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UIST Tables of Contents: 888990919293949596979899000102030405060708

Proceedings of the 1998 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology

Fullname:Proceedings of the 1998 ACM Symposium on User Interface and Software Technology
Location:San Francisco, CA
Dates:1998-Nov-01 to 1998-Nov-04
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-034-1; ACM Order Number 429982; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: UIST98
  1. Working the Web
  2. Visualization
  3. More than a Mouse
  4. Panel
  5. Blurring the Physical and Virtual
  6. Zoomable User Interfaces
  7. Demonstrations
  8. Enabling Architectures
  9. Information Rich Worlds
  10. Structuring Pen Input
  11. Fast Pen Input

Working the Web

Scratchpad: Mechanisms for Better Navigation in Directed Web Searching BIBAKPDF 1-8
  Dale Newfield; Bhupinder Singh Sethi; Kathy Ryall
Current navigation mechanisms for the World Wide Web promote a depth-first search for information on pages in hyperspace. This search strategy frequently results in the unintentional and often undesirable behavior of "web surfing" -- a user starts off in search of some information, but is side-tracked by tangential links. We propose a set of mechanisms based on breadth-first traversal that are better suited for directed searching. We have implemented our ideas as a scratchpad by augmenting an existing browser. Such a system makes web navigation both faster and easier.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Information navigation, Hypertext navigation, Search technique, User interface
Internet Scrapbook: Automating Web Browsing Tasks by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 9-18
  Atsushi Sugiura; Yoshiyuki Koseki
This paper describes a programming-by-demonstration system, called Internet Scrapbook, which allows users with little programming skill to automate repetitive browsing tasks. With the system, the user can create a personal page by clipping only the necessary portions from multiple Web pages. Once the personal page is created, the system updates it on behalf of the user by extracting the specified parts from the latest Web pages. The data extraction method in Scrapbook is based on the regularity in modifications of Web pages, i.e. that headings and positions of articles are rarely changed even though the articles themselves are modified. In the experiments to examine the accuracy of the data extraction algorithm, 96 percent of user-specified portions were correctly extracted.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Web browsing, Programming by demonstration, Programming by example, End-user programming


Constant Density Visualizations of Non-Uniform Distributions of Data BIBAKPDF 19-28
  Allison Woodruff; James Landay; Michael Stonebraker
The cartographic Principle of Constant Information Density suggests that the amount of information in an interactive visualization should remain constant as the user pans and zooms. In previous work, we presented a system, VIDA (Visual Information Density Adjuster), which helps users manually construct applications in which overall display density remains constant. In the context of semantic zoom systems, this approach ensures uniformity in the z dimension, but does not extend naturally to ensuring uniformity in the x and y dimensions.
   In this paper, we present a new approach that automatically creates displays that are uniform in the x, y, and z dimensions. In the new system, users express constraints about visual representations that should appear in the display. The system applies these constraints to subdivisions of the display such that each subdivision meets a target density value.
   We have implemented our technique in the DataSplash/VIDA database visualization environment. We describe our algorithm, implementation, and the advantages and disadvantages of our approach.
Keywords: Clutter, Constant information density, Multiscale interfaces, Non-uniform distributions, Visualization
Interactive Visualization of Serial Periodic Data BIBAKPDF 29-38
  John V. Carlis; Joseph A. Konstan
Serial periodic data exhibit both serial and periodic properties. For example, time continues forward serially, but weeks, months, and years are periods that recur. While there are extensive visualization techniques for exploring serial data, and a few for exploring periodic data, no existing technique simultaneously displays serial and periodic attributes of a data set. We introduce a spiral visualization technique, which displays data along a spiral to highlight serial attributes along the spiral axis and periodic ones along the radii. We show several applications of the spiral visualization to data exploration tasks, present our implementation, discuss the capacity for data analysis, and present findings of our informal study with users in data-rich scientific domains.
Keywords: Information visualization, Spiral, Data visualization, Interactive data exploration, Serial periodic data
Popup Vernier: A Tool for Sub-Pixel-Pitch Dragging with Smooth Mode Transition BIBAKPDF 39-48
  Yuji Ayatsuka; Jun Rekimoto; Satoshi Matsuoka
Dragging is one of the most useful and popular techniques in direct manipulation graphical user interfaces. However, dragging has inherent restrictions caused by pixel resolution of a display. Although in some situations the restriction could be negligible, certain kinds of applications, e.g., real world applications where the range of adjustable parameters vastly exceed the screen resolution, require sub-pixel-pitch dragging. We propose a sub-pixel-pitch dragging tool, popup vernier, plus a methodology to transfer smoothly into 'vernier mode' during dragging. A popup vernier consists of locally zoomed grids and vernier scales displayed around them. Verniers provide intuitive manipulation and feedback of fine grain dragging, in that pixel-pitch movements of the grids represent sub-pixel-pitch movements of a dragged object, and the vernier scales show the object's position at a sub-pixel accuracy. The effectiveness of our technique is verified with a proposed evaluation measure that captures the smoothness of transition from standard mode to vernier mode, based on the Fitts' law.
Keywords: Fine grain dragging, Vernier, Smoothness, Fitts' law, Multiple modes

