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TEI Tables of Contents: 07080910111213141516

Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction
Editors:Bill Verplank; Wendy Ju; Alissa Antle; Ali Mazalek; Florian Floyd Mueller
Location:Stanford, California
Dates:2015-Jan-15 to 2015-Jan-19
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-3305-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: TEI15
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote Address
  2. Paper Session 1: Why Use Theory?
  3. Paper Session 2: Focus on Interaction
  4. Paper Session 3: Techie: How it Works
  5. Paper Session 4: Making Connections
  6. Paper Session 5: Toolkits: How to Make It
  7. Paper Session 6: Cool New Stuff
  8. Paper Session 7: Supporting Designers
  9. Paper Session 8: The Latest Applications
  10. Paper Demonstrations
  11. Art Exhibition
  12. Graduate Student Consortium
  13. Student Design Challenge
  14. Work-in-Progress: Poster Presentations
  15. Work-in-Progress: Poster/Demo Presentations
  16. Work-in-Progress: Demonstration Presentations

Keynote Address

Helping Hands: Wonders and Woes of Prosthetics Technologies BIBAFull-Text 1
  Frank R. Wilson
The human hand is not merely useful. It is arguably the most openly and inexhaustibly programmable biological machine in the universe. The partnership it forged with the brain and the rest of the human body over the span of many thousands of years not only made human life possible but reappears in every healthy new human baby as a legacy of wide-open prospects for adventure and discovery.
   For most large organisms, survival of the species has been won through the tactic of genetic and behavioral conservatism -- settling into a niche where skills are suited to needs, and where environmental change comes slowly compared to the pace of generational renewal. Humans, too, are genetically conservative, but our evolutionary path liberated us from repertoires of fixed and safe routines and turned us into behavioral improvisers. Possibly this happened because the childhood and adolescence of our species was spent crossing unfamiliar landscapes and chancing life in unpredictable environments. This migratory strategy didn't just save us, it transformed us. Over time we became "modern Homo sapiens" -- highly resourceful tool-makers and users who had learned to live together and to share labor, knowledge, and ideas. Eventually, having no real competitors, we put ourselves in charge of the shallow global compartment of oxygen-rich terrain where our ancestors had started hanging out millions of years ago.
   The downside of our survival strategy has been that what makes us so successful also makes us a danger to ourselves, as Greek mythology and Shakespeare so eloquently remind us. The latest irony and most recent danger is the perverse idea that our biology is our undoing, and that only technology can save us. It is this idea, or part of this idea, that I want to talk about here. Specifically, I want to consider our high hopes for "prosthetics technologies," by which I mean not only those devices and machines that are created to repair and replace broken or missing parts of ourselves but also the devices and machines we design and build to outdo ourselves.
Interactive Paper: A Whirlwind Tour of Tangible Computing from the Digital Desk to Music Composition BIBAFull-Text 3
  Wendy E. Mackay
Interactive paper is a form of tangible computing that allows people to take full advantage of their existing cognitive and physical skills, and encourages us, as designers, to explore novel strategies for supporting creativity. This talk traces my own history with interactive paper, based on participatory design projects with creative professionals who successfully combine paper and computers. I begin with Pierre Wellner's ground-breaking Digital Desk in the 1990's and continue through to Phillippe LeRoux's Quid Sit Musicus in 2014, which used interactive paper both during composition and as an integral part of the live performance. The insights we gained from these projects has led to a new way of thinking about interaction design. Our concept of co-adaptive instruments is based on instrumental Interaction, which treats interaction as a first class object and co-adaptation, which helps users both learn (adapt to) and appropriate (adapt) interactive systems. By taking cues from how people interact in the physical world, we can create less brittle systems that are easier to learn and appropriate, and support a wide variety of creative activities.
   Wendy Mackay is a Research Director, Classe Exceptionnelle, at Inria, France, where she heads the In|Situ| research group in Human-Computer Interaction at the Université Paris-Sud. After receiving her Ph.D. from MIT, she managed research groups at Digital Equipment and Xerox EuroPARC, which were among the first to explore interactive video and tangible computing. She has been a visiting professor at University of Aarhus and Stanford University and recently served as Vice President for Research at the University of Paris-Sud. Wendy is a member of the ACM CHI academy, is a past chair of ACM/SIGCHI, chaired CHI'13 and recently received the ACM/SIGCHI Lifetime Achievement Service Award. She also received the prestigious ERC Advanced Grant for her research on co-adaptive instruments. She has published over 150 peer-reviewed research articles in the area of Human-computer Interaction. Her current research interests include participatory design, creativity, co-adaptive instruments, mixed reality and interactive paper, and multidisciplinary research methods.

Paper Session 1: Why Use Theory?

What do Objects Mean?: Early Tangibility in and around Interval Research BIBAFull-Text 5-12
  Meg Withgott
How can designers benefit from the physical and symbol-using practices that define people? Projects in and around Interval Research Corporation explored tangibles in audio, video and physical token-based computation. Four endeavors clarify what happens offscreen when participants play and collaborate. Understanding deeper issues of on- and offscreen distinctiveness, representation and embodiment is of interest, we maintain, because our current understanding of tangible design has undersold one core virtue of TUIs: tangible computing enables hardware/software systems that are non-isolating. When people are not isolated from the physical world, or from other people, they can rely on a supportive environment to help them manage confusingly large sets of objects and referents, and to share the knowledge with large sets of others. This very human part of computer interaction, we submit, gives rise to language-like structure, games, sorting, stealing, and more. If we let it, it could fundamentally change our relationship to the computer as we design new interfaces for the increasing number of computerized objects around us.
The ATB Framework: Quantifying and Classifying Epistemic Strategies in Tangible Problem-Solving Tasks BIBAFull-Text 13-20
  Augusto Esteves; Saskia Bakker; Alissa N. Antle; Aaron May; Jillian Warren; Ian Oakley
In task performance, pragmatic actions refer to behaviors that make direct progress, while epistemic actions involve altering the world so that cognitive processes are faster, more reliable or less taxing. Epistemic actions are frequently presented as a beneficial consequence of interacting with tangible systems. However, we currently lack tools to measure epistemic behaviors, making substantiating such claims highly challenging. This paper addresses this problem by presenting ATB, a video-coding framework that enables the identification and measurement of different epistemic actions during problem-solving tasks. The framework was developed through a systematic literature review of 78 papers, and analyzed through a study involving a jigsaw puzzle -- a classical spatial problem -- involving 60 participants. In order to assess the framework's value as a metric, we analyze the study with respect to its reliability, validity and predictive power. The broadly supportive results lead us to conclude that the ATB framework enables the use of observed epistemic behaviors as a performance metric for tangible systems. We believe that the development of metrics focused explicitly on the properties of tangible interaction are currently required to gain insight into the genuine and unique benefits of tangible interaction. The ATB framework is a step towards this goal.
Seven Principles to Design for Embodied Sensemaking BIBAFull-Text 21-28
  Caroline Hummels; Jelle van Dijk
The TEI-community is based a various paradigms. We believe that the community matures by scrutinising these different paradigms and unravelling the consequences for designing for tangible, embedded and embodied interaction. In this paper we explore the consequences and possibilities of phenomenology-inspired embodied theory, and more specifically the concept of embodied sensemaking, i.e. human sensemaking using sensorimotor couplings to support social coordination between people. Based on our theoretical setting, we introduce seven design principles for developing face-to-face embodied sensemaking technology. We show in this paper how we used these principles to develop a mobile design and sensemaking studio for the encounter between two persons to sketch a future at the cross-section of their disciplines. By explaining these principles, we aim to show what embodied theory can bring the TEI-community, and invite others to do the same.
Escaping the Sandbox: Making and Its Future BIBAFull-Text 29-32
  Tom Jenkins; Ian Bogost
"Making" has been gaining traction in HCI and related fields both as a community of practice and as a method for creating objects and systems. While making is an important cultural practice, this paper claims that there is a disconnect between the rhetoric of making and "real world" notions of domain relevance and embedded hardware development. In considering how making operates in practice, we offer the metaphor of a sandbox to describe this contradiction. We exemplify the metaphor with a small-scale prototyping platform of our own, and offer visions on how making might progress in the future.

