; Lynn D. Wilcox; Nitin "Nick" Sawhney
Dynomite is a portable electronic notebook for the capture and retrieval of handwritten and audio notes. The goal of Dynomite is to merge the organization, search, and data acquisition capabilities of a computer with the benefits of a paper-based notebook. Dynomite provides novel solutions in four key problem areas. First, Dynomite uses a casual, low cognitive overhead interface. Second, for content indexing of notes, Dynomite uses ink properties and keywords. Third, to assist organization, Dynomite's properties and keywords define views, presenting a subset of the notebook content that dynamically changes as users add new information. Finally, to augment handwritten notes with audio on devices with limited storage, Dynomite continuously records audio, but only permanently stores those parts highlighted by the user.
Keywords: Electronic notebook, Note-taking, Audio interfaces, Handwriting, Keyword indexing, Ink properties, Retrieval, Paper-like interfaces, PDA, Pen computing
Note: Presented as a paper at this session

DEMONSTRATIONS: Programming with Less Programming

Supporting Student-Built Algorithm Animation as a Pedagogical Tool BIBAKHTML 24-25
  John T. Stasko
This demonstration describes a new approach to algorithm animation, one in which the students construct the animations. We introduce the Samba system that facilitates this process and describe how it has been used an undergraduate algorithms courses as a teaching aid. Having students build the animations, that is, construct the mapping from concepts to images, appears to enable true understanding of the algorithm under study.
Keywords: Algorithm animation, Education, Design, Programming, Software visualization
The Agentsheets Behavior Exchange: Supporting Social Behavior Processing BIBAKHTML 26-27
  Alexander Repenning; James Ambach
In end-user programming it is still hard to overcome the tension between usability and expressiveness. Some end-user programming approaches focus on simple use but they make it hard or even impossible to write programs expressing useful functionality. Other programming approaches can be very expressive by allowing the construction of arbitrary complex programs but this expressiveness comes at the price of usability. End user programming approaches that are at least reasonably usable and expressive at the same time require not merely a syntactic improvement of programming languages but a new way to conceptualize the programming process in a social context. Social behavior processing describes the idea of elevating programming components to the level of easily composable and decomposable entities that can be shared through the World Wide Web with a community of end-users. The Agentsheets Behavior Exchange is outlined here as a forum for end-user programmers, including middle school kids and professionals, to (a) compose behaviors in order to create interactive SimCityTM-like simulations and games, to (b) comprehend behaviors created by other users or by themselves, and to (c) share these behaviors with other users. In end-user programming it is still hard to overcome the tension between usability and expressiveness. Some end-user programming approaches focus on simple use but they make it hard or even impossible to write programs expressing useful functionality. Other programming approaches can be very expressive by allowing the construction of arbitrary complex programs but this expressiveness comes at the price of usability. End user programming approaches that are at least reasonably usable and expressive at the same time require not merely a syntactic improvement of programming languages but a new way to conceptualize the programming process in a social context. Social behavior processing describes the idea of elevating programming components to the level of easily composable and decomposable entities that can be shared through the World Wide Web with a community of end-users. The Agentsheets Behavior Exchange is outlined here as a forum for end-user programmers, including middle school kids and professionals, to (a) compose behaviors in order to create interactive SimCity-like simulations and games, to (b) comprehend behaviors created by other users or by themselves, and to (c) share these behaviors with other users.
Keywords: Agents, World Wide Web, End-user programming, Interactive simulation, Drag and drop, Programming by example, Domain-specific applications, Education, Collaborative learning

DEMONSTRATIONS: Wearable Computers

"Eudaemonic Eye;" "Personal Imaging" and Wearable Computing as a Result of Deconstructing HCI; towards Greater Creativity and Self-Determination BIBAKHTML 28-29
  Steve Mann
The apparatus for 'personal imaging' consists of a combination of the author's 'existential computer' invention (hardware portion also referred to as the "wearable computer") with an electronic camera as the primary input device. Personal imaging, a conceptual framework around this simple apparatus, is first presented as a new research area, and then applications to the visual arts, and to personal documentary, are presented.
Keywords: Existential computing, Wearable computing, Personal imaging, Lightpainting, Electronic flash, Mobile multimedia, Video orbits, VideoClips, Pencigraphic imaging, Personal documentary, Augmented reality, Mediated reality

