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UAHCI Tables of Contents: 07-107-207-309-109-209-311-111-211-311-413-113-213-314-114-214-314-415-115-215-315-4

UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Access to Today's Technologies

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part I: Access to Today's Technologies
Note:Volume 7 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9175
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20678-3 hcibib: UAHCI15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-20677-6 (print), 978-3-319-20678-3 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Access to Interaction

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part II: Access to Interaction
Note:Volume 8 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Constantine Stephanidis; Margherita Antona
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8514
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07440-5 hcibib: UAHCI15-2; ISBN: 978-3-319-07439-9 (print), 978-3-319-07440-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Access to Learning, Health and Well-Being

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part III: Access to Learning, Health and Well-Being
Note:Volume 9 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9177
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20684-4 hcibib: UAHCI15-3; ISBN: 978-3-319-20683-7 (print), 978-3-319-20684-4 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website

UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Access to the Human Environment and Culture

Fullname:UAHCI 2015: 9th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Part IV: Access to the Human Environment and Culture
Note:Volume 10 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9178
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20687-5 hcibib: UAHCI15-4; ISBN: 978-3-319-20686-8 (print), 978-3-319-20687-5 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. Design and Evaluation Methods and Tools for Universal Access
    2. Universal Access to the Web
    3. Universal Access to Mobile Interaction
    4. Universal Access to Information, Communication and Media
  2. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 2
    1. Access to Mobile Interaction
    2. Access to Text, Documents and Media
    3. Access to Education and Learning
    4. Access to Games and Ludic Engagement
    5. Access to Culture
  3. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 3
    1. Universal Access to Education
    2. Universal Access to Health Applications and Services
    3. Games for Learning and Therapy
    4. Cognitive Disabilities and Cognitive Support
  4. UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 4
    1. Universal Access to Culture
    2. Orientation, Navigation and Driving
    3. Accessible Security and Voting
    4. Universal Access to the Built Environment
    5. Ergonomics and Universal Access

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 1

Design and Evaluation Methods and Tools for Universal Access

Elderly Speech-Gaze Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Cengiz Acartürk; João Freitas; Mehmetcal Fal; Miguel Sales Dias
Elderly people face problems when using current forms of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). Developing novel and natural methods of interaction would facilitate resolving some of those issues. We propose that HCI can be improved by combining communication modalities, in particular, speech and gaze, in various ways. This study presents elderly speech-gaze interaction as a novel method in HCI, a review of literature for its potential of use, and discusses possible domains of application for further empirical investigations.
Keywords: Multimodal; Gaze; Eye tracking; Speech; Elderly; Interaction
Design Engineering and Human Computer Interaction: Function Oriented Problem Solving in CAD Applications BIBAKFull-Text 13-24
  Gisela S. Bahr; Stephen L. Wood; Anthony Escandon
CAD Software such as CREO and SolidWorks are used to develop mechanical parts and assemblies and do not explicitly support the function of the feature, component, part or assembly. Therefore, the reasoning of why and how a design is developed has not been incorporated into current CAD systems. At the same time, CAD systems support sophisticated functions such automated routing, modelling and simulation of dynamic and geometric properties and design solutions tracking. In this paper we investigate (a) to what degree CAD tools have advanced beyond drafting tools to include cognitive supports that facilitate problem solving and (b) which possibilities exist to enhance CAD with cognitive tools that with focus on the intersection between cognitive psychology, interaction design and design engineering remain unexplored.
Keywords: Engineering design; Design reasoning; Design support; Design cognition; Problem solving; Creo; SolidWorks; Functional fixedness
Assessing the Inclusivity of Digital Interfaces -- A Proposed Method BIBAKFull-Text 25-33
  Michael Bradley; Patrick Langdon; P. John Clarkson
In the assessment of the inclusivity of products with interfaces for digital devices, there are difficulty and validity issues relating the cognitive demand of using and learning an unfamiliar interface to the capabilities outlined in the population source data. This is due to the disparity between the types of cognitive tasks used to create the source data, and those needed to operate a digital interface.
   Previous work to understand the factors affecting successful interactions with novel digital technology interfaces has shown that the user's technology generation, technology prior experience and their motivation are significant. This paper suggests a method which would permit digital interfaces to be assessed for inclusivity by similarity to known interaction patterns. For a digital device interface task that contained a non-transparent or novel interaction pattern, then the resulting cognitive workload could also be assessed.
Keywords: Inclusive design; Exclusion audit; Errors; Older user; Usability; Prior experience
Socio-Technical Barriers Induced by the Design of Emerging Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 34-45
  Samuel B. Buchdid; Roberto Pereira; Heiko H. Hornung; M. Cecília C. Baranauskas
Emerging technologies may impose barriers on groups of people or even the whole society. These barriers are of a socio-technical nature and impact the acceptance, adoption and use of technology. In this paper we investigate Interactive Digital TV (iDTV) as an example of such emerging technology. We identify and discuss socio-technical barriers that arise in the domain of iDTV. As our method, we present, analyze and discuss a study of iDTV application design situated in the real context of a Brazilian broadcasting company. News and documents from the Brazilian Digital TV Forum portal were used to understand external forces that act on Digital TV and the society. Our findings indicate that iDTV acceptance is negatively influenced by project decisions that do not consider socio-technical constraints, and also the beneficial of the "Socially Aware Computing" perspective to propose design solutions that make sense for stakeholders, including end users.
Keywords: Interactive Digital TV; Human-Computer Interaction; Socially Aware Computing; Organizational Semiotics; Participatory Design
Consideration of Measuring Human Physical and Psychological Load Based on Brain Activity BIBAKFull-Text 46-53
  Hiroaki Inoue; Shunji Shimizu; Ishihara Hirotaka; Yuuki Nakata; Hiroyuki Nara; Takeshi Tsuruga; Fumikazu Miwakeichi; Nobuhide Hirai; Senichiro Kikuchi; Satoshi Kato; Eiju Watanabe
In Japan and developed countries, it has become aged society, and wide variety welfare device or system have been developed. But these evaluation methods of welfare device or system are limited only stability, intensity and partial operability. Because of, it is not clear to determine the standard to evaluation for welfare device or system of usefulness. Therefore, we will attempt to establish the standard for evaluation about usefulness for objectively and quantitatively for including non-verbal cognition. We examine the relationship between human movements and brain activity, and consider the evaluation method of welfare devices and systems to measure the load and fatigue which were felt by human. In this paper, we measure the load for sitting and standing movement using NISR. We tried to make sure for the possibility of the quantitatively estimation for physical or psychological load or fatigue by measuring of brain activity using NIRS (Near Infra Red Spectroscopy). As results, when subjects perform the movement task, the statistical significant difference was shown in the specific part of the brain region.
Keywords: NIRS; EMG; Welfare technology; Useful welfare device evaluation
Defining Acceptable Interaction for Universal Access BIBAKFull-Text 54-63
  Simeon Keates
Many new assistive input systems developed to meet the needs of users with functional impairments fail to make it out of the research laboratory and into regular use by the intended end users. This paper examines some of the reasons for this and focuses particularly on whether the developers of such systems are using the correct metrics for evaluating the functional attributes of the input technologies they are designing. In particular, the paper focuses on the issue of benchmarking new assistive input systems against a baseline measure of useful interaction rate that takes allowance of factors such as input success/recognition rate, error rate, correction effort and input time. By addressing each of these measures, a more complete understanding of whether an input system is practically and functionally acceptable can be obtained.
Keywords: Interaction rate; Universal access; HCI; Input technologies; Error rate; Assistive technologies; Acceptability
The Bridge Connecting Theory to Practice -- A Case Study of Universal Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 64-73
  Yilin Elaine Liu; Seunghyun (Tina) Lee; Ljilja Ruzic Kascak; Jon A. Sanford
In a typical design process, the decision making process by which desirable and predictive outcomes are achieved is clearly defined by problem definition, goals and objectives setting, design criteria development, design solution generation and evaluation of the solutions. In contrast, the current literature on Universal Design typically jumps from Universal Design as an ideal and set of principles to Universal Design as an artifact. Without interpreting Universal Design principles into specific design criteria, it is not possible to understand design intent, reliably evaluate design outcomes, replicate design processes or outcomes, or generalize findings to other products and environments. In this paper, an universal design process has been proposed and illustrated in a case study of a universally designed voting system in which Universal Design has been applied throughout the design process in a consistent and explicit way to produce a desirable Universal Design outcome.
Keywords: Universal design; Design process; User interface
Camera Mouse + ClickerAID: Dwell vs. Single-Muscle Click Actuation in Mouse-Replacement Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 74-84
  John Magee; Torsten Felzer; I. Scott MacKenzie
Point-and-click interface modalities are a pervasive method of interacting with graphical user interfaces. Users of mouse-replacement interfaces use alternative input devices to replace the mouse for pointing and clicking. We present a comparison of click actuation modalities with users of the Camera Mouse, a motion-tracking mouse interface. We compare dwell-time click generation against detecting a single intentional muscle contraction with an attached sensor (ClickerAID). A preliminary evaluation was conducted as well as an in-depth case study with a participant with the neuromuscular disease Friedreich's Ataxia. The case study shows modest temporal differences among the test conditions in movement time and throughput, though the participant subjectively favored the ClickerAID interface.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Mouse-replacement interfaces; Camera mouse; ClickerAID; Dwelling; Intentional muscle contractions; Neuromuscular diseases; Friedreich's ataxia
Analyzing the Design Space of Personal Informatics: A State-of-practice Based Classification of Existing Tools BIBAKFull-Text 85-97
  Fredrik Ohlin; Carl Magnus Olsson; Paul Davidsson
We are presently seeing a rapid increase of tools for tracking and analyzing activities, from lifelogging in general to specific activities such as exercise tracking. Guided by the perspectives of collection, procedural, and analysis support, this paper presents the results from a review of 71 existing tools, striving to capture the design choices within personal informatics that such tools are using. The classification system this creates is a contribution in three ways: as a standalone state-of-practice representation, for assessing individual tools and potential future design directions for them, and as a guide for new development of personal informatics tools.
Keywords: Personal informatics; Quantified self; State-of-practice; Design choices; Classification
Eye Tracking Evaluation of User Experience on Large-Scale Displays BIBAKFull-Text 98-108
  Andrew Schall
Recent advancements in technology have made eye tracking less expensive, much easier to use, and flexible enough to track a variety of display sizes and configurations. Larger high-resolution displays have become an increasingly prominent format for many users. New user behavior patterns have been emerging between primary and secondary (also known as second screen) displays. This paper describes a new research approach in order to understand what attracts user attention and identifies what they see when interacting with these devices. A case study is presented that demonstrates the procedures and findings for a study that involves eye tracking of a large-screen television display. The study described is a user experience evaluation of dynamic on-screen content presented as a part of the display during a television program.
Keywords: Eye tracking; Large-scale displays; Television; User experience; Second screen; Study design; Case study
Design and Development of Multimodal Applications: A Vision on Key Issues and Methods BIBAKFull-Text 109-120
  Samuel Silva; Nuno Almeida; Carlos Pereira; Ana Isabel Martins; Ana Filipa Rosa; Miguel Oliveira e Silva; António Teixeira
Multimodal user interfaces provide users with different ways of interacting with applications. This has advantages both in providing interaction solutions with additional robustness in environments where a single modality might result in ambiguous input or output (e.g., speech in noisy environments), and for users with some kind of limitation (e.g., hearing difficulties resulting from ageing) by yielding alternative and more natural ways of interacting. The design and development of applications supporting multimodal interaction involves numerous challenges, particularly if the goals include the development of multimodal applications for a wide variety of scenarios, designing complex interaction and, at the same time, proposing and evolving interaction modalities. These require the choice of an architecture, development and evaluation methodologies and the adoption of principles that foster constant improvements at the interaction modalities level without disrupting existing applications. Based on previous and ongoing work, by our team, we present our approach to the design, development and evaluation of multimodal applications covering several devices and application scenarios.
Keywords: Multimodal interaction; Design and development; Evaluation
Creating Forms and Disclosures that Work: Using Eye Tracking to Improve the User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 121-131
  Jonathan Strohl; Christian Gonzalez; Jacob Sauser; Soodeh Montazeri; Brian Griepentrog
Forms and disclosures are a central component of business and customer interactions. However, they often lack good visual organization or clear and concise language, highlighting a distinct need for more extensive usability testing and research. In particular, eye tracking serves as an excellent tool for evaluating and improving paper and electronic forms. In this paper, we present numerous examples of the benefits of eye tracking for form usability as well as practical considerations for conducting eye tracking on paper forms. In addition, we provide two case studies of paper form eye tracking. One involves a paper diary designed to track users' television viewing habits and the other is a multi-page government form. Our experiences suggest that paper forms are amenable to traditional usability testing practices and also benefit from the additional insights gained through eye tracking.
Keywords: Eye tracking; Usability testing; Form design; User experience research
Using Interpretive Structural Modeling to Make Decisions for Direction of Caring Design BIBAKFull-Text 132-142
  Ming-Tang Wang
Interpretive structural modelling (ISM) is a well-established methodology for identifying relationships among specific items, which define a problem or an issue. The natural caring is born with human beings; besides caring persons the natural environment is also important. In this research, Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is used to make decision for design direction of rescuing injury in landslide disaster, recognized the main target to solve ease of use and independent problems (level 1) and the main problem are reliability issues (level 2), the safe issue (Level 3), the security issue (level 4) for the proposed stretcher. Finally, the design direction is concluded, new stretcher structure was proposed to be independent and confident for conveying, and collecting the scenario for ATV drag rescue stretcher.
Keywords: Caring design; Design direction; ISM; Make decision
How to Construct UX and Story in HCI or Service Design BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Toshiki Yamaoka; Misako Sakamoto
The three attributions of products, the four stories, the ten feelings and the six experiences are important items in HCI or service design. The three attributions of products: usefulness, usableness and desirableness, the four stories: historical story, newest story, fictitious story and actual story, the ten feelings: joy, familiarity, surprising, satisfaction, lovely, longing, expectation, comfort, interest, impression, experience: experience of obtaining something, unusual experience, experience of getting something after doing tasks, experience of getting convenience, experience of longing for something, experience of feeling through the five senses. These items are integrated into a basic or applied UX-Story system diagram. These relationship are clarified and UX designer or engineer can construct a flame of UX design or service design.
Keywords: UX; Story; UX-Story system diagram; HCI; Service design

Universal Access to the Web

Social Networks: Technological and Social Aspects of Social Network-Mediated Interaction of Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 153-161
  Laura Burzagli; Paolo Baronti; Lorenzo Di Fonzo
Services for the social interaction of elderly persons are here considered here and described. After an initial analysis, the implementation within the framework of an existing Social Network Site, such as Facebook, is proposed.
Keywords: Social network sites; Elderly people; Social interaction
Accessibility in E-Commerce Tools: An Analysis of the Optical Inclusion of the Deaf BIBAKFull-Text 162-173
  Maria Eduarda de Araújo Cardoso; Daniela de Freitas Guilhermino; Rafaella Aline Lopes da Silva Neitzel; Laura Sanchéz Garcia; Roberto Elero Junior
The deaf communities are members of a unique culture and language, the Sign Language. Worldwide, the spoken/oral language is predominant, however, Deaf may encounter several hindrances to establish social relationships using spoken/oral language. E-commerce systems are significantly important not only to the listeners, but also to the Deaf, as E-commerce systems are the main vehicle for online shopping. Currently, the majority of the population shops online; nevertheless, the conditions in which information is disclosed in such systems may not appropriately respect the particularities of the Deaf. In this context, this paper supports the hypothesis that, identifying the accessibility requirements for the Deaf, the development of inclusive E-commerce systems is feasible and, thus, ensuring that the benefits and utilities provided by E-commerce systems are also accessible by deaf people. Therefore, in order to prove our hypothesis, the implications that the Sign Language (first language of the Deaf infers to the communication, to improve the accessibility of such environments, must be identified. This paper investigates the necessities of the deaf community when accessing Web systems, and based on evaluation mechanisms, analyses the environments developed using E-commerce tools concerning accessibility aspects.
Keywords: Accessibility; Web accessibility; Deaf community; E-commerce tools
Generating User Interfaces for Users with Disabilities Using Libraries of XSLT, UIML, and Stylesheet Files BIBAKFull-Text 174-182
  Lawrence Henschen; Julia Lee; Ning Li; Xia Hou
We describe a method for reconfiguring and reformatting documents, in particular web pages, to meet the needs of users with different abilities. The method merges our previous work on semantic markup [1] and presentation of intelligent documents [2] with a new approach to interoperability of document processing [3]. Semantic markup provides information about the purpose of elements in a document, in the spirit of HTML5 [4]. The work on intelligent documents provides means for dynamically adding functionality to a presentation system. The first new concept in this paper is to use XSLT [5] to reformat and reconfigure the material in a document to better meet the needs of a user. The second new concept is to create public libraries of XSLT, UIML, and stylesheet files for classes of users with different needs. A user then configures his or her browser for that user's abilities. When the browser opens a document, it retrieves an appropriate publicly accessible library to use in transforming and presenting the document.
Keywords: Universal access; XSLT translation; UIML; Semantic mark-up; Document presentation
Medium-Fidelity Usability Evaluation for the American Community Survey Website BIBAKFull-Text 183-192
  Temika Holland; Erica Olmsted-Hawala
The American Community Survey (ACS) website provides supplementary information about ACS participation and about ACS data (e.g., data collection, data utilization, survey procedures, etc.). Additionally, the ACS website is a portal to the American Fact Finder (AFF) for access to ACS data. The U.S. Census Bureau is undergoing a new initiative to change the look and feel of Census sites, and various design features have been modified on a web based prototype for the redesigned American Community Survey (ACS) website, including navigational tools and layout. Feedback on whether users of the site would be able to obtain the information they need given the new design features was warranted. The site was tested in its early stages of development using a web-based prototype with limited functionality (i.e., medium-fidelity). Eye tracking was incorporated in the evaluation of the site to gain an in-depth understanding of users' visual interaction and to add support to observed findings. In addition, differences in eye-fixation duration on Areas of Interest during optimal task performance and non-optimal task performance were explored.
Keywords: Usability; Eye tracking; Task performance; Fixation duration
Effects of Facebook Like and Conflicting Aggregate Rating and Customer Comment on Purchase Intentions BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Yu-Hsiu Hung; Hsueh-Yi Lai
The conflict between an aggregate rating and a customer's comment oftentimes cause consumers' negative feelings on the quality of a product. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether such conflict influenced an individual's purchase intentions. Particularly, this study looked at how social influence mediated the effects of a conflicting aggregate rating and a customer's comment on purchase intention. To achieve the goal, an online mixed factorial experiment was conducted with one hundred and eighty-four student volunteers. The independent variables of interest were: consistency of aggregate rating and customer comment and number of Facebook likes. The dependent variable was purchase intention. In this study, participants were mainly recruited through the social groups on Facebook. Participants were instructed to provide their degrees of purchase intentions to snack food on our experimental website (containing pages reflecting differing treatment conditions under the independent variables). Results of the experiment showed that the conflict between a aggregate rating and a customer's comment, as well as the number of Facebook likes respectively had significant impacts on purchase intentions. Results of this study have implications on the design of social interfaces on social commerce websites.
Keywords: Aggregate rating; Customer comment; Purchase intention
(Digital) Social Innovation Through Public Internet Access Points BIBAKFull-Text 201-212
  Christoph Kaletka; Bastian Pelka
The post-industrial innovation system with its distinct focus on social innovation allows for theoretical and conceptual connections between innovation research and new fields of social practice. In this article we elaborate on the potential of social innovation and especially digital social innovation to tackle digitally excluded persons' needs. Public internet access points are key infrastructures driving the digital inclusion of marginalized persons. Empirical results presented in this paper shows that these players act socially innovative by creating collaborative spaces for digital inclusion, by developing hybrid staff competence profiles and by creating community-based, intergenerational learning content. The paper relates research perspectives from the social innovation and the digital inclusion discourse and argues against the background of research and development results of six EU funded projects on social innovation and/or digital inclusion in the years 2011-2015.
Keywords: Telecentre; Digital gap; Digital inclusion; Social innovation; Digital social innovation
On the Need for Assistance in HTML5 Web Authoring Systems BIBAKFull-Text 213-220
  Julia C. Lee; Lawrence J. Henschen
HTML5 incorporates semantics, including among others the purpose and intention of the web author, as an integral part of the language and specification. The goal is to allow more sophisticated browsers to render the content in ways that are appropriate for both the platform and the abilities of the user, thereby achieving universal access. However, achieving that goal depends on web authors using the elements and attributes correctly. We illustrate why this will be difficult for most web authors. We propose that web editors be enhanced to provide guidance to web authors in the correct and proper usage of the HTML5 features and give some examples of how this might work.
Keywords: HTML5; WAI-ARIA; Semantic web; Universal access
A WYSIWYG Editor to Support Accessible Web Content Production BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
  Hedi Carlos Minin; Javier Jiménez Alemán; Carolina Sacramento; Daniela Gorski Trevisan
In a world where lay users on web languages and standards are responsible to produce content to web, it's essential the presence of tools which support the creation of accessible content. This paper proposes to make Web accessibility concepts more understandable to these users with the incorporation of WCAG 2.0 accessibility guidelines in HTML WYSIWYG editors they use. For that we designed and prototyped such Editor and performed preliminaries usability tests with target users. Results shown that accessibility warnings were easy to understand and to apply but difficult to perceive them.
Keywords: Accessibility guidelines; WYSIWYG HTML editor; WCAG 2.0; ATAG 1.0
Video Accessibility on the Most Accessed Websites -- A Case Study Regarding Visual Disabilities BIBAKFull-Text 231-241
  Johana M. Rosas-Villena; Bruno Ramos; Rudinei Goularte; Renata P. M. Fortes
The availability of video content has increased along with the popularity of the Web due to the large amount of interactive systems and video sharing. This scenario should be carefully considered by video authors since the content needs to be accessible to a variety of final users (including people with disabilities). Although efforts have been made to improve accessibility for embedded videos on webpages, there still the need to develop accessibility solutions for video content. In this study we aim to analyze the video accessibility on the most accessed websites, identify the accessibility controls they had or not and which navigation mode they used to help people with visual disabilities. We analyze each video player of the top 50 websites to identify which controls they use. Also, we made a case study with a blind user, who was interviewed too. As results we realize that the most accessed websites are not accessible. Additionally, the blind user reported the problems he has to understand video content, to navigate through webpages and to use video players. The most accessed websites did not have accessible controls, only two sites allow to watch videos with captions. The blind user has reported main issues and barriers that he usually faced while trying to access video contents in the websites, and these comments are specially lessons that all video developers should have in mind.
Keywords: Facilitas player; Video accessibility; Blind users
The Accessibility of Web-Based Media Services -- An Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 242-252
  Norun C. Sanderson; Weiqin Chen; Siri Kessel
Online digital media is becoming the most important arena for general information sharing and public debate. Making this arena accessible to all is essential for equal participation in today's society. However, the accessibility of web-based media services has not been given much attention despite their importance for the democracy of our society. The overall objective for this research is to gain knowledge on universal design of websites containing complex multimedia, in order to ensure equal access for diverse groups operating different devices in various situations. To achieve this objective, we have conducted heuristic evaluations of the news web pages at the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK), the authoring tools for journalists, and focus group interviews on the accessibility of NRK.no. The preliminary results show that although participants expressed general positive attitude towards the design of NRK.no, many accessibility challenges remain to be addressed.
Keywords: Universal design; Web accessibility; Media service; Heuristic evaluation; Focus group; WCAG; ATAG
Interactive Software Technology for Deaf Users: Mapping the HCI Research Landscape that Focuses on Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 253-264
  Alexandros Yeratziotis; Panayiotis Zaphiris
The purpose of this paper is to chart research developments in HCI literature that focuses on accessibility for the deaf user group. A map for this particular landscape has been constructed based on a review of the four most relevant sources in HCI that focuses on accessibility, from 2000 to 2013. The map describes topics of research that are covered under the umbrella of Interactive Software Technology (IST) for deaf users in HCI literature that focuses on accessibility. To construct the map and identify these topics a systematic approach was applied, involving a number of stages and employing several research methods (literature review, focus group and card sorting). The resulting map, which underwent three revisions, consists of 23 code categories in total: 3 main categories, 8 subcategories, 7 second-level subcategories and 5 third-level subcategories. This paper can act as a guide for other researchers interested in conducting research within this landscape.
Keywords: Map; Deaf user; HCI; Accessibility; Interactive software technology

