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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X92Y92a92b93X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'86 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI'86 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Marilyn Mantei; Peter Orbeton
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1986-Apr-13 to 1986-Apr-17
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-180-6; ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608860; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI86
  1. Visualizing Complex Information Spaces
  2. Tutors and Consultants
  3. Panel
  4. Visual Programming Environment Designs
  5. Transfer of User Skill Between Systems
  6. Panel
  7. Debate
  8. Plenary Address
  9. Windowing and Graphical Representation
  10. Documentation
  11. Panel
  12. Drawing and Animation Systems
  13. Case Studies
  14. Panel
  15. Program Debugging
  16. Voice Enhancement
  17. Panel
  18. Interface Management and Prototyping
  19. Design Methods I
  20. Panel
  21. The Semantics of Interaction
  22. Design Methods II
  23. Panel
  24. Knowledge-Based Interfaces
  25. Haptic Techniques
  26. Panel
  27. Plenary Address
  28. Doctoral Consortium

Visualizing Complex Information Spaces

The Information Lens: An Intelligent System for Information Sharing in Organizations BIBA 1-8
  Thomas W. Malone; Kenneth R. Grant; Franklyn A. Turbak
This paper describes an intelligent system to help people share and filter information communicated by computer-based messaging systems. The system exploits concepts from artificial intelligence such as frames, production rules, and inheritance networks, but it avoids the unsolved problems of natural language understanding by providing users with a rich set of semi-structured message templates. A consistent set of "direct manipulation" editors simplifies the use of the system by individuals, and an incremental enhancement path simplifies the adoption of the system by groups.
Graphic Interfaces for Knowledge-Based System Development BIBA 9-15
  Steven E. Poltrock; Donald D. Steiner; P. Nong Tarlton
Creating and debugging knowledge-based systems, such as expert systems, requires easy access to rules and facts in a vast, loosely-connected system. Three graphic representations were devised for a system development tool that integrates forward chaining, backward chaining, and full truth maintenance. In one representation, possible interactions among rules, determined by syntactically parsing the rules, are displayed as a directed graph. In a second representation, actual interactions among facts and rules are displayed dynamically. The third representation is a fish-eye view of the knowledge base that explains why a fact was asserted. In addition, the text of rules and facts is displayed in editing windows.
Generalized Fisheye Views BIBA 16-23
  George W. Furnas
In many contexts, humans often represent their own "neighborhood" in great detail, yet only major landmarks further away. This suggests that such views ("fisheye views") might be useful for the computer display of large information structures like programs, data bases, online text, etc. This paper explores fisheye views presenting, in turn, naturalistic studies, a general formalism, a specific instantiation, a resulting computer program, example displays and an evaluation.

Tutors and Consultants

User Modeling in UC, The UNIX Consultant BIBA 24-28
  David N. Chin
UC is a natural language computer consultant system for the UNIX operating system. The user model in UC encodes the user's knowledge state and allows UC to tailor its responses to the user. The model encodes apriori knowledge in a double stereotype system that is extremely efficient. Models of individual users are updated dynamically and build on top of the user's stereotype. The model deals with uncertainty in apriori information and attempts to deduce the user's level during the course of a session.
TNT: A Talking Tutor 'N' Trainer for Teaching the Use of Interactive Computer Systems BIBA 29-34
  Lloyd H. Nakatani; Dennis E. Egan; Laurence W. Ruedisueli; Patrick M. Hawley; Deborah K. Lewart
Tutor 'N' Trainer (TNT) is an automated tutor for vi, the UNIX system screen editor. TNT fosters learning by doing. The Tutor component guides the student's practice with spoken instruction and feedback. The Trainer component assures safety during practice by permitting only previously taught and appropriate operations. Individualization and effectiveness are achieved in two ways: special helper keys enable slow learners to get extra help and repeat troublesome tasks; and practice loops force slow learners to practice repeatedly until competency is achieved.
Advising Roles of a Computer Consultant BIBA 35-40
  Jean McKendree; John M. Carroll
Several hours of advisory protocols from a consultant for Personal Computing were taped and analysed in terms of the role which the advisor played in the interaction. The advisor's role was determined by the user's initial approach and the advisor's perception of the needs of the user: informing the user about available information, defining terms or procedures, indexing into appropriate solution sources or methods for more complex problems or structuring a nebulous or poorly understood problem. A taxonomy of stages of information exchange is outlined and the patterns of alternation within each advisor role is described. We suggest implications of this study for the design of advisory systems.