DEMONSTRATIONS: Auditory Output

Using Music as a Communication Medium BIBAKHTML 30-31
  James Alty; Paul Vickers; Dimitros Rigas
Music is a rich communication medium, and there are some similarities between the job of a music composer and that of an HCI designer (although their objectives may be different). Whilst sound has been used in interfaces, its use has mainly been at a primitive level, often involving real-world sound. Since music offers a highly structured set of mechanisms for communicating, it is surprising that there have been so few attempts at exploring its possibilities. Our current activity involves investigations into the use of music in algorithmic audiolisation and program debugging.
Keywords: Music, Interface design, Debugging, Multi-media, Audiolisation

DEMONSTRATIONS: Visual Techniques for Image Retrieval

IFQ: A Visual Query Interface for Object-Based Image Retrieval BIBKHTML 32-33
  Wen-Syan Li; K. Selcuk Candan; Kyoji Hirata; Yoshinori Hara
Keywords: Image retrieval, Visual query interface
Depictive Interaction with Visual Information Using Sketches -- DIVIUS BIBAKHTML 34-35
  Andree Woodcock; Stephen A. R. Scrivener; M. W. Lansdale
Querying of visual databases has relied predominantly on text based systems. Words do not provide an appropriate or adequate means of describing visual artifacts. A system (DIVIUS) has been developed which allows users to describe and query objects in a pictorial database, using a visual language derived from the database objects. Users can also indicate their level of uncertainty regarding certain attributes of the query.
Keywords: Visual interface, Pictorial database, Uncertainty, Database evaluation, User models

DEMONSTRATIONS: Future Home Studies

Access for All: HEPHAISTOS -- A Personal Home Assistant BIBAKHTML 36-37
  Michael Burmester; Joachim Machate; Jochen Klein
In this paper, we describe a demonstrator which was developed in the course of the European project TIDE 1004: HEPHAISTOS (Home Environment Private Help AssISTant fOr elderly and diSabled). The demonstrator constitutes a hand held personal home assistant capable to control a selected range of electronic home devices. Its multimodal user interface is based on a coloured high resolution touch screen extended with speech input/output. The development process focused on taking into account requirements of elderly people and people with special needs. The usability of the personal assistant was evaluated in a series of user tests with subjects from this particular demographic groups.
Keywords: Personal home assistant, Customer electronics, Touch sensitive control, Speech recognition, User interface design, Dialogue elements, PSN-elderly, Design for all
Mediators: Guides through Online TV Services BIBAKHTML 38-39
  Han Kohar; Ian Ginn
The Mediator prototype which is demonstrated is the result of exploratory research into domestic online entertainment services. Mediators are anthropomorphic guides who aid users in selection and navigation to content in interactive television services. The project goals include developing prototype services and navigation tools and carrying out extensive user tests. The main focus of the work is to develop models of interaction, functionality and system behaviour.
Keywords: Interactive television, Service creation, Consumer systems, Anthropomorphism, Social interaction, Navigation, Interface agents, Adaptivity