Paper Session 2: Focus on Interaction

Using a Tangible Versus a Multi-touch Graphical User Interface to Support Data Exploration at a Museum Exhibit BIBAFull-Text 33-40
  Joyce Ma; Lisa Sindorf; Isaac Liao; Jennifer Frazier
We describe a study comparing the behavior of museum visitors at an interactive exhibit that used physical versus virtual objects to explore a large scientific dataset. The exhibit visualized the distribution of phytoplankton in the world's oceans on a multi-touch table. In one version, visitors used physical rings to look at the type and proportion of phytoplankton in different areas of the oceans, and in the other version they used virtual rings. The findings suggest that the physical rings better afforded touching and manipulations, which were prerequisites to further exploration, and attracted more groups, thereby providing opportunities for people to talk and share. However, the comparison did not detect any measurable differences in the thoroughness of visitors' interactions, the questions they asked, or on-topic talk with others at the exhibit. These results should help museum professionals and interaction designers better weigh the costs and benefits of tangible user interfaces.
Designing the Unexpected: Endlessly Fascinating Interaction for Interactive Installations BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Lindsay MacDonald; John Brosz; Miguel A. Nacenta; Sheelagh Carpendale
We present A Delicate Agreement, an interactive art installation designed to intrigue viewers by offering them an unfolding story that is endlessly fascinating. To achieve this, we set our story in the liminal space of an elevator, and populated this elevator with a set of unique characters. Viewers watch the story unfold through peepholes in the elevator's doors, where in turn their gaze can trigger changes in the storyline. This storyline's interactive response was created via a complex adaptive system using simple rules based on Goffman's performance theory.
Resonant Bits: Harmonic Interaction with Virtual Pendulums BIBAFull-Text 49-52
  Peter Bennett; Stuart Nolan; Ved Uttamchandani; Michael Pages; Kirsten Cater; Mike Fraser
This paper presents the concept of Resonant Bits, an interaction technique for encouraging engaging, slow and skilful interaction with tangible, mobile and ubiquitous devices. The technique is based on the resonant excitation of harmonic oscillators and allows the exploration of a number of novel types of tangible interaction including: ideomotor control, where subliminal micro-movements accumulate over time to produce a visible outcome; indirect tangible interaction, where a number of devices can be controlled simultaneously through an intermediary object such as a table; and slow interaction, with meditative and repetitive gestures being used for control. The Resonant Bits concept is tested as an interaction method in a study where participants resonate with virtual pendulums on a mobile device. The Harmonic Tuner, a resonance-based music player, is presented as a simple example of using resonant bits. Overall, our ambition in proposing the Resonant Bits concept is to promote skilful, engaging and ultimately rewarding forms of interaction with tangible devices that takes time and patience to learn and master.
Material Significance of Tangibles for Young Children BIBAFull-Text 53-56
  Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo; Janelle Arita; Sharon Chu; Francis Quek; Stephen Aldriedge
The purpose of this paper is to investigate how young children associate materiality and meanings and how it can benefit tangible interaction design. To study this, we developed a research prototype, Stampies, that allows playful tangible interactions. Stampies consists of tangible objects made out of different materials (wood, felt, silicone, and plastic) and an iPad drawing application. We describe results from our empirical study involving 19 children aged 4 to 7. The study indicates that children associate materials with meanings through "material essences", feel, and tactile preference. We conclude with design implications for tangible interaction for children.
MugShots: A Mug Display for Front and Back Stage Social Interaction in the Workplace BIBAFull-Text 57-60
  Hsin-Liu (Cindy) Kao; Chris Schmandt
We explore creating objects for expressive communication in the workspace. As an initial step, we created MugShots, a coffee mug with a wireless OLED display that switches between public and private social interaction modes. Targeted for the workplace, MugShots is an intimate communication device in the personal office space, yet alternates to become a social catalyst to trigger conversation when brought to public areas. We present a prototype of MugShots along with a 21-person study, providing initial discussions and insight on designing objects for communication.

Paper Session 3: Techie: How it Works

MagnID: Tracking Multiple Magnetic Tokens BIBAFull-Text 61-68
  Andrea Bianchi; Ian Oakley
Tangible systems present compelling interaction opportunities but are typically enabled by complex, bulky, awkward or expensive sensing infrastructures. This hinders their adoption in many application areas. In order to address this issue, this paper explores the use of simple active magnetic tokens that create carefully controlled patterns of varying magnetic flux as the building blocks of tangible systems. We describe the construction of these tokens and a software system capable of detecting their presence and inferring their location based on data sampled from a single triaxial magnetometer a standard component of most current mobile devices. The system can recognize token positions from a set of six pre-calibrated locations with an accuracy of 99%. We describe the hardware and software components of this system and five demonstration applications that illustrate its functionality.
Shimmering Smartwatches: Exploring the Smartwatch Design Space BIBAFull-Text 69-76
  Cheng Xu; Kent Lyons
We examine the nature of smartwatches and explore their associated user interface design space in this paper. Several smartwatches are using small graphical displays and as such are adopting similar forms. However, there are indications that other designs could be feasible. We discuss how smartwatches might use non-graphical displays and still offer "smart" capabilities. To demonstrate feasibility, we present two smartwatch prototypes and show how LED arrays can be used to dynamically support several functions needed by smartwatch applications. Finally, we discuss some tradeoffs associated with this approach and point to additional opportunities for investigating smartwatch designs.
Sticky Actuator: Free-Form Planar Actuators for Animated Objects BIBAFull-Text 77-84
  Ryuma Niiyama; Xu Sun; Lining Yao; Hiroshi Ishii; Daniela Rus; Sangbae Kim
We propose soft planar actuators enhanced by free-form fabrication that are suitable for making everyday objects move. The actuator consists of one or more inflatable pouches with an adhesive back. We have developed a machine for the fabrication of free-from pouches; squares, circles and ribbons are all possible. The deformation of the pouches can provide linear, rotational, and more complicated motion corresponding to the pouch's geometry. We also provide a both manual and programmable control system. In a user study, we organized a hands-on workshop of actuated origami for children. The results show that the combination of the actuator and classic materials can enhance rapid prototyping of animated objects.
Fl.UIs: Liquid-Mediated Vision Based Touch Surfaces BIBAFull-Text 85-88
  Tim Campbell; Cesar Torres; Eric Paulos
Fluid User Interfaces (Fl.UIs) are liquid-based touch surfaces that use computer vision to detect and interpret a range of tactile user inputs. While Fl.UIs have less input resolution than digital touch screens, they provide an excellent low-cost solution for rapidly prototyping non-rectilinear screen designs as well as exploring novel surface interaction techniques. Fabricated on a laser cutter using low-cost materials, Fl.UIs use unique shape outlines to displace an internal colored liquid to regions-of-interest for a camera. This paper presents a set of software tools that help users rapidly design, fabricate and author interactions with Fl.UIs. The robust construction and an unpowered surface makes Fl.UIs well-suited for outdoor and public installations. Our Fl.UIs prototyping tool encourages these uncommon "screens" to emerge in complex environments (i.e. urban spaces, benches, tables, fountains, sidewalks).