The Computer as Musical Accompanist BIB 41-43
  William Buxton; Roger Dannenberg; Barry Vercoe

Visual Programming Environment Designs

The Enhancement of Understanding through Visual Representations BIBA 44-50
  Heinz-Dieter Bocker; Gerhard Fischer; Helga Nieper
It has been argued for a long time that the representation of a problem is of crucial importance to understanding and solving it. Equally accepted is the fact that the human visual system is a powerful system to be used in information processing tasks. However there exist few systems which try to take advantage of these insights. We have constructed a variety of system components which automatically generate graphical representations of complex structures. We are pursuing the long-range goal of constructing a software oscilloscope which makes the invisible visible. Our tools are used in a variety of contexts: in programming environments, in intelligent tutoring systems, and in human-computer interaction in general by offering aesthetically pleasing interfaces.
Design Principles for the Enhanced Presentation of Computer Program Source Text BIBAK 51-58
  Ronald Baecker; Aaron Marcus
In order to make computer programs more readable, understandable, appealing, memorable, and maintainable, the presentation of program source text needs to be enhanced over its conventional treatment. Towards this end, we present five basic design principles for enhanced program visualization and a framework for applying these principles to particular programming languages. The framework deals comprehensively with ten fundamental areas that are central to the structure of programming languages. We then use the principles and the framework to develop a novel design for the effective presentation of source text in the C programming language.
Keywords: User interface design, Human factors, Graphic design, Program visualization, Prettyprinting, Program beautification, Computer typesetting, Computer program documentation, Software engineering
Visual Programming, Programming by Example, and Program Visualization: A Taxonomy BIBAK 59-66
  Brad A. Myers
There has been a great interest recently in systems that use graphics to aid in the programming, debugging, and understanding of computer programs. The terms "Visual Programming" and "Program Visualization" have been applied to these systems. Also, there has been a renewed interest in using examples to help alleviate the complexity of programming. This technique is called "Programming by Example." This paper attempts to provide more meaning to these terms by giving precise definitions, and then uses these definitions to classify existing systems into a taxonomy. A number of common unsolved problems with most of these systems are also listed.
Keywords: Software engineering, Automatic programming, Tools and techniques, Flowcharts, Testing and debugging, Debugging aids, Programming languages, Language classifications, Artificial intelligence, Automatic programming, Program synthesis, Computer graphics, Methodologies and techniques, Languages, Visual programming, Program visualization, Programming by example, Inferencing, Documentation, Languages

Transfer of User Skill Between Systems

Transfer Between Word Processing Systems BIBA 67-71
  John Karat; Larry Boyes; Scott Weisgerber; Chuck Schafer
A study was conducted to examine knowledge transfer between word processing systems. The study examined the performance of naive subjects learning to use a word processing system, as well as performance of individuals with word processing experience as they learned to use a new system. Subjects initially familiar with one system carried out a series of tasks on this system and then were asked to carry out a similar series of tasks on a second system with which they were initially unfamiliar. The second systems varied in similarity to the first system along several dimensions. Subject performance was significantly slower on the second set of tasks for all groups compared to a control group using a single system. The reduced performance is attributed primarily to 'syntactic' differences in the user interfaces of the systems.
Learning and Transfer for Text and Graphics Editing with a Direct Manipulation Interface BIBA 72-77
  J. E. Ziegler; H. U. Hoppe; K. P. Fahnrich
For a Direct Manipulation interface, transfer of skill between text and graphics editing tasks has been investigated. A learning experiment has been carried with two groups of novice users starting with a series of sessions in one task domain and then switching over to the other domain. The empirical results are discussed in the framework of the "cognitive complexity" theory of Polson and Kieras.
A Test of a Common Elements Theory of Transfer BIBA 78-83
  Peter G. Polson; Elizabeth Muncher; George Engelbeck
All discussions of interface design criteria emphasize the importance of consistent operating procedures both within and across applications This paper presents a model for positive transfer and thus a theoretical definition of consistency. An experiment manipulating training orders for utility tasks was designed to evaluate the transfer model. The experimental manipulations produced large transfer effects. Quantitative predictions were derived from the Kieras and Polson (1985) theory of human-computer interaction and the transfer model and fit using regression techniques. The transfer model accounted for 88% of the variance of the 31 cell means.