More than a Mouse

Interaction and Modeling Techniques for Desktop Two-Handed Input BIBAKPDF 49-58
  Ken Hinckley; Mary Czerwinski; Mike Sinclair
We describe input devices and two-handed interaction techniques to support map navigation tasks. We discuss several design variations and user testing of two-handed navigation techniques, including puck and stylus input on a Wacom tablet, as well as a novel design incorporating a touchpad (for the nonpreferred hand) and a mouse (for the preferred hand). To support the latter technique, we introduce a new input device, the TouchMouse, which is a standard mouse augmented with a pair of one-bit touch sensors, one for the palm and one for the index finger. Finally, we propose several enhancements to Buxton's three-state model of graphical input and extend this model to encompass two-handed input transactions as well.
Keywords: Two-handed input, Three-state model, Input devices, Tablets, Touchpads, TouchMouse, Map navigation
An Insidious Haptic Invasion: Adding Force Feedback to the X Desktop BIBAKPDF 59-64
  Timothy Miller; Robert Zeleznik
This paper describes preliminary work in a project to add force feedback to user interface elements of the X Window System in an attempt to add true "feel" to the window system's "look and feel". Additions include adding ridges around icons and menu items to aid interaction, alignment guides for moving windows, and other enhancements to window manipulation. The motivation for this system is the observation that people naturally have many skills for and intuitions about a very rich environment of interaction forces in the non-computer world; however, these skills are largely unused in computer applications. We expect that haptic modifications to conventional graphical user interfaces, such as those we present, can lead to gains in performance, intuition, learnability, and enjoyment of the interface. This paper describes details of the implementation of the haptic window system elements, in addition to higher-level haptic design principles and informal observations of users of the system.
Keywords: Force feedback, Haptic user interface, Graphical user interface
Don't Click, Paint! Using Toggle Maps to Manipulate Sets of Toggle Switches BIBAKPDF 65-66
  Patrick Baudisch
A toggle map is a set of toggle switches that allows the manipulation of several switches with a single mouse drag interaction. Because toggle switches are functionally equivalent to black and white pixels, interaction techniques from paint programs can be adopted for this task. A controlled experiment shows that toggle maps can speed up interfaces containing many toggle switches, such as the interactive definition of user profiles. Toggle maps can also be applied to segmented continuous variables. As an example an efficient timer dialog is presented.
Keywords: Toggle map, Toggle switch, User interface, Selecting, Painting


Artists and Technologists Working Together BIBAKPDF 67-69
  Jon Meyer; Andrew Glassner; Scott Minneman; Michael Naimark; Loretta Staples
This panel explores the dialog and interplay between artists and technologists. In the process, the panelists aim to bring considerations of art and the artistic process to the attention of the technology-oriented UIST community. We invite readers to think about how your work relates to art. We encourage the research community to look for ways to integrate art and artists within their own programs, for example, by starting artist-in-residence activities, introducing courses on art and design into CS curricula, or inviting artists to participate in projects.
Keywords: Art and technology, Interdisciplinary teams, The Two Cultures