Paper Session 4: Making Connections

THAW: Tangible Interaction with See-Through Augmentation for Smartphones on Computer Screens BIBAFull-Text 89-96
  Sang-won Leigh; Philipp Schoessler; Felix Heibeck; Pattie Maes; Hiroshi Ishii
The huge influx of mobile display devices is transforming computing into multi-device interaction, demanding a fluid mechanism for using multiple devices in synergy. In this paper, we present a novel interaction system that allows a collocated large display and a small handheld device to work together. The smartphone acts as a physical interface for near-surface interactions on a computer screen. Our system enables accurate position tracking of a smartphone placed on or over any screen by displaying a 2D color pattern that is captured using the smartphone's back-facing camera. As a result, the smartphone can directly interact with data displayed on the host computer, with precisely aligned visual feedback from both devices. The possible interactions are described and classified in a framework, which we exemplify on the basis of several implemented applications. Finally, we present a technical evaluation and describe how our system is unique compared to other existing near-surface interaction systems. The proposed technique can be implemented on existing devices without the need for additional hardware, promising immediate integration into existing systems.
ATSI: Augmented and Tangible Sonic Interaction BIBAFull-Text 97-104
  Roberto Pugliese; Archontis Politis; Tapio Takala
This paper presents ATSI, a system for sonic augmentation of physical objects with spatialized sounds and their control by gestural interaction. The implementation combines tracking of the users' hands and head with commodity hardware, and binaural spatialized sound rendering over headphones. The user may attach sounds to common objects and the system maintains the correct spatial auditory perspective inside the augmented scene during the actions of attaching sounds, picking and moving the sounding objects, or exploring the scene. Attention has been given to the binaural rendering of distance cues to support the above actions with perceptual realism in small scale environments and for many objects. Through a user study assessing the localization accuracy that can be achieved with the system, we show that sound rendering performance looks appropriate for applications such as auditory displays for context and object specific information, sonic design for architectural planning and interior design, and music applications.
Catch-Up 360: Digital Benefits for Physical Artifacts BIBAFull-Text 105-108
  Florian Perteneder; Eva-Maria Grossauer; Yan Xu; Michael Haller
Industrial designers have a tangible working style. However, compared to digital data, physical mockups are difficult to copy and share over distance. They require a lot of physical space, and earlier versions are lost once they are modified. In this paper, we introduce Catch-Up 360, a tool designed for sharing physical mockups over distance to gain feedback from remote located designers, and compare current models with earlier versions. Summarizing, our approach provides a simple, intuitive, and tangible UI that supports the use of lightweight, web-based clients by using remote manipulation of the physical objects.
BreathingFrame: An Inflatable Frame for Remote Breath Signal Sharing BIBAFull-Text 109-112
  Jina Kim; Young-Woo Park; Tek-Jin Nam
We present BreathingFrame, a breath signal sharing device that supports pairwise remote communication through delivering the physical inflating movement of the other party's breathing on the surface of a digital photo frame. The results of our observational study with eight couples showed that participants could associate the other party on the frame, feel sentimental connectedness and the breathing movement from the other party, and stimulate their curiosity in a positive way. We also found that it was effective for conveying affection and making users to do natural abdominal breathing through intentional breath signal delivery. Allowing the users to share breathing at a distance by applying unconscious but partially controllable breath signals on the digital picture frame which is used in everyday lives, BreathingFrame can deliver new forms of telepresence and support emotional communication.
LiveSphere: Sharing the Surrounding Visual Environment for Immersive Experience in Remote Collaboration BIBAFull-Text 113-116
  Shohei Nagai; Shunichi Kasahara; Jun Rekimoto
Sharing an immersive experience enhances situational awareness, enabling effective collaboration between persons in different places. The development of a head-worn camera enables us to capture the first-person view and share it as the personal experience. However, the limited viewing angle of such cameras prevents a remote viewer from obtaining a complete surrounding situation. In this paper, we propose a system called LiveSphere, which presents the entire surrounding visual environment using a head-worn system with multiple cameras. The image-stabilizing algorithm compensates image motion caused by the wearer's head movement. This enables the remote viewer to look around the environment independently from the wearer's head direction. We developed a prototype to examine how sharing the surrounding visual environment improves collaboration between persons in different places.

Paper Session 5: Toolkits: How to Make It

HandiMate: Create and Animate using Everyday Objects as Material BIBAFull-Text 117-124
  Jasjeet Singh Seehra; Ansh Verma; Kylie Peppler; Karthik Ramani
The combination of technological progress and a growing interest in design has promoted the prevalence of DIY (Do It Yourself) and craft activities. We introduce HandiMate, a platform that makes it easier for people without technical expertise to fabricate and animate electro-mechanical systems from everyday objects. Our goal is to encourage creativity, expressiveness and playfulness. The user can assemble his or her hand crafted creations with HandiMate -- s joint modules and animate them via gestures. The joint modules are packaged with an actuator, a wireless communication device and a micro-controller. This modularization makes quick electro-mechanical prototyping just a matter of pressing together Velcro. Animating these constructions is made intuitive and simple by a glove-based gestural controller. Our study conducted with children and adults demonstrates a high level of usability (system usability score 79.9). It also indicates that creative ideas emerge and are realized in a constructive and iterative manner in less than 90 minutes. This paper describes the design goals, framework, interaction methods, sample creations and evaluations methods.
TACTIC: An API for Touch and Tangible Interaction BIBAFull-Text 125-132
  Rafael Nunes; Fabio Rito; Carlos Duarte
Interactive surfaces, gesture recognition, object tracking, tangible interaction are increasingly moving from the research arena to the domain of commercial applications. However, the effort required to combine all these technologies is still a barrier preventing a wider adoption. In this paper, we present TACTIC, an API combining touch surfaces, tangibles, and the interaction space above the surface, in a way that allows developers to easily combine all these features, and distribute interfaces across multiple devices if required. Additionally, we present the results of a developer study showing how TACTIC is easy to learn and use.
WoodenHaptics: A Starting Kit for Crafting Force-Reflecting Spatial Haptic Devices BIBAFull-Text 133-140
  Jonas Forsslund; Michael Yip; Eva-Lotta Sallnäs
Spatial haptic interfaces have been around for 20 years. Yet, few affordable devices have been produced, and the design space in terms of physical workspace and haptic fidelity of devices that have been produced are limited and discrete. In this paper, an open-source, open-hardware module-based kit is presented that allows an interaction designer with little electro-mechanical experience to manufacture and assemble a fully working spatial haptic interface. It also allows for modification in shape and size as well as tuning of parameters to fit a particular task or application. Results from an evaluation showed that the haptic quality of the WoodenHaptics device was on par with a Phantom Desktop and that a novice could assemble it with guidance in a normal office space. This open source starting kit, uploaded free-to-download online, affords sketching in hardware; it unsticks the hardware from being a highly-specialized and esoteric craft to being an accessible and user-friendly technology, while maintaining the feel of high-fidelity haptics.
The Kitsch-Instrument: Hackable Robotic Music BIBAFull-Text 141-144
  Jiffer Harriman; Michael Theodore; Mark Gross
We present a modular tangible user interface system and corresponding actuators for creating music with everyday objects. Users create percussive patterns by controlling algorithmic parameters, or by directly playing the interface. Various mechanical solutions allow users to investigate physical objects as sound sources. A standalone physical interface and an associated graphical programming environment enable different levels of user engagement and hardware/software transparency. We discuss a tool space in-between open and closed design concepts, as well as the physical and software design of the Kitsch-Instrument itself. We also describe recent interactions with the interface at a public event and discuss future plans.

Paper Session 6: Cool New Stuff

(E)Motion and Creativity: Hacking the Function of Motor Expressions in Emotion Regulation to Augment Creativity BIBAFull-Text 145-152
  Alwin de Rooij; Sara Jones
Positive emotion can help augment human creativity. To utilize this potential in an interactive system, we propose that such a system should be designed to regulate the emotions that are caused by a creative task. We argue that this can be done by hacking the function of motor expressions in emotion regulation. To this end, we have conceived and made an interactive system that is designed to regulate positive emotion during an idea generation and an insight problem solving task. The system regulates emotion by letting users interact using arm gestures that are designed based on motor expressions, choreographed in a way that enables emotion regulation. Using this interactive system we experimentally test the hypotheses that positive approaching, rather than negative avoiding arm gestures, used to interact with a system, can heighten positive emotion, and augment creativity. The findings demonstrate that an interactive system can be designed to use the function of motor expressions in emotion regulation to help people perform better on certain creative tasks.
PaperFold: Evaluating Shape Changes for Viewport Transformations in Foldable Thin-Film Display Devices BIBAFull-Text 153-160
  Antonio Gomes; Roel Vertegaal
In this paper, we investigate the use of shape changes in a multi-segmented mobile device for triggering viewport transformations in its graphical interface. We study PaperFold, a foldable device with reconfigurable thin-film electrophoretic display tiles. PaperFold enables users to attach, reorient and fold displays in a mobile form factor that is thin and lightweight even when fully collapsed. We discuss how our design was informed by a participatory study that resulted in 14 preferred shape changes. In a subsequent study, we asked users to rank the utility of shape changes for triggering common view operations in map and text editing applications. Results suggest participants were able to attribute specific view operations as automated responses to folding, attaching, reorienting or detaching displays. Collated or full screen views were preferred when users collocated two displays. When adding a third display, alternative views such as toolbars or a list of apps were suggested. Showing 3D views was strongly associated with folding PaperFold segments into a three dimensional structure.
TorqueScreen: Actuated Flywheels for Ungrounded Kinaesthetic Feedback in Handheld Devices BIBAFull-Text 161-164
  Martin Murer; Bernhard Maurer; Hermann Huber; Ilhan Aslan; Manfred Tscheligi
Handheld touch screen based devices, such as smartphones or tablets, typically provide limited haptic feedback. On current devices, what is visually perceived and what is tactile and kinesthetically felt is semantically uncoupled. In order to improve embodied interaction on handheld screen based devices, new ways to provide richer haptic feedback are required. In this paper, we present TorqueScreen, a prototypical system combining a handheld touch screen device (i.e., a tablet) with an actuated flywheel capable of imposing angular momentum onto the tablet. The TorqueScreen design allows interlinking the movement and physics of virtual objects on the screen with the torque as haptic output imposed on the tablet. We describe the design and implementation of the device, illustrate the resulting design space, and discuss future improvements and potential applications.
DisplaySkin: Exploring Pose-Aware Displays on a Flexible Electrophoretic Wristband BIBAFull-Text 165-172
  Jesse Burstyn; Paul Strohmeier; Roel Vertegaal
Mobile devices can provide people with contextual information. This information may benefit a primary activity, assuming it is easily accessible. In this paper, we present DisplaySkin, a pose-aware device with a flexible display circling the wrist. DisplaySkin creates a kinematic model of a user's arm and uses it to place information in view, independent of body pose. In doing so, DisplaySkin aims to minimize the cost of accessing information without being intrusive. We evaluated our pose-aware display with a rotational pointing task, which was interrupted by a notification on DisplaySkin. Results show that a pose-aware display reduces the time required to respond to notifications on the wrist.