Classifying Users: A Hard Look at Some Controversial Issues BIB 84-88
  Kathleen M. Potosnak; Philip J. Hayes; Mary Beth Rosson; Michael L. Schneider; John A. Whiteside


Resolved: Interface Design Doesn't Matter BIBA 89
  Richard Pew; Donald A. Norman; Stuart Card
A basic underlying theme to this conference and to the entire field of Human-Computer Interaction is that Interface Design makes an important difference. Does it? What is the evidence? If the point is so obvious, why do so many expert users scoff? Why are so many of the best users content with what they have, and why do manufacturers and designers continue to produce more of the same?
   In this debate, Norman and Card provide a serious examination of the evidence for and against the field of interface design. The goal is to make the issues stand out more clearly, thereby illuminating them more thoroughly. The debate is intended to be lively, but to get at the major underlying bases for the field of human-computer interaction.

Plenary Address

The Office of the Future -- Increasing Effectiveness and Enhancing the Quality of Working Life BIB 90
  Enid Mumford

Windowing and Graphical Representation

Medical Cognitive Graphics BIBA 91-95
  William G. Cole
Medical inference problems that seem too complex for intuitive solution can be made tractable if the problem information is presented in the form of a graphic display. The medical cognitive graphics approach to aiding complex problem solving conceives of a medical professional as a person trying to form a mental model of the patient's situation. Appropriate computer graphics make mental models easier to form and easier to explore. This paper develops the notion of medical cognitive graphics via two examples drawn from medical diagnosis and monitoring.
How are Windows Used? Some Notes on Creating an Empirically-Based Windowing Benchmark Task BIBA 96-100
  Kenneth B. Gaylin
Users of a windowing system were studied for the purpose of creating an empirically based windowing benchmark. Each filled out a paper questionnaire that sampled subjective opinions of windowing commands, and were observed for approximately 22 minutes while performing typical daily activities on the computer. Subjects were also asked to demonstrate a typical log-on procedure and were personally interviewed. Windowing command frequencies, and screen layout characteristics were collected and analyzed. The data revealed a relatively high use of a small number of commands that were primarily concerned with moving between windows. This study enabled the creation of a more accurate windowing benchmark task.
A Comparison of Tiled and Overlapping Windows BIBA 101-106
  Sara A. Bly; Jarrett K. Rosenberg
It is widely believed that overlapping windows are preferable to tiled (non-overlapping) ones, but there is very little research to support that belief. An analysis of the basic characteristics of windowing regimes predicts that there are, in fact, situations where overlapping windows are inferior to tiled. An experiment to test this prediction verified that there are indeed tasks and users for which tiled windows yield faster performance. This result suggests a need for closer study of the principles underlying windowing regimes, so that designers have a better understanding of the tradeoffs involved in using them.


A Cognitive Model of Database Querying: A Tool for Novice Instruction BIBA 107-113
  Mark S. Schlager; William C. Ogden
Two experiments examine the effects of incorporating user knowledge into the design of training materials for a database querying system. In Experiment I an informal cognitive model of a query language is derived from the verbal reports of expert users, and incorporated into existing documentation. Two groups of subjects were then asked to solve queries using either the revised or original manual. In Experiment II the cognitive model was formalized to explicitly describe the conceptual and procedural information that was incorporated into training materials. Three groups of subjects then received either a conceptual model, procedural model, or neither in addition to basic instructions, and then solved four sets of queries. The results show that whether or not a given type of information facilitates performance depends on the type of query, and whether the model is consistent with the operation of the query system.
DOMAIN/DELPHI: Retrieving Documents Online BIBA 114-121
  Penny Orwick; Joseph T. Jaynes; Thomas R. Barstow; Lawrence S. Bohn
DOMAIN/DELPHI is the retrieval component of Apollo's in-house, integrated publishing system. It retrieves and displays documentation in a networked workstation environment in which each workstation has access to a common database of user and systems documents. Users can find information by "browsing" through a table of contents or by an indexed search for all documents on a subject. DELPHI incorporates a graphical, menu-driven user interface and displays output with multiple fonts and line art.
The Effects of Structured, Multi-Level Documentation BIBA 122-128
  Robert W. Holt; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis; Alan C. Schultz
The effects of general global documentation, detailed step-by-step documentation, and combined global and detailed documentation were examined for high, medium, and low experienced students. The 198 students in this study used a word-processing program to complete two problems during a two-hour session. Results from univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that both general time measures for reading documentation and completing problems as well as the student users' reactions to the documentation, the program, and the computer system were affected by either the type of documentation, the level of experience, or both of these factors.