DEVELOPMENT CONSORTIUM

Research Issues in Intelligent Data Visualisation for Exploration and Communication BIBAKHTML 40-41
  Gennady L. Andrienko; Nathalia V. Andrienko
Efficiency and quality of solving problems by people are greatly affected by the way in that relevant information is arranged and presented. There is a need for intelligent software assisting humans by automatic generation of adequate presentations. We focus on graphical and especially cartographic data presentations and distinguish two problem classes where these presentations have high potential: data exploration and communication. It is argued that graphics design principles should be different for these two classes. Data communication is treated in a wider sense than merely report making: it is proposed to consider a "visual message" being built with respect to author's pragmatic goals, beliefs, attitudes, etc., as well as the image of the addressee. We outline the necessary research directions and reason about the role that could be played in such a research by the prototype knowledge-based system IRIS we have developed earlier.
Keywords: Visual data exploration, Visual data communication, Intelligent support, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Knowledge-based systems
An Approach to Evaluation of Software Visualization BIBAKHTML 42
  Vladimir L. Averbukh; Alexandr V. Konovalov; Vladislav V. Vorzopov
In connection with semiotic aspects of visual languages we define and generalize the content of such conception as visual metaphor, visual language dictionary, visual expressiveness, adequacy in visualization. The experimental system ParaVision should help to search the techniques for evaluating of such characteristics as adequacy in visualization that is as far as a given visual system may satisfy the needs of a given user for solving of a given problem.
Keywords: Visual metaphors, Visual expressiveness, Adequacy in visualization
Multiagents Based Modelling in Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 43-44
  Dorian Gorgan
A graphical environment that implements visual programming techniques based on autonomous agents is presented. The model consists of active entities called agents, and passive entities such as behaviours, trajectories, actions, and conditions. The agents have a rule based behaviour defined as a spatial and temporal evolution. A consistent set of agent structures, actions and rule types is highlighted to support a general oriented visual programming. The model concerns on the notion of trajectory and topological information used in a cooperative evolution to control applications which are based on real time processes synchronization, data flow diagrams, graphical animation, metaphorical user interface, visual programming, multimedia and artificial intelligence techniques.
Keywords: User interfaces, Multiagents, Visual programming, Direct manipulation, Rule based behaviour
Transferring Usability Engineering to Software Houses: Some Practical Experiences BIBAKHTML 45-46
  Marcin Sikorski
This paper describes market-related and social background of existing limitations in transferring usability engineering methods to software companies in Poland. Typical approaches of software vendors, developers, managers and users are shortly presented as possible reasons of low usability of many local software products. Providing information, guidelines and usability services are discussed as means for developing usability consciousness among all stakeholders involved in developing software for management support.
Keywords: Software usability, Management, Central-Eastern Europe, Poland
HCI in the Czech Republic BIBAKHTML 47-48
  Pavel Slavik
The paper describes the current situation and historical development in the HCI field in the Czech Republic. An outline of the most important features in this area is given. The reader can get ideas about the current state of art especially in research and education. A description of the situation in some specific applications is also given. In summary, the reader can find a short evaluation given together with some proposals on how to improve the current situation in the HCI field in this particular country.
Keywords: HCI, Interaction, GUI, Interface, Multimedia, Virtual reality
Hypermedia Extension Based on Recursive Abstractions BIBAKHTML 49-50
  Vladislav Valkovsky; Dmitry Krechman; Igor Nikiforov; Dmitry Chenosov
There are many well documented problems facing the ordinary user, as opposed to the enthusiast, of Hypermedia (HM) technology which can lead these users to be frustrated by, or give-up using hypermedia technology altogether. Among these classic HM problems are: the Framing Problem, Framing And Intercomparision Combined, Link Types, Versioning And Historical Backtrack, Closed Context and Open Media, Adding These Aspects Later, Disorientation [3], Information Structuring Systems [2], Visualizing [4]. This paper focuses on one of these key problems, "the Framing Problem" -- as the number of hypermedia objects grows the problem of restricting our attention to only the relevant connections becomes harder [3]. How can we structure the source hypermedia to show semantically related clusters? By solving this problem it is possible to offer new ways for people to search and browse hypermedia.
Keywords: Hypermedia, Navigation, Structural analysis, Abstraction