Paper Session 7: Supporting Designers

Interaction Design as a Bricolage Practice BIBAFull-Text 173-180
  Anna Vallgårda; Ylva Fernaeus
With this paper we propose bricolage as an interaction design practice. We make the case that bricolage promotes design qualities that are specifically tuned to tangible and material computing practices in that it is highly sensible towards the unstable physical world and proposes a non-hierarchical negotiation of forms. We further show how bricolage can aid design results with strong and rich cultural and material grounding. Finally, we argue how bricolage and mythical thinking can be proponents for new ways of thinking and using technology.
Resisting Alignment: Code and Clay BIBAFull-Text 181-188
  Daniela K. Rosner; Miwa Ikemiya; Tim Regan
Today thousands of artists, designers, and craftspeople turn to digital fabrication tools to invent and manufacture new forms. They use vector-graphics software to sketch models, laser-cutters to customize parts, and 3D printers to generate prototypes. However, how our experiences of expressivity, skill and value shift with these developments remains under-explored. This paper describes our early engagements with emerging fabrication technologies in the domain of ceramics, one of our oldest and most enduring artistic mediums. In particular, we detail a collaboration with Helen Martino that resulted in the Sound Bowl, a vessel designed to record an audio message through surface undulations, much like a vinyl record. As an example of design as inquiry, we developed the bowl to explore the integration of digital fabrication in ceramics production. In the process, we found new and intriguing tensions in the entanglement of code and clay: contrasting temporal frames, blurred traces of breakage, and coinciding human senses. We discuss implications of these observations on the nature and organization of embodied interaction.
SPATA: Spatio-Tangible Tools for Fabrication-Aware Design BIBAFull-Text 189-196
  Christian Weichel; Jason Alexander; Abhijit Karnik; Hans Gellersen
The physical tools used when designing new objects for digital fabrication are mature, yet disconnected from their virtual accompaniments. SPATA is the digital adaptation of two spatial measurement tools, that explores their closer integration into virtual design environments. We adapt two of the traditional measurement tools: calipers and protractors. Both tools can measure, transfer, and present size and angle. Their close integration into different design environments makes tasks more fluid and convenient. We describe the tools' design, a prototype implementation, integration into different environments, and application scenarios validating the concept.
Tiles that Talk: Tangible Templates for Networked Objects BIBAFull-Text 197-200
  David Bouchard; Steve Daniels
Fine art and design students face a novel set of challenges when asked to realize their creative vision with code-based projects. In this paper, we discuss the development of a system of tangible tiles and integrated software code factory that is intended to help students build bridges of understanding between proposed interactive and networked experiences and the required computer syntax, software libraries and hardware that animate those proposals. Our tiles help students see relationships between artistic concept and programmatic code by giving them intuitive tools that can be directly manipulated.

Paper Session 8: The Latest Applications

VoxBox: A Tangible Machine that Gathers Opinions from the Public at Events BIBAFull-Text 201-208
  Connie Golsteijn; Sarah Gallacher; Lisa Koeman; Lorna Wall; Sami Andberg; Yvonne Rogers; Licia Capra
Gathering public opinions, such as surveys, at events typically requires approaching people in situ, but this can disrupt the positive experience they are having and can result in very low response rates. As an alternative approach, we present the design and implementation of VoxBox, a tangible system for gathering opinions on a range of topics in situ at an event through playful and engaging interaction. We discuss the design principles we employed in the creation of VoxBox and show how they encouraged wider participation, by grouping similar questions, encouraging completion, gathering answers to open and closed questions, and connecting answers and results. We evaluate these principles through observations from an initial deployment and discuss how successfully these were implemented in the design of VoxBox.
Augmenting Children's Creative Self-Efficacy and Performance through Enactment-Based Animated Storytelling BIBAFull-Text 209-216
  Sharon Lynn Chu; Francis Quek; Kumar Sridharamurthy
At around age nine when social awareness and self-evaluation heighten, children experience a precipitous slump in creative engagement. We propose an enactment-based approach grounded in embodied cognition theories to support children's creative self-efficacy and creative thinking in storytelling during the period of this slump. Our investigation of the approach with 20 children indicated that enactment-based animated authoring improves children's sense of self-efficacy in creating stories, particularly for children with low to medium extraversion, and enables children to produce richer stories, especially for children who scored low on the baseline creativity test.
Eugenie: Multi-Touch and Tangible Interaction for Bio-Design BIBAFull-Text 217-224
  Casey Grote; Evan Segreto; Johanna Okerlund; Robert Kincaid; Orit Shaer
We present a case study of applying TEI research to a data-intense scientific workflow that requires the exploration of large datasets through the construction of complex queries. We describe our two-year-long effort and design iterations of Eugenie, an interface for helping synthetic biologists through the collaborative and intricate process of bio-design. We introduce new interaction techniques for browsing large data sets and for constructing complex queries with active tangible tokens and an interactive tabletop. We also discuss challenges and opportunities for applying TEI to support data-driven inquiry.
Immersive Simulation of Visual Impairments Using a Wearable See-through Display BIBAFull-Text 225-228
  Halim Cagri Ates; Alexander Fiannaca; Eelke Folmer
Simulation of a visual impairment may lead to a better understanding of how individuals with visual impairments perceive the world around them and could be a useful design tool for interface designers to identify accessibility barriers. Current simulation tools, however, suffer from a number of limitations, pertaining cost, accuracy and immersion. We present a simulation tool (SIMVIZ) that mounts a wide angle camera on a head-mounted display to create a see-through stereoscopic display that simulates various types and levels of visual impairments. A qualitative user study evaluates the immersiveness, usability and effectiveness of SIMVIZ versus using a smartphone based simulator. SIMVIZ enables quick accessibility inspections during iterative software development.