Socio-Tech: What is It (and Why Should We Care) BIB 129-130
  Dick Pew; James C. Taylor; Susan Dray; Karen Assunto; Walter Baker

Drawing and Animation Systems

Animated Graphical Interfaces Using Temporal Constraints BIBA 131-136
  Robert A. Duisberg
Algorithm animation has an acknowledged and growing role in computer aided algorithm design, as well as in documentation and technology transfer, since the medium of interactive graphics is a broader, richer channel than text by which to communicate information. Since an animation constitutes an interface between a user and an algorithm, a kit that facilitates the construction of such has all the basic elements of a User Interface Management System. Constraint languages are useful in constructing such an interface construction kit, whereby consistency is maintained among the elements of a structure and among those of a view of that structure presented to the user. But constraints specify only static state in current implementations. To specify the evolution of structures and views by discrete time increments, as in animation, requires an extension to current constraint languages to allow expression of specifications of temporal behavior.
Defining Constraints Graphically BIBA 137-143
  Alan Borning
A number of constraint-oriented, interactive graphical systems have been constructed. A typical problem in such systems is that, to define a new kind of constraint, the user must leave the graphical domain and write code in the underlying implementation language. This makes it difficult for less experienced users to add new kinds of constraints. As a step toward solving this problem, the system described here allows the graphical definition of constraints. An interface has been built in which a user can conveniently construct a new kind of object, annotating it with the relations that it must obey.
A User Interface for Multiple-Process, Turnkey Systems Targeted for the Novice User BIBA 144-148
  Brian S. Kimerer
Multi-processing in a turnkey system provides capabilities which are not available in a single-process system. Metagraphics has developed a menu-driven user interface for its M-4200 product which allows the operator to control the multiple process system with just a single-button mouse. Through the use of stacked menus and soft buttons, the interface is optimized to shorten the learning time for beginners and people unaccustomed to operating CAD/CAM equipment. The user interface software completely handles the synchronization of the concurrent processes for the operator as well as presenting the state of the system in an attractive and easily understood format.

Case Studies

Learning Modes and Subsequent Use of Computer-Mediated Communication Systems BIBA 149-155
  Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Elaine B. Kerr
New users of four computer-mediated communication systems were asked to indicate which of a variety of learning modes they had used, including reading written manuals, using online automated help facilities, personal or group lessons from a human teacher, and trial-and-error learning. Despite often elaborate documentation and online help, the most frequent mode actually selected by users is trial and error learning. Rather than bemoaning the fact that users do not make proper use of written documentation, the implication for system implementation is that it should be designed to effectively encourage and support trial-and-error learning. An experimental intervention offering a guided learning activity supports this conclusion.
Voice Messaging Enhancing the User Interface Based on Field Performance BIBA 156-161
  Arlene F. Aucella; Susan F. Ehrlich
Computer-based voice messaging systems are used to send and receive confidential messages via touch-tone telephones. Auditory prompts guide users through a series of menus, listing options as users proceed through their sessions. This report describes how a voice messaging system was enhanced and redesigned based on thinking aloud protocols, customer site interviews, and usage statistics that describe summary patterns of behavior. The goal of the human factors effort was to optimize system use. The evaluation of the length, wording and phrasing of auditory prompts as well as ease-of-accessibility provided by the menu structure led to specific enhancements and redesign. Feedback also helped define an audio HELP/OTHER OPTIONS system that (1) provided context sensitive assistance and (2) documented infrequently used options that enabled streamlining of routine transactions.
Integrated Software Usage in the Professional Work Environment: Evidence from Questionnaires and Interviews BIBA 162-167
  Jakob Nielsen; Robert L. Mack; Keith H. Bergendorff; Nancy L. Grischkowsky
In a field study of use of integrated business software by business professionals, we found several characteristics of the real-world situation leading to the under-utilization of integrated software and being of importance for its human factors. Professionals work in a heterogeneous software environment filled with practical problems, they follow "satisficing" strategies of sub-optimal usage, and they have problems migrating to more advanced uses. Current levels of software integration do not always adequately or easily support the "task integration" requirements of real tasks such as handling many small things.