DOCTORAL CONSORTIUM

Displayless Interface Access to Spatial Data: Effects on Speaker Prosodics BIBAKHTML 51-52
  Julie Baca
Displayless interface technology must address challenges similar to those presented by the problem of providing GUI access to visually impaired users. Both must address the issue of providing nonvisual access to spatial data. This research examines the hypothesis that such access places a cognitive burden on the user, which in turn will impact the prosodics, i.e. nonverbal aspects, of the user's speech.
Keywords: GUI access, Displayless interfaces, Prosodics
Enhancement of Communicative Presence in Desktop Video Conferencing Systems BIBAKHTML 53-54
  Alessandro Barabesi
Communicative presence (CP) has been defined as "... the capacity of a system to transfer mutual communicative signals of interlocutors." [2]. The main objective of my research is to define communicative presence more precisely and improve it in Desktop Video Conferencing Systems (DVCSs). An initial experiment has suggested that the modality of all available channels should be consistent.
Keywords: Video conferencing, Communicative presence, Communication tools
Representation Without Taxation: What Makes GUI Good BIBAKHTML 55-56
  Brian D. Ehret
In the proposed work, research in cognitive science and display-based HCI is synthesized and brought to bear on the question of "what makes GUI good?". A two-phase approach is outlined. The empirical phase will build upon a foundation laid by display-based HCI research. The computational modeling phase will be informed by the empirical phase and previous modeling efforts. The primary goal is to be able to explicate conditions under which a user will rely on external display components vs. internal knowledge structures to control task performance.
Keywords: Display-based HCI, Cognitive modeling, ACT-R, Expertise, GUI
Accounting for Individual Differences Through GAMES: Guided Adaptive Multimedia Editing System BIBAKHTML 57-58
  Bernd Gutkauf
Multimedia communication is influenced by increasing complexity and reach of information and by a rapidly growing user population. Due to these developments average authors of electronically published media have little expert knowledge in multimedia presentations. They are also confronted with considerable individual differences of recipients in culture, social life, education, psychology and physiology. In order to compensate for these shortcomings it is necessary to integrate interpretation and interaction abilities of individual users into future presentation and editing systems. We are developing a chart editing system which generates critics by user request. These critics are based on a user model, on expert knowledge in chart editing and on the currently edited chart. The system helps the author to avoid commonly made mistakes. It empowers recipients to adjust certain parameters (e.g.: colors) to their individual abilities and needs.
Keywords: Individual differences, Perception, User model, Visualization, Multimedia, Adaptive systems, Intelligent systems, Electronic publishing, Cognitive psychology, Computer
Learning for Usability: An Explorative Study of Qualities in Use BIBAKHTML 59-60
  Stefan Holmlid
Efforts for creating usable systems which fulfill the purpose of being efficient and effective tools in an enterprise have been focused on the software itself. The study proposed here turns to the user, and to what the user contributes with for that use. The study explores the concepts of usability and qualities of software in use, and their relationship to end-users learning to use the software, in a case study approach. The understanding developed during this study will be used in an intervention study, which aims at proposing a way for formal training to contribute to usability and quality in use.
Keywords: Usability, End-user training, Quality in use
Computer Aided Creativity and Multicriteria Optimization in Design BIBAKHTML 61-62
  Denis Lalanne
Establishing that machines cannot automate creative design and that it is a difficult task for humans, I propose a computational model based on the human and machine complementarity and collaboration.
Keywords: Human-machine asynchronous collaboration, Interactive intelligence, Creative design
The Multimodal GUI: Developing Auditory Cues as Tools for Performance and Usability BIBAKHTML 63-64
  La Tondra A. Murray
Designers who use sound in the computer interface must do so judiciously. The inclusion of auditory cues within an interface should be a mechanism for the improvement of task performance and the facilitation of usability. Gaver [6] and Blattner [1] have demonstrated the utility of auditory cues in communicating information to users. The usage of "spatially-enhanced" speech and nonspeech elements could provide an additional source of data that might help or hurt performance. The usefulness of an auditory cue could be linked to acoustical parameters, spatialization, and task type. The proposed study will assess the improvement of user performance for various types of auditory cues as applied to spatial and verbal computer tasks. These results will be important to multimedia developers who want to create software that facilitates user acceptance or the quality of user performance.
Keywords: Auditory I/O, Human performance, Multimedia, User acceptance, User interface design