Universal Access to Mobile Interaction

Speech Recognition Native Module Environment Inherent in Mobiles Devices BIBAFull-Text 267-278
  Blanca E. Carvajal-Gámez; Erika Hernández Rubio; Amilcar Meneses Viveros; Francisco J. Hernández-Castañeda
Applications on mobile devices have been characterized for their usability. The voice is a natural means of interaction between users and mobile devices. Traditional speech recognition algorithms work in controlled media are targeted to specific population groups (e.g. age, gender or language to name of few), and also require a lot of computational resources so that the algorithms are effective. Therefore, pattern recognition is performed in mobile applications as web services. However, this type of solution generates high dependence on Internet connectivity, so it is desirable to have an embedded module for this task that does not consume many computational resources and have a good level of effectiveness. This paper presents an embedded mobile systems for voice recognition module is presented. This module works in noisy environments, it works for any age of users and has proved that it can work for several languages.
Advances on Breathing Based Text Input for Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 279-287
  Jackson Feijó Filho; Wilson Prata; Thiago Valle
This paper highlights the progress of exploring a puffing activated keyboard for mobile phones. This approach aims to stand as an assistive technology for users with motor disabilities. From the implementation of prior versions we were able to identify recurring and persistent issues, such as ambient noise handling and keyboard layout. Some of these issues were detected during the experiments and some were reported by users. The advances achieved in this work are narrated from the outcomes of the implementation and experimentation of a mobile phone application that handles e.g. background noise by performing signal processing and a new keyboard layout.
BeaconPass: A Location Based APP Game for Traveler BIBAKFull-Text 288-297
  Tsung-Yuan Ho; Chien-Hsu Chen; Sheng-Fen Chien; Yi-Hsuan Chen; Su-Yu Liu; Juan Sebastian Bayona
BeaconPass is a smartphone/tablet application inspired by shared problems among travelers. Following our previews research; lack of internet access, GPS inaccuracy, battery life and insufficient site-specific information, reflect on travelers getting lost and missing on their touring expectations. Thus it was decided that the application's goal is to narrow the gap between previously planned activities and the exploration of a city. Beacon technology was selected as the means, from which the application would develop, to ease the exploration of a city. Given the potential that beacon technology holds for showcasing a wide offer of visiting alternatives, on a site-specific basis, the application has been packaged into a game that seeks to encourage the traveler to meet unplanned locations. Graphically, the game uses a "pirate's journey" metaphor that allows the user to level up while engaging in an open exploration of the city.
Keywords: Ibeacon; Location based game; APP; Traveler; Service design; Mobile application
Difference in Readability of Mobile Devices by Age Groups BIBAKFull-Text 298-305
  Kohei Iwata; Yuki Ishii; Tatsuya Koizuka; Takehito Kojima; R. Paul Lege; Masaru Miyao
We carried out experiments to evaluate the readability of e-books under various conditions of illuminance. We used two types of e-paper, Amazon Kindle Paperwhite and Sony Reader, as well as plain paper as a reference. In this study, we focused on the effects of the contrast ratios between characters and background of e-book readers in terms of readability. This study found a dependency between the contrast ratio of the text of each device and their readability according to age groups.
Keywords: Evaluation of accessibility; Usability; Readability; User experience; Contrast ratio; E-books; E-paper; Kindle paperwhite; Sony reader
Mobile Assistive Technology Mapping and Integration BIBAKFull-Text 306-317
  Luis Felipe Jimenez; Patricia Morreale
Assistive technology (AT) is designed to identify and provide individuals with disabilities independence and equal access to interact with their environment. With this type of assistance, people can maximize their independence and their performance of tasks they were not able to accomplish before. The research project illustrated here identifies one approach for an campus accessibility map to allow a population with mobility impairments to improve their daily experience when navigating through the Kean University campus. This project integrates an accessible campus map design with an interactive Android navigation mobile application to permit the identification of convenient accessible pathways within campus. In the project design phase, after a review of available accessibility maps elsewhere, usability studies were conducted in order to ensure that the application will meet the needs of the users. In the development phase, an accessibility layer was created on top of Google maps to display the accessible information on campus buildings, including convenient paths. This two-phase approach provides all students and visitors with critical accessibility information about the Kean University campus, while assisting researchers to design better overall user experiences in human computer interaction.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Accessibility; User experience; Navigation experience
Finger-Based Pointing Performance on Mobile Touchscreen Devices: Fitts' Law Fits BIBAKFull-Text 318-329
  Sandi Ljubic; Vlado Glavinic; Mihael Kukec
In this paper we investigate the utility of Fitts' law for predicting the performance of finger-based pointing on mobile touchscreens, by taking into account both different screen sizes and appropriate interaction styles. The experimental design bases on randomly generating pointing tasks in order to provide a wider range of both suitable target sizes and required finger movements, thus targeting a better representation of common pointing behavior with respect to the usual static test design with a smaller set of predetermined tasks. Data obtained from the empirical study was evaluated against Fitts' law, specifically its revision which defines target size as the smaller dimension of a 2D shape. Results show a strong model fit with our data, making the latter a fair predictor of pointing performance on mobile touchscreen devices. Altogether ten finger-based pointing models are derived, revealing Fitts' law pragmatic utility regarding various mobile devices, interaction styles, as well as real target sizes commonly found in mobile touchscreen interfaces.
Keywords: Fitts' law; Pointing performance; Mobile devices; Touchscreens; Finger input
Behavioral Biometrics for Universal Access and Authentication BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Liam M. Mayron
Behavioral biometrics, such as gait, voice, handwriting, and keystroke dynamics can provide a method of authenticating users that is both secure and usable, particularly on mobile devices. Behavioral biometrics can often be collected in the background, without requiring a specific security task to be completed by the user. Many behavioral biometrics can be recorded with hardware that has already been deployed in many mobile devices. In this paper, we consider the use of behavioral biometrics for authentication in systems designed for universal access. Requirements for security and authentication are discussed, and several behavioral biometrics are introduced. Considerations for universal access are presented.
Keywords: Biometrics; Behavioral biometrics; Security; Usability; Authentication
Evaluation of the Android Accessibility API Recognition Rate Towards a Better User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 340-349
  Mauro C. Pichiliani; Celso M. Hirata
Mobile applications are based on interactive common UI elements that represents pointing targets visible on the screen. The usage of mobile applications in eyes-free scenarios or by individuals with vision impairments requires effective alternative access to visual elements, i.e. accessibility features. Previous works evaluated the accuracy of UI element's identification by accessibility APIs on desktop applications reporting that only 74% of the targets were correctly identified, but no recent research evaluated the accuracy for similar mobile APIs. We present an empirical evaluation based on the Android accessibility API that computes the UI recognition accuracy rate on ten popular mobile applications. Our findings indicate that accessibility average recognition rate is 97%.
Keywords: Accessibility; Android; Mobile; API; Evaluation; User interface; User experience
Smartphones as User Interfaces in Public Events BIBAKFull-Text 350-359
  Maximiliano Romero; Marta Zambelli; Arturo Di Lecce; Simone Pontiggia
Nowadays, smartphone has become a diffused interface with digital world in daily life. The present paper describes an interactive installation based on smartphone appliance designed to control multimedia user experience. A survey of other case studies is presented. The entire system and function are described in detail. The user test and the results are presented as support of the conclusion. Is it possible to find an interactive presentation of the project at www.phycolab.it/pickchroma
Keywords: Smartphone; User Interface; Interaction design; Physical Computing
A Model for the Use of Social Paradigms in Mobile Ubiquitous Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 360-371
  Vitor Santos
The mobile devices and their use for Internet access, for georeferentiation and services consumption had a huge increase. Nowadays, these devices ability to establish cooperation networks and to interact intelligently and cooperatively with the surrounding environment has growing importance. In this work we present a model where a minimum set of features and information could be embedded in mobile devices to dynamically enable their integration into computer systems with pre-defined formal structure. It is argued that if a device is only partially competent to perform a particular role in a given context, may yet play this role in collaboration with other devices also partly responsible for the performance of this role in this context. This model is inspired by concepts originating in organization theory and sociology as they are typical, the notions of "social role", "ownership" and "responsibility."
Keywords: Mobile computing; Context-aware computing; Organization theory; Knowledge systems

Universal Access to Information, Communication and Media

An Enriched ePub eBook for Screen Reader Users BIBAKFull-Text 375-386
  Valentina Bartalesi; Barbara Leporini
Our study aims at obtaining ePub accessibility for all, including screen reader users. Since an ePub document is made up of several (X)HTML files, we analysed and worked with those (X)HTML tags that affect the blind user's experience in the reading. As a case study we developed an "enriched" ePub book which applies technical solutions (i.e. tags and attributes) with the purpose to overcome the accessibility and usability issues observed when interacting via screen reader. In this work we present the results collected through an online survey conducted with 25 users to evaluate the "enriched" ePub compared with the original PDF format in terms of accessibility and usability. Positive responses about the proposed solutions emerged from the survey: the easy access to the table of content, to the images, to the text and also the ease of navigation. In short, 88% of the users preferred the ePub format instead of the PDF. This confirms that quite simple technical solutions can really improve the reading experience for not only visually impaired people. The results from the survey also showed accessibility issues and limitations of the screen readers and eBook reader software which still exist.
Keywords: eBook accessibility; eBook usability; ePub format; Blind users
On the Understandability of Public Domain Icons: Effects of Gender and Age BIBAKFull-Text 387-396
  Gerd Berget; Frode Eika Sandnes
Icons and symbols are often deployed in graphical user interfaces. It is commonly believed that icons add to the user friendliness of products. Developers have great trust in icon libraries and they are likely to use icons they understand themselves without verifying users' understanding. Interfaces relying on icons that are misinterpreted can lead to erroneous operation. In this study a set of icons in the public domain was interpreted by 64 participants to assess how well general icons are understood. Of the 105 icons included only 67 were correctly identified by all the raters. The results confirm that some basic icons are universally known. However, nearly half of the icons where not identified by all. Recognition correlated with gender, as males were more likely to identify icons connected to masculine concepts and females were more likely to recognize icons connected to feminine concepts. Moreover, a positive correlation was found between the age of the participants and icons depicting ideas from the past versus timeless icons. The results thus support the practice of user testing of icons rather than relying on assumptions.
Keywords: Icons; Recognition; Gender; Age
Visual Communication of Lovely Characters in Digital Development Arena BIBAKFull-Text 397-405
  Cheih-Ying Chen; Xu-Qin Zhunag
The term character economy starts to emerge, when a particular image is authorized and transferred onto a variety of goods sold into retail channels and formed economic benefits, thus the creation of character economy, such as: Hello Kitty, Mickey Mouse, Angry Birds and other images. In addition, with the increase sales for tablets and smartphones, and the economic rise of APP, we can foresee that besides the basic content and function demands in digital development, the interface design of digital APP has included design elements and symbol values to attract consumers, which will create a more diverse human sensory experience and a luminous digital humanities civilization. Our plan is to look into these characters' simple designs, forthright colors, and cute images, and research the influence of these symbolic characters on consumers' willingness to spend, we explored the consumer preference related to these lovely characters in consumer goods industry and digital development arena.
Keywords: Lovely characters; Character economy; Digital APP
Universal Access to Alternate Media BIBAKFull-Text 406-414
  Lars Ballieu Christensen; Tanja Stevns
This paper discusses the need for automated alternate media solutions in a world of increasing mainstream inclusion. While society as a whole is shifting from educational, vocational and social segregation of people with disabilities towards inclusion and equal rights, the need to support the blind, partially sighted, dyslexic and other print impaired with textual material in alternate formats remains. Production of alternate media is non-trivial and subject to significant skills and technical proficiency. However, the shift towards mainstream inclusion also means distribution, dilution and erosion of competencies, practices and experience involved in producing alternate media. RoboBraille, an alternate media conversion service, has attempted to distil the competencies and experience of producing alternate media into a set of automated workflows. While emerging digital media and technical platforms should make it easier to obtain alternate versions of mainstream publications, a number of counterproductive measures work in the opposite direction.
Keywords: Alternate media; Inclusion; Braille; E-books; Audio books; Digital accessibility; Universal design; Copyright
A Grounded Theory Approach for Designing Communication and Collaboration System for Visually Impaired Chess Players BIBAKFull-Text 415-425
  Sujit Devkar; Sylvan Lobo; Pankaj Doke
Social interactions for visually impaired take place in the traditional way, such as meeting and calling, digital platforms are largely not utilized by them. Empirical research for visually impaired has focused largely on accessibility, usability and is yet to understand the problems from CSCW aspect holistically. We carried out a qualitative study of communication and collaboration activities for 43 visually impaired chess players in India. Through semi-structured interviews, the participants' experiences in using existing collaboration and communication channels were noted. A Grounded Theory based analysis was performed using Atlas.ti and themes were identified. Research indicates that -- social collaboration and 'staying in touch', searching and sharing new information, exploiting existing ways of mobile interactions, and having several interests help visually impaired in their daily lives for social collaboration and communication. This study provides insights concerning designing CSCW mediums for them.
Keywords: Grounded theory; Visually impaired; Human-computer interaction; Communication and collaboration mechanism; Computer Supported Collaborative Work
Context-Aware Communicator for All BIBAKFull-Text 426-437
  Paola García; Eduardo Lleida; Diego Castán; José Manuel Marcos; David Romero
We describe the design of a communicator for people with speech impairments of several ages, but that can also be used by everybody. The design is based on the accurate definition of user models and profiles from which we extracted technical goals and requirements. The current design shows the factors to consider to provide a successful communication between users. The system is prepared to be used with children and elderly people with some kind of speech impairment. Moreover, the communicator is able to spontaneously adapt to each user profile and be aware of the situation, summarized in: location, time of the day and interlocutor. Therefore, the vocabulary to be used relates to a particular situation with the possibility to be broadened by the user if needed. This "vocabulary" is not restricted only to the word or syntactic domain but to pictograms and concepts. Several machine learning tools are employed for this purpose, such as word prediction, context-aware communication and non-syntactic modeling. We present a prototype scenario that includes examples of the usage of our target users.
Keywords: Communicator; Augmentative and alternative communication; Pictograms; Word prediction; Context-aware communication; Non-syntactic modeling; Speech impairment
Mediating Asymmetries in Family Communication: Supporting the eInclusion of Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 438-448
  Francisco J. Gutierrez; Sergio F. Ochoa; Julita Vassileva
Background: The rise of mobile Web-based technologies has diversified the mechanisms used by people to socialize, which results in issues in family communication. Among these concerns, the reluctance of older adults to use digital media may cause them social isolation, leading to negative effects in their physical and mental health.
   Objective: This paper aims to formalize a model to mediate asymmetries in cross-generational communication and support the eInclusion of older adults.
   Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews to the members of 20 cross-generational families. Following the grounded theory approach, we identified emerging themes regarding asymmetries in family communication practices when older adults are involved. We then derived and formalized computer-based mediation strategies using a model-driven engineering approach.
   Results: We identified three main sources of asymmetries: (1) implicit family agreements in terms of social interaction, (2) capability and preferences for using particular media, and (3) unbalanced socio-affective coupling between the involved parties. The proposed model addresses these asymmetries and provides strategies to coordinate the communication effort of family members with their elders.
   Conclusions: By using the proposed model, designers of software that supports family communities can conceive effective mechanisms to coordinate and mediate social communication among cross-generational family members through digital means. This allows the elderly to show a better reaction to digital media, thus facilitating their acceptance and appropriation of information technologies.
Keywords: Family communication; Older adults; Asymmetry; Model; Mediation; Social and digital inclusion
Comparison of Age Groups on the Readability of an E-Reader with a Built-in Light BIBAKFull-Text 449-454
  Yuki Ishii; Tatsuya Koizuka; Kohei Iwata; Takehito Kojima; Paul Lege; Masaru Miyao
We carried out experiments to evaluate the readability of e-paper devices using different systems. In the experiments, we conducted subjective evaluations under staged illuminance conditions. This study found that different age groups showed differences in reading e-paper devices with a built-in light under different conditions of illuminance.
Keywords: Evaluation of accessibility; Usability; User experience; E-books; E-paper; Kindle DX; Ipad; Readability; Illuminance
Visualizing Database-Performance Through Shape, Reflecting the Development Opportunities of Radar Charts BIBAKFull-Text 455-463
  Verena Lechner; Karl-Heinz Weidmann
At a time where databases contain millions of data records and their organization gets complex, the visualization especially of metadata gets a necessity to get an overview of the database performance. In this paper we'll provide an insight into a research project commissioned by Crate Technology GmbH, who developed an elastic SQL Data Store that is massively scalable [1]. The aim of our efforts in the UCT Research Institute is to find different ways to visualize the data state in such a cluster. In particular we investigated the development opportunities of radar charts in database metadata visualization and the visual appearance of the developing shapes. During the paper, the primary challenges of the project will be displayed and comparable products will be investigated. In the last part, we'll give a short insight to our work in progress, deal with the issue of form perception and also present further required efforts.
Keywords: Database visualization; Big data; Form perception; Shape perception; Radar chart; Spider chart; Gestalt perception; HCI; Visualization
Rapid Model-Driven Annotation and Evaluation for Object Detection in Videos BIBAKFull-Text 464-474
  Marc Ritter; Michael Storz; Manuel Heinzig; Maximilian Eibl
Nowadays, the annotation of ground truth and the automated localisation and validation of objects in audiovisual media plays an essential role to keep pace with the large data growth. A common approach to train such classifiers is to integrate methods from machine learning that often demand multiple thousands or millions of samples. Therefore, we propose two components. The first constraints the annotation space by predefined models and allows the creation of ground truth data while providing opportunities to annotate and interpolate objects in keyframes or in-between by granting a user-friendly frame-wise access. The graphical user-interface of the second component focuses on the rapid validation of automatically pre-classified object instances in order to alter the assignment of the class label or to remove false-positives to clean-up the result list which has been successfully applied on the task of Instance Search within the TRECVid evaluation campaign.
Keywords: Model-based annotation; Object detection; Instance search; Rapid evaluation; Image and video processing; Big data
SweetBuildingGreeter: A Demonstration of Persuasive Technology for Public Space BIBAKFull-Text 475-486
  Ted Selker; Shih-Yuan Yu; Che-Wei Liang; Jane Hsu
This paper shows how a persuasive interactive system can impact community behavior. SweetBuildingGreeter includes an interactive display and a gumball dispenser with environmental sensors. It provides media and tangible rewards. It has been located in buildings' public entry areas to encourage people to be conscious of and to empower saving energy. What makes the system ignored or engaging? The first experiment attracted participants to fill out a questionnaire to dispense candy and display problems which could be fixed in the building. Newcomers to the building filled out the questionnaire, but few returned to do it again. The second experiment provided images of energy savings and was effective at making people aware of energy issues, but it did not change their likelihood of using the system. Soliciting people with sound was more effective. This was especially true in a case where people had earlier negative experiences.
Keywords: Persuasive computing; Green technology; ACM H.5.2 information interfaces and presentation; UI styles; Input devices and strategies
Speech Enabled Ontology Graph Navigation and Editing BIBAKFull-Text 487-494
  Dimitris Spiliotopoulos; Athanasios Dalianis; Dimitris Koryzis
Graphs are commonly used to represent multiple relations between many items. Ontology graphs implement the connections and constraints between levels of interdependence between nodes; the nodes themselves being the members of the data types. As part of a design-for-all approach, this paper reports on the use of speech for ontology graph navigation and editing. The graphs can be fully created by using voice commands only, essentially creating large and complex ontologies by speech. The formative usability evaluation and user involvement experimentation results revealed that the introduction of speech, greatly enhanced specific parts of the navigation and improved the speed of editing, especially for the trivial, yet time consuming tasks of editing large and complex graphs.
Keywords: Speech; Ontologies; Graph editing; User interface design
Promoting Better Deaf/Hearing Communication Through an Improved Interaction Design for Fingerspelling Practice BIBAKFull-Text 495-505
  Rosalee Wolfe; John McDonald; Jorge Toro; Souad Baowidan; Robyn Moncrief; Jerry Schnepp
Fingerspelling is a manual system used by many signers for producing letters of a written alphabet to spell words from a spoken language. It can function as a link between signed and spoken languages. Fingerspelling is a vital skill for ASL/English interpreters, parents and teachers of deaf children as well as providers of deaf social services. Unfortunately fingerspelling reception can be a particularly difficult skill for hearing adults to acquire. One of the contributing factors to this situation is a lack of adequate technology to facilitate self-study. This paper describes new efforts to create a practice tool that more realistically simulates the use of fingerspelling in the real world.
Keywords: Deaf; Deaf accessibility; American sign language; Fingerspelling; Voice input

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 2

Access to Mobile Interaction

Effects of User Age on Smartphone and Tablet Use, Measured with an Eye-Tracker via Fixation Duration, Scan-Path Duration, and Saccades Proportion BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Suleyman Al-Showarah; Naseer AL-Jawad; Harin Sellahewa
The design of user interfaces plays an important role in human computer interaction, especially for smartphones and tablet devices. It is very important to consider the interface design of smartphones for elderly people in order for them to benefit from the variety applications on such devices. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of user age as well as screen size on smartphone/tablet use. We evaluated the usability of smartphone interfaces for three different age groups: elderly age group (60+ years), middle age group (40-59 years) and younger age group (20-39 years). The evaluation is performed using three different screen sizes of smartphone and tablet devices: 3.2", 7", and 10.1" respectively. An eye-tracker device was employed to obtain three metrics: fixation duration, scan-path duration, and saccades amplitude. Two hypothesis were considered. First, elderly users will have both local and global processing difficulties on smartphone/tablet use than other age groups. Second, all user age groups will be influnced by screen sizes; small screen size will have smaller saccades proportion indicating uneasy interface browsing compared to large screen size. All these results have been statistically evaluated using 2-way ANOVA.
Keywords: Smartphone interfaces; elderly people; eye tracking; mobile computing; human computer interaction; interfaces evaluation; usability of smart phone
LifeSpeeder BIBAKFull-Text 15-25
  Pedro J. S. Cardoso; Jânio Monteiro; José dos Santos; Natália Baeza; Sérgio Tarazona
The use of smartphones and tablets as become almost banal in these days. Smartphones, besides serving their main purpose of making and receiving calls, come to be one of the main equipments to obtain information from the Internet, using the commonly installed browsers or through the use of dedicated applications. Furthermore, several other devices are also very frequent to the majority of the modern smartphones and tablets in the market (e.g., GPS -- Global Positioning System). This devices give the current systems a very high potential of usage.
   One example of applicability, comes from the wish to find and navigate to events or activities which are or will soon be occurring near the user. The LifeSpeeder platform is one of the first applications in the mobile equipment market of applications which take into consideration exactly what we have just outlined, i.e., a mobile and desktop application which allows the users to locate events according with their preferences and to get help navigating to them. In this paper we briefly describe the LifeSpeeder's front and back-end.
Keywords: Geographic and Temporal Location of Events; Android; NoSQL Databases
Elders Using Smartphones -- A Set of Research Based Heuristic Guidelines for Designers BIBAKFull-Text 26-37
  Stefan Carmien; Ainara Garzo Manzanares
Smartphones and an increasingly aged population are two highly visible emergent attributes in the last decade. Smartphones are becoming the canonical front end for the cloud, web, and applications from email to social media -- especially so if you include pads in the same category. In Europe, the Americas and Asia the ratio of over those over 65 compared to the total population that is becoming increasingly skewed. This paper is about the intersection of these two socio-technical vectors, or more to the point about the mismatch between them: a mismatch which can lead to an increase in the digital divide rather than the decline that the more affordable smartphones could promise. We present a study of literature and results of a design process in the form of heuristics to support smartphone/tablet designers making useable and useful products for elder end-users.
Keywords: Smartphone; Small touch screens; Older adults; Heuristics; GUI design guidelines
VIC -- An Interactive Video System for Dynamic Visualization in Web and Mobile Platforms BIBAFull-Text 38-49
  Benjamim Fonseca; Hugo Paredes; Paulo Martins; André Alberto; José Rego; Leonel Morgado; Arnaldo Santos
This paper presents an interactive video system that enables users to change the flow of video playback by interacting with hotspots that were predefined throughout the video streams. These hotspots are synchronized with the underlying video streams and the interactions result in smooth transitions between the preloaded targets. This approach allows the dynamic visualization of content by interacting with the hotspots and producing the consequent changes in the flow of the story. The system includes web-based and mobile video players specifically developed to deal with the interactive features, as well as a configuration tool that allows content managers to choose which pre-produced interaction possibilities will be used for a specific target audience. The interactive video solution presented herein has potential to be used as a powerful communication tool, in commercial, e-learning, accessibility and entertainment contexts.
Implementing GPII/Cloud4All Support for Mobile Accessibility for Android BIBAKFull-Text 50-57
  Ferran Gállego
Mobile Accessibility for Android is a combination of a suite of accessible apps and a screen reader which provide accessibility on Android devices for blind and visually impaired users. Main functionality of Android devices is made available to the user through Mobile Accessibility's voice and Braille based UI. This paper describes the process of integrating this commercial product with GPII/Cloud4All online architecture, providing auto-configuration based on user's online profile and NFC user identification.
Keywords: Access to mobile interaction; Cloud4All; GPII
The GPII on Smart Phones: Android BIBAKFull-Text 58-67
  Javier Hernández Antúnez
The focus of this presentation is to go through all the aspects that are being covered during the works on the implementation of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII) [1] on Smart Phones, the scope, the status of the current implementation and upcoming developments where the Cloud4all [2] project is working on.
   Since The Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure aims to become an international standard, one of the biggest challenges of the GPII project is to support all those devices that are using, and will use in the future, the technologies around the Smart Phones. This initial implementation is coming from the Cloud4all project, which has bet on the Android platform to demonstrate the features that the GPII will offer to us on every device that could run Android on it, either a Smart Phone, or Tablet, or DigitialTV, etc, and will serve as inspiration for future implementations on other Smart Phone platforms such as the popular iOS and Windows Phone, or the emerging Firefox OS, Tizen or Ubuntu Touch.
Keywords: Accessibility; Internet Access; Health; Social inclusion; Cloud; Mobility
Effects of Interaction Style and Screen Size on Touchscreen Text Entry Performance: An Empirical Research BIBAKFull-Text 68-79
  Sandi Ljubic; Vlado Glavinic; Mihael Kukec
In this paper we investigate text entry performance for mobile touchscreen devices with emulated QWERTY keyboards, with special emphasis on interaction style and screen size. When addressing interaction style, we are referring to the five most common combinations of hands postures and device orientations while executing text entry tasks. Both single-finger and two-thumb methods for typing in portrait and/or landscape layout are considered. As for screen sizes, several classes of popular mobile devices are examined, specifically smartphones and tablets with smaller and larger form factor. In addition, the mobile device emulator is included in the study, in order to report the comparative analysis of text entry with an actual device and its emulation-based counterpart. The touchscreen desktop monitor was used so as to provide touch input for the device emulator. Results obtained from experimental testing, supported by thorough data analysis, provide a valuable insight into the user behavior when typing on touchscreens.
Keywords: text entry; interaction style; screen size; touchscreens; mobile devices