Paper Demonstrations

TastyBeats: Celebrating Heart Rate Data with a Drinkable Spectacle BIBAFull-Text 229-232
  Rohit Ashok Khot; Jeewon Lee; Larissa Hjorth; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller
Visualizing heart rate on screen has become popular to measure physical activity performance and progress towards set health goals. However, we believe that this prevalent method of visualizing data often reduces the interaction to only reading of information. In response, we propose a new way of visualizing heart rate data through a public interactive water fountain installation we call, TastyBeats. TastyBeats engages participants in a fluidic spectacle by creating a personalized sports drink representing their heart rate data while serving the additional purpose of replenishing lost energy during physical activity. We present findings and three design strategies from the three exhibitions of this work to inform designers interested in using drinkable fluids to support the physical activity experience. Ultimately, with our work we aim to expand our understanding of the potential of interactive technology to support the energy-cycle when being physically active.
Scotty: Relocating Physical Objects Across Distances Using Destructive Scanning, Encryption, and 3D Printing BIBAFull-Text 233-240
  Stefanie Mueller; Martin Fritzsche; Jan Kossmann; Maximilian Schneider; Jonathan Striebel; Patrick Baudisch
We present a simple self-contained appliance that allows relocating inanimate physical objects across distance. Each unit consists of an off-the-shelf 3D printer that we have extended with a 3-axis milling machine, a camera, and a micro-controller for encryption/decryption and transmission. Users place an object into the sender unit, enter the address of a receiver unit, and press the relocate button. The sender unit now digitizes the original object layer-by-layer: it shaves off material using the built-in milling machine, takes a photo using the built-in camera, encrypts the layer using the public key of the receiver, and transmits it. The receiving unit decrypts the layer in real-time and starts printing right away. Users thus see the object appear layer-by-layer on the receiver side as it disappears layer-by-layer at the sender side. Scotty is different from previous systems that copy physical objects, as its destruction and encryption mechanism guarantees that only one copy of the object exists at a time. Even though our current prototype is limited to single-material plastic objects, it allows us to address two application scenarios: (1) Scotty can help preserve the uniqueness and thus the emotional value of physical objects shared between friends. (2) Scotty can address some of the licensing issues involved in fast electronic delivery of physical goods. We explore the former in an exploratory user study with three pairs of participants.
Mirror Puppeteering: Animating Toy Robots in Front of a Webcam BIBAFull-Text 241-248
  Ronit Slyper; Guy Hoffman; Ariel Shamir
Mirror Puppeteering is a system for easily creating gestures ("animations") for robotic toys, custom robots, and virtual characters. Lay users can record animations by simply moving a robot's limbs in front of a webcam. Makers and hobbyists can use the system to easily set up their custom-built robots for animation. Gamers and amateur animators can real-time control or save animations for virtual characters. Our system works by tracking circular markers on the robot's surface and translating these into motor commands, using a calibration map between marker locations in camera space and motor angles. New robots can be quickly set up for Mirror Puppeteering without knowledge of the robot's 3D structure, as we demonstrate on several robots. In a user study, participants found our method more enjoyable, usable, easy to learn, and successful than traditional animation methods.
Comparing Pictorial and Tangible Notations of Force Image Schemas BIBAFull-Text 249-256
  Jörn Hurtienne; Diana Löffler; Patty Gadegast; Steffi Hußlein
Force image schemas (FIS) are cognitive representations of our naïve understanding of physical force dynamic events in the world. Designers have been struggling to apply FIS in their design processes, because their deliberate use has been made difficult by applying too abstract notations. In this paper we try to advance FIS as a possible theoretical framework for tangible design and present new pictorial and tangible notations of FIS that aim to be more directly applicable. The new notations were tested by asking non-experts to (1) match pictorial and tangible FIS representations to force image schema names and (2) to develop design ideas based on these pictorial or tangible representations. While the group working with the pictorial notations was more correct in assigning FIS names to FIS representations, design ideas tended to be more tangible and interactive in the group working with the tangible FIS notations.
Tactile Teacher: Sensing Finger Tapping in Piano Playing BIBAFull-Text 257-260
  Chih-Pin Hsiao; Richard Li; Xinyan Yan; Ellen Yi-Luen Do
In a piano lesson, a student often imitates the teacher's playing in terms of speed, dynamics, and fingering. While this learning model leverages one's visual and even audial perception for emulation, it still lacks an important component of piano playing -- the tactile sensation. We seek to convey the tactile sensations of the teacher's keystrokes and then signal the student's corresponding fingers. We implemented an instrumented fingerless glove called Tactile Teacher to detect finger taps on hard surfaces. Since finger taps generate acoustic signals and cause vibrations, we embedded three vibration sensors on the glove and use machine learning algorithms to analyze the data from the sensors. After a brief training procedure, this prototype can accurately identify single finger tap in a very good performance at above 89% accuracy, and two finger taps resulted in accuracy around 85%.
Mapping Place: Supporting Cultural Learning through a Lukasa-inspired Tangible Tabletop Museum Exhibit BIBAFull-Text 261-268
  Jean Ho Chu; Paul Clifton; Daniel Harley; Jordanne Pavao; Ali Mazalek
Museums are exploring new ways of using emerging digital technologies to enhance the visitor experience. In this context, our research focuses on designing, developing and studying interactions for museum exhibits that introduce cultural concepts in ways that are tangible and embodied. We introduce here a tangible tabletop installation piece that was designed for a museum exhibition contrasting Western and African notions of mapping history and place. Inspired by the Lukasa board, a mnemonic device used by the Luba peoples in Central Africa, the tabletop piece enables visitors to learn and understand symbolic and nonlinguistic mapping concepts that are central to the Lukasa by creating and sharing stories with each other. In this paper we share our design process, a user study focusing on children and learning, and design implications on how digital and tangible interaction technologies can be used for cultural learning in museum exhibits.
TIMMi: Finger-worn Textile Input Device with Multimodal Sensing in Mobile Interaction BIBAFull-Text 269-272
  Sang Ho Yoon; Ke Huo; Vinh P. Nguyen; Karthik Ramani
We introduce TIMMi, a textile input device for mobile interactions. TIMMi is worn on the index finger to provide a multimodal sensing input metaphor. The prototype is fabricated on a single layer of textile where the conductive silicone rubber is painted and the conductive threads are stitched. The sensing area comprises of three equally spaced dots and a separate wide line. Strain and pressure values are extracted from the line and three dots, respectively via voltage dividers. Regression analysis is performed to model the relationship between sensing values and finger pressure and bending. A multi-level thresholding is applied to capture different levels of finger bending and pressure. A temporal position tracking algorithm is implemented to capture the swipe gesture. In this preliminary study, we demonstrate TIMMi as a finger-worn input device with two applications: controlling music player and interacting with smartglasses.
Tangible Interactive Microbiology for Informal Science Education BIBAFull-Text 273-280
  Seung Ah Lee; Alice M. Chung; Nate Cira; Ingmar H. Riedel-Kruse
We present an interactive platform that enables human users to interface with microbiological living cells through a touch-screen, thereby generating a tangible interactive experience with the microscopic world that is hidden to most people. Euglena gracilis, single-celled phototactic microorganisms, are imaged and optically stimulated via a microscope setup equipped with a projector and a touch-screen display. Users can directly interact with these organisms by drawing patterns onto the screen, which displays the real-time magnified view of the microfluidic chamber with the motile euglena cells. The drawings are directly projected onto the chamber, thereby influencing the swimming motion of the cells. We discuss the architecture of the system and provide exploratory user testing results in a facilitated setting, which shows engaging nature of our system for children and the general public. In conclusion, our tangible interactive microscope allows artistic expression and scientific exploration with the ease of a "child's play."
TaraScope: Controlling Remote Telescopes Through Tangible Interaction BIBAFull-Text 281-284
  Trevor Hogan; Dylan Goveas; Rebecca Noonan; Luke Twomey