Graphical Encoding in Information Visualization BIBAKHTML 65-66
  Lucy Terry Nowell
In producing a design to visualize search results for a digital library called Envision [5, 7], we found that choosing graphical devices and document attributes to be encoded with each graphical device is a surprisingly difficult task. By graphical devices we mean those visual display elements (e.g., color, shape, size, position, etc.) used to convey encoded information. Research in several areas provides scientific guidance for design and evaluation of graphical encodings which might otherwise be reduced to opinion and personal taste. However, literature offers inconclusive and often conflicting viewpoints, leading us to further empirical research.
Keywords: Information visualization, Iconic display, User interface design, Graphical encoding
Groupware Adoption & Adaptation BIBAKHTML 67-68
  Leysia Ann Palen
This paper describes my research on the adoption of groupware technologies in business organizations, and their subsequent integration with individual and organizational work practices as a result of wide, sustained use. An initial study of two organizations successfully using a particular groupware technology -- electronic calendars and meeting schedulers -- revealed several technical, behavioral, and organizational factors that enabled initial adoption. Additional findings from this study suggested that groupware technology was integrated into work practices quite differently at each site, despite similarities in adoption patterns and other organizational features. My dissertation research will continue to elaborate the conditions that enable adoption of groupware technologies. My investigations will also explore the way electronic calendars are subsequently integrated into local work practices, and the organizational ramifications of these particular adaptations.
Keywords: Groupware, Calendars, Meeting schedulers, Adoption, Adaptation, Artifacts, Information resource, Collaboration, Organizational memory, CSCW
The Use of Declarative and Procedural Knowledge in Intelligent Navigation Displays BIBAKHTML 69-70
  Brian H. Philips
One theory of environmental cognition suggests that both declarative landmark knowledge and procedural route knowledge are essential in structuring internal representations of the environment; such representations facilitate effective navigation in that environment [5, 7]. The proposed study will provide data to test this theory. The application that will be studied is an Advanced Traveler Information System (ATIS), which provides route guidance information to automobile drivers. Current route guidance systems incorporate only procedural route information in their route guidance displays (i.e., they give directions for getting to your destination without supplying landmarks to identify the route [e.g., 3]). This study will evaluate how the inclusion of landmark icons in ATIS displays affects users' navigation performance. The results will be important to ATIS developers, who need to know what informational elements to include in ATIS route guidance displays to most effectively support navigation tasks. The results will also be important in a theoretical sense, by testing a theory of environmental cognition with real-world navigation tasks.
Keywords: ATIS, Declarative knowledge, Intelligent systems, ITS, Landmarks, Navigation, Procedural knowledge
Single Display Groupware BIBAKHTML 71-72
  Jason E. Stewart
Face-to-face collaboration of small groups is one of the most common forms of group work, yet group-aware computer support for this type of collaboration is limited. My research examines the effectiveness of Single Display Groupware (SDG), computer systems that support face-to-face collaboration around a single computer display. Together with the help of a group of elementary school children, I will design and build a prototype SDG system called Sushi that is an authoring tool for interactive multimedia stories.
Keywords: CSCW, Children, Authoring tools, CHIKids, Desktop-based collaboration, Direct manipulation, Education, Exploratory learning, Groupware, HCI, Input devices, Interactive learning, Iterative design, User centered design
Evaluating Real-Time Multimedia Audio and Video Quality BIBAKHTML 73-74
  Anna Watson
The aim of this research is to assess and establish quality thresholds for real-time Internet audio and video. Real-time multimedia conferencing over the Internet has huge potential, but there are limitations to the quality of audio and video that can be achieved, due to bandwidth limitations and the processing power of individual workstations. Assessing the effects of these limitations on the conference participant is not straightforward. The novel types of degradation found over the Internet means that existing speech and video quality assessment methods may not be applicable to multimedia conferencing experiences. This PhD will assess existing tests for measuring perceived quality from the psychology and telecommunications literature with respect to multimedia conferencing. The long term aim is to produce guidelines as to required bandwidth and quality for different multimedia conferencing tasks and applications.
Keywords: Multimedia conferencing, MBone, Speech intelligibility, Speech quality, Video use, Task