Blurring the Physical and Virtual

A User Interface using Fingerprint Recognition: Holding Commands and Data Objects on Fingers BIBAKPDF 71-79
  Atsushi Sugiura; Yoshiyuki Koseki
This paper describes a new user interface, called a fingerprint user interface (FUI), which employs fingerprint recognition. While the unique feature patterns of fingerprints have mainly been used for personal identification, the FUI is unique in that it uses not only the differences among fingerprint patterns of different persons, but also the differences among the ten fingers of a single person. In the FUI, the system identifies the finger that has operated (touched) an input device through pattern matching of fingerprints and it performs the task assigned to the identified finger. Since users are able to specify different tasks by using different fingers, they feel as if commands and data objects were actually held on their fingers.
Keywords: Fingerprint recognition, Multimodal user interfaces, Multi-computer user interfaces, Input devices
Informative Things: How to Attach Information to the Real World BIBAKPDF 81-88
  Rob Barrett; Paul P. Maglio
We describe a new method and implementation for managing information through the use of physical objects. In today's networked world, the trend is toward working in a global virtual environment. To transfer information, users are responsible for finding an appropriate storage location, naming the information, selecting the transport mechanism, and setting the access permissions. Much of the time, these burdens are needless and, in fact, stand in the way of productive use of the networked environment. In many circumstances, a physical floppy disk is the ideal medium for transferring information, as it eliminates these complications. Our Informative Things approach provides a "floppy-like" user interface that gives the impression of storing information on physical objects. In reality, our system stores information in the network, associating pointers to information with objects in the physical world. By hiding these details, we simplify information management. By linking the physical and virtual worlds, we leverage users' highly-developed ability to work in the real world.
Keywords: Physical user interface, Cooperative work, Networked information
The Programmable Hinge: Toward Computationally Enhanced Crafts BIBAKPDF 89-96
  Thomas Wrensch; Michael Eisenberg
Traditionally, the practitioners of home crafting and the practitioners of computing tend to occupy distinct, non-overlapping cultures. Those small, ubiquitous items of the crafting culture -- string, thumbtacks, screws, nails, and so forth -- thus tend to be viewed as inevitably "low-tech" objects. This paper describes our initial efforts toward integrating computational and crafting media by creating an instance of a computationally-enhanced craft item: a programmable hinge. We describe several prototype models of the hinge; outline a sample project in which the hinge might be employed; and discuss a variety of fundamental issues that affect the design of computationally-enhanced craft items generally.
Keywords: Computationally-enhanced crafts, Programmable hinge, Integration of physical and computational media, Crafts

Zoomable User Interfaces

Critical Zones in Desert Fog: Aids to Multiscale Navigation BIBAKPDF 97-106
  Susanne Jul; George W. Furnas
In this paper, we introduce the problem of "desert fog," a condition wherein a view of an information world contains no information on which to base navigational decisions. We present a set of view-based navigational aids that allow navigators to find their way through desert fog in multiscale electronic worlds. Prototypes of these aids have been implemented in the Landmarking and ZTracker systems. We introduce the concept of critical zone analysis, a method of grouping objects according to their visibility in views of the information world rather than their spatial layout. This concept was derived from a formal analysis of desert fog using view-navigation theory. Our analysis informally extends view-navigation theory to accommodate spatial multiscale worlds and is detailed in the paper.
Keywords: Navigation, Browsing, Information navigation, Multiscale, Residue, View-navigation, View-based navigational aids, Critical zones, Critical zone analysis, Pad++, Space-scale diagrams, ZTracker
MuSE: A Multiscale Editor BIBAKPDF 107-116
  George W. Furnas; Xiaolong Zhang
Information worlds are getting ever more vast. We need, not only better environments for dealing with this vast scale, but better tools for authoring information in those environments. This paper describes a new type of tool for authoring objects in infinite pan/zoom (so-called "multi-scale") environments, like PAD++. Called the MultiScale Editor (MuSE) it provides a direct way to manipulate objects in scale, simplifying important operations for authoring with large, multiscale information worlds.
Keywords: Zoom views, Multiscale interfaces, Design rationale, Information visualization, Graphic editor, Space scale diagram, Authoring, ZUI