Access to Text, Documents and Media

An Experimental Approach in Conceptualizing Typographic Signals of Documents by Eight-Dot and Six-Dot Braille Code BIBAKFull-Text 83-92
  Vassilios Argyropoulos; Aineias Martos; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Sofia Chamonikolaou; Magda Nikolaraizi
The main research aim of the present study focuses on issues of reading comprehension, when users with blindness receive typographic meta-data by touch through a braille display. Levels of reading comprehension are investigated by the use of 6-dot and 8-dot braille code in matched texts for the cases of bold and italic meta-data. The results indicated a slight superiority of the 8-dot braille code in reading time and scorings. The discussion considered the practical implications of the findings such as issues regarding education as well as the development of suitable design of tactile rendition of typographic signals through 6-dot or 8-dot braille code in favor of better perception and comprehension.
Keywords: typographic signals; 6-dot braille; 8-dot braille; braille display; blindness; document accessibility; assistive technology
Document Transformation Infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 93-100
  Lars Ballieu Christensen; Amrish Chourasia
Many people face barriers to accessing textual information due to visual, reading or language limitations. They need alternative formats to text such as Braille or audio. However, producing accessible formats is often expensive, time consuming, and requires special expertise and training. RoboBraille offers a cost-effective and timely manner to accessible material production. It provides fully automated conversion of text into a number of alternative formats, including mp3 files, Daisy full text/full audio, e-books or Braille books. As part of Prosperity4all project, RoboBraille will be adapted to fit into the overall technical architecture of the Global Public Inclusive Infrastructure (GPII), and interfaces for new conversion capabilities such as semantic structure recognition, text-to-sign language and language-to-language translation will be added.
Keywords: Accessibility; Document Transformation; Braille; e-books
Accessible Metadata Generation BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Anastasia Cheetham; Dana Ayotte; Jonathan Hung; Joanna Vass; Colin Clark; Jess Mitchell; Jutta Treviranus
This paper outlines a strategy and suite of tools for creating more accessible and personalizable web content by supporting the creation of accessibility metadata. The tools showcased below allow content creators to easily generate metadata at the point of creation, reducing the cost and complexity of producing and delivering content that can be tailored to a user's needs and preferences.
   This work follows the AccessForAll approach, which focuses on meeting individual user's needs by matching those needs to appropriate content [1]. This level of personalization depends upon both the availability of infrastructure that can deliver alternative and adapted versions, and on the availability of content with accessibility metadata that can be used in the matchmaking process.
Keywords: Metadata; personalization; user needs and preferences; authoring; matching; AccessForAll
EAR-Math: Evaluation of Audio Rendered Mathematics BIBAKFull-Text 111-120
  Hernisa Kacorri; Paraskevi Riga; Georgios Kouroupetroglou
Audio rendering of mathematical expressions has accessibility benefits for people with visual impairment. Seeking a systematic way to measure participants' perception of the rendered formulae with audio cues, we investigate the design of performance metrics to capture the distance between reference and perceived math expressions. We propose EAR-Math, a methodological approach for user-based evaluation of math rendering against a baseline. EAR-Math measures systems' performance using three fine-grained error rates based on the structural elements, arithmetic operators, numbers and identifiers in a formula. The proposed methodology and metrics were successfully applied in a pilot study, where 5 sighted and 2 blind participants evaluated 39 stimuli rendered by MathPlayer in Greek. In the obtained results, we observed that structural elements had the highest mean and variance of errors, which improved from 18% in the first attempt to 10% and 7% in two following attempts.
Keywords: mathematics; audio rendering; visually impaired; blind; evaluation; user study
Riemann Geometric Color-Weak Compensation for Individual Observers BIBAKFull-Text 121-131
  Takanori Kojima; Rika Mochizuki; Reiner Lenz; Jinhui Chao
We extend a method for color weak compensation based on the criterion of preservation of subjective color differences between color normal and color weak observers presented in [2]. We introduce a new algorithm for color weak compensation using local affine maps between color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We show how to estimate the local affine map and how to determine correspondences between the origins of local coordinates in color spaces of color normal and color weak observers. We also describe a new database of measured color discrimination threshold data. The new measurements are obtained at different lightness levels in CIELUV space. They are measured for color normal and color weak observers. The algorithms are implemented and evaluated using the Semantic Differential method.
Keywords: Universal Design; Color-barrier-free Technology; Color-weak Compensation; Riemann geometry
Effect of the Color Tablet Computer's Polarity and Character Size on Legibility BIBAKFull-Text 132-143
  Hsuan Lin; Wei Lin; Wang-Chin Tsai; Yune-Yu Cheng; Fong-Gong Wu
This study aimed to explore how different polarities and character sizes on tablet e-readers affect users' legibility and visual fatigue. Following the experimental method, 30 participants were required to search for the target words in pseudo-texts; meanwhile, the experimental data were connected to an exclusive database through the Internet. Thus, the participants' search times, accuracy rates, and visual fatigue levels could be analyzed. As indicated by the analytic result, all the four kinds of character size affected search time. Specifically, the 8-pt target words on a 10.1-inch screen had the slowest search speed. As character size increased to 12 pt, search speed became significantly faster. Besides, the interaction between polarity and character size had a significant effect on the accuracy rate of searched target words. This study showed that as a character size increased, polarity produced a higher accuracy rate, and that negative polarity had a more significant effect than positive polarity. Under positive polarity, 8 pt had the lowest accuracy rate, and 10 pt had the next lowest accuracy rate. However, after the character size was increased to 12 pt or above, the accuracy rate was not promoted. Moreover, a larger character size produced a higher accuracy rate. Therefore, 12 pt and 14 pt got the best performance. As for visual fatigue, a small character size was the main factor. The findings of this study can be used in the design of tablet e-readers.
Keywords: tablet computer; legibility; visual fatigue; character size
A Proposal for an Automated Method to Produce Embossed Graphics for Blind Persons BIBAKFull-Text 144-153
  Kazunori Minatani
The aim of this paper is to provide examples illustrating the conditions for effectively functionalizing the "method of converting graphics into a form that can be perceived using senses other than sight" in the field of HCI. Specifically, it is shown that advantages that method are fully achieved with the implementation of a prototype embossed graphics output function for the statistical analysis software R. In attempting to generate automated tactile graphics from the output of any kind of graphics software, the strategy described below will be useful: a. To investigate whether the intermediate graphics format used in the relevant software consists of primitive vector format drawing commands and character printing commands that handle characters as codes, and b. If the latter conditions are fulfilled, to perform conversion to tactile graphics at the stage of graphics data expressed as that intermediate format.
Keywords: blind person; embossed graphics; vector format
Usability Evaluation of a Web System for Spatially Oriented Audio Descriptions of Images Addressed to Visually Impaired People BIBAKFull-Text 154-165
  José Monserrat Neto; André P. Freire; Sabrina S. Souto; Ramon S. Abílio
This paper describes a web system designed to provide spatially oriented audio descriptions of an image for visually impaired users. The system uses a hardware-independent platform of the technique of multimodal presentation of images. Visually impaired users interact with an image displayed on the screen while moving the cursor -- with a mouse or a tablet (pen or finger touch) -- and listening to the audio description of previously marked areas within the image. The paper also describes the usability evaluation performed with five participants and its main results. Generally, the five participants accomplished the usability test tasks and could better understand the image displayed. The paper also describes the main findings and discusses some implications for design, suggesting some improvements.
Keywords: Spacial orientation; audio descriptions
Emotional Prosodic Model Evaluation for Greek Expressive Text-to-Speech Synthesis BIBAKFull-Text 166-174
  Dimitrios Tsonos; Pepi Stavropoulou; Georgios Kouroupetroglou; Despina Deligiorgi; Nikolaos Papatheodorou
In this study we introduce a novel experimental approach towards the evaluation of emotional prosodic models in Expressive Speech Synthesis. It is based on the dimensional emotion expressivity and adopts the Self-Assessment Manikin Test. We applied this experimental approach to evaluate an emotional prosodic model for Greek expressive Text-to-Speech synthesis. We used two pseudo-sentences for each of the Greek and English HMM-based synthetic voices, implemented in the MARY TtS platform. Fifteen native Greek participants were asked to assess eleven emotional states for each sentence. The results show that the "Arousal" dimension is perceived as intended, followed by the "Pleasure" and "Dominance" dimensions' ratings. These preliminary findings are consistent with the results in previous studies.
Keywords: Expressive Speech Synthesis; prosody evaluation; Text-to-Speech; emotional state
Eye Tracking on a Paper Survey: Implications for Design BIBAKFull-Text 175-182
  Lauren Walton; Jennifer C. Romano Bergstrom; David Charles Hawkins; Christine Pierce
Asking respondents to record their activity in a diary can be a difficult task due to retrospective reporting and cognitive burden as well as the complexity of the data collection tool. Diary questionnaires typically require multiple pieces of information including demographics, activities, and duration over a data collection period. Like other questionnaire types, visual design principles can be used to help people perceive and understand what is being asked of them during diary measurement. Eye tracking, a technology that allows us to passively study people's eye movements, has been used mostly for questionnaire testing within the survey research field. This study focuses on using eye tracking and other user experience measures to analyze how respondents perceive, understand and experience different designs of the paper Nielsen TV Diary. We used eye tracking to gain insights into visual elements that draw attention, the amount of text that respondents read (e.g., terms/instructions), and how respondents complete the survey. This paper centers on the collecting and analyzing of qualitative and quantitative measures of the user experience, including eye-tracking data (e.g., fixation count, time to fixate), participants' verbalizations, self-reported satisfaction, and performance data (e.g., accuracy, steps to complete). We also provide recommendations about the design of the paper diary based on the user experience and eye-tracking results.
Keywords: Eye tracking; survey; diary; visual design; usability

Access to Education and Learning

Can Evaluation Patterns Enable End Users to Evaluate the Quality of an e-learning System? An Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 185-196
  Carmelo Ardito; Rosa Lanzilotti; Marcin Sikorski; Igor Garnik
This paper presents the results of an exploratory study whose main aim is to verify if the Pattern-Based (PB) inspection technique enables end users to perform reliable evaluation of e-learning systems in real work-related settings. The study involved 13 Polish and Italian participants, who did not have an HCI background, but used e-learning platforms for didactic and/or administrative purposes. The study revealed that the participants were able to effectively and efficiently apply the PB inspection technique with minimum effort. However, in some cases, participants complained that, in some cases, the technique appeared time demanding. This work provides some valuable suggestions to redesign the evaluation tools of the PB technique, in order to improve the focus on specific elements of the e-learning system and to streamline better the evaluation process.
Keywords: usability; inspection technique; exploratory study
Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Adults with Down's Syndrome BIBAKFull-Text 197-208
  Stefania Bargagna; Margherita Bozza; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Elena Doccini; Erico Perrone
Adults with Down Syndrome show a clear genetic susceptibility to developing Alzheimer's Disease, the most common cause of dementia worldwide. In this paper we describe a set of computer-based exercises designed for cognitive training of adults with Down Syndrome. The aim is to provide tele-rehabilitation via a Web application that can be used at home to create an enriched environment. Each exercise is presented as a game with images, text and vocal communication. The user moves forward at increasing levels of difficulty according to previous positive percentage thresholds. Performance data is centrally collected and available to the tutor to check progress and better define the training. Several categories of exercises are needed to train different abilities: attention, memory, visual-spatial orientation, temporal orientation, pre-logical and logical operations, perception, visual analysis, language, and data relevance. At this time, two modules have been implemented for exercising attention and memory.
Keywords: Training software; tele-rehabilitation; Down Syndrome; dementia; accessibility; learning games
An Analytic Tool for Assessing Learning in Children with Autism BIBAKFull-Text 209-220
  Valentina Bartalesi; Maria Claudia Buzzi; Marina Buzzi; Barbara Leporini; Caterina Senette
One approach for teaching subjects with autism is Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). ABA intervention aims to model human behavior by observing, analyzing and modifying antecedents and/or consequences of a target behavior in the environment. To achieve this, many data are recorded during each trial, such as subject response (correct/incorrect, level of prompt, inappropriate behavior, etc.). In this paper we present a web application that aggregates and visualizes data collected during technology-enhanced educational sessions, in order to monitor learning in children with autism. In a previous study we developed a free open source web application called ABCD SW, to support educators in administering ABA programs. In this study we present a learning analytic tool that retrieves, aggregates and shows -- in graphical and table form -- data gathered by ABCD SW. This software offers accurate real-time monitoring of children's learning, allowing teachers to analyze the collected data more rapidly, and to accurately tune and personalize the intervention for each child.
Keywords: Learning Analytic tool; Data Analysis; web application; Autism; ABA
Towards Improving the e-learning Experience for Deaf Students: e-LUX BIBAKFull-Text 221-232
  Fabrizio Borgia; Claudia S. Bianchini; Maria De Marsico
Deaf people are more heavily affected by the digital divide than many would expect. Moreover, most accessibility guidelines addressing their needs just deal with captioning and audio-content transcription. However, this approach to the problem does not consider that deaf people have big troubles with vocal languages, even in their written form. At present, only a few organizations, like W3C, produced guidelines dealing with one of their most distinctive expressions: Sign Language (SL). SL is, in fact, the visual-gestural language used by many deaf people to communicate with each other. The present work aims at supporting e-learning user experience (e-LUX) for these specific users by enhancing the accessibility of content and container services. In particular, we propose preliminary solutions to tailor activities which can be more fruitful when performed in one's own "native" language, which for most deaf people, especially younger ones, is represented by national SL.
Keywords: Deaf needs; Sign Language; SignWriting; User Experience; e-learning
Medium for Children's Creativity: A Case Study of Artifact's Influence BIBAKFull-Text 233-244
  Nanna Borum; Kasper Kristensen; Eva Petersson Brooks; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This paper reports on an exploratory study that investigates 16 elementary school children's interaction with two different mediums for creativity, LEGO® bricks and paper collages, drawing on the previous creativity assessment test carried out by Amabile [1]. The study is based in a playful learning theoretical framework that is reflected in the means for analyzing the video material inspired by Price, Rogers, Scaife, Stanton and Neale [2]. The findings showed that the children explored the two mediums to the same degree, but that they were more structured in their planning and division on labor when working with LEGO bricks. It was also evident that the children assigned preconceived affordances to the two mediums. The results from this study should feed into to a technology enhanced playful learning environment and these are the initial steps in the design process.
Keywords: Creativity; Playful Learning; Play; Artifacts; Technology Enhanced Learning
Action Research to Generate Requirements for a Computational Environment Supporting Bilingual Literacy of Deaf Children BIBAKFull-Text 245-253
  Juliana Bueno; Laura Sánchez García
Having as premises the user-centered design and the necessity for a greater knowledge about the real context of teaching and learning a second language to Deaf children, this study makes use of action research to get requirements for the conceptual model of a computational environment supporting bilingual literacy of Deaf children. This paper describes the activities of a particular action research process, together with its stages, performed with four Deaf children within a Brazilian public bilingual school. The process lasted three months and achieved the following results: a significant improvement in the interest of participating children in written Portuguese -- qualitative, measured by their motivation in not stopping their learning process -- and a set of functional and non functional requirements for the conceptual model to be developed.
Keywords: Action-research; user-centered design; deaf children; requirements
Early Interaction Experiences of Deaf Children and Teachers with the OLPC Educational Laptop BIBAKFull-Text 254-264
  Maíra Codo Canal; Juliana Bueno; Laura Sánchez García; Leonelo D. A. Almeida; Alessio, Jr. Miranda
The adoption of computing technologies in the schools has the potential for supporting the digital and social inclusion. However, whether such technologies are not accessible they can deepen the exclusion of students with disabilities, and other minorities. This work investigated questions regarding the use of the laptops from OLPC by deaf children between 7 and 12 years old and by teachers from a bilingual school. The results indicate that children were excited due the use of the device; even they behaved reticent during the interaction. The study also identified interaction problems regarding both hardware and software in the use of the laptop.
Keywords: Accessibility; XO laptop; computer-based learning; deaf children; OLPC
Research on Accessibility of Question Modalities Used in Computer-Based Assessment (CBA) for Deaf Education BIBAKFull-Text 265-276
  Maíra Codo Canal; Laura Sánchez García
Virtual learning environments (VLEs) are increasingly being used for several purposes and audiences worldwide. VLEs are often used for communication with peers and with teachers, for sharing and collaborating on assignments and for assessments. Although the ultimate goal of distance learning is to make education available to anyone anywhere and at anytime, this goal cannot be accomplished unless VLEs are designed to be accessible to all potential students, including those with disabilities. In this paper, we investigated the accessibility of some question types (e.g. multiple choice, essay) used in Computer-based Assessment (CBA) in the Moodle platform, focusing on deaf students. Evaluation results indicate problems related to the use of videos, images, texts and customization for users. We also propose some design solutions for those problems.
Keywords: Computer-based assessment; deaf students; virtual learning environments
Assessing Group Composition in e-learning According to Vygotskij's Zone of Proximal Development BIBAKFull-Text 277-288
  Maria De Marsico; Andrea Sterbini; Marco Temperini
In this paper we build on previous work exploring a formal way to assess the composition of learning groups. We start from our existing framework, designed to provide support to personalization in e-learning environments, comprising an implementation of the Vygotskij Theory of proximal development. In such theory, effective individual learning achievements can be only obtained within the boundaries of a cognitive zone where the learner can proceed without frustration, though with support from teacher and peers. In this endeavor, the individual development cannot disregard social-collaborative educational activities. Previously we gave operative definitions of the Zone of Proximal Development for both single learners and groups; here we aim at assessing the viability of a partition of students in groups over a common task.
Keywords: Individual Zone of Proximal Development; Group Zone of Proximal development; Personalized learning path; Social collaborative e-learning
A Data Mining Approach to the Analysis of Students' Learning Styles in an e-Learning Community: A Case Study BIBAFull-Text 289-300
  Valentina Efrati; Carla Limongelli; Filippo Sciarrone
In recent years, there has been a radical change in the world of education and training that is causing that many schools, universities and companies are adopting the most modern technologies, mainly based on Web architectures and Web 2.0 instruments and tools, for learning, managing and sharing of knowledge. In this context, an e-Learning system can reach its maximum potential and effectiveness if it could take advantage of the information in its possession and process it in an intelligent and personalized way. The Educational Data Mining is an emergent field of research where the approach to personalization makes use of the log data generated by learners during their training process, to dynamically update users learning profiles such as skills and learning styles and identify students behavioral patterns. In this paper we present a case study of a data mining approach, based on cluster analysis, in order to support the detection of learning styles in a community of learners, following the Grasha-Riechmann learning styles model. As an e-learning framework we used the Moodle LMS platform and studied the log files generated by a course taken by a community of learners. The first experimental results suggest a connection between clusters and learning styles, reinforcing the use of this approach.
Augmented Reality Tools and Learning Practice in Mobile-Learning BIBAKFull-Text 301-312
  Mauro Figueiredo; José Gomes; Cristina Gomes; João Lopes
There are many augmented reality (AR) applications available that can be used to create educational contents for these mobile devices. This paper surveys the most popular augmented reality applications and we select AR eco-systems to be used in daily teaching activities which are user friendly, do not require programming skills and are free. Different augmented reality technologies are explored in this paper to create teaching activities with animations, videos and other information to be shown on top of interactive documents. It is presented the creation of a novel augmented reality book that was developed with teachers and students. Several examples are also presented that are used in educational activities, from kindergarten to elementary and secondary schools, to improve reading, comprehension and learning of music.
Keywords: Augmented reality; e-learning; m-learning
e-Testing with Interactive Images -- Opportunities and Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 313-324
  Marjan Gusev; Sasko Ristov; Goce Armenski
Modern e-Education systems lack some basic functionalities the e-Testing systems have, such as reuse of question database, random positioning of answer options in multiple choice questions, generation of different tests with the same complexity for students, prevention of cheating by guessing and memorizing etc.
   Multimedia is essential in the delivery of e-Learning and e-Testing. However, most of the existing systems include multimedia only as delivery of static pictures and animations without any interaction with images. In this paper we refer to opportunities and challenges the interactive image might have for e-Testing.
   We present features of a new human computer interface and discuss the basic architecture of interactive images to be applied in the delivery of interactive e-Testing. At the end we discuss the benefit of this approach and present proof of a concept by analyzing the application domain.
Keywords: Google maps engine; interactive image; e-testing
On Enhancing Disabled Students' Accessibility in Environmental Education Using ICT: The MusicPaint Case BIBAKFull-Text 325-336
  Sofia J. Hadjileontiadou; Erasmia Plastra; Kostantinos Toumpas; Katerina Kyprioti; Dimitrios Mandiliotis; João Barroso; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis
This work draws upon the theoretical foundations of Special Education for People with Disability, Environmental Education and the Human Computer Interaction (HCI), from the Activity Theory perspective, to propose the MusicPaint software. Initially, the design considerations of MusicPaint are presented. Then, its pilot use by seven students with disability is described. From the qualitative and quantitative evidence of performance that was gathered, the key findings are presented and discussed. Despite the limited number of participants in the experimental validation scenarios, the findings reveal the potentiality of the MusicPaint to enhance the accessibility of students with disability to Environmental Education opportunities, contributing to the HCI-based enhancement of accessibility in the educational settings.
Keywords: Students with Disability; Special Education; Environmental Education; ICT; MusicPaint; Human-Computer Interaction; Didactical Instruction; Activity Theory
Accessibility in Multimodal Digital Learning Materials BIBAKFull-Text 337-348
  Bolette Willemann Jensen; Simon Moe
This review is based on research-based guidelines and principles for accessibility in multimodal digital learning materials and educational texts. It also includes research on the use of the body and interaction as a kind of modality. In the context of the review a number of recommendations is themed, based on findings in the literature, from a didactic-pedagogical perspective. These themes relate to: the structure and content of learning materials; software and formats; the correlation between modalities; and kinesthetics. We conclude with a presentation of general principles for the idea of broad accessibility.
Keywords: Accessibility; Multimodality; Digitalisation; Learning materials; Reading
Accessible Open Educational Resources for Students with Disabilities in Greece: They are Open to the Deaf BIBAKFull-Text 349-357
  Vassilis Kourbetis; Konstantinos Boukouras
The development Open Educational Resources is the main outcome of the project "Design and Development of Accessible Educational & Instructional Material for Students with Disabilities". A portion of the deliverables of the project that mainly concerns Deaf students, a population that is usually under presented, is presented in this article. The Collection of Educational Resources, the Bilingual Hybrid books and the online videos with interactive text navigation cover mainly elementary school needs of Deaf students. Making textbooks accessible, as Open Educational Resources, by all students including the Deaf, on a national level meets the needs of all the students in the country by creating equal opportunities for learning, participating and accessing the curriculum.
Keywords: deaf children; Greek Sign Language; open educational resources
Measuring the Effect of First Encounter with Source Code Entry for Instruction Set Architectures Using Touchscreen Devices: Evaluation of Usability Components BIBAKFull-Text 358-369
  Mihael Kukec; Vlado Glavinic; Sandi Ljubic
In this paper we address the possibility of writing program code for instruction set architectures using the touchscreen as the input device. Instruction set architecture is the common name for a collection of resources computer engineers use when developing code at the hardware level. One of the most important subsets among these resources are instructions which programmers use to create algorithms. Students enrolled in computer engineering curricula are trained to develop such solutions, using standard personal computers equipped with keyboard and mouse, thus providing them with a high level usability working environment. As technology progress has enabled the introduction of mobile platforms in the educational process, touchscreen based m-learning becomes a viable tool. To that end, in our previous research we developed a specific keyboard VMK that supports entry of assembly language code, which is based on mnemonic keys, with the aim to achieve a better efficiency of assembly coding. In the present paper we present the outcome of an improved empirical research targeting the comparison of VMK and the standard QWERTY keyboard. The results thus obtained show improved results of key usability attributes of efficiency and subjective satisfaction.
Keywords: Technology enhanced learning; usability; mobile devices; touchscreen keyboards
Framework for Adaptive Knowledge Transmission Supported by HCI and Interoperability Concepts BIBAKFull-Text 370-377
  Fernando Luís-Ferreira; João Sarraipa; Ricardo Jardim-Goncalves
Teachers and educators have the mission of transmitting the best of their knowledge using the most from available resources and following established programmatic guidelines. The continuous evolution of technology, proposing new tools and apparatus for knowledge representation and transmission, has offered innumerous options for the mission of teaching. However, more then providing a wide set of experimental setups, or multimedia contents, would be important to determine the best content for each student. Hypothetically, the best content would be defined as the most suited to promote a seamless transmission of knowledge, according to the student status and his readiness to receive those concepts. Human Computer Interfaces can promote a better interoperability between those who teach and those who learn and can better adapt contents and transmission methods to the needs and abilities of each student in class. The present paper proposes a framework for adapting knowledge transmission, either local or remotely, to the needs and circumstances of each teaching act.
Keywords: HCI; Interoperability; Emotions; Knowledge Management; Neurosciences
HCI-Based Guidelines for Electronic and Mobile Learning for Arabic Speaking Users: Do They Effectively Exist? BIBAKFull-Text 378-387
  Muhanna Muhanna; Edward Jaser
Electronic and mobile learning in recent years has been considered as an invaluable tool to support the learning process. Several tools and comprehensive platforms have been developed in the paradigms of e-learning and m-learning. One issue is the usability of these tools. It is essential to define metrics to measure efficiency, learnability, satisfaction and other usability properties. Another equally important issue is the presence of guidelines compiled based on accumulated scientific reasoning behind design decisions. In this paper, we discuss the issue of HCI-based guideline specific to designing e- and m-learning platforms and tools intended for Arabic users. We present our analysis on the availability of such guidelines, their deployment and to whether they adequately address the challenges characteristic to Arabic language.
Keywords: HCI; Arabic; E-Learning; M-Learning; Guidelines
Accessible Online Education: Audiovisual Translation and Assistive Technology at the Crossroads BIBAKFull-Text 388-399
  Emmanouela Patiniotaki
The purpose of this paper is to give prominence to the potential of the combination of access services emerging within Translation, and more specifically Audiovisual Translation and what is also known as Accessible Media or Media Accessibility, with Assistive Technology tools, which have been more widely realised as the media for accessibility. Through a thorough investigation of access provision practices within the two fields, the research aims to combine the best applications within the two fields to suggest potential implementation of AVT and AST elements towards accessible online educational environments while catering for the needs of students with sensory impairments.
Keywords: online education; assistive technology; audiovisual translation; accessibility; access services; subtitling; audio description; deaf; hard-of-hearing; sensory impairments; blind; partially sighted
Skill Development Framework for Micro-Tasking BIBAKFull-Text 400-409
  Shin Saito; Toshihiro Watanabe; Masatomo Kobayashi; Hironobu Takagi
We propose a framework of micro-tasking that intrinsically supports the development of workers' skills. It aims to help developers of micro-tasking systems add skill development capabilities to their systems with minimal development costs. This will allow micro-tasking of skill-intensive work and improve the sustainability of micro-tasking systems. Based on the results of the micro-tasking projects we have carried out, our framework has three core modules: tutorial producer, task dispatcher, and feedback visualizer, which are supported by a back-end skill assessment engine. In closing, we discuss ways to apply the proposed framework to realistic micro-tasking situations.
Keywords: Crowdsourcing; Micro-Tasks; Skill Assessment; Skill Development; Gamification; Senior Workforce
Utilizing Eye Tracking to Improve Learning from Examples BIBAKFull-Text 410-418
  Amir Shareghi Najar; Antonija Mitrovic; Kourosh Neshatian
In recent year, eye tracking has been used in many areas such as usability studies of interfaces, marketing, and psychology. Learning with computer-based educational systems relies heavily on students' interactions, and therefore eye tracking has been used to study and improve learning. We have recently conducted several studies on using worked examples in addition to tutored problem solving. In this paper we discuss how we used eye-tracking data to compare behaviors of novices and advanced students while studying examples. We propose a new technique to analyze eye-gaze patterns named EGPA. In order to comprehend SQL examples, students require information available in the database schema. We analyzed students' eye movement data from different perspectives, and found that advanced students paid more attention to database schema than novices. In future work, we will use the outcomes of this study to provide proactive feedback.
Keywords: eye tracking; learning from examples; intelligent tutoring
Engaging Students with Profound and Multiple Disabilities Using Humanoid Robots BIBAKFull-Text 419-430
  Penny Standen; David Brown; Jess Roscoe; Joseph Hedgecock; David Stewart; Maria Jose Galvez Trigo; Elmunir Elgajiji
Engagement is the single best predictor of successful learning for children with intellectual disabilities yet achieving engagement with pupils who have profound or multiple disabilities (PMD) presents a challenge to educators. Robots have been used to engage children with autism but are they effective with pupils whose disabilities limit their ability to control other technology? Learning objectives were identified for eleven pupils with PMD and a humanoid robot was programmed to enable teachers to use it to help pupils achieve these objectives. These changes were evaluated with a series of eleven case studies where teacher-pupil dyads were observed during four planned video recorded sessions. Engagement was rated in a classroom setting and during the last session with the robot. Video recordings were analysed for duration of engagement and teacher assistance and number of goals achieved. Rated engagement was significantly higher with the robot than in the classroom. Observations of engagement, assistance and goal achievement remained at the same level throughout the sessions suggesting no reduction in the novelty factor.
Keywords: Robots; education; engagement; profound and multiple intellectual disabilities; case studies; video analysis
Transfer of Learnings between Disciplines: What S-BPM Facilitators Could Ask Progressive Educators (and might not dare to do) BIBAKFull-Text 431-442
  Chris Stary
Subject-oriented Business Process Management (S-BPM) is a novel paradigm in Business Process Management (BPM). Educating students and business stakeholders in S-BPM requires facilitating a substantial mind shift from function- towards communication-oriented (re-)construction of processes. Reformist pedagogy, as driven by Maria Montessori, allows learners grasping and applying novel concepts in self-contained settings and in an individualistic while reflected way. So why not learn from her experiences for introducing S-BPM? In this contribution her analysis of human cultural factors enabling literacy has been transcribed to S-BPM education. When informing S-BPM capacity development according to progressive education, understanding the actual situation and readiness of learners seems to play a crucial role, as it influences their engagement in learning environments. These factors need to be differentiated when conveying S-BPM concepts and activities.
Keywords: Subject-oriented Business Process Management; learning; literacy; progressive education; prepared environment; BPM capacity building
DayByDay: Interactive and Customizable Use of Mobile Technology in the Cognitive Development Process of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder BIBAKFull-Text 443-453
  Vanessa Tavares de Oliveira Barros; Cristiane Affonso de Almeida Zerbetto; Kátia Tavares Meserlian; Rodolfo Barros; Murilo Crivellari Camargo; Táthia Cristina Passos de Carvalho
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was firstly described as a disturbance of affective contact, including language deficiency, social interaction limitation, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. ASD individuals are to be motivated and encouraged to seek for independence and cognitive development, in order to overcome the restrictions imposed by the disturbance. This paper presents the development of an application aimed specifically at helping ASD children aged 8-12 years improve, by establishing a sequential and highly-customizable routine. Developed with the help of professionals that work with autistic children and their caregivers, the application proves to be a support tool for the ASD individuals' reality.
Keywords: Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD); Assistive Technology (AT); Accessibility
An Introduction to the FLOE Project BIBAKFull-Text 454-465
  Jutta Treviranus; Jess Mitchell; Colin Clark; Vera Roberts
Learners learn differently. Research shows that learners learn best when the learning experience is personalized to individual needs. Open Education Resource (OER) platforms potentially provide an ideal learning environment to meet the diverse needs of learners, including learners with disabilities. Unfortunately accessibility was not a consideration when OER were initially designed or developed. When the FLOE (Flexible Learning for Open Education) Project was asked to address the accessibility of OER, rather than a traditional approach to accessibility with a single set of fixed criteria, FLOE set out to support the OER community in providing a personalized and fully integrated approach to accessible learning. This approach advances the strengths and values of open education and also encourages pedagogical and technical innovation. While ensuring the resources are accessible to diverse learners, including learners with disabilities, the approach also supports content portability, ease of updating, internationalization and localization, content reuse and repurposing, and more efficient and effective content discovery.
Keywords: Accessibility; inclusive design; open education; personalization; open education resources
Design of a Virtual Reality Driving Environment to Assess Performance of Teenagers with ASD BIBAKFull-Text 466-474
  Joshua Wade; Dayi Bian; Lian Zhang; Amy Swanson; Medha Sarkar; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an extremely common and costly neurodevelopmental disorder. While significant research has been devoted to addressing social communication skill deficits of people with ASD, relatively less attention has been paid to improving their deficits in daily activities such as driving. Only two empirical studies have investigated driving performance in individuals with ASD -- both employing proprietary driving simulation software. We designed a novel Virtual Reality (VR) driving simulator so that we could integrate various sensory modules directly into our system as well as to define task-oriented protocols that would not be otherwise possible using commercial software. We conducted a small user study with a group of individuals with ASD and a group of typically developing community controls. We found that our system was capable of distinguishing behavioral patterns between both groups indicating that it is suitable for use in designing a protocol aimed at improving driving performance.
Keywords: Virtual Reality; Autism intervention; Adaptive task; Physiological signals; Eye gaze
Learning from Each Other: An Agent Based Approach BIBAKFull-Text 475-486
  Goran Zaharija; Saša Mladenovic; Andrina Granic
This paper presents an agent based approach to knowledge representation and learning methods. Agent architecture is described and discussed, together with its advantages and limitations. Main purpose of the proposed approach is to gain further insight in current teaching methods with a foremost aspiration for their improvement. Two different experimental studies were conducted; the first one addressing knowledge representation and the second one regarding knowledge transfer between agents. Obtained results are presented and analysed.
Keywords: learning; artificial intelligence; machine learning; agent based systems

