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UBICOMP Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213-113-214-114-215

Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing

Fullname:Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing
Editors:Gaetano Borriello; Lars Erik Holmquist
Location:Göteborg, Sweden
Dates:2002-Sep-29 to 2002-Oct-01
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2498
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/3-540-45809-3 hcibib: UBICOMP02; ISBN: 978-3-540-44267-7 (print), 978-3-540-45809-8 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Mobile and Context-Aware Systems
  2. User Studies and Design
  3. Pereceptual Interfaces and Responsive Environments
  4. Sharing and Accessing Information -- Public and Private
  5. Location, Location, Location
  6. Sensors and Applications

Mobile and Context-Aware Systems

Context-Aware Computing: A Test Case BIBAFull-Text 1-15
  Jenna Burrell; Geri K. Gay; Kiyo Kubo; Nick Farina
Through an iterative design approach, we have proposed and evaluated ways of incorporating user-created information into context-aware systems. We implemented and tested a location-sensitive college campus tour guide called Campus Aware that allows users to annotate physical spaces with text notes. The goal was to provide visitors to the campus with a sense of the activities going on in the environment. Our evaluation of Campus Aware revealed that users provided unique content that was interesting and useful to others. They also served as moderators posting corrections to inaccurate notes and answering questions posed by other users. We discovered that our system easily became a distraction and was not able to detect location precisely enough to prevent user confusion. Our findings suggest new ways to make context-aware systems easier for users to comprehend and enjoy.
ComicDiary: Representing Individual Experiences in a Comics Style BIBAFull-Text 16-32
  Yasuyuki Sumi; Ryuuki Sakamoto; Keiko Nakao; Kenji Mase
This paper describes a system called ComicDiary that automatically creates a personal diary in a comics style. ComicDiary is built as a sub-system of our ongoing project (C-MAP) to develop a personal guidance system for exhibition touring at museums, trade shows, academic conferences, cities, and so on. The aim of the C-MAP system is to provide users with personalized guidance according to temporal and spatial situations as well as individual interests. ComicDiary is designed as a casual tool for augmenting an individual user's memory as well as for encouraging communities of users to exchange personal memories. This paper presents the preliminary results of deploying the ComicDiary system as a digital assistant service for conference participants.
Mobile Reality: A PDA-Based Multimodal Framework Synchronizing a Hybrid Tracking Solution with 3D Graphics and Location-Sensitive Speech Interaction BIBAFull-Text 33-47
  Stuart Goose; Heiko Wanning; Georg Schneider
A maintenance engineer who talks to pumps and pipes may not seem like the ideal person to entrust with keeping a factory running smoothly, but we hope that our Mobile Reality framework will enable such behavior in the future to be anything but suspicious! Described in this paper is how the Mobile Reality framework, running entirely on a Pocket PC, synchronizes a hybrid tracking solution to offer the user a seamless, location-dependent, mobile multimodal interface. The user interface juxtaposes a three-dimensional graphical view with a context-sensitive speech dialog centered upon objects located in the immediate vicinity of the mobile user. In addition, support for collaboration enables shared VRML browsing with annotation and a full-duplex voice channel.
Rememberer: A Tool for Capturing Museum Visits BIBAFull-Text 48-55
  Margaret Fleck; Marcos Frid; Tim Kindberg; Eamonn O'Brien-Strain; Rakhi Rajani; Mirjana Spasojevic
We report on our experiences implementing and testing Rememberer, a tool for recording visits to museums. We describe field trials at the Exploratorium, an interactive science museum in San Francisco. This challenging environment enabled us to verify that Rememberer interferes little with the social, hands-on nature of Exploratorium visits and has promise as a vehicle for post-visit reflection and communication.