A Multiple Timeline Editor for Developing Multi-Threaded Animated Interfaces BIBAKPDF 117-118
  David Wolber
This paper describes a new approach for the static viewing and editing of an animated interface that has been created with a Programming By Demonstration system. The approach is based on an event-based, multiple-timeline view that extends the traditional single timeline view found in systems such as Director. The result is a reduction in the amount of frame branching required to build an interface, and an ability to display some multi-threaded interfaces not in the range of the single timeline approach.
Keywords: Animation, Programming by demonstration, End-user programming, UIMS, UIDS, Authoring systems
A Framework for Sharing Handwritten Notes BIBAKPDF 119-120
  Richard C. Davis; James Lin; Jason A. Brotherton; James A. Landay; Morgan N. Price; Bill N. Schilit
NotePals is an ink-based, collaborative note taking application that runs on personal digital assistants (PDAs). Meeting participants write notes in their own handwriting on a PDA. These notes are shared with other participants by synchronizing later with a shared note repository that can be viewed using a desktop-based web browser. NotePals is distinguished by its lightweight process, interface, and hardware. This demonstration illustrates the design of two different NotePals clients and our web-based note browser.
Keywords: PDA, Pen-based user interface, CSCW, Informal user interfaces, Gestures, Digital ink, Mobile computing
PadPrints: Graphical Multiscale Web Histories BIBAKPDF 121-122
  Ron R. Hightower; Laura T. Ring; Jonathan I. Helfman; Benjamin B. Bederson; James D. Hollan
We have implemented a browser companion called PadPrints that dynamically builds a graphical history-map of visited web pages. PadPrints relies on Pad++, a zooming user interface (ZUI) development substrate, to display the history-map. PadPrints functions in conjunction with a traditional web browser but without requiring any browser modifications.
Keywords: World Wide Web (WWW), Web navigation, Web browser, Pad++, Zooming user interface (ZUI), Hypertext, Multiscale interfaces, Information visualization

Enabling Architectures

A Negotiation Architecture for Fluid Documents BIBAKPDF 123-132
  Bay-Wei Chang; Jock D. Mackinlay; Polle T. Zellweger; Takeo Igarashi
The information presented in a document often consists of primary content as well as supporting material such as explanatory notes, detailed derivations, illustrations, and the like. We introduce a class of user interface techniques for fluid documents that supports the reader's shift to supporting material while maintaining the context of the primary material. Our approach initially minimizes the intrusion of supporting material by presenting it as a small visual cue near the annotated primary material. When the user expresses interest in the annotation, it expands smoothly to a readable size. At the same time, the primary material makes space for the expanded annotation. The expanded supporting material must be given space to occupy, and it must be made salient with respect to the surrounding primary material. These two aspects, space and salience, are subject to a negotiation between the primary and supporting material. This paper presents the components of our fluid document techniques and describes the negotiation architecture for ensuring that the presentations of both primary and supporting material are honored.
Keywords: Fluid user interfaces, Fluid documents, Negotiation architecture, Scaling, Zooming, Focus+context, Annotation
Supporting Worker Independence in Collaboration Transparency BIBAKPDF 133-142
  James "Bo" Begole; Mary Beth Rosson; Clifford A. Shaffer
Conventional collaboration-transparency systems, which provide real-time shared use of legacy single-user applications, are inefficient in their use of network resources and lack support for key groupware principles: concurrent work, relaxed WYSIWIS, and group awareness. We present an alternative implementation approach to collaboration transparency that provides many features previously seen only in collaboration-aware applications. Our approach is based on an object-oriented replicated architecture where selected single-user interface objects are dynamically replaced by multi-user extensions. The replacement occurs at run-time and is transparent to the single-user application and its developers. As an instance of this approach, we describe its incorporation into a new Java-based collaboration-transparency system for serializable, Swing-based Java applications, called Flexible JAMM (Java Applets Made Multiuser).
   We conducted an empirical study to evaluate the effectiveness of Flexible JAMM versus a representative conventional collaboration-transparency system, Microsoft NetMeeting. Completion times were significantly faster in a loosely-coupled task using Flexible JAMM, and were not adversely affected in a tightly-coupled task, which had been a concern. Accuracy was unaffected by the system used. Participants greatly preferred Flexible JAMM.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Groupware, Collaboration transparency, Usability, Java
Graphical Query Specification and Dynamic Result Previews for a Digital Library BIBAKPDF 143-151
  Steve Jones
Textual query languages based on Boolean logic are common amongst the search facilities of on-line information repositories. However, there is evidence to suggest that the syntactic and semantic demands of such languages lead to user errors and adversely affect the time that it takes users to form queries. Additionally, users are faced with user interfaces to these repositories which are unresponsive and uninformative, and consequently fail to support effective query refinement. We suggest that graphical query languages, particularly Venn-like diagrams, provide a natural medium for Boolean query specification which overcomes the problems of textual query languages. Also, dynamic result previews can be seamlessly integrated with graphical query specification to increase the effectiveness of query refinements. We describe VQuery, a query interface to the New Zealand Digital Library which exploits querying by Venn diagrams and integrated query result previews.
Keywords: Dynamic queries, Query previews, Query by diagram