Access to Games and Ludic Engagement

SMART VIEW: A Serious Game Supporting Spatial Orientation of Subjects with Cognitive Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 489-500
  Rosa Maria Bottino; Andrea Canessa; Michela Ott; Mauro Tavella
The paper presents SMART VIEW a serious game developed with the aim of helping young people with moderate cognitive disabilities acquire those spatial abilities that are key prerequisites to autonomous mobility. The game was conceived for cognitively impaired teenagers; it proposes exercises supporting the acquisition and consolidation of competences related to space awareness and self-perception in the space; such skills are necessary to develop the sense of spatial orientation, which is critical for the target population. SMART VIEW makes use of Touch Screen tables so to allow easier access to the game content and augmented interaction. Particular attention has been devoted to the game interface design, so to make it free from cognitive barriers and fully accessible to the target population. Contents are as close as possible to reality and the educational strategy entails slow and gradual increase of the game complexity, so to properly sustain the users' cognitive effort.
Keywords: Serious Games; Spatial Orientation; Cognitive Disabilities; Perspective Taking; E-inclusion; Technology Enhanced Learning
Tabletop Computer Game Mechanics for Group Rehabilitation of Individuals with Brain Injury BIBAKFull-Text 501-512
  Jonathan Duckworth; Jessica D. Bayliss; Patrick R. Thomas; David Shum; Nick Mumford; Peter H. Wilson
In this paper we provide a rationale for using tabletop displays for the upper-limb movement rehabilitation of individuals with brain injury. We consider how computer game mechanics may leverage this technology to increase patient engagement and social interaction, and subsequently enhance prescribed training. In recent years there has been a growing interest among health professionals in the use of computer games and interactive technology for rehabilitation. Research indicates that games have the potential to stimulate a high level of interest and enjoyment in patients; enhance learning; provide safe task conditions; complement conventional therapy; and become intrinsically motivating. We explore how game mechanics that include reward structures, game challenges and augmented audiovisual feedback may enhance a goal-orientated rehabilitation learning space for individuals with brain injury. We pay particular attention to game design elements that support multiple players and show how these might be designed for interactive tabletop display systems in group rehabilitation.
Keywords: Computer Game Mechanics; Game Design; Group Interaction; Tabletop Display; Movement Rehabilitation; Acquired Brain Injury
Learning through Game Making: An HCI Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 513-524
  Jeffrey Earp; Francesca Maria Dagnino; Michela Ott
One of the areas of Game-Based Learning (GBL) that has been attracting considerable interest in recent years is digital game making, whereby learners play games but also design, construct and share them as active participants in a learning community. Human Computer Interaction (HCI) is a critical aspect of processes and tools within game making, and plays a key role in ensuring that learning experiences are both engaging and educationally fruitful. In this light, this paper examines two different game authoring environments from an HCI perspective, taking account of certain interface characteristics can affect and shape the authoring process and thus have a potential bearing on educational effectiveness. The investigation draws on findings from an EU co-funded project called MAGICAL (MAking Games In CollaborAtion for Learning), which is exploring the potential that game making offers for activating key transversal skills such as problem-solving, creativity and ICT competency, particularly at primary school level.
Keywords: Game Making; Game-Based Learning; Technology Enhanced Learning; Human Computer Interaction; Usability; Accessibility
Videogaming Interaction for Mental Model Construction in Learners Who Are Blind BIBAKFull-Text 525-536
  Matías Espinoza; Jaime Sánchez; Márcia de Borba Campos
The purpose of this work is to present the design, development and evaluation of a videogame that allows users who are blind to gradually build up a mental model based on references between different points on a Cartesian plane, in a way that is both didactic and entertaining. Two prototypes were iteratively created, and were subjected to usability evaluations by the end users, who used the videogame in the context of a set of defined tasks. This allowed researchers to adjust, improve and validate various aspects of the interfaces that had been designed and implemented. In addition, the cognitive impact of the game on blind learners was evaluated, based on the use of the final version of the videogame, and leading to revealing results regarding the proposed objectives.
Keywords: People who are blind; Videogame; Reference system; Mental model; Audio and haptic based interfaces; Wiimote
A Data-Driven Entity-Component Approach to Develop Universally Accessible Games BIBAKFull-Text 537-548
  Franco Eusébio Garcia; Vânia Paula de Almeida Neris
Design and implementing accessible games can be challenging, particularly when the designers wish to address different interaction capabilities. Universally-Accessible Games (UA-Games), for instance, follow the principles of the Design for All, aiming to enable the broadest audience as possible to play. Although there are papers regarding the design of UA-Games, the implementation can still be challenging. This paper presents a flexible and extensible approach to implement an UA-Game. The approach relies in a data-driven and component based architecture to allow game entities to be created, managed and customized during run-time. Doing so, it is possible to change the behavior and presentation of the game whilst it is running, allowing the game to adapt itself to better address the interaction needs of the user. Furthermore, being data-driven, it is possible to create and customize user profiles to address specific interaction requirements.
Keywords: Universal Design; Game Accessibility; Universally-Accessible Game; Game Design; Game Development
Players' Opinions on Control and Playability of a BCI Game BIBAFull-Text 549-560
  Hayrettin Gürkök; Bram van de Laar; Danny Plass-Oude Bos; Mannes Poel; Anton Nijholt
Brain-computer interface (BCI) games can satisfy our need for competence by providing us with challenges that we should enjoy tackling. However, many BCI games that claim to provide enjoyable challenges fail to do so. Some common fallacies and pitfalls about BCI games play a role in this failure and in this paper we report on a study that we carried out to empirically investigate them. More specifically, we explored (1) active and passive interaction with BCI games, (2) BCI gaming as a skill and (3) playability of a BCI game. We conducted an experiment with 42 participants who played a popular computer game called World of Warcraft using a commercial BCI headset called EPOC. We conducted interviews about the participants' experiences of the game and ran a phenomenological analysis on their responses. The analysis results showed that (1) the players would like to play a BCI game actively if the BCI controls critical game elements, (2) the technical challenges of BCI cannot motivate the players to play a BCI game and (3) the players' enjoyment of one-time playing of a BCI game does not imply playability of the game.
Designing Playful Games and Applications to Support Science Centers Learning Activities BIBAFull-Text 561-570
  Michail N. Giannakos; David Jones; Helen Crompton; Nikos Chrisochoides
In recent years there has been a renewed interest on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. Following this interest, science centers' staff started providing technology enhanced informal STEM education experiences. The use of well-designed mobile and ubiquitous forms of technology to enrich informal STEM education activities is an essential success factor. The goal of our research is to investigate how technology applications can be better used and developed for taking full advantage of the opportunities and challenges they provide for students learning about STEM concepts. In our approach, we have conducted a series of interviews with experts from science center curating and outdoor learning activities development, with the final goal of exploring and improving current learning environments and practices. This paper presents the development of set of design considerations for the development of STEM games and applications of young students. An initial set of best practices was first developed through semi-structures interviews with experts; and afterwards, by employing content analysis, a revised set of considerations was obtained. These results are useful for STEM education teachers, curriculum designers, curators and developers for K-12 education environments.
Designing Sociable CULOT as a Playground Character BIBAKFull-Text 571-580
  Nihan Karatas; Nozomi Kina; Daiki Tanaka; Naoki Ohshima; P. Ravindra S. De Silva; Michio Okada
CULOT is designed as a playground character with the aim of grounding the playground language (verbal, non-verbal, playing-rules, etc) between children through play-routing while experiencing the pleasure of play. A robot establishes "persuasiveness" activities inside the playground, through the process of generating play rules/contexts and executive social interactions and engagement toward the intention of "attachment" of the children to the robot through interaction and activities. The behavior of the robot plays a significant role in executing the above playground activities (or interaction). As a primary study, our focus is to explore how robot behaviors (cues) are capable of generating the playground rules, social interaction and engagement in order to convey its intention to children and extract the potential dimensions in order to design CULOT behaviors as a playground character by considering the above factors.
Keywords: Playground language; persuasiveness; attachment
KidSmart© in Early Childhood Learning Practices: Playful Learning Potentials? BIBAKFull-Text 581-592
  Eva Petersson Brooks; Nanna Borum
This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from children's play with technology in early childhood learning practices. The study is grounded in a sociocultural perspective on play and learning and consists of an analysis of children's interaction with the KidSmart furniture, particularly focusing on playful learning potentials and values suggested by the technology. The study applied a qualitative approach and included125 children (aged three to five), 10 pedagogues, and two librarians. The results suggests that educators should sensitively consider intervening when children are interacting with technology, and rather put emphasize into the integration of the technology into the environment and to the curriculum in order to shape playful structures for children's individual and collective interaction with technology.
Keywords: Early childhood learning; playful learning; interaction; technology; affordances
Interactive Multimodal Molecular Set -- Designing Ludic Engaging Science Learning Content BIBAKFull-Text 593-604
  Tine Pinholt Thorsen; Kasper Holm Christiansen; Kristian Jakobsen Sillesen; Torben Rosenørn; Eva Petersson Brooks
This paper reports on an exploratory study investigating 10 primary school students' interaction with an interactive multimodal molecular set fostering ludic engaging science learning content in primary schools (8th and 9th grade). The concept of the prototype design was to bridge the physical and virtual worlds with electronic tags and, through this, blend the familiarity of the computer and toys, to create a tool that provided a ludic approach to learning about atoms and molecules. The study was inspired by the participatory design and informant design methodologies and included design collaboratorium sessions, interviews and observations. The results indicated that bridging the physical and digital worlds can support learning where the affordances of the technologies can be described in terms of meaningful activity: exploration, reasoning, reflection, and ludic engagement. Here, the electronic tags facilitate the application and provide the students to articulate knowledge through different modes; images, gestures, and 3D objects.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; multimodality; ludic engagement; learning; abstract concepts; pedagogy
Modeling Videogames for Mental Mapping in People Who Are Blind BIBAKFull-Text 605-616
  Jaime Sánchez; Matías Espinoza; Márcia de Borba Campos; Letícia Lopes Leite
Mental maps allow users to acquire, codify and manipulate spatial information, as they are schematics that guide behavior and help to deal with spatial problems by providing solutions. This is to say that mental or cognitive maps involve processes of spatial reasoning. The purpose of this work was to design a videogame development model to serve as a framework for designing videogames to help learners who are blind to construct mental maps for the development of geometric-mathematical abilities and orientation and mobility (O&M) skills.
Keywords: Development model; videogames; mental map; geometry; orientation and mobility
Most Important in the Design: Focus on the Users' Needs, a Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 617-625
  Cecilia Sik Lanyi; Agnes Nyeki; Veronika Szücs
This paper presents the design process of the rehabilitation game "Gardener" that was carried out within the StrokeBack project as a case study. The game was developed for the purpose that stroke patients with upper limb injuries should carry out flexion and extension movements with their fingers several times in a row constantly. During the development, the developers did not only perform the alpha testing with stroke patients, but they were in connection with the therapists and were seeking for their views at the creation of each new version. As a result, the "Gardener" game is not only useful, but also a delightful rehabilitation game for patients.
Keywords: stroke; rehabilitation; game; user needs
Combining Ludology and Narratology in an Open Authorable Framework for Educational Games for Children: the Scenario of Teaching Preschoolers with Autism Diagnosis BIBAFull-Text 626-636
  Nikolas Vidakis; Eirini Christinaki; Iosif Serafimidis; Georgios Triantafyllidis
This paper presents the initial findings and the on-going work of IOLAOS project, a general open authorable framework for educational games for children. This framework features an editor, where the game narrative can be created or edited, according to specific needs. A ludic approach is also used both for the interface as well as for the game design. More specifically, by employing physical and natural user interface (NUI), we aim to achieve ludic interfaces. Moreover, by designing the educational game with playful elements, we follow a ludic design. This framework is then applied for the scenario of teaching preschoolers with autism diagnosis. Children with autism have been reported to exhibit deficits in the recognition of affective expressions and the perception of emotions. With the appropriate intervention, elimination of those deficits can be achieved. Interventions are proposed to start as early as possible. Computer-based programs have been widely used with success to teach people with autism to recognize emotions. However, those computer interventions require considerable skills for interaction. Such abilities are beyond very young children with autism as most probably they don't have the skills to interact with computers. In this context, our approach with the suggested framework employs a ludic interface based on NUI, a ludic game design and takes account of the specific characteristics of preschoolers with autism diagnosis and their physical abilities for customizing accordingly the narrative of the game.

Access to Culture

Engaging People with Cultural Heritage: Users' Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 639-649
  Maria Eugenia Beltrán; Yolanda Ursa; Silvia de los Rios; María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Miguel Páramo; Belén Prados; Lucía María Pérez
Although Culture is a very important asset of population and a driver for personal and economic development, the engagement of citizens with their cultural heritage environment remains low. The European project TAG CLOUD explores the use of cloud-based technologies that lead to adaptability and personalisation to promote lifelong engagement with Culture. Within the context of this project, early-stage evaluations with users have been carried out for designing the scenarios and use cases that will be developed, and will act as a general framework, for the project. This paper presents the results of two evaluations: the user-driven evaluation conducted in the Monumental Complex of Alhambra and Generalife, which assessed the main users' needs and expectations; and the Cultural Heritage managers' focus group, which assessed technologies and approaches for alignment with users' expectations.
Keywords: engagement; cultural heritage; UCD; ICT; TAG CLOUD
The Practice of Showing 'Who I am': A Multimodal Analysis of Encounters between Science Communicator and Visitors at Science Museum BIBAKFull-Text 650-661
  Mayumi Bono; Hiroaki Ogata; Katsuya Takanashi; Ayami Joh
In this paper, we try to contribute to the design of future technologies used in science museums where there is no explicit, pre-determined relationship regarding knowledge between Science Communicators (SCs) and visitors. We illustrate the practice of interaction between them, especially focusing on social encounter. Starting in October 2012, we conducted a field study at the National Museum of Emerging Science and Innovation (Miraikan) in Japan. Based on multimodal analysis, we examine various activities, focusing on how expert SCs communicate about science: how they begin interactions with visitors, how they maintain them, and how they conclude them.
Keywords: Multimodal Interaction Analysis; Social encounter; Science Communicators (SCs); Science Museum
Using Augmented Reality and Social Media in Mobile Applications to Engage People on Cultural Sites BIBAKFull-Text 662-672
  Silvia de los Ríos; María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Miguel Páramo; Bastian Baranski; Jochen Meis; Michael Gerhard; Belén Prados; Lucía Pérez; María del Mar Villafranca
One of the toughest challenges that curators and professionals in the heritage sector face is how to attract, engage and retain visitors of heritage institutions. The current approaches have only limited success since they still follow the same centralized strategy of producing and delivering cultural content to the general public. This paper provides an overview of current trends in information technology that are most relevant to cultural institutions, and investigates how augmented reality, gamification, storytelling and social media can improve visitors' experience by providing new means of participation, proposing a radically new approach in defining cultural content and creating personalised experiences with cultural heritage objects. The paper considers actual use cases provided by the European research project TAG CLOUD to define the functional range of suitable applications and proposes a set of system components that are being implemented in TAG CLOUD.
Keywords: Augmented reality; social media; gamification; storytelling; mobile applications; cultural heritage; TAG CLOUD
Using Cloud Technologies for Engaging People with Cultural Heritage BIBAKFull-Text 673-680
  Silvia de los Ríos; María Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María Teresa Arredondo; Patricia Abril; Viveca Jiménez; Christos Giachritsis
Cultural heritage is an important asset of Europe which is largely underexplored. One of the main reasons is that the general public do not really incorporate cultural activities in their life style. Currently, curators and professionals in the heritage sector face the toughest challenges on how to attract, engage and retain visitors of heritage institutions (libraries, museums, archives and historical societies). TAG CLOUD FP7 European project seeks to overcome this situation and promote lifelong engagement with culture by personalising the visitors' cultural experiences through cloud technologies.
Keywords: cultural heritage; cloud technologies; TAG CLOUD; engagement; personalisation
Tailoring Lifelong Cultural Experiences BIBAFull-Text 681-692
  Jacqueline Floch; Shanshan Jiang; Maria Eugenia Beltrán; Eurydice Georganteli; Ioanna Koukounis; Belén Prados; Lucia María Pérez; María del Mar Villafranca; Silvia de los Ríos; María F. Cabrera-Umpiérrez; María T. Arredondo
ICT-based personalization in cultural heritage has been an important topic of research during the last twenty years. Personalization is used as a means to enhance the visitors' experience of a cultural site. Little consideration has however been set on lifelong cultural experiences, i.e. engaging the public in culture beyond the visit of a single site and bridging multiple sites. Cultural sites differ leading to a diversity of needs that should be taken into account through a personalization approach. This paper presents a set of scenarios tailored to suit the needs of three different Cultural Heritage sites in different EU countries. These scenarios have been developed within the EU funded project TAG CLOUD that aims at leveraging existing technologies to support realistic lifelong engagement experiences with cultural heritage through personalized content and interaction.
Designing Personalised Itineraries for Europe's Cultural Routes BIBAKFull-Text 693-704
  Eurydice S. Georganteli; Ioanna N. Koukouni
Throughout history it has been necessary for mankind to travel: for a better life, for pilgrimage, for religious or political freedom, for trade, for communication between nations or for conquest. Each culture as it developed found in coinage the most powerful means to facilitate and control economic activities within and outside its territories. And as peoples from different cultures travelled and mixed with others, so did their coins. Byzantine, Islamic, and western medieval European coins circulated and changed hands along routes of migration, trade, war, pilgrimage and diplomacy; the routes set out from Constantinople/Istanbul to the Adriatic in the western Balkans; from the Black Sea to the eastern and western Mediterranean; from Britain, Scandinavia to Russia. The Barber Institute of Fine Arts at the University of Birmingham houses one of the finest collections of medieval Christian and Islamic coins worldwide. This paper presents select case studies based on the numismatic resources of the Barber Institute to show the role of coins as a means to track and discuss inter-cultural dialogue that took place along Europe's cultural routes. The combination of storylines based on coins, related artefacts and sites, and the implementation of modern technologies can further social engagement and alert existing and new audiences of the potential of cultural heritage as a major connecting thread of Europe's diverse cultural communities.
Keywords: cultural routes; coins; lifelong learning; Byzantium; medieval Europe; medieval Islam; cross-cultural encounters; global audience; museum; exhibition; heritage; cultural routes
Widening Access to Intangible Cultural Heritage: towards the Development of an Innovative Platform BIBAKFull-Text 705-713
  Michela Ott; Francesca Maria Dagnino; Francesca Pozzi; Mauro Tavella
The paper discusses around Human Computer Interaction aspects of advanced learning systems. It underlines the added value (in terms of widening the learning possibilities and enhancing the learning experience) of designing the system itself only after having carefully taken into account the users' requirements regulating the interactions between the learners and the technological environments. In doing so, it offers the view of what has been done in the EU project i-Treasures, which focuses on Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICHs) and investigates whether and to what extent new technology can play a role in widening the access to the underpinning rare know-how, and possibly sustaining its transmission / passing down to next generations. The project can be regarded as exemplar since it instantiates a very peculiar situation where HCI aspects are deeply affected by the fact that the i-Treasures technological system foresees the massive use of cutting edge sensors.
Keywords: Cultural Heritage Education; Intangible Cultural Heritage; Human Computer Interaction; Learning Management Systems; Educational platforms; Accessibility; Usability
Adaptive User Experiences in the Cultural Heritage Information Space BIBAFull-Text 714-725
  Luke Speller; Philip Stephens; Daniel Roythorne
Given the thematic diversity, richness and variance in exposition of published cultural heritage information and artefacts, accessing pertinent information can be a cumbersome task. The TAGCLOUD project aims to create an adaptive cultural heritage experience for individuals based on their personal preferences, allowing users to navigate with ease around both cultural artefacts and the related information space. Users will establish a narrative between themselves and their cultural heritage experience.
   We propose metrics and methods for making the transition from a pull-based dynamic to a successful push-based methodology. Users are inevitably overwhelmed by the volume and specificity of cultural data, so traditional query-based interaction (e.g. filtering and sorting) is insufficient to guarantee a relevancy to the user of the retrieved information. Further, the small form factor of mobile devices poses strict limitations on the complexity of the interface and interaction methods available.
   The TAGCLOUD system applies content personalisation and context aware techniques from web search and marketing, to the realm of cultural heritage. We incorporate the geographical, chronological, historical and narrative relationships between cultural items, and span levels ranging from entire cities to individual artefacts. For each of these levels it is important to broadly define the possible ways the experience can be tailored. Information may be presented via different modalities, including audio, text, and augmented reality; and can vary according to an individuals interests and level of understanding. The context of the user can affect how and what is delivered, and may depend on their location, familiarity with their surroundings, or who they are with. Information and media should be presented so as to complement the experience and not detract from it.
   We investigate how we can retrieve information about the user both passively and actively. Information from the users device allows us to investigate their interaction with artefacts, and enables the system to form assumptions of their respective interest levels. Additional information is procured from social networking information, such as local graph traversal, and interactions related to the cultural heritage experience. We investigate how preference is extracted from the user model, how the system mitigates against destructive feedback that would show inappropriate suggestions. We propose the use of non-normative expressions of preference, to circumvent the tendency towards the populist mean, a generic weakness of ratings-based recommender systems.