User Studies and Design

Issues in Personalizing Shared Ubiquitous Devices BIBAFull-Text 56-72
  Jonathan Trevor; David M. Hubert; Bill N. Schilit
As ubiquitous computing becomes widespread, we are increasingly coming into contact with "shared" computer-enhanced devices, such as cars, televisions, and photocopiers. Our interest is in identifying general issues in personalizing such shared everyday devices. Our approach is to compare alternative personalization methods by deploying and using alternative personalization interfaces (portable and embedded) for three shared devices in our workplace (a presentation PC, a plasma display for brainstorming, and a multi-function copier). This paper presents the comparative prototyping methodology we employed, the experimental system we deployed, observations and feedback from use, and resulting issues in designing personalized shared ubiquitous devices.
User Study Techniques in the Design and Evaluation of a Ubicomp Environment BIBAFull-Text 73-90
  Sunny Consolvo; Larry Arnstein; B. Robert Franza
To be successful, ubicomp applications must be designed with their environment and users in mind and evaluated to confirm that they do not disrupt the users' natural workflow. Well-established techniques for understanding users and their environment exist, but are not specifically designed to assess how well the computing and physical task environments blend. We present strengths and weaknesses of several qualitative and quantitative user study techniques for ubicomp. We applied these techniques to the design and evaluation of a ubicomp application for cell biology laboratories (Labscape). We describe how these techniques helped identify design considerations that were crucial for Labscape's adoption and demonstrate their ability to measure how effectively applications blend into an environment.
Change Blind Information Display for Ubiquitous Computing Environments BIBAFull-Text 91-106
  Stephen S. Intille
Occupants of future computing environments with ubiquitous display devices may feel inundated with changing digital information. One solution is to create a reasoning module that accepts requests to display information from multiple applications and controls how the information is presented to minimize visual disruptions to users. Such a system might use information about what activity is occurring in the space to exploit a powerful phenomenon of the human visual system: change blindness.
Supporting Human Activities -- Exploring Activity-Centered Computing BIBAFull-Text 107-116
  Henrik Bærbak Christensen; Jakob E. Bardram
In this paper we explore an activity-centered computing paradigm that is aimed at supporting work processes that are radically different from the ones known from office work. Our main inspiration is healthcare work that is characterized by an extreme degree of mobility, many interruptions, ad-hoc collaboration based on shared material, and organized in terms of well-defined, recurring, work activities. We propose that this kind of work can be supported by a pervasive computing infrastructure together with domain-specific services, both designed from a perspective where work activities are first class objects. We also present an exploratory prototype design and first implementation and present some initial results from evaluations in a healthcare environment.

Pereceptual Interfaces and Responsive Environments

Perceptual Components for Context Aware Computing BIBAFull-Text 117-134
  James L. Crowley; Joëlle Coutaz; Gaeten Rey; Patrick Reignier
In this paper we propose a software architecture for observing and modeling human activity. This architecture is derived from an ontology for context awareness. We propose a model in which a user's context is described by a set of roles and relations. Different configurations of roles and relations correspond to situations within the context. The components of a context model are used to specify processes for observing activity. The ontology for context modeling is derived from both a bottom up system's perspective and a top-down users' perspective. As we define each element, we describe the corresponding components of a process-based software architecture. Using these components, a context is translated into a federation of observational processes. This model leads to an architecture in which reflexive elements are dynamically composed to form federations of processes for observing and predicting the situations that make up a context.
Face-Responsive Interfaces: From Direct Manipulation to Perceptive Presence BIBAFull-Text 135-151
  Trevor Darrell; Konrad Tollmar; Frank Bentley; Neal Checka; Loius-Phillipe Morency; Ali Rahimi; Alice Oh
Systems for tracking faces using computer vision have recently become practical for human-computer interface applications. We are developing prototype systems for face-responsive interaction, exploring three different interface paradigms: direct manipulation, gazemediated agent dialog, and perceptually-driven remote presence. We consider the characteristics of these types of interactions, and assess the performance of our system on each application. We have found that face pose tracking is a potentially accurate means of cursor control and selection, is seen by users as a natural way to guide agent dialog interaction, and can be used to create perceptually-driven presence artefacts which convey real-time awareness of a remote space.
Vision-Based Face Tracking System for Large Displays BIBAFull-Text 152-159
  Yasuto Nakanishi; Takashi Fujii; Kotaro Kiatjima; Yoichi Sato; Hideki Koike
In this paper, we present a stereo-based face tracking system which can track the 3D position and orientation of a user in real-time, and the system's application for interaction with a large display. Our tracking system incorporates dynamic update of template images for tracking facial features so that the system can successfully track a user's face for a large angle of rotation. Another advantage of our tracking system is that it does not require a user to manually initialize the tracking process, which is critical for natural and intuitive interaction. Based on our face tracking system, we have implemented several prototype applications which change information shown on a large display adaptively according to the location looked at by a user.
The FindIT Flashlight: Responsive Tagging Based on Optically Triggered Microprocessor Wakeup BIBAFull-Text 160-167
  Hongshen Ma; Joseph A. Paradiso
We have designed an active tagging system that responds to a coded optical beam from several meters away. The tags contain a minimalist microprocessor that ambiently operates in shutdown mode and, upon detecting particular frequency components in the AM-modulated interrogation beam, awakens to decode the incident digital message and produce an appropriate response. The lack of linear amplifiers means that these tags draw under 0.5 µA when sleeping, hence can operate up to 10 years on a lithium coin cell. Such devices are practical demonstrations of the potential of ubiquitous computing where common, nearly passive objects have a sense of identity and the ability to respond to external stimuli. In our example, the interrogator is a "flashlight", with which one scans an area; when the light beam hits a tag programmed with a code that matches that sent by the interrogator, an on-tag LED flashes, indicating that the desired object is "found".
'ForSe FIElds' -- Force Sensors for Interactive Environments BIBAKFull-Text 168-175
  Lisa McElligott; Michelle Dillon; Krispin Leydon; Bruce Richardson; Mikael Fernström; Joseph A. Paradiso
In this paper we discuss the development of 'Z-Tiles' in conjunction with a sister project, 'Self-Organising Sensors' (SOS). Combined, these projects will result in a pressure sensitive, self-organising, interactive sensor design that can be embedded into appropriate environments. The shared objective of these projects is to further our understanding of movement and gesture. In this paper, we discuss the design and behaviour of a force sensing material, the physical design of the sensor encasement and the software that allows the sensors to communicate and self-organise. The issues of modularity and portability are also discussed in this paper, while consideration has also been given to the conceptualisation and development of a variety of prototypes; ranging from entertainment to potential therapeutic applications. Essentially, the Z-tiles sensor can be used in control surfaces where force, weight distribution or motion is used as control parameters.
Keywords: Gesture; effort; movement; weight; balance; force; sensor; resolution; sensor composition; sensor characterisation; physical design; sensor arrangement; signal processing; multiplexing; self-organising sensors; interfacing; visualisation; demonstration