Analytical Performance Models (Over the Next Five Years) BIBA 168-170
  Dennis Wixon; John M. Carroll; Thomas P. Moran; Richard Pew
Subtitles: Science is Soft at the Frontier (Carroll) The Role of Performance Models in User Interface Design (Moran) Analytical Performance Models (Pew) Models as Engineering Tools (Wixon)

Program Debugging

Debugging by Skilled and Novice Programmers BIBA 171-174
  Leo Gugerty; Gary M. Olson
Two experiments investigated expert-novice differences in debugging computer programs. Debugging was done on programs provided to the subject, and were run on a microcomputer. The programs were in LOGO in Exp. 1 and Pascal in Exp. 2. Experts debugged more quickly and accurately, largely because they generated high quality hypotheses on the basis of less study of the code than novices. Further, novices frequently added bugs to the program during the course of trying to find the original one. At least for these simple programs, experts superior debugging performance seemed to be due primarily to their superior ability to comprehend the program.
Does Programming Language Affect the Type of Conceptual Bugs in Beginners' Programs? A Comparison of FPL and Pascal BIBA 175-182
  Nancy Cunniff; Robert P. Taylor; John B. Black
The effect of the graphical programming language FPL (First Programming Language) on the occurrence of conceptual bugs in programs written by novices was studied. The type and location for each bug, and the frequency for each type were all recorded following procedures developed in an earlier Yale University study of novice Pascal programming. The findings were compared with those of the earlier study, and suggest that FPL may help beginning programmers avoid some common conceptual errors in their programming.
Alternatives to Construct-Based Programming Misconceptions BIBA 183-191
  James C. Spohrer; Elliot Soloway
In this paper, we investigate whether or not most novice programming bugs arise because students have misconceptions about the semantics of particular language constructs. Three high frequency bugs are examined in detail -- one that clearly arises from a construct-based misconception, one that does not, and one that is less cut and dry. Based on our empirical study of 101 bug types from three programming problems, we will argue that most bugs are not due to misconceptions about the semantics of language constructs.

Voice Enhancement

Designing a Quality Voice: An Analysis of Listeners' Reactions to Synthetic Voices BIBA 192-197
  Mary Beth Rosson; A. J. Cecala
Eight subjects listened to a set of synthetic voices reflecting a crossing of four voice qualities: head size, pitch, richness and smoothness. The listeners evaluated the voices on sixteen perceptual scales, and judged each voice's appropriateness for twenty voice-output scenarios. Factor analysis of the perceptual ratings recovered two factors, fullness and clarity. A similar analysis of the appropriateness ratings revealed three situational factors, information, entertainment and feedback. Further analyses indicated that the voice qualities associated with the three situational factors were quite different, and suggest ways to optimize voices used for a particular purpose.
Speech Recognition Enhancement by Lip-Information BIBA 198-204
  Shogo Nishida
Though technology in speech recognition has progressed recently, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) is vulnerable to noise. Lip-information is thought to be useful for speech recognition in noisy situations, such as in a factory or in a car.
   This paper describes speech recognition enhancement by lip-information. Two types of usage are dealt with. One is the detection of start and stop of speech from lip-information. This is the simplest usage of lip-information. The other is lip-pattern recognition, and it is used for speech recognition together with sound information. The algorithms for both usages are proposed, and the experimental system shows they work well. The algorithms proposed here are composed of simple image-processing. Future progress in image-processing will make it possible to realize them in real-time.
Comparison of Elderly and Younger Users on Keyboard and Voice Input Computer-Based Composition Tasks BIBA 205-211
  Virginia Z. Ogozalek; John Van Praag
An experiment was run in which elderly and younger people used a keyboard editor and a simulated listening typewriter to compose letters. Performance was measured and participants rated the systems they used.
   Our general conclusions were as follows:
  • - There are no major differences in performance between elderly computer users
       and their younger counterparts in carrying out a computer-based composition
  • - Elders appear to be more enthusiastic users of computer systems than are
       younger people. This is shown by preference ratings, behavioral
       observations, and post-experimental debriefings.
  • - Voice input does not improve performance on composition tasks, but it is
       greatly preferred over the traditional keyboard input method.
  • Panel