In this paper we present TaraScope, a multimodal installation that enables student groups, participating in workshops at a Space Observatory in Ireland, to remotely manipulate and capture images from a robotic telescope situated in San Francisco, California. This project is developed as part of an international initiative between Blackrock Castle Observatory (BCO), Ireland and Chabot Space & Science Center, California, with the aim of connecting the two locations while also stimulating interest in astronomy, science, technology, engineering and math. We describe the design rationale and implementation of the installation, which is based on creating an inviting, apprehendable, inexpensive and engaging system that supports inquiry-led learning and group interactions. Furthermore, we present several initial observations on the user experience of the system that we gathered through a series of evaluations that we conducted at the Observatory.
Universal Threshold Object: Designing Haptic Interaction for Televised Interactive Narratives BIBAFull-Text 285-292
  Jean Ho Chu; Paul Clifton; Hank Blumenthal; Abhishek Nandakumar; Balasubramanium Ganapathi; Janet Murray; Ali Mazalek
The "Universal Threshold Object" is a tangible device for television-like interactive narratives based on the TV show American Horror Story. The project uses gestural interactions with a tangible controller that provides haptic feedback as an interaction strategy to augment the narrative pleasures of immersion and dramatic agency. We leverage a branching scenario and story-driven gestural interaction with haptic feedback to provide limited sets of interactivity suitable for a television platform. From our research, design goals, and design process, we provide design implications for interactive narratives that employ gestural and haptic interactions.
SWARM: An Actuated Wearable for Mediating Affect BIBAFull-Text 293-300
  Michele A. Williams; Asta Roseway; Chris O'Dowd; Mary Czerwinski; Meredith Ringel Morris
We present SWARM, a wearable affective technology designed to help a user to reflect on their own emotional state, modify their affect, and interpret the emotional states of others. SWARM aims for a universal design (inclusive of people with various disabilities), with a focus on modular actuation components to accommodate users' sensory capabilities and preferences, and a scarf form-factor meant to reduce the stigma of accessible technologies through a fashionable embodiment. Using an iterative, user-centered approach, we present SWARM's design. Additionally, we contribute findings for communicating emotions through technology actuations, wearable design techniques (including a modular soft circuit design technique that fuses conductive fabric with actuation components), and universal design considerations for wearable technology.
Button Matrix: How Tangible Interfaces can Structure Physical Experiences for Learning BIBAFull-Text 301-304
  Emily S. Cramer; Alissa N. Antle
Physical experiences are frequently used to represent mathematics to children. However, students sometimes fail to transfer performance to symbolic representations of problems. In this paper, we suggest that tangible interfaces can promote transfer by structuring physical experiences. We realize our concept in a system, Button Matrix, that uses coupled tactile, vibration and visual feedback to a) highlight features of a physical experience that represents arithmetic concepts and b) cue reflection on the links between the physical experience and mathematical symbols.
Simply Spinning: Extending Current Design Frameworks for Kinesthetic Empathy BIBAFull-Text 305-312
  Shannon Cuykendall; Ethan Soutar-Rau; Karen Cochrane; Jacob Freiberg; Thecla Schiphorst
We describe design considerations in Serpentine Dance, Refocused (SDR), an interactive movement installation that pays homage to Loïe Fuller's mesmerizing creations of light and motion. Our design goals were inspired by kinesthetic empathy research. Fuller created the Serpentine Dance (1891) at a time when many artists turned to abstraction as a way for audiences to engage with the essence of motion rather than narrative plots. We sought to heighten the feeling of kinesthetic empathy through creating an interactive environment where audience members could physically engage and reflect on the sensation of spinning, a prominent action in the Serpentine Dance. Through our analysis of SDR we found that our design intentions relating to kinesthetic empathy were not addressed by current design frameworks for kinesthetic interactions. Based on kinesthetic empathy research, we restructure and extend these frameworks into an evaluative and generative framework for interactive systems. We propose that kinesthetic empathy is the center of all movement interactions. This broader definition of kinesthetic empathy can be used to evaluate and generate a wide variety of movement interactions. We discuss the design of SDR through the lens of our evaluative framework.
Scarfy: Augmenting Human Fashion Behaviour with Self-Actuated Clothes BIBAFull-Text 313-316
  Luisa von Radziewsky; Antonio Krüger; Markus Löchtefeld
Our clothes are objects we interact with constantly. They represent our attitude and the circumstances we live in. In the following we will present an example of how this information can be used. Scarfy is a system based on a scarf which augments the natural interaction between a person and her clothes. Scarfy is able to detect the way it is tied and it can deliver information by shape-change and vibration. In this paper we explore the technical and fabrication approaches of technologically extended clothes and their input and output generation and discuss future applications.
An Accessible Platform for Exploring Haptic Interactions with Co-located Capacitive and Piezoresistive Sensors BIBAFull-Text 317-320
  Adrian Freed; David Wessel
This paper introduces an open research platform for exploring haptic interactions with co-located, capacitive and piezoresistive sensors. The solution uses readily available material, hardware and software components and allows for experiments on many system levels from low-level material concerns up to high-level sensor fusion software. This provides the HCI community with a platform to accelerate explorations of the many applications that have opened up of sensor fusion in haptic interaction.
Lightwear: An Exploration in Wearable Light Therapy BIBAFull-Text 321-328
  Halley Profita; Asta Roseway; Mary Czerwinski
We present "Lightwear", a series of garment-based, lightweight, light-emitting wearables designed to administer light therapy for on-the-go treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD). Bright Light Therapy (BLT) has been used to treat SAD for more than 25 years. While light boxes continue to serve as the predominant method of treatment, it often requires a user to sit at a dedicated location for a sustained period of time (30-60 minutes), rendering therapy inconvenient and resulting in unsatisfactory compliance rates. To date, there have been few successful products developed for wearability and portability to ease the uncomfortable nature of light box treatment. However, new low-profile, light-emitting sources yield opportunities for less cumbersome textile integration and wearability. We explore the integration of light into textile substrates that focus on fashion-forward wearables which can, in turn, address BLT efficacy, usability, and convenience.
Fusilli: Translating the Exploration of a Product Customization Space from Digital to Physical BIBAFull-Text 329-336
  Clement Zheng
Fusilli is a natural interface developed for end-users to explore and customize the design of a parametric wrist accessory. The natural interface utilizes bare-hand interactions, designed to enable end-users to control the parameters of wrist accessory, and export designs for additive manufacturing. This paper describes the interaction concept and design details of the interface, as well as a preliminary evaluation of this interface against a control interface utilizing sliders to affect the parameters. This paper concludes with the evaluation results, along with a discussion of the insights uncovered from the user study.
Better Posture Awareness through Flower-Shaped Ambient Avatar BIBAFull-Text 337-340
  Jeong-ki Hong; Sunghyun Song; Jundong Cho; Andrea Bianchi
Incorrect postures and long sitting sessions are among the main causes of back pain and discomfort, a problem affecting a growing portion of office workers. In the past, researchers have suggested possible ways to notify with alerts those users who sit improperly, but often such notifications are perceived as intrusive and tend to be ignored. In this paper, we present a flower-shaped physical avatar that subtly and pleasantly (through motion, colors and sounds) provides an ambient feedback to users about their postures. Compared with similar previous work, the flower-avatar described in this paper presents, through better sensing and fine-grain output capabilities, a more expressive ambient media platform that showcases the potential of media ambient avatars in health-care scenarios.
Designing Wearable Haptic Information Displays for People with Vision Impairments BIBAFull-Text 341-344
  Marlon Twyman; Joe Mullenbach; Craig Shultz; J. Edward Colgate; Anne Marie Piper
With the ubiquity of wearable computing, an important and emerging challenge is to understand how to design wearable information displays for non-visual, non-auditory interaction. This is particularly relevant to the design of accessible technologies for people with vision impairments. Working towards this aim, we developed a smartwatch prototype that uses variable friction surface haptics to test initial design concepts. Through interviews and iterative prototyping with seven blind users, we identified three key use cases for a haptic smartwatch as well as embodied conceptual models for presenting haptic information. We found that a physical clock face, compass, and numerical keypad are productive representations for presenting information haptically, and these models build on existing tactile and spatial understandings of our target user group.