Sharing and Accessing Information -- Public and Private

Approximate Information Flows: Socially-Based Modeling of Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing BIBAFull-Text 176-193
  Xiaodong Jiang; Jason I. Hong; James A. Landay
In this paper, we propose a framework for supporting socially-compatible privacy objectives in ubiquitous computing settings. Drawing on social science research, we have developed a key objective called the Principle of Minimum Asymmetry, which seeks to minimize the imbalance between the people about whom data is being collected, and the systems and people that collect and use that data. We have also developed Approximate Information Flow (AIF), a model describing the interaction between the various actors and personal data. AIF effectively supports varying degrees of asymmetry for ubicomp systems, suggests new privacy protection mechanisms, and provides a foundation for inspecting privacy-friendliness of ubicomp systems.
The Personal Server: Changing the Way We Think about Ubiquitous Computing BIBAKFull-Text 194-209
  Royu Want; Trevor Pering; Gunner Danneels; Muthu Kumar; Murali Sundar; John Light
The Personal Server is a mobile device that enables you to readily store and access the data and applications you carry with you through interfaces found in the local environment. Unlike conventional mobile computers with relatively poor user interfaces, it does not have a display at all, instead wirelessly utilizing displays, keyboards and other IO devices found nearby. By co-opting large screens such as those found on desktop PCs, public display monitors, information kiosks, and other computers, a Personal Server is more effective than relying on a small mobile screen. This model goes beyond the mobile context and has wider implications for how we think about computing in general. A prototype system, including applications, system infrastructure, and a mobile platform, has been built to fully explore this model. This prototype sheds light on the suitability of standard components to support such a computing model, and from this illuminates directions for the design of future ubiquitous computing systems.
Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing; Mobility; Device Discovery; Adaptive Interfaces; Personal Server
QueryLens: Beyond ID-Based Information Access BIBAFull-Text 210-218
  Shin'ichi Konomi
This paper discusses how ID-based information access, i.e., information access that utilizes IDs of physical entities, can be enhanced to function in a dynamic and social environment, where users can participate in the process of designing and extending the information space. QueryLens is a system that accumulates queries, connects them to a relevant physical object, allows a user to share and modify them, and uses them to capture answers.
Pin&Play: Networking Objects through Pins BIBAFull-Text 219-228
  Kristof van Laerhoven; Albrecht Schmidt; Hans-Werner Gellersen
We introduce a new concept of networking objects in everyday environments. The basic idea is to build on the familiar use of surfaces such as walls and boards for attachment of mundane objects such as light controls, pictures, and notes. Hence our networking concept entails augmentation of such surfaces with conductive material to enable them as communication medium. It further incorporates the use of simple pushpin-connectors through which objects can be attached to network-enabled surfaces. Thereby users are provided with a highly familiar mechanism for adding objects ad hoc to the bus network, hence its name Pin&Play. This paper describes the architecture and principles of Pin&Play, as well as the design and implementation of a smart notice-board as proof of concept.
Social Aspects of Using Large Public Interactive Displays for Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 229-236
  Daniel M. Russell; Clemens Drews; Alison Sue
Large displays have several natural affordances that can simplify small group collaborative work. They are large enough to hold multiple work areas, they are easy to see and can be manipulated directly via touch. When placed into group and public spaces, such displays create pervasively available working surfaces for lightweight, temporary walkup use. The BlueBoard is a large plasma display with touch sensing and a badge reader to identify individuals using the board. The onboard software acts as a thin client giving access to each participant's web-based content (e.g., home pages, project pages). The client also has a set of tools and mechanisms that support rapid exchange of content between those present. The overall design of the BlueBoard is one that is easily learnable (under 5 minutes), very simple to use, and permits novel uses for collaboration. Our initial field study revealed a number of social issues about the use of a large pervasively available display surface, yet indicates that a shared public display space truly has distinct properties that lend themselves to sharing content. Extreme learnability & overall simplicity of design makes BlueBoard a tool for collaboration that supports intermittent, but effective use for side-by-side collaboration between colleagues.
A Privacy Awareness System for Ubiquitous Computing Environments BIBAFull-Text 237-245
  Marc Langheinrich
Protecting personal privacy is going to be a prime concern for the deployment of ubiquitous computing systems in the real world. With daunting Orwellian visions looming, it is easy to conclude that tamper-proof technical protection mechanisms such as strong anonymization and encryption are the only solutions to such privacy threats. However, we argue that such perfect protection for personal information will hardly be achievable, and propose instead to build systems that help others respect our personal privacy, enable us to be aware of our own privacy, and to rely on social and legal norms to protect us from the few wrongdoers. We introduce a privacy awareness system targeted at ubiquitous computing environments that allows data collectors to both announce and implement data usage policies, as well as providing data subjects with technical means to keep track of their personal information as it is stored, used, and possibly removed from the system. Even though such a system cannot guarantee our privacy, we believe that it can create a sense of accountability in a world of invisible services that we will be comfortable living in and interacting with.