    Usability Testing in the Real World BIB 212-215
      Carol Bergfeld Mills; Kevin F. Bury; Paul Reed; Teresa L. Roberts; Bruce Tognazzini; Anna Wichansky; John Gould

    Interface Management and Prototyping

    Rapid Prototyping and System Development: Examination of an Interface Toolkit for Voice and Telephony Applications BIBA 216-220
      John T. Richards; Stephen J. Boies; John D. Gould
    This paper discusses a set of tools supporting the rapid development of voice and telephony applications. The tool allows interfaces to be rapidly prototyped, tested and installed without impacting the underlying system. Used directly by behavioral specialists, they have played a key roll in the building of two production systems. We review several essential features of this facility and then outline its role in the rapid development of a voice messaging system for the athletes and officials at the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles.
    The Trillium User Interface Design Environment BIBA 221-227
      D. Austin, Jr. Henderson
    Trillium is a computer-based environment for simulating and experimenting with interfaces for simple machines. For the past four years it has been used by Xerox designers for fast prototyping and testing of interfaces for copiers and printers. This paper defines the class of "functioning frame" interfaces which Trillium is used to design, discusses the major concerns that have driven the design of Trillium, and describes the Trillium mechanisms chosen to satisfy them.
    An Interactive Environment for Dialogue Development: Its Design, Use, and Evaluation; or, Is AIDE Useful? BIBA 228-234
      Deborah Hix; H. Rex Hartson
    The Author's Interactive Dialogue Environment (AIDE) of the Dialogue Management System is an integrated set of direct manipulation tools used by a dialogue author to design and implement human-computer interfaces without writing source code. This paper presents the conceptual dialogue transaction model upon which AIDE is based, describes AIDE, and illustrates how a dialogue author develops an interface using AIDE. A preliminary empirical evaluation of the use of AIDE versus the use of a programming language to implement an interface shows very encouraging results.

    Design Methods I

    The Elicitation of System Knowledge by Picture Probes BIBA 235-240
      Phil Barnard; Michael Wilson; Allan MacLean
    A technique is described in which a user's knowledge of a software package is elicited by means of a series of photographs depicting the system in a variety of states. The resultant verbal protocols were codified and scored in relation to the way in which the system actually worked. In the illustrative study described, the probes were administered twice after 5 and 10 hrs of system experience with an office product (VisiOn). The number of true claims elicited increased with experience but the number of false claims remained stable. The potential value of the technique and its outputs are discussed.
    User-Derived Impact Analysis as a Tool for Usability Engineering BIBA 241-246
      Michael Good; Thomas M. Spine; John Whiteside; Peter George
    A unified approach to improved usability can be identified in the works of Gilb (1981, 1984), Shackel (1984), Bennett (1984), Carroll and Rosson (1985), and Butler (1985). We term this approach "usability engineering," and seek to contribute to it by showing, via a product development case study, how user-derived estimates of the impact of design activities on engineering goals may be made.
    On Designing for Usability: An Application of Four Key Principles BIBA 247-252
      Thomas T. Hewett; Charles T. Meadow
    In a recent paper, Gould and Lewis (1983a) argued for the importance of four key principles in computer system design. These principles are: early focus on users, interactive design, empirical measurement, and iterative design. Gould and Lewis also express their belief that these principles are essential to successful design and refer to an example of their use (Gould and Lewis, 1983b). It is the purpose of this paper to report another example of how these principles played a major role and proved their worth in the design of a successful system.


    Human Computer Interaction in the Year 2000 BIBA 253-255
      John Thomas; John Seely Brown; William Buxton; Bill Curtis; Thomas Landauer; Thomas Malone; Ben Shneiderman
    Much of the work in the field of computer human interaction consists of finding out what is wrong with existing interfaces or which of several existing alternatives is better. Over the next few decades, the possibilities for computer human interaction will explode. This will be due to: 1) continued decrease in the costs of processing and memory, 2) new technologies being invented and existing technologies (e.g., handwriting recognition, speech synthesis) being extended, 3) new applications and 4) new ideas about how people can interact with computers.
       While changes along these lines are bound to occur, we need not take the view that investigators in human-computer interaction are to be passive observers of some uncontrolled and uncontrollable evolution. Indeed, we can help steer this process by visions of what the future of human computer interaction could and should be like.