Manual Manuals: Media Reflexivity in Reading Through Tangible Artifacts BIBAFull-Text 345-346
  Jamie Allen
Reading is a manual activity. The touch hands are ever-present: holding, turning, pointing, scrolling, clicking and scribbling are physical practices that engross people in the printed word. The project "AIME Tiles" began by thinking about how systems of ideas can be translated into hybrid physical-concept tools. Further, the project attempts to resituate the scholarly activity of reading as a practice with its own material culture and media affordances. AIME Tiles, their design intent and construction are described as a modest sketch of tactile tools for scholarship-game pieces for playing with our thinking.
Bloctopus: A Novice Modular Sensor System for Playful Prototyping BIBAFull-Text 347-354
  Joel Sadler; Kevin Durfee; Lauren Shluzas; Paulo Blikstein
Tangible prototyping enables designers to rapidly iterate design concepts, gather feedback, and learn quickly from mistakes. However, when a higher level of functionality is needed with sensors, novices struggle with technical implementation. Existing novice electronics toolkits, such as Arduino, have lowered the threshold to electronic experimentation, but still require manual creation of circuits and software programming ability. We present Bloctopus, a modular electronic prototyping toolkit that allows direct electrical interfacing over USB, and physical interfacing with LEGO blocks. We present the stand-alone sensor model, where each module can directly interface with either a computer or microcontroller, using musical message passing over MIDI. We show that the modules can be programmed with a simplified data flow model in a web-based visual programming interface. Finally, we present a prototyping case study that demonstrates the expressivity of devices that can be created using LEGO pieces, combined with functional electronic modules.
Sensing Touch Force using Active Acoustic Sensing BIBAFull-Text 355-358
  Makoto Ono; Buntarou Shizuki; Jiro Tanaka
We present a lightweight technique with which creators can prototype force-sensitive objects by attaching a pair of piezoelectric elements: one a vibration speaker and one a contact microphone. The key idea behind our technique is that touch force, in addition to the way the object is touched, can also be observed as different resonant frequency spectra. We also show that recognition of a touch and estimation of the touch force can be implemented by using the combination of support vector classification (SVC) and support vector regression (SVR). An experiment with an additional pressure sensor revealed that our technique might perform well in estimating touch force. We also show a tool for machine learning based on our technique that uses an animated guide, allowing creators to give the system both the training data and the labels for training machine learning needed for dealing with continuous-valued output such as SVR.
Flutter: An Exploration of an Assistive Garment Using Distributed Sensing, Computation and Actuation BIBAFull-Text 359-362
  Halley Profita; Nicholas Farrow; Nikolaus Correll
Assistive technology (AT) has the ability to improve the standard of living of those with disabilities, however, it can often be abandoned for aesthetic or stigmatizing reasons. Garment-based AT offers novel opportunities to address these issues as it can stay with the user to continuously monitor and convey relevant information, is non-invasive, and can provide aesthetically pleasing alternatives. In an effort to overcome traditional AT and wearable computing challenges including, cumbersome hardware constraints and social acceptability, we present Flutter, a fashion-oriented wearable AT. Flutter seamlessly embeds low-profile networked sensing, computation, and actuation to facilitate sensory augmentation for those with hearing loss. The miniaturized distributed hardware enables both textile integration and new methods to pair fashion with function, as embellishments are functionally leveraged to complement technology integration. Finally, we discuss future applications and broader implications of using such computationally-enabled textile wearables to support sensory augmentation beyond the realm of AT.
cArVATAR: A Novel Remote Control for Toy Cars BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Shachar Geiger; Michal Rinott
We describe a novel controller for a remote controlled (R/C) car. The controller is a small car-shaped toy which is used for controlling the larger toy car. In this avatar-inspired relationship between controller and controlled, operations performed on the small car are implemented by the larger car. The cArVATAR addresses limitations of the traditional R/C, and is proposed as an alternative allowing younger children to use R/C toys. Details of the prototype and observations from an exploratory study performed with five children aged 6 to 7 are presented, and possible applications to other products and domains are discussed.
Motors, Music and Motion BIBAFull-Text 367-374
  Jakob Bak; William Verplank; David Gauthier
Over the past four years the authors have conducted classes and workshops in design of systems for real-time digital synthesis of sound and haptic response. In response to current trends in Interaction Design education focusing on visual feedback and touchscreen interactions, the classes were developed to provide foundations for design students to leverage the potential of non-visual modes of interaction and provide them with tools and skills to develop complex multimodal, embodied experiences. These classes have been held in various institutions, have formed the basis for short workshops at conferences as well as provided tools for collaborations with external partners. In this paper we describe for the first time the extent of the project and reflect on this particular field of Interaction Design education.
BodyPods: Designing Posture Sensing Chairs for Capturing and Sharing Implicit Interactions BIBAFull-Text 375-382
  Dimitris Papanikolaou; A. J. Bernheim Brush; Asta Roseway
Today, it is not uncommon to find ourselves remote from those we care about. Despite the impact of mobile and social technologies on connectedness, recent studies suggest that it could be these very technologies that exacerbate a sense of loneliness. In attempt to help people feel more connected, we designed and created BodyPods, a remotely paired set of communicating chairs that facilitate a sense of presence by leveraging implicit actions such as sitting to communicate that someone you care about is home. Each BodyPod consists of a flexible surface with six pressure-sensitive and light-emitting pads that adjusts its shape to the body anatomy. As a person's body moves, limbs exert different pressure on each pad creating a live digital "bodyprint" that is mapped on the pads of other BodyPods through color and light. Findings from a 10 person user study suggest bodyprints may be distinctive, particularly among small groups of people with different body types.
Cube-in: A Learning Kit for Physical Computing Basics BIBAFull-Text 383-386
  Hyunjoo Oh; Mark D. Gross
We present Cube-in, a kit designed to help beginners learn about fundamental concepts in physical computing. Through play and observation, Cube-in users can investigate digital and analog signals, inputs and outputs, and mapping between inputs and outputs before they work on electronics and construct circuits. By simplifying interaction methods, Cube-in provides an accessible entry point to key physical computing concepts.
Empowering Occupational Therapists with a DIY-toolkit for Smart Soft Objects BIBAFull-Text 387-394
  Argyro Moraiti; Vero Vanden Abeele; Erwin Vanroye; Luc Geurts
We present an evaluation of a DIY-toolkit, designed to empower caregivers to create tailor-made, unique assistive solutions for their clients. More specifically, the toolkit aims to enable occupational therapists to turn everyday soft objects into smart devices that can be programmed to recognize certain manipulations. These smart objects can then be used to control applications or to play certain games. Our evaluation reveals that occupational therapists were able to make use of the toolkit without the aid of a technical expert. The therapists hacked everyday objects such as cushions, socks, cuddly toys and repurposed them for therapy. They computationally augmented them and tailored them to clients' needs and desires. From our evaluation, we also derive five guidelines that can inform others when creating DIY-toolkits for assistive technology.
Cord UIs: Controlling Devices with Augmented Cables BIBAFull-Text 395-398
  Philipp Schoessler; Sang-won Leigh; Krithika Jagannath; Patrick van Hoof; Hiroshi Ishii
Cord UIs are sensorial augmented cords that allow for simple metaphor-rich interactions to interface with their connected devices. Cords offer a large underexplored space for interactions as well as unique properties and a diverse set of metaphors that make them potentially interesting tangible interfaces. We use cords as input devices and explore different interactions like tying knots, stretching, pinching and kinking to control the flow of data and/or power. We also look at ways to use objects in combination with augmented cords to manipulate data or properties of a device. For instance, placing a clamp on a cable can obstruct the audio signal to the headphones. Using special materials such as piezo copolymer cables and stretchable cords we built five working prototypes to showcase the interactions described in this paper.