Location, Location, Location

A Hybrid Location Model with a Computable Location Identifier for Ubiquitous Computing BIBAFull-Text 246-263
  Changhao Jiang; Peter Steenkiste
Location modeling and representation are crucial technologies for context-aware applications. In this paper, we present a novel location model combining the virtues of both the hierarchical and coordinate location models, and we introduce a computable location identifier, namely Aura Location Identifier (ALI). We then describe how the Aura space service uses this hybrid model to handle spatial queries for context-aware applications. A simple example of such a query is a range query, e.g. "select name from printer where distance(location, 'ali://cmu/wean-hall/floor3/3100-corridor#(10,10,0)') , where "location" is an attribute representing the location of printers. Finally, we discuss how we extended the PostgreSQL database system to provide direct support for spatial SQL queries at the database level. These extensions improve performance and increase flexibility for context-aware applications.
A Novel Broadband Ultrasonic Location System BIBAFull-Text 264-280
  Mike Hazas; Andy Ward
Indoor ultrasonic location systems provide fine-grained position data to ubiquitous computing applications. However, the ultrasonic location systems previously developed utilize narrowband transducers, and thus perform poorly in the presence of noise and are constrained by the fact that signal collisions must be avoided. In this paper, we present a novel ultrasonic location system which utilizes broadband transducers. We describe the transmitter and receiver hardware, and characterize the ultrasonic channel bandwidth. The system has been deployed as a polled, centralized location system in an office. Test results demonstrate that the system can function in high levels of environmental noise, and that it has the capability for higher update rates than previous ultrasonic location systems.
Location of Mobile Devices Using Networked Surfaces BIBAFull-Text 281-298
  Frank Hoffmann; James Scott
Networked Surfaces are a novel technology, using contact with physical surfaces such as desks to provide network connectivity for mobile devices. In addition, Networked Surfaces can accurately estimate the positions and orientations of connected devices, combining two key technologies for ubiquitous computing. This paper discusses the algorithm implemented to estimate device locations on the Networked Surface prototype. It then evaluates the location accuracy obtained, using simulations, measurements, and visualisation. Methods of improving the location accuracy are also investigated. Finally, the paper discusses how the location information provided by Networked Surfaces can be incorporated into context-aware computing applications.
SmartMoveX on a Graph -- An Inexpensive Active Badge Tracker BIBAFull-Text 299-307
  John Krumm; Lyndsay Williams; Greg Smith
Measuring the locations of people in a building is an important part of ubiquitous computing. We present new hardware and software for this purpose. The hardware, called SmartMoveX, is an active badge system in which a small radio transmitter is attached to the person being tracked. Receivers placed in the building's existing offices, connected to existing PCs, transmit signal strength readings to a central PC using the building's existing computer network. Combined with the low cost of the hardware, using the existing network makes this active badge system much less expensive than many others. To compute locations based on signal strength, we gathered signal strength readings from predefined location nodes in the building. We defined a graph on these nodes, which allowed us to enforce constraints on computed movements between nodes (e.g. cannot pass through walls) and to probabilistically enforce our expectations on transitions between connected nodes. Modeling the data with a hidden Markov model, we used the Viterbi algorithm to compute optimal paths based on signal strengths over the node graph. The average location error was 3.05 meters, which compared favorably to a simple nearest neighbor algorithm's average location error of 4.57 meters.
A Generic Location Event Simulator BIBAFull-Text 308-315
  Kumaresan Sanmugalingam; George Coulouris
This note describes a standalone generic location event simulator that has been designed for the visualisation, scalability testing and evaluation of location-aware event-driven middleware and applications.