ORGANIZATIONAL OVERVIEWS

HCI at the University of Michigan's School of Information BIBAKHTML 75-76
  Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson; George Furnas; Elliot Soloway; Daniel E. Atkins
The School of Information at the University of Michigan is a new graduate school that offers highly interdisciplinary opportunities in education and research. We have a program in HCI as well as Library and Information Sciences, Archives and Record Management, and are discussing offerings in Future Systems Architecture, Organizational Information Systems.
Keywords: Graduate programs, HCI, CSCW, Information sciences
Introducing Usability at London Life Insurance Company BIBAKHTML 77-78
  Brenda Kerton
This presentation describes how and why Usability Engineering is being introduced at London Life. It describes the unique set of circumstances that were present allowing us to integrate usability engineering from day one in a project. It will cover our approach to learning about and institutionalizing the usability process into a well established internal systems development area. Our future plans will also be discussed.
Keywords: User profile, Work and task analysis, Usability goal setting, Usability walkthroughs, Application development process, Organizational context, Sponsorship, Skills transfer
Multimodal Human Computer Interaction Research at Toshiba Research and Development Center BIBAKHTML 79-80
  Yoichi Takebayashi; Miwako Doi
Toshiba's Human Interface Research Group is pursuing media understanding and intelligent interaction technologies to achieve natural multimodal HCI (human-computer interaction). In collaboration with Toshiba's other corporate laboratories, engineering laboratories and business divisions, we have been developing practical interactive systems and products related to information services, consumer electronics, document filing and industrial equipment.
Keywords: Organizations, Multimodal, HCI, Information filtering, Knowledge sharing, Media understanding
HCI at Trilogy: Bringing the Design Stance to a Startup BIBAKHTML 81-82
  J. Epstein; E. Loh; J. Marks; J. Lilly
A successful startup in the arena of enterprise software, Trilogy Development Group began experimenting with HCI as a means for improving user reactions to their products. Two years have passed since the first experiments; in that time an entire HCI group was created and has subsequently become a respected and critical component of Trilogy's development process, as well as taking some responsibility for providing a vision for Trilogy's future. This paper chronicles our experiences in bringing the "design stance" to Trilogy.
Keywords: Organizations, HCI, User interface, Design, Interaction design, Enterprise software, Startups
The NCR Human Interface Technology Center BIBAKHTML 83-84
  Thomas J. MacTavish; Richard L. Henneman
The NCR Human Interface Technology Center (HITC) exists to meet its customers' business needs through the application of new human-interface technologies. The HITC designs and develops these user-interface solutions through a user-centered design (UCD) process, in which user needs and expectations guide all design and development decisions. The HITC consists of about 90 engineers and scientists with expertise in such areas as cognitive engineering, graphic design, image understanding, artificial intelligence, intelligent tutoring, database mining, and new I/O technologies. Established in 1988, the HITC is funded by work performed for its customers.
Keywords: User interface, User-centered design, Cognitive engineering, Human-interface technology
0 to 50 in 4 Years: CUIS at Boeing BIBAKHTML 85-86
  Kevin Neher; Randy Worsech
The Common User Interface Services (CUIS) group at Boeing is a full-featured support organization for Boeing user interface developers. The group has achieved key successes and has increased the visibility of the importance of usability engineering to the point where it has been established as a key corporate initiative in 1996.
Keywords: Organization overview, Usability engineering, Usability measurement, Reusable components, User interface standards
The Founding of the Netscape User Experience Group BIBAKHTML 87-88
  Tony Fernandes
Netscape Communications is a company that has grown faster than any other software company in history. Although the design effort at Netscape has evolved greatly, the initial experience of bringing design into an organization in hypergrowth provided some valuable lessons in the creation of a successful design organization.
Keywords: Organizations, Usability testing, Human factors, Visual design
HCI Education & Research at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayaguez BIBAKHTML 89-90
  Jose A. Borges; Manuel A. Perez-Quinones; Nestor J. Rodriguez
HCI at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) of the University of Puerto Rico -- Mayaguez (UPRM) has taken center stage in the Computer Engineering program in just three years. This growth has been reflected in the academic programs, research, facilities, faculty, and students. Our research and academic emphasis is on usability engineering and programming of user interfaces.
Keywords: HCI education, HCI research, Usability engineering
Human Interface Design at Fidelity Investments BIBAKHTML 91-92
  Thomas S. Tullis
This presentation describes the Human Interface Design department at Fidelity Investments. Although not in the computer hardware or software business, Fidelity develops an amazingly wide variety of systems in support of our business. The Human Interface Design department, which is composed of people from a variety of backgrounds, provides several key services to systems development projects throughout the company, including user interface design and prototyping, usability testing, and online help development. We are also responsible for the corporate Graphical User Interface Style Guide and Web Design Guide. Examples of the development projects we assist with are described, as well as strategic projects that address more general human interface issues.
Keywords: Financial services, Usability testing, Online help, User interface design, Style guides, Prototyping
The User-Centered Globalization Group at AT&T BIBAKHTML 93-94
  Maria Gabriela Alvarez; Nuray Aykin; Diane Z. Lehder
This paper describes the User-Centered Globalization Group at AT&T, which provides internationalization and localization consulting services within AT&T and to outside customers. It reviews the group's history and areas of expertise, and discusses sample projects and future strategy.
Keywords: Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, User interface
Usability Services at Compuware-Madison: Bringing Usability to Data Processing BIBAKHTML 95-96
  Julie Nowicki; Shawn Lawton Henry
This presentation describes the Usability Services group at Compuware-Madison. Compuware-Madison is part of the national Compuware Professional Services Division, which provides consulting services for the computing industry, primarily data processing divisions of corporations. The Usability Services group was developed to help clients who are moving from traditional mainframe environments to newer technologies that use graphical user interfaces (GUIs). A group organized specifically to address usability issues is atypical in the data processing area, both from the client corporation and the consulting provider's perspective. This presentation describes how the group came to be, its projects, the challenges it faces, and its successes.
Keywords: Usability engineering, HCI education, HCI in organizations
Hypermedia Research at C&C Research Labs, NEC USA BIBAKHTML 97-98
  Yoshinori Hara; Kojiro Watanabe
This presentation describes the Usability Services group at Compuware-Madison. Compuware-Madison is part of the national Compuware Professional Services Division, which provides consulting services for the computing industry, primarily data processing divisions of corporations. The Usability Services group was developed to help clients who are moving from traditional mainframe environments to newer technologies that use graphical user interfaces (GUIs). A group organized specifically to address usability issues is atypical in the data processing area, both from the client corporation and the consulting provider's perspective. This presentation describes how the group came to be, its projects, the challenges it faces, and its successes.
Keywords: Usability engineering, HCI education, HCI in organizations