Information Rich Worlds

Data Mountain: Using Spatial Memory for Document Management BIBAKPDF 153-162
  George Robertson; Mary Czerwinski; Kevin Larson; Daniel C. Robbins; David Thiel; Maarten van Dantzich
Effective management of documents on computers has been a central user interface problem for many years. One common approach involves using 2D spatial layouts of icons representing the documents, particularly for information workspace tasks. This approach takes advantage of human 2D spatial cognition. More recently, several 3D spatial layouts have engaged 3D spatial cognition capabilities. Some have attempted to use spatial memory in 3D virtual environments. However, there has been no proof to date that spatial memory works the same way in 3D virtual environments as it does in the real world. We describe a new technique for document management called the Data Mountain, which allows users to place documents at arbitrary positions on an inclined plane in a 3D desktop virtual environment using a simple 2D interaction technique. We discuss how the design evolved in response to user feedback. We also describe a user study that shows that the Data Mountain does take advantage of spatial memory. Our study shows that the Data Mountain has statistically reliable advantages over the Microsoft Internet Explorer Favorites mechanism for managing documents of interest in an information workspace.
Keywords: 3D user interfaces, Desktop VR, Information visualization, Spatial cognition, Spatial memory, Document management
Audio Hallway: A Virtual Acoustic Environment for Browsing BIBAKPDF 163-170
  Chris Schmandt
This paper describes the Audio Hallway, a virtual acoustic environment for browsing collections of related audio files. The user travels up and down the Hallway by head motion, passing "rooms" alternately on the left and right sides. Emanating from each room is an auditory collage of "braided audio" which acoustically indicates the contents of the room. Each room represents a broadcast radio news story, and the contents are a collection of individual "sound bites" or actualities related to that story. Upon entering a room, the individual sounds comprising that story are arrayed spatially in front of the listener, with auditory focus controlled by head rotation. The main design challenge for the Audio Hallway is adequately controlling the auditory interface to position sounds so that spatial memory can facilitate navigation and recall in the absence of visual cues.
Keywords: Digitized speech, Virtual environments, Spatial audio, Auditory user interface
Of Vampire Mirrors and Privacy Lamps: Privacy Management in Multi-User Augmented Environments BIBAKPDF 171-172
  Andreas Butz; Clifford Beshers; Steven Feiner
We consider the problem of privacy in a 3D multi-user collaborative environment. We assume that information objects are represented by visual icons, and can either be public or private, and that users need effective methods for viewing and manipulating that state. We suggest two methods, which we call vampire mirrors and privacy lamps, that are unobtrusive, simple, and natural.
Keywords: Augmented reality, Virtual reality, Privacy, Collaborative work
Path Drawing for 3D Walkthrough BIBAKPDF 173-174
  Takeo Igarashi; Rieko Kadobayashi; Kenji Mase; Hidehiko Tanaka
This paper presents an interaction technique for walkthrough in virtual 3D spaces, where the user draws the intended path directly on the scene, and the avatar automatically moves along the path. The system calculates the path by projecting the stroke drawn on the screen to the walking surface in the 3D world. Using this technique, the user can specify not only the goal position, but also the route to take and the camera direction at the goal with a single stroke. A prototype system is tested using a display-integrated tablet, and experimental results suggest that the technique can enhance existing walkthrough techniques.
Keywords: Interaction techniques, Virtual spaces, 3D walkthrough, Pen computing, User study