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 3

Universal Access to Education

Criteria for Designing Blended Learning Materials for Inclusive Education: Perspectives of Teachers and Producers BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Ingo K. Bosse
Inclusion and learning with media are both global megatrends in 21st century education and both are stimulating profound changes for educational institutions. While there is consensus that media education offers special opportunities for inclusive classrooms, most of the blended learning platforms currently on offer are not accessible to and thus not usable for students with special needs. It is a challenge for both teachers and producers of media based learning materials to meet the needs of all students. The purpose of the exploratory study presented here was to collect qualitative data on the didactical requirements for inclusive learning materials from the perspectives of teachers and producers. The subject of the study was "Planet School", the most important blended learning platform available for schools in Germany. To include the perspectives of experienced teachers the first research module had a focus on their practical experiences in inclusive classrooms. Based on participatory observation and interviews it was possible to develop recommendations for the design of blended learning materials for inclusive education. The second module focused on the perspectives of the producers. Based on the results of module one the responsible public broadcaster developed criteria for the design of materials, modules, and activities for inclusive education. This article compares the different perspectives. This procedure will lead to the development of a blended learning platform that addresses the needs of different types of learners and offers accessible and usable materials including movies, television broadcasts, and interactive and multimedia content for students with different prerequisites for learning.
Keywords: E-inclusion; Blended learning; Broadcasters; Inclusive education; Inclusive multimedia learning materials
Interaction Design of Digital Teaching Improves Teaching and Learning Effectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 15-22
  Tsung-Chou Chang; Ya-Fen Tsai; Fong-Gong Wu
With increasing penetration of mobile device like smart mobile phone, appropriate cloud system can be a good match for powerful teaching aid in classroom. Hu-man Computer Interaction is an important part of visual ergonomics and cognitive ergonomics. It focuses on mental process including perception, memory, inference and motor reaction, etc. The application of teaching is to expect that students can use active learning through interactive design to pay more attention on and complete various tasks instructed by teachers. Therefore, interactive teaching-aided software can not only make teaching activities vivid and variations but also increase students' attention and the willingness of active learning in classroom. The rise of "flipped classroom" in 2007 was also a teaching concept to propose that student should be returned to a learning body and interaction of teacher and student in classroom should be given attention. This study is to explore the relevant literatures for active learning, interactive design, action learning and flipped classroom, etc., supported by interactive design based on the concept of flipped classroom immediate feedback that how teaching media-Zuvio improves teacher's teaching skill through mobile APP and cloud system. The result of this study can be used as improvement of teachers' teaching effectiveness and students' learning outcomes.
Keywords: Human computer interaction; Visual ergonomic; Cognitive ergonomics; Active learning; Flipped classroom; Mobile APP; Interaction design
Exploring the Interactivity Issues of the Stereoscopic 3D Systems for Design Education BIBAKFull-Text 23-30
  Li-Chieh Chen; Yun-Maw Cheng; Po-Ying Chu; Frode Eika Sandnes
Stereoscopic 3D displays have been used by some research groups to present learning contents for education. However, in the highly interactive situations, the intertwined depth cues may result in symptoms that hamper the usability of such systems. In this research, an experiment was conducted to explore the interactivity issues. Thirty students were invited to participate in the experiment. The first task was to identify the differences between printed pictures and 3D virtual models. The second task was to point out ergonomic or design problems in a single piece of furniture or pairs of chairs and tables. Based on the analysis, discomfort caused by model rotation did contribute to the degree of overall discomfort. Even all participants had the background of using 3D modeling systems, some still experienced different levels of symptoms. Their comments indicated that adaptive adjustments of disparity and control response ratio were necessary in the highly interactive situations.
Keywords: Stereoscopic 3D displays; Design education; Interactivity issues
Enhancing Blended Environments Through Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping of LMS Users' Quality of Interaction: The Rare and Contemporary Dance Paradigms BIBAKFull-Text 31-42
  Sofia B. Dias; Sofia J. Hadjileontiadou; José Alves Diniz; Leontios J. Hadjileontiadis
Nowadays, higher education institutions (HEIs) are facing the need of constant monitoring of users' interaction with Learning Management Systems (LMSs), in order to identify key areas for potential improvement. In fact, LMSs under blended (b-) learning mode can efficiently support online learning environments (OLEs) at HEIs. An important challenge would be to provide flexible solutions, where intelligent models could contribute, involving artificial intelligence and incertitude modelling, e.g., via Fuzzy Logic (FL). This study addresses the hypothesis that the structural characteristics of a Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) can efficiently model the way LMS users interact with it, by estimating their Quality of Interaction (QoI) within a b-learning context. This work proposes the FCM-QoI model, consisting of 14 input-one output concepts, dependences and trends, considering one academic year of two dance disciplines (i.e., the Rare and Contemporary Dances) of the LMS Moodle use. The experimental results reveal that the proposed FCM-QoI model can provide concepts interconnection and causal dependencies representation of Moodle LMS users' QoI, helping educators of HEIs to holistically visualize, understand and assess stakeholders' needs. In general, the results presented here could shed light upon designing aspects of educational scenarios, but also to those involved in cultural preservation and exploitation initiatives, such as the i-Treasures project (http://i-treasures.eu/).
Keywords: Blended learning scenarios; Moodle learning management system; Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs); Quality of Interaction (QoI); Rare and contemporary dance; i-Treasures
Once Upon a Tablet: A School Toy in the Making BIBAKFull-Text 43-53
  Isabel Cristina G. Fróes
The current paper introduces the definitions of playful literacy and multimodal hyper-intertextuality, key concepts when researching children's use of digital tablets. The pilot investigation, which took place in spring 2014 in Denmark, is part of a larger cross-cultural comparative project exploring what emergent behaviors are present when preschool children use and play with tablets in their formal learning environments. In order to map the array of play and usage of such devices for this research, after the first round of observations, the tablet taxonomy was outlined and has been applied as a guide for the subsequent rounds of data collection. The proposed definitions are a valuable contribution to the field of multisensory interfaces, due to their pervasiveness on digital mobile platforms.
Keywords: Tablet; Play; Interaction design; Intertextuality; Literacy; Education
AfterNext: Decoding the Future of Higher Education in 2030 BIBAFull-Text 54-65
  Myk Garn
In the world of academic innovation there are many experts; experienced entrepreneurs who know what needs to be done next to improve faculty and student success in the rapidly changing environment of academe. More bandwidth, more funding, more professional development, more attention to quality and to test security; all very important -- and all very unhelpful when one is tasked with visioning not what should come next -- but what will come AFTER next.
   Higher education is in the midst of turbulent change. An academic culture steeped in reflection and teaching is being disrupted and reconstructed into a globally connected ecosystem of networked, 24X7X365 co-creators and co-learners. Roles and paradigms held dear and true are challenged. The rate of change, the unpredictable, unrelenting emergence of new, disruptive models makes planning and preparing for the future even more conflicted, confusing -- and critical.
   This was the challenge facing the University System of Georgia in 2013. A recently completed report on distance learning needs had surfaced many critical needs -- but few visionary directions -- for the System to consider or plan from. This need was clear to Chancellor "Hank" Huckaby in November of 2013 when he addressed a convening of the System's leading educational entrepreneurs at a symposium entitled "MOOCs and Beyond." Challenging the leaders to examine and explore the future fearlessly, he acknowledged, "...we don't know what lies beyond...and that's important." This observation framed and guided the System initiative, and Georgia's intent, to "Invent the Beyond."
From Trebizond to Al-Andalus: Visualizing the Late Medieval Mediterranean BIBAKFull-Text 66-76
  Eurydice S. Georganteli; Ioanna N. Koukouni
No place can better represent the meeting of cultures in late medieval Europe than the Mediterranean. Intellectual, artistic, and societal interactions during this time have impacted material culture on many levels. These interactions are yet visible in coins, monuments, cityscapes, languages, music, ideas, knowledge, and technologies. Byzantine, medieval Islamic, Norman, Italian, and Crusader coins have been the dominant evidence of cultural interactions between opposing Mediterranean shores. This paper presents aspects of cultural encounters in the late medieval Mediterranean, visualized in storylines and accompanying digitized datasets, and supported by computer technologies and related digital applications.
Keywords: Late medieval Mediterranean; Cultural heritage; Coins; Intercultural dialogue; Digital cultural heritage; Mobile applications; Cloud-based platforms; Personalization
STEM Scalable Model for Enhancing Secondary and Postsecondary Student On-Line Services BIBAKFull-Text 77-88
  Noel Gregg; April Galyardt; Robert Todd
The purpose of this paper is to examine the BreakThru e-mentoring model for scalability purposes. Two aspects of this STEM e-mentoring program were examined: (1) the use of virtual environments and social media settings; and (2) the development of e-mentoring relationships (i.e., quality and engagement). Three secondary and three postsecondary institutions participated in the project. Mentors (n=33) were recruited from postsecondary faculty, secondary teachers, graduate students, and business leaders. Of the BreakThru participants (n=188), 57% of the students continued in the program for multiple years. Specific design issues are described as essential for developing and measuring the outcomes of a similar student on-line resource.
Keywords: Scalable model; STEM; Disability; E-mentoring; On-Line services; Virtual world; Social media
A TUI-Based Storytelling for Promoting Inclusion in the Preschool Classroom BIBAKFull-Text 89-100
  Julián Esteban Gutiérrez Posada; Heiko Hornung; Maria Cecília Martins; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
Technologies such as Tangible User Interfaces (TUIs) take advantage of the natural ability of children to tell stories, play and explain their personal and social behavior. TUI technologies can be designed to constitute scenarios of technology use for all and thus benefit inclusive schools. Challenges of designing such scenarios in the classroom include distraction of students, acceptance by teachers, and inclusion of students with disabilities. In this paper we focus on investigating the acceptance of a TUI environment, designed for the educational context of creating, sharing and telling stories collaboratively. We present a system as background for an evaluation of acceptance based on the Self Assessment Manikin model. Two groups of subjects participated in the evaluation: a group of HCI specialists, and a group of teachers working in an inclusive educational context. The pilot study with HCI specialists established a baseline showing that the system potentially has a high acceptance rate. The teachers reported in a subsequent study high levels of Pleasure and Arousal while we detected greater variance in the Dominance dimension. Although we do not see this variance as critical, it requires attention for the more complex modes of the system.
Keywords: TUI; Storytelling; Narrative; SAM
Delivering User-Centered Content on an Inclusive Mobile Platform: How to Produce It and Use It! BIBAKFull-Text 101-108
  Valerie C. Haven
The adoption of mobile learning in higher education is facilitating new avenues for inclusive and accessible learning. The bedrock for these learning environments is the accessible software/hardware included in newer smart devices. Non-traditional learners such as those from diverse racial, cultural, and linguistic backgrounds as well as learners with disabilities are gaining access to higher education using these technologies.
   Even though inclusive technology is opening doors to the non-traditional learner, reliance on the access features within technology is still causing barriers to education. One barrier is that technology continues to evolve rapidly and with each upgrade new interface issues arise. The second barrier is that the dependence on smart devices to provide access to education does not address inaccessible course design and delivery of educational content.
Keywords: Mobile learning; Inclusive learning; Accessibility; Inclusive content; Productivity tools; Synergistic Learning Theory (S.L.T.)
Preparing All Students for 21st Century College and Careers BIBAKFull-Text 109-119
  Margo Izzo; Alexa Murray; Andrew Buck; Victor Johnson; Eliseo Jimenez
Preparing all students for lifelong success in a rapidly changing global economy requires schools to reconsider both what and how educators teach and students learn in the 21st century. This paper presents examples of curricula, programs, and delivery methods that promote increased learning in core academics, technology, and life and career skills for students with disabilities at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Three initiatives, EnvisionIT (EIT), Ohio's STEM Ability Alliance (OSAA), and Transition Options in Postsecondary Settings (TOPS), provide models of engendering 21st century skills utilizing 21st century tools that support all students' transition from high school to college and careers.
Keywords: 21st century skills; College and career readiness; Employment; Students with disabilities; Self-advocacy; STEM; Technology; Transition
Universal Access to Media and the California Community Colleges Online Education Initiative BIBAKFull-Text 120-126
  Michael James Jayme Johnson
The California Community College system launched the Online Education Initiative in 2014 to address the needs of students and to more effectively leverage the collective resources of the 113 campuses to provide the services needed for degree completion and transfer to university. Providing a common base of instructional technology resources, student services, and a statewide exchange of courses, and with all of this being universally accessible, the Online Education Initiative is one of the most ambitious efforts to address the needs of online students and educators in the history of California.
Keywords: Online education; Accessibility; Adaptable computing; OEI; California; Digital ecosystem
How Competency-Based Education Can Fulfill the Promise of Educational Technology BIBAKFull-Text 127-136
  Sally M. Johnstone; David E. Leasure
Even with today's sophisticated technologies, we usually are still exporting the classroom as if that is the ideal learning environment. Learning science has advanced a great deal in the past several centuries since the lecture became the most common form of 'teaching' at colleges and universities. There is a lot we know about how people learn, yet very few faculty members are learning experts. There is good evidence that adaptive or personalized learning environments help more students be successful, but these are hard to implement in traditional settings. The use of a competency-based education model can facilitate the use of these new learning environments to benefit students.
Keywords: Competency-based education; CBE; Personalized learning; Adaptive learning; Student success; WGU
Leveraging Virtual Worlds for Electronic Mentoring BIBAKFull-Text 137-148
  Christopher Langston; Nathan Moon; Robert Todd; Noel Gregg; Gerri Wolfe
The Georgia STEM Accessibility Alliance's BreakThru electronic mentoring program responds to a National Science Foundation request for research on virtual worlds to support outcomes for students with disabilities. It also addresses student advancement through critical junctures to STEM careers, particularly from secondary to post-secondary education, and from the undergraduate to graduate level. BreakThru has developed from an exploration of technology platforms into a full-fledged mentoring program that currently enrolls 85 students and 38 mentors. The overall aim of BreakThru is to increase the persistence in STEM of students with disabilities who are enrolled in the program. Toward this end, efficacy is measured in part through enrollment and retention of secondary and postsecondary students with disabilities into virtual mentoring. BreakThru is unique among mentoring programs due to its use of the virtual world Second Life to support or implement most project activities.
Keywords: Second life; Electronic mentoring; Students with disabilities; Persistence; Retention; STEM
Integrating Motion-Capture Augmented Reality Technology as an Interactive Program for Children BIBAKFull-Text 149-156
  Chien-Yu Lin; Chien-Jung Chen; Yu-Hung Liu; Hua-Chen Chai; Cheng-Wei Lin; Yu-Mei Huang; Ching-Wen Chen; Chien-Chi Lin
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of free interactive games invention program on jumping performance. This study design interactive games using motion capture technology that enable participant to interact using body motion in augmented environment. Scratch 2.0, using an augmented-reality function via webcam, creates real world and virtual reality merge at the same screen. Scratch-based motion capture system which uses physical activities as the input stimulate. This study uses a webcam integration that tracks movements and allows participants to interact physically with the project, to enhance the motivation of children in elementary. Participants are 7 children in elementary school; the independent variable was some interactive games arranged by the authors, the dependent variable was the immediate effect by the intervention program on jumping performance. The experimental location was in a classroom of elementary school. The results show the Scratch-base free support system could be allowed the participants some clues, so they could have the motivation to do physical activities by themselves. The participants have a significant achievement via free Scratch-base augmented reality instead of traditional activities.
Keywords: Physical activity; Scratch 2.0; Augmented-reality; Webcam; Motion capture
A JBrick: Accessible Robotics Programming for Visually Impaired Users BIBAKFull-Text 157-168
  Stephanie Ludi; Scott Jordan
Despite advances in assistive technology, challenges remain in pre-college computer science outreach and university programs for visually impaired students. The use of robotics has been popular in pre-college classrooms and outreach programs, including those that serve underrepresented groups. This paper describes the specific accessibility features implemented in software that provides an accessible Lego Mindstorms NXT programming environment for teenage students who are visually impaired. JBrick is designed to support students with diverse visual acuity and who use needed assistive technology. Field tests over several days showed that JBrick has the potential to accommodate students who are visually impaired as they work together to program Lego Mindstorms NXT robots.
Keywords: Accessibility; Robotics; Visual impairment
Effects of Superimposing Salient Graphics on Learning Material BIBAKFull-Text 169-178
  Shu Matsuura; Takumi Shigihara
We investigate the effects of superimposing animated graphics of a virtual character (VC) on physics simulation learning material. Eye-tracking experiments revealed that the VC drew attention to the animated simulation display in a tutorial mode in which the user remained passive to instruction. No similar effect of superimposing was found when the user was engaged in the interface of waiting for key-in mode. Visual incongruity together with contextual congruity is believed to work as a stimulus to raise interest in the intuitive elements of the material. As one application, we describe the development of a visual annotation system based on augmented reality technology. The annotations were visualized in stereoscopic three-dimensional graphics using a see-through wearable binocular-type display. This system is useful for users to obtain in-depth knowledge individually from a large projected image shared with an entire class. This is expected to enable learners to retrieve knowledge at their own paces, while raising interest in the entire view.
Keywords: Learning materials; See-through wearable display; Augmented reality; Stereoscopic 3D
Determining the Efficacy of Communications Technologies and Practices to Broaden Participation in Education: Insights from a Theory of Change BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Nathan W. Moon; Robert L. Todd; Noel Gregg; Christopher L. Langston; Gerri Wolfe
BreakThru is the core project of the Georgia STEM Accessibility Alliance (GSAA), which is supported by the Research in Disabilities Education (RDE) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Launched in 2010, GSAA is one of 10 RDE Alliances throughout the United States designed to broaden the participation and achievement of people with disabilities in STEM education and careers. The most distinctive feature of GSAA has been its use of virtual worlds and online communications platforms to support or implement most project activities. Empirical findings have informed the creation of a theory of change to explain how characteristics of technologically mediated mentoring practices may positively impact students' internal characteristics across five indicators (intention to persist, increased self-advocacy, increased self-determination, decreased math anxiety, and decreased science anxiety). Successful internalization of these characteristics may be expected to increase students' intention to persist in STEM education and support concrete steps to persist. This project seeks to fill a critical research gap and inform the field about the potential efficacy of e-mentoring programs and how they might be evaluated. It also seeks to determine appropriate methodologies and approaches for doing so.
Keywords: STEM education; Disability; Accessibility; Electronic mentoring; Evaluation; Theory of change
Enhancing Students' Motivation to Learn Software Engineering Programming Techniques: A Collaborative and Social Interaction Approach BIBAKFull-Text 189-201
  Ricardo Rodrigues Nunes; Daniela Pedrosa; Benjamim Fonseca; Hugo Paredes; José Cravino; Leonel Morgado; Paulo Martins
To motivate students to study advanced programming techniques, including the use of architectural styles such as the model-view-controller pattern, we have conducted action research upon a project based-learning approach. In addition to collaboration, the approach includes students' searching and analysis of scientific documents and their involvement in communities of practice outside academia. In this paper, we report the findings of second action research cycle, which took place throughout the fourth semester of a six-semester program. As with the previous cycle during the previous academic year, students did not satisfactorily achieve expected learning out-comes. More groups completed the assigned activities, but results continue to reflect poor engagement in the communities of practice and very low performance in other learning tasks. From the collected data we have identified new approaches and recommendations for subsequent research.
Keywords: Motivation; Learning programming; Collaboration; Social interaction; Communities of practice; Project-based learning; Problem-based learning
Guidelines for Designing Accessible Digital (Text) Books: The Italian Case BIBAKFull-Text 202-213
  Eliseo Sciarretta; Andrea Ingrosso; Alessandra Carriero
In this paper, the authors analyze the state of the art of digital publishing, with particular attention towards what is going on in Italy, and investigate eBooks' accessibility features, in order to understand whether this growing phenomenon may represent a resource and a possibility of inclusion for all individuals, regardless of their (dis)abilities, their needs and their interests, and how to make this possible. Given the recent turmoil around the so-called School 2.0 and the subsequent need to guarantee every student the right to a profitable and successful school career, the discussion will focus on issues related to digital textbooks, aiming at elaborating a proposal of guidelines and editorial techniques which can assist the process of preparation of works all learners can access, discarding the "one-size-fits-all" logic, but rather adapting to individual needs.
Keywords: Accessibility; Learning; School; Ebook; Guideline; Universal access
The Evolution of an Online Approach to Preparing Young Students with Disabilities for College and Careers BIBAKFull-Text 214-223
  Clark A. Shingledecker; Jennifer Barga
This paper describes an initiative to address the underrepresentation of persons with disabilities (PwD) in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields using online educational methods. The objectives of the program are to build motivation for pursuing STEM careers among students with disabilities in middle school and early high school and to improve their preparation for postsecondary education. We first outline the problem of underrepresentation of PwD in STEM and present the underlying reasoning for targeting younger students and addressing the objectives using online methods. Next, we describe the development of online content designed to increase STEM career motivation and college readiness and the initial implementation of the program using a series of informal educational webcasts aimed at students with disabilities and their parents. In the final section of the paper, we identify some of the lessons-learned about online educational approaches from the original implementation, and describe a subsequent evolution of the program using multilevel web-based content designed to reach a wider range of problem stakeholders including teachers and rehabilitation counselors.
Keywords: Students with disabilities; STEM careers; Online education; College preparation
The Promise and Pitfalls of Virtual Worlds to Enhance STEM Education Success: Summary of the GSAA BreakThru Model BIBAKFull-Text 224-235
  Robert L. Todd
The Georgia STEM Accessibility Alliance (GSAA) is a research project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) Research in Disabilities Education (RDE) program, grants 1027635 and 1027655. A collaborative RDE Alliance, it combines the expertise of the University of Georgia and the Georgia Institute of Technology. Launched in 2010 and projected for completion in 2016, GSAA is one of 10 RDE Alliances throughout the United States designed to broaden the participation and achievement of people with disabilities in STEM education and careers. Although the GSAA encompasses many innovative features to achieve its goals, its core features are the use of virtual worlds (Second Life) and online and smartphone technologies to enhance student success through mediated mentoring, collectively referred to as the BreakThru project. This paper will provide a brief summary of the status of the use of virtual worlds in STEM education, as well as an overview of the GSAA BreakThru goals, theory of change, demographics, and subject participation. It will posit conclusions that can be advantageous in future research on online, mediated approaches to enhanced education, to ensure the maximum potential for all students to complete educational goals.
Keywords: STEM education; Disability; Accessibility; Electronic mentoring; Virtual worlds; Online education
Quality Analysis of Polish Universities Based on POE Method -- Description of Research Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 236-242
  Dorota Winnicka-Jaslowska
The paper summarizes the research experiences of the author, related to the pilot quality assessment studies of university buildings and campuses in Poland. The studies are linked by the method Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE). The scope of the quality analyses conducted by the author in University of Silesia in Katowice was the general efficiency assessed from the point of view of organizational and behavioral needs of users. The main research tools of the pilot quality assessment studies carried out by the author was focused on the selected buildings and university campus space. The discussed University of Silesia is currently undergoing changes in its campus. In the beginning of the 21st until nowadays some important buildings of University were erected and opened up. The University authorities are planning new facilities and extension of the campus site. The author's analyses were used for pre-design studies. The analyses gave grounds for students' conceptual designs concerning further growth of the University.
Keywords: University building; Campus; Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE); Users; Higher education; HE
E-mentoring Supports for Improving the Persistence of Underrepresented Students in On-line and Traditional Courses BIBAKFull-Text 243-251
  Gerri Wolfe; Noel Gregg
On-line education has broadened access to college allowing the same educational opportunities as students enrolled at a traditional campus. The increase in on-line enrollment is over shadowed by course drop out and failure rates which are higher than campus-based rates. With many underrepresented students facing barriers to campus-based education, on-line courses hold great appeal. However, the on-line environment has posed challenges due to the limited availability of support services which can lead to frustration and subsequent withdrawal from courses. The purpose of this paper is to explore e-mentoring using the BreakThru e-mentoring model as a back drop. Three aspects of the e-mentoring program will be examined: (1) factors associated with how underrepresented students use social media tools, including virtual platforms, while participating in an e-mentoring program; (2) factors contributing to the development of mentee/mentor relationships; and (3) factors which affect a mentee's increased persistence in a STEM major.
Keywords: E-mentoring; On-line courses; Underrepresented college students; Disability; Virtual platforms social media; Persistence; STEM
Comparison Research Between ICT-Based Design and Traditional Design for Hearing Impaired Children BIBAKFull-Text 252-263
  Ying Yang; Junnan Yu; Wenyi Cai; Ting Han
There are about 27.8 million hearing impaired people in China, and among them 137 thousand are children under six. Traditional approaches of hearing and speech rehabilitation for children are using medical treatments at first and subsequently following a speech training in professional institutes, to make up the delayed speech development. It has been found that there are some weaknesses in traditional approaches.
   Since the emergence of ICTs (Information and Communication Technologies), they have been applied in many different fields, especially in the education field. ICTs have an obvious advantage in education. In this paper, the application of ICTs in speech training has been proposed, and a comparison with traditional speech training approaches has been made. Based on these research findings, a speech training prototype, New Voice was developed.
Keywords: Design for pleasure of use; Human Factors / System Integration; Training design and analysis; ICT-based design