Sensors and Applications

PlantCare: An Investigation in Practical Ubiquitous Systems BIBAFull-Text 316-332
  Anthony LaMarca; Waylon Brunette; David Koizumi; Matthew Lease; Stefan B. Sigurdsson; Kevin Sikorski; Dieter Fox; Gaetano Borriello
Ubiquitous computing is finally becoming a reality. However, there are many practical issues that stand in the way of mass acceptance. We have been investigating these practical concerns within the context of an autonomous application that takes care of houseplants using a sensor network and a mobile robot. We believe that emphasizing autonomy and thereby minimizing demands on users will help us address the many practical concerns that will arise not only in PlantCare but also in many other ubiquitous applications. In this paper, we discuss the technical challenges that we have encountered while trying to make PlantCare a reality and report on our experience in addressing these challenges.
Context Acquisition Based on Load Sensing BIBAFull-Text 333-350
  Albrecht Schmidt; Martin Strohbach; Kristof van Laerhoven; Adrian Friday; Hans-Werner Gellersen
Load sensing is a mature and robust technology widely applied in process control. In this paper we consider the use of load sensing in everyday environments as an approach to acquisition of contextual information in ubiquitous computing applications. Since weight is an intrinsic property of all physical objects, load sensing is an intriguing concept on the physical-virtual boundary, enabling the inclusive use of arbitrary objects in ubiquitous applications. In this paper we aim to demonstrate that load sensing is a versatile source of contextual information. Using a series of illustrative experiments we show that using load sensing techniques we can obtain not just weight information, but object position and interaction events on a given surface. We describe the incorporation of load-sensing in the furniture and the floor of a living laboratory environment, and report on a number of applications that use context information derived from load sensing.
Proactive Instructions for Furniture Assembly BIBAFull-Text 351-360
  Stavros Antifakos; Florian Michahelles; Bernt Schiele
Tennenhouse [1] coined the term proactive computing where humans get out of the interaction loop and may be serviced specifically according to their needs and current situation. In this paper we propose a framework for proactive guidance which aims to overcome limitations of today's printed instructions. By attaching computing devices and multiple sensors onto different parts of the assembly the system can recognize the actions of the user and determine the current state of the assembly. The system can suggest the next most appropriate action at any point in time. In an experimental case study with the IKEA PAX wardrobe we show the feasibility of the proposed approach. At the end important issues are discussed and future directions are outlined.
WearNET: A Distributed Multi-sensor System for Context Aware Wearables BIBAFull-Text 361-370
  P. Lukowicz; H. Junker; M. Stäger; T. von Büren; G. Tröster
This paper describes a distributed, multi-sensor system architecture designed to provide a wearable computer with a wide range of complex context information. Starting from an analysis of useful high level context information we present a top down design that focuses on the peculiarities of wearable applications. Thus, our design devotes particular attention to sensor placement, system partitioning as well as resource requirements given by the power consumption, computational intensity and communication overhead. We describe an implementation of our architecture and initial experimental results obtained with the system.
Using Low-Cost Sensing to Support Nutritional Awareness BIBAFull-Text 371-378
  Jennifer Mankoff; Gary Hsieh; Ho Chak Hung; Sharon Lee; Elizabeth Nitao
Nutrition has a big impact on health, including major diseases such as heart disease, osteoporosis, and cancer. This paper presents an application designed to help people keep track of the nutrional content of foods they have eaten. Our work uses shopping receipts to generate suggestions about healthier food items that could help to supplement missing nutrients. We present our system design: a capture and access application that, based on shopping receipt data, provides access to ambiguous suggestions for more nutritious purchases. We also report results from one formative user study suggesting that receipts may provide enough information to extend our work by also estimating what people are actually eating, as opposed to simply what they are purchasing.