    The Semantics of Interaction

    The Formal Specification of Adaptive User Interfaces Using Command Language Grammar BIBA 256-260
      Dermot P. Browne; Brian D. Sharratt; Michael A. Norman
    The design and implementation of adaptive systems as opposed to nonadaptive systems creates new demands on user interface designers. This paper discusses a few of these demands as encountered by the authors while utilising a formal notation for the design of an adaptive user interface to an electronic mail system. Recommendations for the extension of this formal notation are proposed and discussed.
    An Input-Output Model for Interactive Systems BIBA 261-273
      Mary Shaw
    Interactive user interfaces depend critically on underlying computing system facilities for input and output. However, most computing systems still have input-output facilities designed for batch processing. These facilities are not adequate for interfaces that rely on graphical output, interactive input, or software constructed with modern methodologies. This paper details the deficiencies of batch-style input-output for modern interactive systems, presents a new model for input-output that overcomes these deficiencies, and suggests software organizations to take advantage of the new model.

    Design Methods II

    Formatting Space-Related Displays to Optimize Expert and Nonexpert User Performance BIBA 274-280
      Michael J. Burns; Dianne L. Warren; Marianne Rudisill
    NASA Space Station missions will include crewmembers who are highly experienced in the use of the Space Station computer system, as well as others who are novices. Previous research into novice-expert differences has strongly implied that user interface changes that aid novices tend to impair experts and vice versa. This experiment investigated the impact reformatting alphanumeric information on current Space Shuttle computer displays had on the speed and accuracy of experts and nonexperts in two different search tasks. Large improvements in speed and accuracy were found for nonexperts on the reformatted displays. Experts had fewer errors but no response time difference on reformatted displays. Differences in expert and nonexpert search strategies and implications for the design of computer displays are discussed.
    Designing in the Dark: Logics that Compete with the User BIBA 281-284
      Jonathan Grudin
    Skills developed by software user interface designers to solve problems in communication, management, implementation, and other areas may influence design decisions in the absence of sufficient knowledge of user populations. Given today's rapid changes in both "faces" to the software interface -- user populations and software functionality -- the first pass at a design may be made without sufficient understanding of the relevant goals and behaviors of the eventual users. Without this information, designers are less able to grasp "user logic", and may rely on more familiar "logics" that are useful in other problem-solving arenas. Understanding how these approaches can affect a design may help us recognize them across a wide range of contexts and enable us to focus the human factors contribution to the design evolution process.
    A Formal Interface Design Methodology Based on User Knowledge BIBA 285-290
      James E. McDonald; Donald W. Dearholt; Kenneth R. Paap; Roger W. Schvaneveldt
    In this paper we propose a formal interface design methodology based on user knowledge. The general methodology consists of 1) obtaining distance estimates for pairs of system units (objects, actions, concepts), 2) transforming the distance estimates using scaling techniques (e.g., Pathfinder network analysis), and 3) organizing the system interface based on the scaling solution. Thus, the organization of the system is based on the cognitive models of users rather than the intuitions of designers. As an example, we discuss the application of our methodology to the design of a network-based indexing aid for the UNIX on-line documentation system (MAN).


    Human Interface Design and the Handicapped User BIB 291-297
      William Buxton; Lawrence Scadden; Richard Foulds; Fraser Shein; Michael J. Rosen; Gregg Vanderheiden