PANELS

Design v. Computing: Debating the Future of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 99-100
  Tony Salvador; Dan Boyarski; Paul Dourish; Jim Faris; Wendy Kellogg; Terry Winograd
This debate questions the presumption that the future of human-computer interaction resides in the computing sciences. We propose the following resolution: It is resolved that the CHI community should disassociate from professional computing societies and realign closely with professional design societies. The four panelists will form two teams with Terry Winograd & Jim Faris arguing for the resolution and Paul Dourish & Wendy Kellogg arguing against it. It is our intention to evoke the widest possible range of viewpoints and discussion in the community on this very important topic for the future of human computer interaction.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Design, Computer science
Transferring a Designed User Experience to Product BIBAKHTML 101-102
  Gitta Salomon; Chris Edwards; Hector Moll-Carrillo; Kevin Mullet; Laura Teodosio
How can interaction designers ensure that their work makes its way into the final implementation of a product? The language, tools and techniques for communicating design ideas within the interactive product development domain are currently emerging. This panel provides insight into promising approaches by examining the ways in which several practitioners have succeeded, and failed, at transferring their design ideas to current products.
Keywords: Technology transfer, Design, Interaction design, Product development, User interface, Software development
Web Interfaces Live: What's Hot, What's Not? BIBAKHTML 103-104
  Keith Instone; Mary Czerwinski; S. Joy Mountford; Jakob Nielsen; Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini
You are up against a million other Web sites: how do you get users to come to your site? This panel will visit live sites on the WWW and debate what works and doesn't work in Web user interfaces.
Keywords: WWW, Web, Internet, Design, Evaluation, Reviewing
Intelligent Software Agents vs. User-Controlled Direct Manipulation: A Debate BIBAKHTML 105-106
  Jim Miller; Pattie Maes; Ben Shneiderman
Critical issues in human-computer interaction -- in particular, the advantages and disadvantages of intelligent agents and direct manipulation -- will be discussed, debated, and hotly contested. The intent of the participants is to strike an appropriate balance between a serious discussion of the issues and an entertaining debate.
Keywords: Agents, Direct manipulation, Intelligent interfaces, Graphical representation
Telework: When Your Job is on the Line BIBAKHTML 107-108
  Jean C. Scholtz; Victoria Bellotti; Jenny DeGroot; Tom Erickson; Arnold Lund; Leslie Schirra
This panel will discuss teleworking experiences. Our panel consists of several types of teleworkers, a manager of a teleworker and a researcher who studied teleworking. The panel will address questions concerning the value of telework, the factors that affect success of telework, and the way in which telework changed their job.
Keywords: Telework, Telecommuting, Remote work
None of the Above: What's Really Essential in HCI Education? BIBAKHTML 109-110
  Andrew Sears; Marian Williams; Jean B. Gasen; Tom Hewett; John Karat; Gail McLaughlin
As we look to the future of HCI education, it is clear that, despite major HCI curriculum initiatives [1, 2], there is little consensus in the CHI community about what the content of HCI education should include or about how and by whom that content should be delivered. This panel gives voice to both prevailing and minority opinions on the subject.
Keywords: HCI Education, Industry, Academia
Computers, Kids, and Creativity: What Does the Future Hold? BIBAKHTML 111-112
  Allison Druin; David Smith; Jordana Huchital; Michael Chanover; Amy Bruckman
Our children are fast becoming one of the largest new user groups taking advantage of emerging technologies. How our children learn, play, and communicate are quickly changing. This panel will not ask the question whether technology will be a part of our children's lives. The panel participants believe this is a given. Instead, the panelists, professionals in developing new technologies for children, will consider the impact and possible changes that may be in store for our children and their future technologies. Once the panelists have offered brief statements on their visions of the future, children from the CHIkids program will be discussants and ask questions that concern them about the future of new technologies for children.
Keywords: Children, The future, Social issues, Home, Multimedia Internet, Educational applications, Entertainment
"On Your Marks, Get Set, Browse!" (The Great CHI 97 Browse Off!) BIBAKHTML 113-114
  Kevin Mullett; Christopher Fry; Diane Schiano
This session brings together several leading structure visualization and browsing technologies for an entertaining yet informative "live" comparison. Users of each system will compete "head-to-head" in a series of races designed to simulate the stressful conditions under which real world browsing often takes place. Expert and novice operators will use four different visualization and browsing tools to complete a set of generic retrieval tasks as quickly and accurately as possible within the same information space. Attendees will be able to see for themselves which techniques work well or poorly as each system demonstrates its potential for a range of users.
Keywords: Visualization, Browsing, Navigation, Interaction design, Information retrieval, Evaluation
Corporate Strategy and Usability Research: A New Partnership BIBAKHTML 115-116
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Janice Rohn; John Thomas; Judee Humburg; Sarah Bloomer; Mary Czerwinski
This panel explores approaches to making usability research more strategic within organizations -- not just with respect to the product development life cycle, but pervasive throughout the organization. Six panelists discuss different ways in which usability can be strategic, depending on their organizational environments or "profiles."
Keywords: Strategic planning, Usability research, Corporate strategy, Organizational environments, Organizational profiles