Structuring Pen Input

Spatial Interpretation of Domain Objects Integrated into a Freeform Electronic Whiteboard BIBAKPDF 175-184
  Thomas P. Moran; William van Melle; Patrick Chiu
Our goal is to provide tools to support working meetings on an electronic whiteboard, called Tivoli. This paper describes how we have integrated structured domain objects, which represent the subject matter of meetings, into the freeform whiteboard environment. Domain objects can be tailored to produce meeting tools that are finely tuned to meeting practices. We describe the language for defining domain objects and show examples of meeting tools that have been built with the language. We show that the system can interpret the spatial relationships of domain objects on the whiteboard to encode the meanings of the spatial arrangements, and we describe the computational mechanisms. We discuss some of the design principles for tailoring gestures for domain objects. Finally, we enumerate the techniques we have used to integrate the structured objects into the freeform whiteboard environment.
Keywords: Whiteboard metaphor, Pen-based systems, Freeform interaction, Implicit structure, Informal systems, Recognition-based systems, List structures, Meeting support tools, Gestural interfaces, User interface design, Tailorability, Customization
Automatic Construction of Intelligent Diagram Editors BIBAKPDF 185-194
  Sitt Sen Chok; Kim Marriott
The intelligent diagram is a recent metaphor for diagramming in which the underlying graphic editor parses the diagram as it is being constructed, performing error correction and collecting geometric constraints which capture the relationships between diagram components. During diagram manipulation a constraint solver uses these geometric constraints to maintain the diagram's semantics. We describe the Penguins system. This automates the development of graphical editors that support the intelligent diagram metaphor. It takes a grammatical specification of a particular diagram language and generates an editor that supports the creation, manipulation and parsing of diagrams in that visual language. Our empirical results show that the system can be used to generate specialized editors for a wide variety of diagram languages, ranging from state transition diagrams to mathematical equations, with real-time incremental parsing, error correction and direct manipulation.
Keywords: Intelligent diagram, Parsing, Constraint solver, Visual language, Pen-based computing
A Dynamic Grouping Technique for Ink and Audio Notes BIBAKPDF 195-202
  Patrick Chiu; Lynn Wilcox
In this paper, we describe a technique for dynamically grouping digital ink and audio to support user interaction in freeform note-taking systems. For ink, groups of strokes might correspond to words, lines, or paragraphs of handwritten text. For audio, groups might be a complete spoken phrase or a speaker turn in a conversation. Ink and audio grouping is important for editing operations such as deleting or moving chunks of ink and audio notes. The grouping technique is based on hierarchical agglomerative clustering. This clustering algorithm yields groups of ink or audio in a range of sizes, depending on the level in the hierarchy, and thus provides structure for simple interactive selection and rapid non-linear expansion of a selection. Ink and audio grouping is also important for marking portions of notes for subsequent browsing and retrieval. Integration of the ink and audio clusters provides a flexible way to browse the notes by selecting the ink cluster and playing the corresponding audio cluster.
Keywords: Ink, Audio, Note-taking, Grouping, Clustering multimedia, Marking, Informal systems, Freeform interaction, Implicit structure, Emergent structure

Fast Pen Input

The Music Notepad BIBAKPDF 203-210
  Andrew Forsberg; Mark Dieterich; Robert Zeleznik
We present a system for entering common music notation based on 2D gestural input. The key feature of the system is the look-and-feel of the interface which approximates sketching music with paper and pencil. A probability-based interpreter integrates sequences of gestural input to perform the most common notation and editing operations. In this paper, we present the user's model of the system, the components of the high-level recognition system, and a discussion of the evolution of the system including user feedback.
Keywords: User interface, Interaction, Music notation, Gestural input, Gesture recognition, Handwriting recognition, Direct displays
Integrating Pen Operations for Composition by Example BIBAKPDF 211-212
  Toshiyuki Masui
We propose a new pen-based text input method, which is an integration of software keyboards, handwriting recognition, and marking menus. With our method, a user selects a word from a list of candidate words filtered from a dictionary by specifying spelling, pronunciation, or the shape of its characters. Users can easily switch between using a software keyboard and using handwriting recognition systems, by tapping or writing strokes in the same area. Users can also show a menu of candidate words around the pen by stopping pen movement during operation.
Keywords: Pen input, Handwriting recognition, POBox, Composition by example, PBE, PBD, Marking menu
Cirrin: A Word-Level Unistroke Keyboard for Pen Input BIBAKPDF 213-214
  Jennifer Mankoff; Gregory D. Abowd
We present a new system, called Cirrin, for pen input of ASCII characters using word-level unistrokes. Our system addresses the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of pen-based text entry by substituting precision on the part of the user for ease of recognition on the part of the computer. Cirrin supports ease of recognition by the computer combined with natural, script-like input. This paper discusses the design space of word-level, unistroke input, focusing on the choices made in the circular model of Cirrin that is currently in daily use by the first author.
Keywords: Pen-based text entry, Unistroke gestures
Quikwriting: Continuous Stylus-Based Text Entry BIBAKPDF 215-216
  Ken Perlin
We present a "heads-up" shorthand for entering text on a stylus-based computer very rapidly. The innovations are that (i) the stylus need never be lifted from the surface, and that (ii) the user need never stop moving the stylus. Continuous multi-word text of arbitrary length can be written fluidly, even as a single continuous gesture if desired.
Keywords: Pen-based computers, Text entry