    Knowledge-Based Interfaces

    The Memory Extender Personal Filing System BIBA 298-305
      William P. Jones
    The benefits of electronic information storage are enormous and largely unrealized. As its cost continues to decline, the number of files in the average user's personal database may increase substantially. How is a user to keep track of several thousand, perhaps several hundred thousand, files? The Memory Extender (ME) system improves the user interface to a personal database by actively modeling the user's own memory for files and for the context in which these files are used. Files are multiply indexed through a network of variably weighted term links. Context is similarly represented and is used to minimize the user input necessary to disambiguate a file. Files are retrieved from the context through a spreading-activation-like process. The system aims towards an ideal in which the computer provides a natural extension to the user's own memory.
    A Model of Mental Model Construction BIBA 306-313
      Clayton Lewis
    Learning to control a computer system from limited experience with it seems to require constructing a mental model adequate to indicate the causal connections between user actions, system responses, and user goals. While many kinds of knowledge could be used in building such a model, a small number of simple, low-level heuristics is adequate to interpret some common computer interaction patterns. Designing interactions so that they fall within the scope of these heuristics may lead to easier mastery by learners.
    Intelligent Interfaces: User Models and Planners BIBA 314-320
      Lisa Quinn; Daniel M. Russell
    To meet the challenge of constructing interfaces for increasingly complex multifunctional products, designers will be attracted by the promise offered by "intelligent" systems. However, the value of such sophisticated systems must be measured in terms of the quality of their user's models. One such intelligent interface -- an Expert Help System -- has been designed, implemented, and evaluated. We argue that the operability problems noted in the users' interactions with this system are attributable to lack of a strong user model in the system interface. Such a model plays a critical role in determining the effectiveness of the system's ability to monitor the user's planning activities. We discuss the requirements of a strong user model and provide an example of how such a model might be integrated into a planner-based intelligent interface.

    Haptic Techniques

    A Study in Two-Handed Input BIBAK 321-326
      William Buxton; Brad A. Myers
    Two experiments were run to investigate two-handed input. The experimental tasks were representative of those found in CAD and office information systems.
       Experiment one involved the performance of a compound selection/positioning task. The two sub-tasks were performed by different hands using separate transducers. Without prompting, novice subjects adopted strategies that involved performing the two sub-tasks simultaneously. We interpret this as a demonstration that, in the appropriate context, users are capable of simultaneously providing continuous data from two hands without significant overhead. The results also show that the speed of performing the task was strongly correlated to the degree of parallelism employed.
       Experiment two involved the performance of a compound navigation/selection task. It compared a one-handed versus two-handed method for finding and selecting words in a document. The two-handed method significantly outperformed the commonly used one-handed method by a number of measures. Unlike experiment one, only two subjects adopted strategies that used both hands simultaneously. The benefits of the two-handed technique, therefore, are interpreted as being due to efficiency of hand motion. However, the two subjects who did use parallel strategies had the two fastest times of all subjects.
    Keywords: Input/output and data communications, Input/output devices, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Computer graphics, Hardware architectures, Input devices, Computer graphics, Methodologies and techniques, Interaction techniques, Ergonomics, Two-handed input, Parallel input, Compound tasks, Experimentation, Human factors
    Autocompletion in Full Text Transaction Entry: A Method for Humanized Input BIBA 327-332
      Matti Jakobsson
    A method for interactive validation of transaction data with autocompletion is introduced and analyzed in a library information system for periodical publications. The system makes it possible to identify the periodicals by using the full title thus making a separate coding phase unnecessary. Only the characters that are needed to distinguish the title from other ones have to be typed. In our library this is in the average of 4.3 characters. We have noticed that it is faster to use the autocompletion system compared with the use of short codes and a code catalogue. The autocompletion feature causes more errors at least for the novices because the work differs from normal typing. The errors are, however, very easy to correct with the assistance of the system.
    Of Moles and Men: The Design of Foot Controls for Workstations BIBA 333-339
      Glenn Pearson; Mark Weiser
    Workstations require use of the hands both for text entry and for cursor-positioning or menu-selection. The physical arrangement does not allow these two tasks to be done concurrently. To remove this restriction, various alternative input devices have been investigated. This work focuses on the class of foot-operated computer input devices, called moles here. Appropriate topologies for foot movement are identified, and several designs for realising them are discussed.


    Managing the Design of User-Computer Interfaces BIB 340-342
      James Foley; Stephen Boies; William Wood; William Zimmer

    Plenary Address

    Seven Plus or Minus Two Central Issues in Human-Computer Interaction BIBA 343-349
      Ben Shneiderman
    This paper offers seven issues and specific challenges for researchers and developers of human-computer interaction. These issues are: interaction styles, input techniques, output organization, response time, error handling, individual differences, explanatory and predictive theories.

    Doctoral Consortium

    Summary of the CHI'86 Doctoral Consortium BIB 350-354
      Robert C. Williges