OPENING PLENARY

Utopia Appropriated: The Future as It Was BIBAKHTML 117
  Rick Prelinger
This program takes a critical look at mid-20th-century utopian promises and persuasions as dramatized in industrial and advertising films released between 1936 and 1965. In these films and related advertising campaigns, major American corporations appropriated old utopian ideas as their own, promising a bright, affluent future enabled by cybernetics, household technology, and new means of transportation and communication. Despite the amusing anachronisms in these films, many of the ideas they promote are still very much part of corporate discourse today, and have had a tremendous effect on shaping public expectations and attitudes towards information technology.
Keywords: Motion pictures, Industrial films, Ephemeral films, Commercial speech, Business history, Utopianism, Utopias, Futurism, Material culture, Communications, Technology, Consumerism, Social history, Cultural history

INVITED SPEAKERS

Universal Access to the Net: Requirements and Social Impact BIBAHTML 118
  Jeff Johnson
This article addresses the following questions: Where do we stand today with respect to achieving universal access to the Internet? What is required (particularly in the HCI realm) to achieve it? What are some of the consequences and side-effects -- positive and negative -- for society?
A Typology for Educational Interfaces BIBAKHTML 119-120
  Tim O'Shea
Interfaces intended to support learning should be considered with respect to a typology based on student audience, constructive functionality, navigation support, cognitive cost and added learning value. Analysed like this, the quality of interfaces used by students has noticeably improved over the past 10 years, in dramatic contrast to the much slower change in pedagogic value of educational software. The potential for the use of computers in support of interaction between learners, their peers and remote information sources has revealed important weaknesses inherent in current approaches to navigation support. Key problems include scaleability, accessing peer learners and the shape and size of information spaces.
Keywords: Educational interface, Navigational support, Memory prosthesis, Scaleability
The Design Interaction BIBHTML --
  Terry Winograd