Universal Access to Health Applications and Services

Haptics-Enabled Surgical Training System with Guidance Using Deep Learning BIBAKFull-Text 267-278
  Ehren Biglari; Marie Feng; John Quarles; Edward Sako; John Calhoon; Ronald Rodriguez; Yusheng Feng
In this paper, we present a haptics-enabled surgical training system integrated with deep learning for characterization of particular procedures of experienced surgeons to guide medical residents-in-training with quantifiable patterns. The prototype of virtual reality surgical system is built for open-heart surgery with specific steps and biopsy operation. Two abstract surgical scenarios are designed to emulate incision and biopsy surgical procedures. Using deep learning algorithm (autoencoder), the two surgical procedures were trained and characterized. Results show that a vector with 30 real-valued components can quantify both surgical patterns. These values can be used to compare how a resident-in-training performs differently as opposed to an experienced surgeon so that quantifiable corrective training guidance can be provided.
Keywords: Virtual surgical training system; Haptic device; Machine learning; Deep learning algorithm; Autoencoder; Motion tracking and quantification
A Goal- and Context-Driven Approach in Mobile Period Tracking Applications BIBAKFull-Text 279-287
  Richard A. Bretschneider
Over the past few years the interest in period tracking apps increased, which represent a sub-genre of quantified self apps in women health. They are available in a variety of complexity levels ranging from simple menstruation diaries up to applications with complex fertility calculation algorithms. The goal of this paper is to propose an approach for a period tracking app with an adaptive user interface that takes the users goal and context into account. Our research focusses on the motivations to use a period tracker, the questions that users have regarding their cycle data and how a quantified self app could help in answering these questions.
Keywords: Self-tracking; Period tracking; Context; User experience; Personalization; User monitoring; Quantified self
Unforeseen Challenges BIBAKFull-Text 288-299
  Mads Christophersen; Peter Mørck; Tue Odd Langhoff; Pernille Bjørn
Wearable health-tracking devices are being adopted by American self-insured companies to combat rising health insurance costs. The key motivation is to discourage employees' unhealthy behavior through monitoring their data. While wearable health-tracking devices might improve users awareness about personal health, we argue that the introduction of such devices in organizational settings also risk introducing unforeseen challenges. In this paper we unpack the unforeseen challenges and argue that wearable health-tracking devices in organizational settings risk disciplining employees, by tempting or penalizing them financially. Further, health concerns are reduced to numbers through wearable health-tracking devices providing surveillance of bodies, impacting people's lives. We stress how important it is that designers and researchers find ways to address these challenges in order to avoid future abuse of personal health data collected from wearable health-data tracking devices.
Keywords: Wearable Health-Tracking devices; Health data; Health insurance; Differentiated pricing; Wellness programs; Personal healthcare records; Privacy; Surveillance; Disciplining; Health as numbers
Rehabilitation of Balance-Impaired Stroke Patients Through Audio-Visual Biofeedback BIBAKFull-Text 300-311
  Cristina Gheorghe; Thomas Nissen; Daniel Christensen; Paula Epure; Anthony Brooks; Eva Petersson Brooks
This study explored how audio-visual biofeedback influences physical balance of seven balance-impaired stroke patients, between 33-70 years-of-age. The setup included a bespoke balance board and a music rhythm game. The procedure was designed as follows: (1) a control group who performed a balance training exercise without any technological input, (2) a visual biofeedback group, performing via visual input, and (3) an audio-visual biofeedback group, performing via audio and visual input. Results retrieved from comparisons between the data sets (2) and (3) suggested superior postural stability between test sessions for (2). Regarding the data set (1), the testers were less motivated to perform training exercises although their performance was superior to (2) and (3). Conclusions are that the audio component motivated patients to train although the physical performance was decreased.
Keywords: Audio-visual biofeedback; Stroke rehabilitation; Postural stability
Speech Driven by Artificial Larynx: Potential Advancement Using Synthetic Pitch Contours BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Hua-Li Jian
Despite a long history of development, the speech qualities achieved with artificial larynx devices are limited. This paper explores recent advances in prosodic speech processing and technology and assesses their potentials in improving the quality of speech with an artificial larynx -- in particular, tone and intonation through pitch variation. Three approaches are discussed: manual pitch control, automatic pitch control and re-synthesized speech.
Keywords: Artificial larynx; Fundamental frequency; Assistive technology
Multimodal Feedback for Balance Rehabilitation BIBAKFull-Text 322-330
  Bruce J. P. Mortimer; Braden J. McGrath; Greg R. Mort; Gary A. Zets
This paper describes development of an activity based, multimodal balance rehabilitation training device. Various sensors can be used, including a force plate, inertial sensors, and depth sensing cameras, and various combinations of visual, auditory and tactile feedback can be configured depending on the rehabilitation task and activity. Tactile feedback is presented via a lightweight belt that is worn on the torso. Generally, visual feedback is only needed at the start of rehabilitation training (task orientation) while tactile feedback may be used to augment balance control. Tactile feedback can be configured as a cue that certain movement targets or limits have been reached or as an immediate indicator of the variance in postural sway. Tactile feedback allows the subject to naturally concentrate on the functional rehabilitation task, and is less reliant on visual or verbal cues.
Keywords: Balance; Rehabilitation; Tactile feedback
A Virtual Reality System for Occupational Therapy with Hand Motion Capture and Force Feedback BIBAKFull-Text 331-337
  Kouki Nagamune; Yosuke Uozumi; Yoshitada Sakai
This study proposes a virtual reality system for occupational therapy with hand motion capture and force feedback. Force feedback is realized by using a vibration motor. In the experiment, the proposed system was applied for three health males. The results with force feedback were close to the setting distance more than the results without force feedback. As a future work, actual working task used in clinical situation should be applied to this system.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Occupational therapy; Force feedback
Methodology for Evaluating the Usability of Public Equipment for Physical Activity: An Approach to Interface with Blind and Low Vision Individuals BIBAKFull-Text 338-344
  Sabrina Talita de Oliveira; Maria Lucia Leite Ribeiro Okimoto
The objective of this study is to present a methodology for evaluation of public equipment, from usability issues, ergonomics and accessibility. We believe that products of common use can be used by normal people and by people with disabilities. Thus, we decided to develop a methodology for evaluate public exercise equipment in Brazil, as a group of blind and low vision users constantly use such products. The methodology aims to measure the User Experience using the products of outdoor gyms, showing criteria of satisfaction, effectiveness, efficiency, intuitiveness, pleasantness and perception of pain or discomfort.
Keywords: Public gyms; User experience; Usability; Blind people; Low vision
Virtual Liver Surgical Simulator by Using Z-Buffer for Object Deformation BIBAKFull-Text 345-351
  Katsuhiko Onishi; Hiroshi Noborio; Masanao Koeda; Kaoru Watanabe; Kiminori Mizushino; Takahiro Kunii; Masaki Kaibori; Kosuke Matsui; Masanori Kon
Virtual surgical simulator which is using computer graphics is much popular system than before. It is generally used in the medical areas, such as medical hospital or medical university. The simulator uses virtual organ models like liver, brain and so on. These models are usually based on the scanning data from patients and are used as volume models. Fortunately, the volume model is familiar with its cutting or deforming operation in a surgical system. For this reason, there are many kinds of surgical simulation or navigation systems using the volume model. However, visual reality of the volume model is not sufficient for human being including doctors. This means that the doctors cannot identify shape or location of a target organ from volume objects. In order to overcome this, we should use the translating method, such as marching cubes method and so on, for getting precisely polygon models which is included normal vectors of volume object. However, the method is quite time consuming and consequently the doctors cannot operate the virtual model in real-time.
   On these observations, we propose the virtual surgical simulator for operating the human liver in a virtual environment, which is based on the cooperation of polygon models and Z-buffer in GPU. By using parallel processing of GPU, the simulator allows uses to cut or deform a virtual liver model by using several kinds of medical tools like a scalpel in this system. In addition, visual reality of polygon model is wonderful for a doctor to identify its shape or location because this model maintains their precise normal vector.
Keywords: Z-buffer; Liver surgical simulator; GPU; Object deformation
Fashion Design for Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach BIBAKFull-Text 352-363
  Mariana Rachel Roncoletta
The aim of this research is presenting intersections points concerned with health, fashion and design with the propose of allowing multidisciplinary studies to enter into a dialogue by employing the same language. Qualitative methodology was applied on the bias of epistemological Constructivism. It was analysed and compared secondary sources through a biographic review. It was concluded that the examples of The Alternative Limb Project, a hybrid project, are intended to embody fashion as a socio-cultural phenomenon can foster social-cultural inclusion for people with disability. It is possible to discern a feasible approximation of the outlook of the designer in the area of health with the outlook of the designer in the area of fashion, so that, in partnership, they can foster effective socio-cultural inclusion and improve physical health in a way that culminates in a better quality of life and state of well-being.
Keywords: Fashion design; Health; People with disability
Smart Mirror Where I Stand, Who Is the Leanest in the Sand? BIBAKFull-Text 364-373
  Marianna Saba; Riccardo Scateni; Fabio Sorrentino; Lucio Davide Spano; Sara Colantonio; Daniela Giorgi; Massimo Magrini; Ovidio Salvetti; Novella Buonaccorsi; Ilaria Vitali
In this paper we introduce the Virtuoso project, which aims at creating a seamless interactive support for fitness and wellness activities in touristic resorts. The overall idea is to evaluate the current physical state of the user through a technology-enhanced mirror. We describe the state of the art technologies for building a smart mirror prototype. In addition, we compare different parameters for evaluating the user's physical state, considering the user's impact, the contact requirements and their cost. Finally we depict the planned setup and evaluation setting for the Virtuoso project.
Keywords: Smart mirrors; Self-monitoring; Wellbeing monitoring; Design for quality of life technologies; Resort
A Virtual Reality Lower-Back Pain Rehabilitation Approach: System Design and User Acceptance Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 374-382
  Wu-Chen Su; Shih-Ching Yeh; Si-Huei Lee; Hsiang-Chun Huang
Low back pain (LBP) affects people of all ages and it is a very common health problem globally. Eighty percent of all people may have experienced LBP in their life. Furthermore, there is no perfect strategy which can be used to treat all kinds of LBP patients. Moreover, LBP rehabilitation takes a long period of time, while patients may lack motivation to finish the entire course of treatment. As a result, LBP poses substantial impact on individuals, organizations and society. Fortunately, the advancement of computing hardware and software offer us a virtual reality based solution in the rehabilitation field. For example, cheaper and highly accurate wearable devices can also be used to coordinate with analytical software packages in order to carry out motion tracking and measure a patient's movement promptly and effectively.
   Therefore, in this study, a VR-based LBP rehabilitation system utilizing wireless sensor technologies to assist physiotherapists and patients in undertaking three stages of rehabilitation exercises for low back health is proposed. The major functions of this VR system are as follows: (1) Monitor and correct a patient's posture to establish basic movement patterns. (2) A physiotherapist can customize appropriate rehabilitation programs for an individual patient in order to enhance muscle strength and endurance. (3) Provide supports to a patient so as to establish whole body and joint stability.
   A total of twenty LBP patients have been recruited for this study, and a user acceptance of technology questionnaire is used to investigate the effectiveness and efficiency of the system proposed. Participants are treated 2-3 times a week for 4-6 weeks and experimental results demonstrate that uses of this VR system for rehabilitation courses have a high degree of technology acceptance and patients are willing to continue to use this system for LBP rehabilitation in the future.
Keywords: Wireless sensor IMU; Virtual reality; Low back pain
'Weather' Wearable System: A Design Exploration to Facilitate the Collaboration and Communication with Chronic Pain Patients BIBAKFull-Text 383-393
  Xin Tong; Diane Gromala; Amber Choo; Mahsoo Salimi; Jeewon Lee
Unpredictable spikes in pain intensity can easily interrupt the lives of chronic pain patients. The uncertainty of when these painful experiences will occur inhibits positive communications and collaborations with friends, families or co-workers in daily life. In this paper, the authors explore an affective design space for developing a wearable technology piece using real-time biofeedback monitoring capabilities. The intent of the device is to mitigate chronic pain patients' pain uncertainty in order to facilitate daily collaborations between the worker who lives with chronic pain and co-workers through social signaling. This exploratory design process, including the wearable system organization and presentation rationale, was developed in participatory design collaboration with target users: a chronic pain patient and people she works with in an academic workplace context. After three iterations, two prototypes were developed; each addresses the control of privacy and information sharing issues. In future work, appropriate evaluation methods will be explored and the iterative design prototype also will be improved based on user feedback. The long-term goal is to improve the wearable's applicability in a variety of social contexts, and applicability for other chronic conditions.
Keywords: Wearable computing system; Chronic pain; Collaboration and communication; Uncertainty mitigation
The Benefits of Haptic Feedback in Telesurgery and Other Teleoperation Systems: A Meta-Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 394-405
  Bernhard Weber; Clara Eichberger
A quantitative review of empirical studies investigating the effects of haptic feedback in teleoperation or virtual reality systems is provided. Several meta-analyses were conducted based on results of 58 studies with 1104 subjects from the medical and other teleoperation domains, revealing positive, substantial effects of kinesthetic force feedback on task performance (Hedges' g=0.62-0.75) and force regulation (g=0.64-0.78) and positive, but small effects on task completion time (g=0.22). Vibrotactile substitution of force feedback results in significantly lower effects on task performance (g=.21). Yet, exaggerated force production can be avoided effectively. Finally, we found evidence that the magnitude of the force feedback effects are moderated by task characteristics like force regulation demands and complexity.
Keywords: Haptics; Force feedback; Vibrotactile; Sensory substitution; Teleoperation; Telemanipulation; Telerobotics; Telesurgery; Virtual reality; Simulation

Games for Learning and Therapy

An Evaluation Method of Educational Computer Games for Deaf Children Based on Design Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 409-419
  Rafael dos Passos Canteri; Laura Sánchez García; Tanya Amara Felipe; Diego Roberto Antunes; Carlos Eduardo Iatskiu
Computer games have been used for a long time as a valuable tool in the teaching and learning of a variety of subjects. The Deaf communities and in particular the Deaf children have different learning needs compared to hearing children. For this reason, there have been, even timidly, some educational games that focusing on such children. However, as these games do not have a standard methodology for development, they usually do not meet the needs of the target audience. Therefore, this paper proposes a method for evaluating the quality and suitability of existing educational games for Deaf children through a tested set of design guidelines for Deaf children games. Two computer educational games for Deaf are evaluated. In addition, after the evaluation, a case study is presented to demonstrate the redesign of a game based on the guidelines and the results obtained.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Deaf culture; Social inclusion; Computer games; Educational games; Education of deaf children
Resonance: An Interactive Tabletop Artwork for Co-located Group Rehabilitation and Play BIBAKFull-Text 420-431
  Jonathan Duckworth; Nick Mumford; Karen Caeyenberghs; Ross Eldridge; Scott Mayson; Patrick R. Thomas; David Shum; Gavin Williams; Peter H. Wilson
In this paper we describe the design and development of Resonance, an interactive tabletop artwork that targets upper-limb movement rehabilitation for patients with an acquired brain injury. The artwork consists of several interactive game environments, which enable artistic expression, exploration and play. Each environment aims to encourage collaborative, cooperative, and competitive modes of interaction for small groups (2-4) of co-located participants. We discuss how participants can perform movement tasks face-to-face with others using tangible user interfaces in creative and engaging activities. We pay particular attention to design elements that support multiple users and discuss preliminary user evaluation of the system. Our research indicates that group based rehabilitation using Resonance has the potential to stimulate a high level of interest and enjoyment in patients; facilitates social interaction, complements conventional therapy; and is intrinsically motivating.
Keywords: Interactive art; Group interaction; Tabletop display; Movement rehabilitation; Acquired brain injury
Increasing Super Pop VR™ Users' Intrinsic Motivation by Improving the Game's Aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 432-441
  Sergio García-Vergara; Hongfei Li; Ayanna M. Howard
During physical therapy intervention protocols, it's important to consider the individual's intrinsic motivation to perform in-home recommended exercises. Physical therapy exercises can become tedious thus limiting the individual's progress. Not only have researchers developed serious gaming systems to increase user motivation, but they have also worked on the design aesthetics since results have shown positive effects on the users' performance for attractive models. As such, we improved the aesthetics of a previously developed serious game called Super Pop VR™. Namely, we improved the game graphics, added new game features, and allowed for more game options to provide users the opportunity to tailor their own experience. The conducted user studies show that participants rank the version of the game with the improved aesthetics higher in terms of the amount of interest/enjoyment it generates, thus allowing for an increase in intrinsic motivation when interacting with the system.
Keywords: Technological rehabilitation; Super Pop VR™; V R T M; Physical therapy; Game aesthetics; Serious games
Games for Change: The Strategic Design of Interactive Persuasive Systems BIBAKFull-Text 442-453
  Igor Revoredo Hosse; Rachel Zuanon
Games for Change are designed to promote positive social impacts leading to reflection and behavior change of the players. However, it is a challenge to develop games that are motivators and, at the same time, stimulate positive changes. Therefore, in order to help designers to achieve these objectives, thirteen (13) design elements divided into three (3) structural strategic foci were proposed. To validate these elements, the Games for Change Ecocity (Brazil) and Half The Sky -- The Game (USA) were analyzed. As a result, the design elements proposal helped to identify which aspects of each one of the analyzed games were responsible for the performance regarding the players behavior change and ability to motivate.
Keywords: Game Design; Games for Change; Motivation to Play; Flow
Developing a Digital Game for Domestic Stroke Patients' Upper Extremity Rehabilitation -- Design and Usability Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 454-461
  Lan-Ling Huang; Mei-Hsiang Chen; Chao-Hua Wang; Chang-Franw Lee
Digital games have been proven effective in upper extremity rehabilitation for stroke patients in addition to arousing higher motivation and feelings of pleasure. A well designed upper extremity rehabilitation digital game should intentionally meet the purpose of rehabilitation. Therefore, it is desirable to domestically develop digital upper extremity rehabilitation games for the local hospitals as well as individual users. We are proposing this research to develop such digital games for rehabilitation and their feasibility assessment. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the usability and feasibility associated with using this game. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: (1) the set of upper extremity rehabilitation game was named as upper extremity rehabilitation gardening game (UERG game). It is special designed for domestic stroke patients. (2) This UERG game uses Kinect's skeletal tracking features and motion sensor to interaction with patients. (3) design features are as following: game contents include three difficult levels according to different upper limb motor function recovery stages; to record user's motor performance; to provide feedback information (for example: to record the completed the task time and to detect whether the user has compensatory action, etc.). (4) A total of 10 patients to assess this set of games. The results showed that 90% of patients reported that using UERG game in treatment increased their treatment motivation.; 70% of them reported that this games is very interactive; 80% patients considered this game is conducive to recovery their upper extremity functions; 80% patients considered the feedback information provided help them to understand their performance in each session after training; 60% patients indicated the game interfaces were easy to operate and learning; 90% of patients reported that this game is enjoyment and satisfied with this game for rehabilitation. They are willing to continue to use.
Keywords: Upper extremity rehabilitation; Stroke; Digital gaming design; Usability assessment
An Integrated Playful Music Learning Solution BIBAKFull-Text 462-471
  Kristoffer Jensen; Søren Frimodt-Møller
This paper presents an integrated solution using IT technologies to help a (young) musician learn a piece of music, or learn how to play an instrument. The rehearsal process is organized in sequences, consisting of various activities to be 'passed'. Several games are investigated that help in learning especially difficult parts, or in the learning of an instrument. The integrated solution, demonstrated on a tablet, proposed in this paper also includes tools that assist the musician in the rehearsal process. Feedback consists of computer tracking that supports self-assessment of rehearsal quality together with shared audio and video material that can be viewed by teacher and peers.
Keywords: Informal learning; Music rehearsal; Mobile applications; Gamification; Low-fidelity prototyping
A Game-like Application for Dance Learning Using a Natural Human Computer Interface BIBAKFull-Text 472-482
  Alexandros Kitsikidis; Kosmas Dimitropoulos; Deniz Ugurca; Can Bayçay; Erdal Yilmaz; Filareti Tsalakanidou; Stella Douka; Nikos Grammalidis
Game-based learning and gamification techniques are recently becoming a popular trend in the field of Technology Enhanced Learning. In this paper, we mainly focus on the use of game design elements for the transmission of Intangible Cultural Heritage (ICH) knowledge and, especially, for the learning of traditional dances. More specifically, we present a 3D game environment that employs an enjoyable natural human computer interface, which is based on the fusion of multiple depth sensors data in order to capture the body movements of the user/learner. In addition, the system automatically assesses the learner's performance by utilizing a combination of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) with Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) approach and provides feedback in a form of a score as well as instructions from a virtual tutor in order to promote self-learning. As a pilot use case, a Greek traditional dance, namely Tsamiko, has been selected. Preliminary small-scaled experiments with students of the Department of Physical Education and Sports Science at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki have shown the great potential of the proposed application.
Keywords: Dance performance evaluation; Natural human computer interface; Traditional dances
Augmentation of Board Games Using Smartphones BIBAKFull-Text 483-492
  Arturas Kulšinskas; Ciatialin Bialan; Nicholas Bukdahl; Anthony Lewis Brooks
This paper contains details about research into the effect of digital augmentation on social presence in board games. A case study of the board game Tobago was performed during the project and a prototype application for smartphones was developed in order to compare the players' social presence in traditional and augmented versions. A repeated measures experiment was carried out with 15 subjects, during which both quantitative and qualitative data was collected. The results of the experiment show that while digital augmentation did not increase social presence in this board game, transferring some of the physical elements to digital medium is a viable game design choice.
Keywords: Board game; Smartphones; Digital augmentation; Social presence
Games Accessibility for Deaf People: Evaluating Integrated Guidelines BIBAKFull-Text 493-504
  Ana L. K. Waki; Guilherme S. Fujiyoshi; Leonelo D. A. Almeida
The lack of accessibility in digital games imposes barriers for people with disabilities. Currently there is not a standardized set of guidelines however there are researches that consisted in integrating guidelines disperse in several sources as, for example, the integrated set of guidelines for games accessibility for deaf people proposed by Waki, Fujiyoshi and Almeida. In this study we propose and conduct a process for evaluating that set of integrated guidelines that is composed of two complementary evaluation techniques that articulates predictive evaluations with prospective game developers and workshops with deaf gamers. The results provided us with information: (a) on whether the set of integrated guidelines is sufficient for determining accessibility of digital games; and (b) for refining the set of integrated guidelines.
Keywords: Deaf people; Games; Accessibility; Evaluation; Guidelines
Enhancing Self-Motivation Through Design of an Accessible Math App for Children with Special Needs BIBAKFull-Text 505-513
  J. MacCalla; Jin Xu; Ayanna Howard
The inclusion of learning activities using tablet devices in the classroom environment continues to grow. Unfortunately, this corresponding increase has not correlated with a growth in accessible content for children with special needs. In fact, most children with a reported disability take fewer science and math courses than mainstream students primarily due to the unavailability of information in accessible formats. In this paper, we discuss an educational App that makes math engaging to students while being accessible to children with special needs. We then present a pilot study to collect empirical evidence on how well the app self-motivates the user. Results from the study, which involved thirty-four participants, show significant measures of self-motivation when using the educational math app.
Keywords: Accessible math; Special needs; Gamification; Intrinsic motivation
The Use of Multisensory User Interfaces for Games Centered in People with Cerebral Palsy BIBAKFull-Text 514-524
  Eliza Oliveira; Glauco Sousa; Icaro Magalhães; Tatiana Tavares
The evolution of user interfaces has improved the user experience, especially the sensory features. Also, the sensory aspect is crucial for the interaction, mainly for the development of effective assistive technologies. This study presents a game for people with Cerebral Palsy (CP). CP refers to a range of clinical syndromes characterized by motor disorders and postural changes that may or may not be associated with cognitive impairment and speech disorders. Due to restricted motor condition, sports and games become difficult for people with CP. Our challenge is to offer an alternative to people with PC based on tangible and multisensory devices. The use of a robotic ball allowed remote manipulation, which makes this solution useful for people with physical disabilities. Also, an user centered design process was adopted. The game encourages people to interact by using different control devices, making it an important resource for promoting play in these users.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Multisensory devices; Cerebral palsy; Games; User study; Tangible interfaces
SPELTRA: A Robotic Assistant for Speech-and-Language Therapy BIBAKFull-Text 525-534
  Vladimir Robles-Bykbaev; Martín López-Nores; Juan Ochoa-Zambrano; Jorge García-Duque; José Juan Pazos-Arias
The Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) is an area focused on the rehabilitation of people suffering from different kinds of disorders and disabilities related with language and communication. According to latest estimates of the World Health Organization, most countries do not have appropriate structures to provide healthcare and rehabilitation services for those people. This problem becomes more complex on developing countries, due the lack of professionals and ICT-based tools to support the several activities that must be performed by the Speech and Language Pathologists (SLPs). On those grounds, this paper presents a robotic assistant with the aim to help SLPs during the therapy activities. This approach is based on an integrative environment that relies on mobile ICT tools, an expert system, a knowledge layer and standardized vocabularies. This proposal has been tested on 26 children suffering from different kind of disabilities, and the results achieved have shown important improvements in some activities related with SLT like reduction of the time required to prepare patients for therapy, and better response of children to perform tasks.
Keywords: Speech-language therapy; Mobile applications; Expert system; Robotic assistant
Multimodal Videogames for the Cognition of People Who Are Blind: Trends and Issues BIBAKFull-Text 535-546
  Jaime Sánchez; Ticianne Darin; Rossana Andrade
Multimodal serious games are attractive tools for achieving this goal and helping people with visual disabilities to perceive and to interpret the surrounding world. However, it is fundamental to ensure that the games can stimulate cognitive development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of multimodal components in the development and evaluation of games and virtual environments targeting the enhancement of cognitive skills in people who are blind. We analyze the state-of-the-art concerning approaches and technologies currently in use for the development of mental maps, cognitive spatial structures, and navigation skills in learners who are blind by using multimodal videogames. Besides, we identify the current approaches used for designing and evaluating multimodal games in this context. In this paper, we discuss the results on these and related topics and draw from them some trends and issues.
Keywords: Accessible games; Multimodal interfaces; Cognition; Blind people
Designing Accessible Games with the VERITAS Framework: Lessons Learned from Game Designers BIBAKFull-Text 547-554
  Michael James Scott; Fotios Spyridonis; Gheorghita Ghinea
Testing is important to improve accessibility. However, within the serious games area, this can sometimes rely on minimal testing with the use of heuristics and external assistive devices, with limited input from impaired users. Efficiency would be improved if designers could readily evaluate their designs with the assistance of virtual users. The VERITAS framework simulates and presents data on the impact of a virtual user's impairments; thus, facilitating a more efficient approach to inclusive design. This article reports insights into the use of the framework by 31 evaluators from the serious games field. A log-file analysis highlights key areas of concern, which are then further explored through a questionnaire. The findings suggest that the background knowledge of designers should be considered in order to improve acceptance and usability. Specifically, by addressing challenges comprehending interface elements, following the simulation workflow, and reacting to feedback.
Keywords: Accessibility; Universal design; Inclusion; Games; Simulations; VERITAS framework; Designers
Gaze Interaction and Gameplay for Generation Y and Baby Boomer Users BIBAKFull-Text 555-564
  Mina Shojaeizadeh; Siavash Mortazavi; Soussan Djamasbi
As high quality eye tracking devices become more readily available and affordable, gaze interaction is becoming a viable and fun way to interact with games. Because we direct our eyes toward objects that we choose to attend to, gaze is likely to provide a natural way to manipulate objects in certain types of games. However, little work has been done to design and test games that use gaze as an interaction method. Despite the popular belief that the majority of gamers are young, research shows that Baby Boomers also like to play games. Thus, understanding possible differences in interaction preferences of these two generations provides valuable insight for developers who are planning to design gaze-enabled games for these two populations. In this study, we examine the gaze interaction experience of Baby Boomer and Generation Y users by comparing them to the familiar mouse interaction experience.
Keywords: Gaze enabled interactions; Gaze interaction; User experience; Game play; Baby boomers; Human technology interaction; HCI
Ludic Educational Game Creation Tool: Teaching Schoolers Road Safety BIBAKFull-Text 565-576
  Nikolas Vidakis; Efthymios Syntychakis; Kostantinos Kalafatis; Eirini Christinaki; Georgios Triantafyllidis
This paper presents initial findings and ongoing work of the game creation tool, a core component of the IOLAOS (IOLAOS in ancient Greece was a divine hero famed for helping with some of Heracles's labors.) platform, a general open authorable framework for educational and training games. The game creation tool features a web editor, where the game narrative can be manipulated, according to specific needs. Moreover, this tool is applied for creating an educational game according to a reference scenario namely teaching schoolers road safety. A ludic approach is used both in game creation and play. Helping children staying safe and preventing serious injury on the roads is crucial. In this context, this work presents an augmented version of the IOLAOS architecture including an enhanced game creation tool and a new multimodality module. In addition presents a case study for creating educational games for teaching road safety, by employing ludic interfaces for both the game creator and the game player, as well as ludic game design.
Keywords: Educational game; Road safety; Open authorable framework; Ludic game design
Employing Ambient Intelligence Technologies to Adapt Games to Childrens' Playing Maturity BIBAKFull-Text 577-589
  Emmanouil Zidianakis; Ioanna Zidianaki; Danae Ioannidi; Nikolaos Partarakis; Margherita Antona; George Paparoulis; Constantine Stephanidis
Play development is part of the child's growth and maturation process since birth. Games in general, and technologically augmented games in particular, can play a fundamental role in this process. This paper introduces the design, implementation and deployment of a new version of the popular Tower Game integrated within an Ambient Intelligence (AmI) simulation space, based on knowledge stemming from the processes and theories used in occupational therapy. An augmented interactive table and a three-dimensional avatar are employed in order to extend the purpose and objectives of the game, so that its applicability expands to the age group of preschool children from 3 to 6 years old. Various augmented artifacts, such as force-pressure sensitive interactive surface, and augmented pen, and a digital dice are integrated in the environment, aiming to enhance children's play experience. Through such augmented artifacts, the game becomes capable of monitoring and following the progress of each young player, adapt accordingly and provide important information regarding the abilities and skills of the child and his development growth progress over time.
Keywords: User and context modeling and monitoring; User interface adaptation; Ambient intelligence; Computer games; Design for children

Cognitive Disabilities and Cognitive Support

Augmenting Speech-Language Rehabilitation with Brain Computer Interfaces: An Exploratory Study Using Non-invasive Electroencephalographic Monitoring BIBAKFull-Text 593-603
  Abeer Al-Nafjan; Areej Al-Wabil; Yousef Al-Ohali
The design and development of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technologies for clinical applications is a steadily growing area of research. Applications of BCI technologies in rehabilitation contexts is often impeded by the cumbersome setup and computational complexity in BCI data analytics, which consequently leads to challenges in integrating these technologies in clinical contexts. This paper describes a framework for a novel BCI system designed for clinical settings in speech-language rehabilitation. It presents an overview of the technology involved, the applied context and the system design approach. Moreover, an exploratory study was conducted to understand the functional requirements of BCI systems in speech-language rehabilitation contexts of use.
Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI); Speech language pathology; Rehabilitation; Electroencephalography (EEG)
Usability Heuristics for the Design of Interactive Attention Assessment and Rehabilitation Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 604-615
  Layla Al-Salhie; Weaám AlRashed; Areej Al-Wabil
Emerging technologies are beginning to find their way in different health care centers and clinics worldwide for the purpose of assessment and rehabilitation for people with attention deficit disorders. And due to the variation in the practitioners and patients' requirements and preferences for using these technologies, understanding the usability issues has become essential for further development in this domain. In particular, addressing issues of selecting usability evaluation methods and their effectiveness in identifying usability problems. A bespoke heuristic set for the context of intervention programs for developing sustained attention is proposed and tested. In this study, we conducted usability heuristic evaluations on three sustained attention assessment and rehabilitation programs that involve emerging technologies; which are Neurofeedback and eye tracking. The heuristic evaluation was conducted by five evaluators, and the results showed that the proposed heuristic inspection evaluation method was effective in finding major usability problems in programs designed for sustained attention assessment and rehabilitation. Moreover, recommendations were presented regarding the evaluators' experience with the evaluated interactive programs, the contexts of usage, target user communities, and the technical background knowledge of the interaction modalities.
Keywords: Attention; Usability; Heuristic evaluation; Eye tracking; Neurofeedback
The Effect of Dyslexia on Searching Visual and Textual Content: Are Icons Really Useful? BIBAKFull-Text 616-625
  Gerd Berget; Frode Eika Sandnes
Little is known about how dyslexia affects online information seeking. This study addresses the search performance of 21 users with dyslexia and 21 controls in textual versus visual displays. The aim was to investigate whether visual content enhance search performance. Participants were presented with 24 icons and 24 words and asked to locate a target item. Eye-tracking data revealed no differences in performance in visual or textual content in the dyslexia group. There were no significant differences between the user groups on visual tasks. However, users with dyslexia performed significantly slower on textual tasks than controls, mainly due to longer fixation durations. Users in the control group took much less time solving textual tasks than visual tasks. The results indicate that there may be no advantages in replacing textual content with icons for users with dyslexia. However, replacing text with icons may be counterproductive for users without dyslexia.
Keywords: Dyslexia; Information search; Icons; Eye-tracking
Defining an Interaction Model for Users with Autism: Towards an Autistic User Model BIBAKFull-Text 626-636
  Andrés Mejía-Figueroa; J. Reyes Juárez-Ramírez
The consideration of Human Factors is an integral part of the design and development of any software system. User Models are used to represent the user's characteristics in a computational environment, forming an integral part of Adaptive Interfaces, by enabling the adaptation of the interface to the user's needs and attributes. In this paper we describe a proposed user model based on Executive Functions and a description of the planned case study, being users with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Keywords: User modelling; Adaptive interfaces; Usability; Accessibility; Autism spectrum disorder; Executive functions
Analysis and Design of Three Multimodal Interactive Systems to Support the Everyday Needs of Children with Cognitive Impairments BIBAKFull-Text 637-648
  Stavroula Ntoa; Asterios Leonidis; Maria Korozi; Eleni Papadaki; Ilia Adami; George Margetis; Margherita Antona; Constantine Stephanidis
The autonomy and independence of users with cognitive impairments can be fostered through cognitive technologies. The use of traditional computer interfaces has however proved to be difficult for these users. This paper proposes three innovative systems to train children with cognitive impairments in three fundamental everyday life activities: (a) familiarizing with the home environments, its objects and activities; (b) learning about money and practicing shopping skills; and (c) learning how to prepare and cook simple meals. All three systems feature multimodal interaction and support multimedia output.
Keywords: Multimodal interactive systems; Children with cognitive impairments; Card-based interaction; Touch; Cooking; Monetary transactions; Learning the home environment
Toward a Piano Lesson System that Gives People with Reduced Cognitive Functioning a Sense of Accomplishment BIBAFull-Text 649-659
  Chika Oshima; Kimie Machishima; Koichi Nakayama
Creative activities provide elderly people with reduced cognitive functioning with a sense of accomplishment in nursing care facilities. Music therapists and their clients usual sing songs and play percussive musical instruments. However, they may not provide a feeling of accomplishment from these kinds of music therapy. Then, we aim to construct a piano lesson support system that can give people with reduced cognitive functioning a sense of accomplishment through playing the piano. In this paper, we conducted experiments in which a participant with higher brain dysfunction took piano lessons using video educational materials. The results of the experiments showed that she participated with enthusiasm and got better at playing the piano. On the other hand, we found several issues to consider. We discussed these issues with consideration of the symptoms according to the depression of cognitive function.
Jurojin: Designing a GPS Device for People Living with Dementia BIBAKFull-Text 660-668
  Mark Palmer; Jude Hancock
Memory loss is the most common symptom of dementia. The impact is such that people living with dementia (PLWD) lose the ability to find their way to previously familiar locations, such as local amenities, and without the aid of others, find themselves confined to home. PLWD report they would like to be able to live unsupported for as long as possible [3] and in this regard the ability to walk to amenities also provides exercise which has been shown to be particularly beneficial for PLWD. This paper presents the Jurojin project which arose out of the Dress/Sense competition to design wearable technology that would positively impact on an individual's health. It details the challenges of the design process, examines PPI (Patient and Public Involvement) feedback and considers whether there might be lessons to be learnt beyond simply designing for PLWD.
Keywords: Dementia; GPS; Exercise; Design
Understanding and Improving Collaborative Skills Among Individuals with ASD in a Distributed Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 669-680
  Arpan Sarkar; Joshua Wade; Zachary Warren
Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) evidence core impairments regarding social interaction and communication. These impairments can inhibit the ability of individuals with ASD from effectively engaging with peers and collaborating on goal-oriented tasks. Recently collaborative virtual environment (CVE) in which individuals with ASD can interact with one another or with a therapist to achieve some common goal has been proposed for social competence interventions (SCI) for these individuals. In this paper, we present the design of a distributed CVE for playing the classic video game pong to be used for SCI. This collaborative game can be played at several different modes ranging from one player against an artificial agent in one computer to two players against each other in two different computers. The system functionality and robustness were validated through a small user study. In the future, this CVE will be evaluated with children and adolescents with ASD.
Keywords: Collaborative Virtual Environment (CVE); Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Presence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in University Students: Implications for Education and HCI BIBAKFull-Text 681-688
  Debra Satterfield; Christopher Lepage; Nora Ladjahasan
The Center for Disease Control (CDC) in 2014 estimates a prevalence rate of 1 in 68 for persons with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It is five times as prevalent in boys than girls and crosses all racial, ethnic and socioeconomic groups [1]. Therefore, there is a critical need for the HCI community to better understand the educational and informational needs for persons with ASD. This research identifies persons with ASD in higher education using a recognized autism diagnostic tool and correlates that data to their gender, major field of study, and their indicated preferences with regard to course content, content delivery preferences, and evaluation strategies. The significance of this information applies both to students in HCI who are on the autism spectrum and to university educators with regard to the design of educational materials and courses suitable for both students with and without ASD to achieve academic success.
Keywords: Autism; Academic success; Engineering; Design; Higher education
A Virtual Reality Driving Environment for Training Safe Gaze Patterns: Application in Individuals with ASD BIBAKFull-Text 689-697
  Joshua Wade; Dayi Bian; Jing Fan; Lian Zhang; Amy Swanson; Medha Sarkar; Amy Weitlauf; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
It has been well established that adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) present social and behavioral characteristics that differ significantly from those of their peers without ASD. A growing number of recent studies have begun to look closely at automobile operation characteristics in individuals diagnosed with ASD. Some of this work has suggested that certain driving behaviors demonstrated by those with ASD may pose significant safety concerns to both themselves and other drivers. Expanding on previous work, we designed and tested a gaze-contingent driving intervention system in which drivers were required to not only perform well, but also to look at key regions of interest in the environment such as traffic lights, stop signs, pedestrians and side-view mirrors. We present preliminary results from a study comparing performance outcomes and eye gaze patterns in a group using the gaze-contingent system and a group using a gaze-insensitive, performance-based system.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Eye gaze; Autism intervention
Digital Play Therapy for Children with Developmental Disorders BIBAKFull-Text 698-708
  Yukako Watanabe; Yoshiko Okada; Hirotaka Osawa; Midori Sugaya
Children suffering with learning and developmental disorders require daily training to develop their social skills. However, such daily training is sometimes not provided because it requires interactive help from therapists, and lots of programs required for the training. In this paper, we propose a digital dollhouse that enhances traditional psychological play therapy with digital sensors and computer graphics (CG). The digital dollhouse provides immersive space for children, which develops their communication skills through their imaginary play through the complement of CG for enhancing the understanding of their situation. In this paper we present details of this prototype digital dollhouse. We also categorize requirements for digital play therapy, which are given by psychological viewpoints based on the prototype. Interdisciplinary design processes collaborating with engineers and psychologists show the possibility that digital dollhouses will be used for enhancing the communication, and providing the variety of training program that was difficult to prepare compared with the existent normal therapy devices.
Keywords: Developmental disorders; Children; Digital play therapy; Digital play therapy method; Digital play therapy device
Multimodal Fusion for Cognitive Load Measurement in an Adaptive Virtual Reality Driving Task for Autism Intervention BIBAKFull-Text 709-720
  Lian Zhang; Joshua Wade; Dayi Bian; Jing Fan; Amy Swanson; Amy Weitlauf; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
A virtual reality driving system was designed to improve driving skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). An appropriate level of cognitive load during training can help improve a participant's long-term performance. This paper studied cognitive load measurement with multimodal information fusion techniques. Features were extracted from peripheral physiological signals, Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals, eye gaze information and participants' performance data. Multiple classification methods and features from different modalities were used to evaluate participant's cognitive load. We verified classifications' result with perceived tasks' difficulty level, which induced different cognitive load. We fused multimodal information in three levels: feature level, decision level and hybrid level. The best accuracy for cognitive load measurement was 84.66%, which was achieved with the hybrid level fusion.
Keywords: Autism; Virtual reality; Multimodal fusion; Cognitive load measurement
Design of a Computer-Assisted System for Teaching Attentional Skills to Toddlers with ASD BIBAKFull-Text 721-730
  Zhi Zheng; Qiang Fu; Huan Zhao; Amy Swanson; Amy Weitlauf; Zachary Warren; Nilanjan Sarkar
Attentional skill, which is considered as one of the fundamental elements of social communication, is among the core areas of impairment among children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In recent years, technology-assisted ASD intervention has gained momentum among researchers due its potential advantages in terms of flexibility, accessibility and cost. In this paper, we proposed a computer-assisted system for teaching attentional skills to toddlers with ASD, using the "response to name" skill as a specific example. The system was a fully closed-loop autonomous system capable of both providing name prompting from different locations of a room and detecting the child's attention in response to his name prompt. A preliminary user study was conducted to validate the proposed system and the protocol. The results showed that the proposed system and the protocol were well tolerated and were engaging for the participants, and were successful in eliciting the desired performance from the participants.
Keywords: Computer-mediated attention skills teaching; Toddlers with ASD

UAHCI 2015-08-02 Volume 4

Universal Access to Culture

Interactive 3D Digitization, Retrieval, and Analysis of Ancient Sculptures, Using Infrared Depth Sensors for Mobile Devices BIBAKFull-Text 3-11
  Angelos Barmpoutis; Eleni Bozia; Daniele Fortuna
In this paper a novel framework is presented for interactive feature-based retrieval and visualization of human statues, using depth sensors for mobile devices. A skeletal model is fitted to the depth image of a statue or human body in general and is used as a feature vector that captures the pose variations in a given collection of skeleton data. A scale- and twist-invariant distance function is defined in the feature space and is employed in a topology-preserving low-dimensional lattice mapping framework. The user can interact with this self-organizing map by submitting queries in the form of a skeleton from a statue or a human body. The proposed methods are demonstrated in a real dataset of 3D digitized Graeco-Roman statues from Palazzo Altemps.
Keywords: Depth sensors; RGB-D; Kinect; 3d object retrieval; Digital humanities; Statues; Museum studies
Developing the COOLTURA Resources-Driven Governance Model for Building Scalable Cultural Services in the COOLTURA Platform BIBAKFull-Text 12-20
  María Eugenia Beltrán; Yolanda Ursa; Silvia de los Rios; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; Maria Teresa Arredondo; Maria del Mar Villafranca; Lucia María Perez; Belén Prados; Carlos Lli Torrabadella
Cultural institutions and sites currently debate on how to respond to new trends, such as globalisation, exponential growth of digital cultural content and Apps, and reach technological knowledgeable users. In addition, institutions need to look for new ways of engagement, as the engagement of citizens with their cultural heritage environment remains low. This paper presents the preliminary results of a qualitative research performed to evaluate new opportunities for the COOLTURA Platform (output of TAG CLOUD project); as well as the proposal of developing the COOLTURA resource-driven governance model to support the COOLTURA Platform up-take.
Keywords: Engagement; Cultural heritage; Governance in culture; Cultural platform; Cultural apps
The Expansion of a Scheme About ACCESSIBILITY in Tourism at the Cultural Sector BIBAKFull-Text 21-28
  Eleni Chalkia; Evangelos Bekiaris; Maria Panou; Matina Loukea
Accessibility in the tourism domain is already and will be even more in the following years a "must"! Thus, ACCESSIBILITY PASS is an evaluation and certification scheme which has been developed with the scope of evaluating, clustering, analyzing and certifying the accessibility level of a hotel or a conference center taking into account its infrastructure, its offered services and its personnel's certified skills. This paper will explore the possibility of expanding ACCESSIBILITY PASS in the cultural domain buildings like museums, concert centers, etc. where accessibility is very important and it already implemented, but not widely evaluated or certified.
Keywords: Accessibility; Disabilities; Tourism; Infrastructure; Evaluation; Certification; Culture; Museums
EmoActivity -- An EEG-Based Gamified Emotion HCI for Augmented Artistic Expression: The i-Treasures Paradigm BIBAKFull-Text 29-40
  Vasileios Charisis; Stelios Hadjidimitriou; Leontios Hadjileontiadis; Deniz Ugurca; Erdal Yilmaz
There are important cultural differences in emotions that can be predicted and connected to each other in the light of cultural and artistic expressions. The main differences reflected at the affective space are expressed through initial response tendencies of appraisal and action readiness. Capturing and handling the emotions during artistic activities could be used as a dominant source of information to acquire and augment the cultural expression and maximize the emotional impact to the audience. This paper presents a novel EEG-based game-like application, to learn and handle affective states and transitions towards augmented artistic expression. According to the game scenario, the user has to reach and sustain one or more target affective states based on the level of the game, the difficulty setting and his/her current affective state. The game, although at its first version, has been demonstrated to a small group of potential users and has received positive feedback. Its use by a wider audience is anticipated within the realization of the i-Treasure FP7 EU Programme (2013-2017).
Keywords: Human-computer interaction; Emotion game; Affective state detection; Game-based learning; Contemporary music composition; Valence-arousal space; EEG; Emotiv; Emoactivity; i-Treasures
Living Lab Concept Validation Experiment to Experience COOLTURA in the Cité Des Science et de L'Industrie BIBAKFull-Text 41-52
  Silvia de los Rios; Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpierrez; Maria Teresa Arredondo; Miguel Paramo; Charles Tijus; Elhadi Djebbari; Federico Mussano; Roberto Santoro
Culture is everywhere; it is part of all citizens, of our past, our roots, our present and key asset for our future. Technology is a good driver to present and allow access to cultural heritage. Within the European FP7 project eCultValue an open call was launched which allowed the IUL-LUTIN Living Lab to make an experiment using COOLTURA, outcome from the also European FP7 project TAG CLOUD, in the Citédes Sciences et de l'Industrie (CSI) of Paris (France). This paper presents such experiment as well as the interesting results extracted from the participants' feedback.
Keywords: App; Cultural heritage; User experience; Engagement; Augmented reality; Storytelling; Social media; COOLTURA; CSI
Evaluating Intimacy and Ludic Engagement with a Musical Interactive Art Installation that Explores Remote Abstract Communication BIBAKFull-Text 53-64
  Steven Gelineck
The main contribution of the paper is a usability evaluation of an interactive art installation where several different factors for ludic and intimate engagement in this specific context of remote face-to-face non-verbal communication are compared. Experiments are carried out with the following different overall goals: (1) to understand the importance of direct eye contact, (2) to understand the influence of using different musical outputs and (3) to understand whether providing participants with more detailed control supports exploration. Results indicate that direct eye contact enhances the intimate connection, that opera sounds are more effective than synthetic sounds in terms of intimacy, control, musical expressivity and exploration, and that participants engaged in more exploration with limited control.
Keywords: Mediated intimacy; Ludic engagement; Evaluation; Usability; Interactive art installations; Musical exploration; Video conferencing; Emotional communication
Entangled Sensorium: Subtle Apparatuses for Nonlocal Affectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 65-73
  Clarissa Ribeiro
This paper aim in waving reflections around the sovereignty of interaction in communicational processes focusing on Human-Computer Interaction subtleties related to informational processes in a quantum level to present and discuss the author series 'Performing Quantum Entanglement: Subtle Apparatuses for Nonlocal Affectiveness'. The approach involves conceptualizing what the author defines as Complex Affective Systems (CAFFS), referring to multidimensional systems of interactions that lead to manifestations and incorporations of the self and the emergence of consciousness. The works selected to conduct the present conversation have been produced for the author's solo show at the Art|Sci Gallery, CNSI/UCLA, in Los Angeles (2014), and recently for the inaugural solo show she designed for the Roy Ascott Studio Gallery in Shanghai (2015).
Keywords: Information; Quantum physics; Interaction; Complex affective systems; Media art; Art and science
Immersive Interaction Paradigms for Controlling Virtual Worlds by Customer Devices Exemplified in a Virtual Planetarium BIBAKFull-Text 74-86
  Andreas Schaller; Tim Biedenkapp; Jens Keil; Dieter W. Fellner; Arjan Kuijper
This work provides an insight into the basics of 3D applications in conjunction with various customer devices. In this case, the application is a 3D planetarium of our solar system for a museum. The aim is to create a concept for intuitive and immersive navigation through the virtual planetarium using inexpensive Customer Devices. Visitors should be able to move freely and easily in the solar system. Here, the visitor should be able to focus on the simulation and not quickly lose interest in the complex control application. For this similar approaches and previous research are examined and a new approach is described. As low-cost customer devices, the controller of the Nintendo Wii (Wiimote) and current smartphones are considered in this work. A detailed analysis of these devices is an integral part of this work. Based on the selected devices, there are various possibilities for interaction and resulting interaction concepts. For each device, a concept will be developed to meet the identified needs.
Keywords: Visualization; Immersive environments; Virtual worlds; Interaction devices

Orientation, Navigation and Driving

Disorientation Factors that Affect the Situation Awareness of the Visually Impaired Individuals in Unfamiliar Indoor Environments BIBAFull-Text 89-100
  Abdulrhman Alkhanifer; Stephanie Ludi
Developing situational awareness for individuals with visual impairments can be a challenging process, as designers need to understand the environmental aspects as well as the users' needs. In unfamiliar indoor open spaces, individuals with visual impairments need to work around multiple disorientation factors that can affect their orientation and situation awareness levels. In this work, we report our experience and results of longitudinal user studies that were designed to facilitate cues that help raise the situation awareness level of individuals with visual impairments when exploring unfamiliar indoor open spaces. Through our results, we explain in detail users' disorientation factors in such environments.
Informational Geography: Re-writing and Re-reading Maps BIBAKFull-Text 101-107
  Carlos Alberto Barbosa; Luisa Paraguai
The text is concerned with how mapping information visualization differs from traditional cartography once the content flows, superposed on physical space, change the way human perceptions deal with space and time. From this point onwards, the text discusses the articulation between spatiality and modes of moving within the city through data representations. Using the Watch_Dogs WeareData Project as an example of how this is done, users can follow distinct syntactic and semantic narratives arranged over individual and public data information made available in Paris, London and Berlin. Each of the three towns is recreated on a 3D map, allowing the users to discover in real time not only the way data organizes and runs cities, but also constructs spatialities.
Keywords: Informational and physical cartography; Data representations and narratives; Hybrid spatialities
Effect of Road Conditions on Gaze-Control Interface in an Automotive Environment BIBAFull-Text 108-116
  Pradipta Biswas; Varun Dutt
This paper proposes an eye gaze based dashboard control interface for automotive environment so that drivers need not to take their hands off from steering wheel and control the dashboard only by looking at it. With the help of our smoothing and target prediction technology, we found that first time users could operate a dashboard using their eye gaze in approximately 2.5s for each on-screen item selection in different road conditions. As part of the study we also found that average amplitude of saccadic intrusion is a good indicator of drivers' perceived cognitive load.
Usability Evaluation of a Mobile Navigation Application for Blind Users BIBAKFull-Text 117-128
  Márcia de Borba Campos; Jaime Sánchez; Juliana Damasio; Tasmay Inácio
This paper presents a usability evaluation of a mobile gaming application (mAbES) for blind users. mAbES was evaluated with the participation of HCI specialists and experts in video gaming (Group 1) and mAbES end-users who are blind (Group 2). The instruments used by Group 1 were the audio feedback questionnaire and the usability evaluation questionnaire. It also included questions based on video games and game mechanics. For Group 2, both the audio evaluation and the O&M, tactile feedback and ease of use questionnaires were applied. Semi-structured interviews were also carried out. User perceptions and interaction behaviors identified during study and data analysis allowed to refine the methodology used for evaluating the usability of mAbES and proposed suggestions for improvements in the use of this application, as well as to make recommendations for developing video games for blind users for navigation purposes.
Keywords: Users who are blind; Mental map; Orientation and mobility; Navigation; Mobile application; Usability evaluation
Feature Detection Applied to Context-Aware Blind Guidance Support BIBAKFull-Text 129-138
  Hugo Fernandes; André Sousa; Hugo Paredes; Vitor Filipe; João Barroso
Human beings have developed a number of evolutionary mechanisms that allows the distinction between different objects and the triggering of events based on their perception of reality. Visual impairment has a significant impact on individuals' quality of life, including their ability to work and to develop personal relationships as they often feel cut off people and things around them, due to their impairment. The need for assistive technologies has long been a constant in the daily lives of people with visual impairments, and will remain a constant in future years. Cognitive mapping is of extreme importance for individuals in terms of creating a conceptual model of the surrounding space and objects around them, thereby supporting their interaction with the physical environment. This work describes the use of computer vision techniques, namely feature detectors and descriptors, to detect objects in the scene and help contextualize the user within the surrounding space, enhancing their mobility, navigation and cognitive mapping of a new environment.
Keywords: Computer vision; Feature detection; Blind; Navigation; Orientation
Creating Inclusive HMI Concepts for Future Cars Using Visual Scenario Storyboards Through Design Ethnography BIBAKFull-Text 139-149
  Merih Kunur; Patrick Langdon; Michael Bradley; Jo-Anne Bichard; Emilie Glazer; Fionnuala Doran; P. John Clarkson; Jean Jacques Loeillet
His paper illustrates the use of scenario writing and storyboard visualisation methods based on ethnographic study of diverse personas, narratives, and user experience to guide automotive engineers and designers for creating innovative ideas and developing inclusive Human Machine Interface (iHMI) concepts for future cars in 2025 and beyond. This paper documents the importance of continuing visual research process based on anthropological case studies that looked into diverse persona, cultural and geographical attributes. These methods are used to visually analyse situational car use, thereby leading to scenario-based HMI tasks that can be applied to generate innovative user oriented future car designs. Storyboard visualisation of narratives is a method that derives from ethnographic interviews with strategically chosen car users from around the world. This is a powerful tool for analyzing situations, describing feelings, and evaluating the usability of functions within the car. With this visual process, future scenarios can be drawn in order to create new and inclusive HMI ideas and design concepts embedded within the storyboards to help engineers and designers' to understand users' different needs, exploring their expectations, emotions and motivations. The realistic details on the character illustrations of each persona are essential for better understanding of the users' including older people, the visually impaired and wheelchair users, child and parent, technophobic or technophile persons. Each HMI concept can be sketched as required in task sequences, with detail and scaled paper model produced for detailed step-by-step design. The required interactions can be observed, photographed and captured on video for in-depth design thinking workshops. A series of HMI working design concepts for future cars will emerge from this pipeline for prototyping and engineering.
Keywords: Human machine interface; Inclusive design; Visual narrative; Scenario storyboards; Concept visualization; Design thinking; User research; User-Centred design; Design ethnography
Wide-Range Auditory Orientation Training System for Blind O&M BIBAKFull-Text 150-159
  Yoshikazu Seki
Authors started to develop a training method that combined "sound localization" and "obstacle perception" by using acoustic virtual reality technologies for the orientation and mobility training for the blind people in 2003, and we finally developed an auditory orientation training system (AOTS) in 2005. As a modified version of AOTS, the first WR-AOTS was released April 2013 for the blind rehabilitation and/or education facilities. By January 2015, about 70 requests for use of it were received from the blind rehabilitation and/or education facilities. We will keep providing update on the facilities' demands in future.
Keywords: Orientation and mobility (O&M); Visual impairment; Virtual reality; 3-D sound; Head-related transfer function (HRTF)
A Spot Navigation System for the Visually Impaired by Use of SIFT-Based Image Matching BIBAFull-Text 160-167
  Hotaka Takizawa; Kazunori Orita; Mayumi Aoyagi; Nobuo Ezaki; Shinji Mizuno
In this report, we propose a spot navigation system to assist visually impaired individuals in recalling memories related to spots that they often visit. This system registers scene images and voice memos that are recorded in advance by a visually impaired individual or his/her sighted supporter at various spots. When the individual visits one of the spots, the system determines the current spot from the results of image matching between the registered images and a query image taken by the individual at the spot, then plays a voice memo which corresponds to the spot. The system is applied to actual indoor and outdoor scenes, and experimental results are shown.

Accessible Security and Voting

Toward Private and Independent Accessible Write-In Voting: A Multimodal Prediction Approach BIBAKFull-Text 171-181
  Shanee Dawkins; Wanda Eugene; Tamirat Abegaz; Juan E. Gilbert
The overall objective of this research is to design a multimodal system to write-in a candidate's name that addresses the issues of time, privacy, and accessibility. In order to determine if these issues were met, the design is analyzed and compared against alternate methods of writing-in a candidate's name. An experiment was performed to assess two aspects of the multimodal system: speech interaction and switch interaction. The research intends to capture and analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of writing-in a candidate's name anonymously through multimodal interactions. Though the essence of this research embodies universal of design for everyone everywhere, the design and experiments put forth in this paper will focus on the U.S. voting population.
Keywords: Accessibility; Universally usable interfaces; Electronic voting systems; Multimodal interaction; Text prediction
Virtual Fingerprint -- Image-Based Authentication Increases Privacy for Users of Mouse-Replacement Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 182-191
  Viktoria Grindle; Syed Kamran Haider; John Magee; Marten van Dijk
Current secondary user authentication methods are imperfect. They either rely heavily on a user's ability to remember key preferences and phrases or they involve providing authentication on multiple devices. However, malicious attacks that compromise a user's device or discover personal information about the user are becoming more sophisticated and increasing in number. Users who rely on mouse-replacement interfaces face additional privacy concerns when monitored or assisted by caregivers. Our authentication method proposes a way of quantifying a user's personality traits by observing his selection of images. This method would not be as vulnerable to malicious attacks as current methods are because the method is based on psychological observations that can not be replicated by anyone other than the correct user. As a preliminary evaluation, we created a survey consisting of slides of images and asked participants to click through them. The results indicated our proposed authentication method has clear potential to address these issues.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; Mouse-replacement interfaces; Security; Privacy; Behavioral biometric; Authentication; Camera Mouse; Virtual Fingerprint
Joystick Interaction Strategies of Individuals with Dexterity Impairments: Observations from the Smart Voting Joystick Usability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 192-203
  James E. Jackson; Jennifer Ismirle; Sarah J. Swierenga; Stephen R. Blosser; Graham L. Pierce
In order to develop a joystick as a universal access device for accessible voting machines, it is necessary to observe and understand the strategies of users with disabilities when operating joysticks in this context. For this study, researchers analyzed video and audio recordings as well as written notes and user feedback from the usability evaluation of the Smart Voting Joystick to identify, document, and understand the interaction strategies individuals with motor or dexterity related disabilities employ when using a joystick to interact with a mock voting system.
Keywords: Assistive technology; Accessible voting; Joystick; Interaction strategies; Usability
A Universal Ballot to Enable Voting for All BIBAKFull-Text 204-214
  Seunghyun "Tina" Lee; Yilin Elaine Liu; Ljilja Ruzic Kascak; Jon A. Sanford
Voting is a glocalized event across countries, states and municipalities in which individuals of all abilities want to participate. To enable people with disabilities to participate accessible voting is typically implemented by adding assistive technologies to electronic voting machines to accommodate people with physical and visual disabilities. To overcome the complexities and inequities in this practice, two interfaces, EZ Ballot, which uses a linear yes/no input system for all selections, and QUICK Ballot, which provides random access voting through direct selection, were designed with multi-modal inputs and outputs to provide one system for all voters. This paper reports on the results of Phase I usability testing of EZ Ballot with 21 adults with visual, dexterity and cognitive limitations, which indicated the need for the second interface and describes the Phase II efficacy testing of both interfaces that is currently ongoing. Participants performed a standard set of voting tasks including: voting for one and two candidates, using the write-in function, voting on a referendum and changing their vote. Task performance was recorded by video. Post-trial interviews solicited feedback about ease of use and preferences. Overall, the study demonstrated that people with different limitations could perform voting tasks on a single system, although their preferred input and output methods varied, suggesting that providing flexibility through multi-modal inputs is important to ensure participation of all individuals in the voting process.
Keywords: Accessible voting; Ballot design; User interface; Multi-modal; Interactions
Universal Design (UD) Guidelines for Interactive Mobile Voting Interfaces for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 215-225
  Ljilja Ruzic Kascak; Seunghyun "Tina" Lee; Elaine Yilin Liu; Jon A. Sanford
Current mobile interfaces have numerous usability problems, especially when used by older adults, population of users diverse in ranges and combinations of dis(abilities). However, user interfaces need to be usable by all users, including older adults and disabled people. Universal design (UD), Design for Aging (DfA), and Universal Usability (UU) consider designing systems and interfaces usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible. Set of more inclusive UD guidelines emerged from this integration of the three approaches with mobile design guidelines in order to address usability of user interfaces by diverse population of older adults. An example of an application of the inclusive UD guidelines was universally designed interactive voting interface, EZ Ballot, designed to improve usability of voting systems for older adults. This paper presents the results of the usability testing of the voting system with young and older adults, and reports equal usability of the ballot for both age groups.
Keywords: Design for ageing; User interface adaptation for universal access; Design guidelines; Older adults; Universal design; Usability
"Biometric Dental Rosette" -- Introduction into New Method of Dental Identification BIBAKFull-Text 226-236
  Michal Rychlik; Agnieszka Przystanska; Dorota Lorkiewicz-Muszynska; Mariusz Glapinski
The hypothesis of the study was that human dentition is unique. This study was performed to analyze whether biometric methods using measurements and proportions are suitable for dental identification. The use of 3D models with specialized systems for computer aided engineering (CAE) and Reverse Engineering (RE) allowed for a number of point surface and volume comparative analyses. "Mapping" was carried out next on the dentition models. This procedure results in a set of curves and points depicting the characteristic features of the teeth and their edges respectively. Based on the "mapping" the so-called "biometric dental rosette" was created for the dentition models. The "biometric dental rosette" was created for maxillary and mandibular dentition models. Every rosette was individual thus unique. The method allowed for positive identification of all the volunteers. The presented studies are of preliminary character, and the continuation is necessary.
Keywords: Bitemarks; Biometrics; Forensic odontology; 3D modeling; Reverse Engineering; CAME -- Computer Aided Medical Engineering
Polling Place Support Tool; User Interface to Plan and Run Polling Places BIBAKFull-Text 237-247
  Ted Selker; Shama Hoque
We describe a scenario and enabling system to provide assistance to election officers in several ways. The new user interface approach supports polling place design, training, operations, problem solving, and auditing. It presents a spatial/graphical user interface for interacting with representations of voting space, furniture, and equipment layout, to assist election officers in better fulfilling polling place administrative activities before, during, and after the election. The application, Polling Place Support Tool, is designed to improve on the current paper-based checklists an election officer uses to remember the different activities he or she has to perform. The RAV Polling Place Support Tool is a simulation that allows poll workers and officials to explore the possibilities for optimizing the design of an accessible and compliant polling place, auditing its use and intervening in to solve problems as they arise.
Keywords: Voting; Process; User interface; Web service
The Impact of Literacy on Usable and Accessible Electronic Voting BIBAKFull-Text 248-257
  Kathryn Summers; Jonathan Langford
Electronic voting interfaces present particular challenges for voters with low literacy. Research has found that individuals with low literacy typically encounter problems in electronic interfaces related to their tendencies to read every word, act on every word, interpret words literally, skip text, become distracted, and stop reading too soon. Based on a growing body of research about the experiences of low-literacy voters in electronic interfaces, this paper presents eleven principles to address these challenges. It also translates those principles into specific best practice recommendations related to language, navigation, visual design, and interaction in electronic voting interfaces.
Keywords: Low literacy; Electronic interfaces; Interaction design; Voting; Ballot design; Plain language; Plain interaction; Usability

Universal Access to the Built Environment

Flexibility as an Instrument of Social Stabilization of Residential Environment BIBAKFull-Text 261-269
  Wojciech Bonenberg
This paper presents the results of research conducted at the Faculty of Architecture PUT, regarding flexibility and human factors in the design of housing environment. It points to the need of flexible approach at the initial design stage of decision-making; public opinion has to be considered and emphatic analysis needs to be undertaken to establish the required scope of flexibility. The paper presents the main features of flexibility in the design of flats/houses as opposed to the design of other facilities, such as offices, industrial and commercial areas. The results of research reveal significant differences in the demands regarding the interior of flats/houses and those regarding the residential area. Flexibility turns out to be a crucial factor in the creation of residential areas that stabilize social relationships and include human factors.
Keywords: Flexibility; Housing environment; Social stabilization
Risk Analysis in the Process a New Workplace BIBAKFull-Text 270-279
  Hanna Golas
In this paper the author presents the use of selected risk analysis tools in the process of authorising a new workstation. The company selected for the study belongs to the automotive industry, where customer requirements are high in terms of quality and performance as well as in terms of safety of work, employees and the process.
Keywords: Workstation; Employee safety; Labour standards; Risk
Ergonomics of the Urban Villa's Form as an Element of Sustainable Architectural and Urban Design BIBAKFull-Text 280-290
  Pawel Horn
Article is a presentation and discussion of the complex of multi-family buildings which were built in Wroclaw in an interesting and challenging historical urban context. Discussion of the complex serves to define characteristic parameters that allow to consider the buildings as example of urban villa and to illustrate the process of reaching the optimum of these parameters in the context of urban environment. Ergonomics of the object's dependency from its surroundings will be analysed and considered as an aspect of sustainable design in a conscious decision-making process in an integrated interdisciplinary and computer-aided design environment. Discussed design process due to its flexibility and value is to show the urban villa's advantages as an answer to the needs of contemporary inhabitants of a big city. At the same time the author intends to highlight the influence of sustainable design on ergonomics of an architectural object nowadays, taking into account the degree to which it is possible to use and create computer tools for ergonomic and sustainable design.
Keywords: Ergonomics in sustainable design of residential architecture; Ergonomics of urban villa; Computer-aided design environment for housing designers
The Effect of Technological Progress on the Quality and Aesthetics of Modern Sanitary Facilities BIBAKFull-Text 291-302
  Anna Jaglarz; Jerzy Charytonowicz
Taking into account the possibilities of modern technology and its application in the area of hygiene and sanitation, we can observe a significant change in the quality of the bathroom resulting from the transformation of individual bathroom systems and devices that do not avoid rapid technological development, adapting them to the requirements of modern times.
   Although the latest technology achievements in the field of bathroom facilities often surprise with their complexity, the amount of features and capabilities of the technique, by which apparently may seem complicated, however, degree of comfort which they offer is convincing about the proper actions of designers and manufacturers. Actions which primary purpose is the convenience, safety and functionality of the use of technologically and aesthetically advanced devices. Also, their hygiene, mobility and ease of use and the ability to easily keep clean are necessary. The solutions used in modern bathrooms are designed to simplify and reduce the cost of their construction. Saving of water and energy is also an important issue.
   The possibility to use any innovations provides much greater freedom in shaping and arranging, the opportunity to implement the original design ideas, and thereby the ability to create individual, unique hygienic-sanitary objects. All these actions result from the requirements of the present times and emerging needs of the modern user and are based on numerous studies and analyzes concerning the possibility of shaping the bathroom.
Keywords: Sanitary facilities; Technological progress; Modern bathroom design trends; Modern technology in the bathroom; Sustainable bathroom; Ergonomics
Development of the Ecological Bathroom Ideas BIBAKFull-Text 303-310
  Anna Jaglarz
Shaping the ecological bathroom includes various activities allowing optimal usable, health and aesthetic conditions to reside and perform specific actions by users with minimum interference in the environment and low use of natural resources. The main objective of these activities is to create a harmonious compounds in the system: user -- bathroom -- the environment. The basic features of ecological bathrooms and its ecological equipment include efficiency and savings of water, energy and materials. Equally important is the friendly treatment of the environment and the maintenance of healthy and hygienic conditions of use of the bathroom.
   Bathroom industry, taking care of the environment, is offering more and more products that prevent waste of natural resources and control their consumption. As a result of work on ever new, sometimes surprising, possibilities of their optimal use, numerous projects appear in response to needs for solutions that are economical in operation and at the same time comfortable to use.
Keywords: Ecological bathroom; Eco friendly bathroom; Sustainable bathroom; Modern bathroom design trends; Hygienic and sanitary facilities; Technological development; Modern technology; Ergonomics
Does a Computer Have Control Over an Architect? Reflections on the Example of Sports Arenas BIBAKFull-Text 311-321
  Nina Juzwa; Adam Gil; Katarzyna Ujma-Wasowicz
Considerations on the subject were carried out by a comparative analysis of modern architecture of large volume sport objects that originated i.a. in Poland at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries with references to earlier objects and trends in worldwide architecture. Case studies are an effective tool that allows to observe changes and on this basis to draw conclusions for the directions of development. It is a chance to comment on the relationship between computer tools and the form and method of solving selected problems of architectural designing. Analysis of selected examples leads to the conclusion that modern architecture of sports arenas probably not have been built without participation of computer programs.
Keywords: Large-scale objects for sports and entertainment; Architecture of sports arenas and stadiums; Computer programs in architectural design
The Impact of Solar Radiation on the Quality of Buildings: Research Methods BIBAKFull-Text 322-331
  Dariusz Masly; Michal Sitek; Klaudiusz Fross
Daylight analyses presented in this paper are fragments of a wider research project. The daylight simulation study focused on the influence of various facade solutions on lighting environment in office buildings located in the south of Poland. The development of scientific principles lying behind correctly daylit workspaces in offices was the main project's aim. The another, equally crucial purpose was the development of design guidelines for office buildings in the southern Poland. Selected architectural solutions were compared in this study. They included facade solutions (window placements and shapes, glazing-to-wall (GWR) ratios), solar radiation reflectors (light shelves) and deflectors (venetian blinds). Moreover two types of daylight performance metrics were explored, static and dynamic. The objective of this document is to promote the use of the most advanced and sophisticated computer simulation methods, techniques and tools for sustainable building design regarding quality of daylit indoor environment.
Keywords: Daylight analysis; Indoor environment quality; Natural lighting design strategies; Sustainable office buildings
The Human Factor in the Revitalization of the Historic Polish Cities BIBAKFull-Text 332-339
  Robert Masztalski
There are cities in Poland, which suffered as a result of World War 2, and after 66 years is still not rebuilt. This is particularly true of historic towns with historical pedigree. The monument conservators trying to keep full control over the reconstruction of these city centers and are blocking investment processes. Revitalization of these areas needs to be redefined in terms of procedures of conservation of cultural heritage in the context of modern ergonomic requirements. Case study is the city of Strzelin in the south-west Poland.
Keywords: Modern ergonomic requirements; Revitalization; Historic cities in Poland
Designing Kitchens for Small Domestic Spaces BIBAFull-Text 340-351
  Przemyslaw Nowakowski
The role of kitchen area in the house environment has been changing over the course of history. The changes concerned the share of kitchen space in apartment functional structure, as well as the course of everyday chores. Currently, as well as in the past, kitchen areas remain placed either in separate rooms, or they constitute a part of a bigger space (usually the living room). At present, two characteristic domestic kitchen models are preferred: "laboratory" and multifunctional (with a dining room). The space limitations, especially in multi-family housing, favored the "laboratory" kitchen model, or so-called partial kitchens in living rooms. Technical progress enabled creating various types of small kitchen areas, which are adjusted to diverse needs of users, according to their lifestyle.
   Kitchen areas are crucial places for completing various household chores. Among everyday duties performed in the kitchen there are: preparing meals, doing the washing up and cleaning up. Those chores frequently are technologically complicated activities. In order to perform them more efficiently, household members use various devices and home appliances. Conducting of chores, storing the appliances and food products etc., requires a vast share of the apartment structure. Providing sufficiently big maneuver and storage spaces is particularly difficult in small kitchens. Shortages in available space may have a negative influence on, among others, the correct layout of working space or ease of movement in small kitchens.
   The following paper concentrates on the evolution and examples of types of small kitchens, as well as selected rules concerning the improvement of conditions of their arrangements.
Human-Computer Interactions in Contemporary Office Environment BIBAFull-Text 352-359
  Elzbieta Dagny Rynska; Ferdynand óski
The article is a voice in the discussion on ergonomics and efficiency in the operation of ITC devices in the context of the office environment and its ongoing changes. Increased mobility which followed technological advances is redefining office work. With the restraint of having to create designated workstations lifted, the possibilities of work-related interaction became more diverse, creating new chances but at the same time also design challenges.
   Which aspects of the workspace have proven to be effective in creating a good work environment? Proper temperature and humidity, daylighting, aesthetics, greenery and an interesting view outside are the top of the list; but is there really a single answer to that question? Even within one industry, requirements regarding the optimal workspace may differ, depending on the task at hand. This should be a hint that maybe flexibility and diversity of spaces made available to the employee is the best solution to that problem.
   In the first part of the article we explain how the office environment has evolved into what it is today, showing the most important factors influencing that change.
   The second stage of the analysis centers around the tools employed in working mobile, focusing on displaying their current limitation and usability in the work-related context.
Shaping of the Architectural Detail in View of Energy Saving BIBAKFull-Text 360-369
  Andrzej Skowronski; Maciej Skowronski
Global warming observed has provoked the tendencies to reduce the emission of CO2. In January 2014 Poland also introduced much stricter building-law regulations referring to how buildings should be designed in respect of heat insulation and a permissible value of EP coefficient (defining a yearly demand for primary energy). The changes introduced result from the general strategy included in the European EPBD (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive) which imposes (up to 2020) the reduction of greenhouse gases at least by 20%. In December 2014 the European Union took up another obligation -- to reduce greenhouse gases by 30% by the end of 2030.
   The consumption of energy in the building industry is vastly influenced by the thermal insulation of buildings, as well as by such things as: thermal Bridges, air tightness of a building.
   When an architectural detail is not designed carefully enough or some other errors occur in the process of construction, one can observe a large energy loss which escapes through thermal bridges or other leaky places in the building. Energy loss may then reach even dozen or more per cent.
   The European Union has changed legal regulations for the building industry, concerning mostly energy effectiveness. Those refer not only to the insulation capacity (passive protection from the heat loss) but also impose the obligation for new buildings to use renewable energy, which is understood as an active share of alternative energy. While doing their designer's job, architects must now dedicate their time to the calculations how much heat is lost and to computer simulations of the energy balance, including the energy coming from solar panels, heat pumps, wind energy, etc.
   The changes and limits to energy consumption introduced gradually influence the character of architect's profession. The buildings designed as extensively segmented or glazed will become less economical than simple but carefully insulated blocks. Also, the role of an architect is about to be changed giving way to a new profession which could be dubbed as: a specialist in energy saving and the building physics.
Keywords: Architecture; Saving energy; Detail
Changes in Shaping the Banking Environment BIBAKFull-Text 370-377
  Krystyna Strumillo
The goal of this article is to show the changes in shaping the banking environment. The analysis of these changes caused by the technological development aims at illustrating which banking functions have lost their original meaning or vanished, and which functions developed from scratch. The research method is based primarily on the selected examples from existing banks in cities, as well as on the analysis of source materials, i.e. scientific literature. The process of computerization and automation of banking operations becomes an important issue. The rapid development of technologies is mirrored in the bank and client relationship. This development affects not only the way of shaping the interior, but also the operations performed and appearance of banks. New technologies have fundamentally transformed both buildings design and the whole financial services sector. Electronic banking, which definitely has many advantages, is the most popular type of banking. It leads to wider savings and also helps to reduce the need to open traditional branches of banks. Now, the percentage of the financial and banking operations conducted via electronic means is increasing and clients are also supported by ATM machines and retail offices.
Keywords: Banking environment; Banking space; Bank building
Some Paradoxical Aspects of the Use of Computers for Architectural and Structural Design BIBAKFull-Text 378-389
  Romuald Tarczewski
The architectural form determines visual perception of the building and its social acceptance. From it depends also fulfillment of functional and utilitarian assumptions, adopted at the project beginning. The aim of architectural modeling is primarily to create a geometric model of the future facility. It has also influence on the ability of modeling of the structural system which is a carrier of architectural form. All limitations of the structural system translate into limitations of architectural form. As long as only straight lines and planes were readily available, and any curves and non-planar surfaces were extremely difficult to model -- architectural form was characterized by preference of orthogonality. If one looks at the restrictions in both architectural and structural modeling, resulted from the shortcomings of the underlying theory, and the impact that introduction of modeling with use of numerical tools had on change of that situation -- it can lead to surprising conclusions.
Keywords: Building modeling; Numerical models; Shaping of form
Interior Architecture and Humane Design BIBAKFull-Text 390-400
  Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska; Joanna Jablonska
There is a distinct correlation between the interior design architecture and ergonomic quality of space in hotel rooms. However, is an increase in standard paired with human comfort and safety? Does a higher standard of a hotel unit type, i.e.: Superior, Comfort or Suite, provide optimal spatial solutions? The article presents a continuation of a study on the following elements: design solutions, internal finishing, furnishing and appliances; investigating their influence on the well-being and safety of people with or without any type of disability. Research based on literature and numerous case studies was focused mainly on the needs of independent travelers, who wish to live in a hotel space without a need to rely on help from a third party. The scope of study includes hotel bedrooms, sitting rooms and bathrooms.
Keywords: Room standard; Appliances; Ergonomics of a hotel residential unit; Ergonomics of a hotel room

Ergonomics and Universal Access

Aiding Self-reliance of the Elderly and the Disabled -- Modular Cupboard with Mobile Internal Units BIBAKFull-Text 403-412
  Agata Bonenberg
Changes in the age structure of societies, development of medical care and, even more importantly, the drive of the elderly and the disabled towards self-reliant and satisfactory lives make the creation of space devoid of any barriers a fundamental goal of the architectural design. The subject of the study presented in this paper is the design of the modular cupboard with mobile internal units. The purpose of such a unique construction of this piece of furniture is to make the users able to optimally use the space available in the upper parts of the room. The paper consists of the three main elements: description of the inventive design, analysis of the customization options for the modular cupboard frame, and the research including the assessment of the modular cupboard frame according to the kansei method.
Keywords: Designing for the disabled and the elderly; Kansei method; Customization
Ergonomic Implications of Technological Innovations in the Development of Computer Workstations BIBAKFull-Text 413-421
  Marcin Butlewski; Aleksandra Dewicka; Edwin Tytyk
Relentless technological progress creates change in the work environment, including that of commonly used computer workstations. Determinants of change in this respect are both the changes in information and communication technologies as well as the more often exhibited concern for the welfare of employees. Technological innovations derive from a multifaceted improvement of a specified element of the technical environment (e.g., contrast, energy consumption for the next generation of computer screens), with the assumption that they will bring a benefit in terms of ergonomic quality of working conditions. Technological innovations can, however, cause a deterioration of identified in advance or often unknown parameters of the working environment, in particular, they can have negative consequences for ergonomic working conditions. The analysis found that technological changes satisfactory from the point of view of ergonomics.
Keywords: Ergonomic design; Heuristic methods; Design; Ergonomics; Devices for the elderly
A Freehand System for the Management of Orders Picking and Loading of Vehicles BIBAKFull-Text 422-431
  Pedro J. S. Cardoso; João M. F. Rodrigues; Luís Carlos Sousa; Andriy Mazayev; Emanuel Ey; Tiago Corrêa; Mário Saleiro
The process of picking goods from a warehouse and loading distribution vehicles is done in a systematic manner which in general corresponds to a certain order. For instance in the delivery of goods, it may be important to load the transportation vehicles in the reverse order of the customers visit, in furtherance of better accessing the products when unloading/delivering. This management can be troublesome if the human-computer interface requires the use of devices, like mouses or keyboards, which are difficult to be used under certain condition (e.g., human with dirty hands or wearing thick gloves/clothes). In this paper it is presented a proof-of-concept in the area of picking goods from a warehouse and the corresponding vehicle loading when using equipments which do not allow easy use of common human-computer interfaces. In this sense, an application using a 3D sensor was programmed to implement the human-computer interaction based on simple swipe gestures to navigate through the options, menu and their (de)selection.
Keywords: 3D sensor; Leap Motion; Orders picking and loading; Vehicle Routing Problem
Application of Infrared Technology in Household Water Tap Design and Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 432-443
  Ming-Shih Chen; Ming-Lun Li; Yu-Chia Chen
Based on previous research results, this study examined the use of water taps and observes the experiences of different age groups when using new product designs. The results indicated that, although new designs can meet the demands of different generations, first-time users have a relatively low understanding of a product from its appearance; hence, if a new design deviates from common user cognition, even it could solve user problems, it still has low user acceptance.
Keywords: Infrared technology; Universal design; Washing behavior; Water tap; Use evaluation
Human Factor in Sustainable Manufacturing BIBAKFull-Text 444-455
  Malgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek; Anna Saniuk
This article describes sustainable manufacturing (a part of a sustainable development concept) and the role of human factor/ergonomics (HFE) in achieving it. This includes consideration of relevant human factor issues in advancing manufacturing operations and processes from the point of view of product life cycle phases.
Keywords: Human factor/ergonomics; Sustainable manufacturing; Product life-cycle
Model of OHS Management Systems in an Excellent Company BIBAKFull-Text 456-467
  Anna Mazur
In the paper the model of the Occupational Health and Safety management system (OHS management system model.) implementable in organizations striving for continuous improvement and excellence is presented. The concepts of excellent organizations and organizational maturity are explained. The model presented by the author is the result of the case study based research conducted in five manufacturing companies in the Wielkopolska region. All the analyzed companies in a very clear way focus their attention on the issue of improving OHS management system and are interested in are assessment of organizational maturity in this area and meet the requirements of any health and safety excellence model. The basic assumption of the model is application of the continuous improvement principle at three management levels: strategic, tactical and operational. As an extension of the model presented, the option of the implementation of Deming's fourteen principles to the area of health and safety management is introduced. Approach to the management of health and safety presented points to the ever increasing interest of enterprises in these issues, in addition it proves the fact that achieving and improving organizational maturity is only possible with regard to issues of health and safety.
Keywords: OHS management model; Excellence model; Organizational maturity
Ergonomic Aspects of the Architectural Designing of the Stairs in the Spaces for the Great Public Gathering BIBAKFull-Text 468-479
  Zdzislaw Pelczarski
Spaces designed for large public gatherings, arranged both inside buildings and outside them, need to take into account a number of specific conditions. Among them the most important are design issues related to stairs. In this case, the main problems arise from the need to ensure a smooth and safe movement of the human masses, while fulfilling the relevant conditions of mental and physical comfort for each of the individuals, which are part of the moving crowd. In this context, the most critical design issues relate to the evacuation, taking into account the specific behaviours during the panic, especially when the crowd moves down the stairs from the upper to the lower floors. The article presents considerations, research results and conclusions of the author, based on his own experience of many years of architectural practice in the design of stadiums.
Keywords: Ergonomic; Stairs; Architecture; Designing; Crowd movement
Typology and Ergonomics of Rooms in Contemporary Hotel BIBAKFull-Text 480-491
  Elzbieta Trocka-Leszczynska; Joanna Jablonska
Depending on the hotel's standard, a variety of room types can be distinguished: Single, Twin, Double, Apartments (Polish "Apartament"), suites: junior, business, senator, etc. What is more, these are often found in a variety of standards, i.e. Standard, Superior, Luxury, Deluxe, Queen, King, Royal or Executive, just to name a few. With such a range of possibilities, and even more diversification based on cultural and architectural customs in a particular country, it seems that a proper typology of hotel services should be based rather on the grounds of ergonomics and room comfort than marketing labels. This article presents a study aiming at properly formulating tools for standardization of contemporary hotel accommodation. Scope of the study includes a range of European examples.
Keywords: Hotel design; Hotel room typology; Hotel room ergonomics; Contemporary hotels