Art Exhibition

Relationship Tunnel Vision: Altered Social Interaction Using Eye-Tracking BIBAFull-Text 399-400
  Mon-Chu Chen; Bong-Keum Jeong; Victor Rivera
We present a gaze-based installation enabling two participants to experience cycles of relationship "destroyed" by tunnel vision. The installation comprises a holographic projection screen and two eye-trackers. The trackers allow us to identify the gaze positions and onset of eye contacts. The holographic screen makes it possible to block out the eyesight by projection and to see through without projection. Two participants sitting on both sides of the screen will encounter series of artificial tunnel vision and blindness.
Sootoid: Generative Art Drawing by Flame of Candle BIBAFull-Text 401-402
  Hisakazu Hada; Daisuke Tozuka; Sho Kamei; Tatsumi Hasegawa; Fuhito Morita; Shuntaro Ootsuki; Akito Nakano
Sootoid is a symphonic art created by collaboration between human, computer and flame of candle. While the major generative art pictures are drawn in a computer display, Sootoid creates a generative art drawing on a linen canvas by candle soot. Movement of candle is controlled by pre-programmed algorithm, making airflow and flickering of candle flame each time it moves to create unique soot line and color.
What Things Dream Of BIBAFull-Text 403-404
  Min-Ji Ku; Bo-Kyeong Kim; Younghui Kim
The everyday objects stand very still as always, fixed at the same place. People just let them pass by without noticing them. In our everyday lives, the things we spend time together might be seeing or dreaming far more than we think. The project, 'What Things Dream Of' has started with a series of questions such as; how are water glasses seeing us when we drink water feeling thirsty? How do we look to the eyes of the clock at the moment when we check for the time? The team has created six everyday objects, each embedded with sensors and tiny cameras. When these objects are not being used -- therefore we imagined them to be sleeping, their dreams are being displayed as a series of moving images through the perspectives of everyday things. Their dreams are related with memories with their possessors and interconnected with other objects. When a thing is waken up by touching and using, it stops dreaming and look at us with their unusual sight of ourselves through the small camera embedded in each objects. Each of their view of us replaces its dream sequences playing on the screen.
Pattern Stations: Extending Textile Materials through Tangible Interaction BIBAFull-Text 405-406
  Bert Bongers; Cecilia Heffer
Pattern Stations is a collaborative project between textile designer and artist Cecilia Heffer and interface designer and interaction researcher Bert Bongers. The interactive installations create patterns, extending the textile patterns through sensors, cameras and computation. The tangible patterns installation is developed specifically for the TEI conference, and aims to give the audience an experience of manipulation of physical objects and materials.
Vector Field, Activated Space and Inverse Interaction BIBAFull-Text 407-408
  Conor Peterson
Vector Field is a sound installation that offers a meditation on space, light and interactivity. It combines a polyphonic drone with a network of sensors to create a space that is sensitive to disruption. Viewers who break a laser beam cause the installation to fall silent; the work reflects on this tension and the "activated space" it articulates.
Scented Pebbles: Interactive Ambient Experience with Smell and Lighting BIBAFull-Text 409-410
  Yan Yan Cao; Naohito Okude
Scented Pebbles is a collection of interactive lighting objects to create multisensory ambience of light and smell. When it senses people's movement and touch, the networked objects will generate dynamic ambience. The pebbles emit smells and control the lighting conditions to create your unique ambience such as Hawaiian Sunset or Japanese Onsen. Experience the orchestra of smell and light play and let your mind run free. The paper presented interactive approach to evoke sensorial imagination through multisensory interactions including olfactory sense.
Remnance of Form: Altered Reflection of Physical Reality BIBAFull-Text 411-412
  Sang-won Leigh; Asta Roseway; Ann Paradiso
Remnance of Form is an interactive installation that explores the dynamic tension between an object and its shadow. By fusing light, projection, and motion technologies, the shadow can now detach itself from its former role. This creates a new narrative that challenges our perception of reality, what's real and what's not.
Monarch: Self-Expression Through Wearable Kinetic Textiles BIBAFull-Text 413-414
  Kate Hartman; Jackson McConnell; Boris Kourtoukov; Hillary Predko; Izzie Colpitts-Campbell
Monarch is a wearable and muscle-activated kinetic textile. It consists of textile forms attached to the shoulders that expand and contract in response to the movement of the wearer's muscles. By physically extending natural body language, Monarch explores how wearable technologies can be used as a form of personal expression, as well as how and when they can begin to feel like a visceral extension of self.
Metamorphosis BIBAFull-Text 415-416
  Younghui Kim; Sanghwa Hong; Kyungmee Kim; Kwanu Park
Drinking custom varies in different cultures as much as dining manners and etiquettes. The wearable project, 'Metamorphosis' is an artistic commentary toward Korean drinking culture in wearable technology. In Korea, drinking is like a social ritual for both personal and professional relationships from friends to colleagues. 'Metamorphosis' is a female garment created during 5 day Wearable Hackathone held by Art Center Nabi in June, 2014. It has a sensitive alcohol sensor embedded at the tip of the collar near mouth, which detects the level of the alcohol consumption from the wearer's breath and expresses in different colors and kinetic movements of the garment. Wearable, applied with culture and technology, can be a new media platform to express how social members of community feel or see.
Solar Pink Pong: Street Video Game BIBAFull-Text 417-418
  Roland Graf; Surat Kwanmuang
Solar Pink Pong is an art installation that translates a video game into the physical space of the street. In this installation, a computer controlled color mirror reflects sunlight to the asphalt in the form of a neon pink spot. Through motion sensing technology, pedestrians can interact with the animated circle of sunlight. They can kick it with their feet or hit it with the shadows of their hands. They can volley it back and forth with a partner or bounce it off a boundary such as a curb or road marking. The device that makes this game possible works autonomously and completely off the grid. It can be mounted on utility poles or building sides. Solar Pink Pong aims at pushing the boundaries of video game culture and technology outside of the living room changing the way humans interact with outdoor environments and see daylight through the lens of technology. Video documentation of this work is available at: https://vimeo.com/111312495
Spiky Starfish: Exploring 'Felt Technology' Through a Shape Changing Wearable Bag BIBAFull-Text 419-420
  Young Suk Lee
In HCI there are attempts to create expressive computing by exploring emotional engagements through a wide range of shape-changing interfaces including experimental art, fashion, architecture, furniture, etc. These approaches range from hedonic design purposes, which represent novel ideas and materials to more informative design spaces, which allow users to interact with a visual interface in order to persuade users' behavior. By bridging these explorations, I present Spiky Starfish, a computational wearable bag, which utilizes "felt experience with technology" to influence user bodily interaction tactically and visually. It is designed to explore how expressive shape-changing interface create a disruptive interaction when peoples' habitual behavior triggers.
Tele Echo Tube: Beyond Cultural and Imaginable Boundaries BIBAFull-Text 421-422
  Hiroki H. Kobayashi; Akio Fujiwara; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Kaoru Saito; Kaoru Sezaki
Tele Echo Tube (TET) is a speaking tube installation that acoustically interacts with a deep mountain echo through the slightly vibrating lampshade like interface. TET allows users to interact with the mountain echo living at 1,200 meter elevation in The University of Tokyo Forests (35°94-N,138°80-E) in real time through an augmented echo sounding experience with the vibration over a satellite data network through the position of Von Uexkull's "Umwelt". This novel interactive system can create an imaginable presence of the mythological creature in the undeveloped natural locations beyond our cultural and imaginable boundaries. In doing so, TET discovers the cultural cognitive processes of our imagination mechanism. Such a discovery would help us design an interactive system that leverages the boundary of the real and virtual worlds by engaging a culturally cognition to perform a nonhuman-centric interaction with a culturally imaginable creature.
Redeform: Participatory 3D Printing in Public Spaces BIBAFull-Text 423-424
  Laura Devendorf; Kimiko Ryokai
Redeform presents an alternative vision of 3D printing that complicates common divisions between human/machine, abstract/concrete, and high/low tech. It invites people to perform the functions of a 3D printer in order to collaboratively construct digital models from everyday materials in everyday spaces. At TEI, Redeform will serve as a site for discussion about values in digital fabrication design.

Graduate Student Consortium

Tangible Data, a Phenomenology of Human-Data Relations BIBAFull-Text 425-428
  Trevor Hogan
This paper presents an overview of the research that I have conducted as part of my PhD studies. The objective of this research is to describe and better understand how embodiment influences and augments an audience's experience of data representations. It explores, through creative practice, whether embodying data in alternative modalities contributes to an audience's capacity to construct meaning and empathize with the data source.
Authenticating Experience: Curating Digital Interactive Art BIBAFull-Text 429-432
  Deborah Turnbull Tillman; Mari Velonaki; Petra Gemeinboeck
This paper focuses on curating interactive art in experimental ways. It takes the experiment outside labs and into institutions and cityscapes in the form of prototype exhibitions to be evaluated through the medium of audience engagement. The PhD research focuses on authenticating the audience's experience of interactive art; first defining parameters for authenticity within fine arts and creative robotics, then examining how, through the application of evaluative frameworks to iterative exhibition processes, one might capture and utilize experience as a medium in itself. The exhibitions for examination are/will be produced by PhD researcher Deborah Turnbull Tillman through her research initiative New Media Curation (NMC).
Exploring Perceptual and Motor Gestalt in Touchless Interactions with Distant Displays BIBAFull-Text 433-436
  Debaleena Chattopadhyay
Markerless motion-sensing promises to position touchless interactions successfully in various domains (e.g., entertainment or surgery) because they are deemed natural. This naturalness, however, depends upon the mechanics of touchless interaction that remains largely unexplored. My dissertation first aims to deconstruct the interaction mechanics of touchless, especially its device-less property, from an embodied perspective. Grounded in this analysis, I then plan to investigate how visual perception affects touchless interaction with distant, 2D displays. Preliminary findings suggest that Gestalt principles in visual perception and motor action affect the touchless user experience. User interface elements demonstrating perceptual-grouping principles, such as similarity of orientation decreased users' efficiency, while continuity of UI elements forming a perceptual whole increased users' effectiveness. Moreover, following the law of Prägnanz, users often gestured to minimize their energy expenditure. This work can inform the design of touchless UX by uncovering relations between perceptual and motor gestalt in touchless interactions.
Exploring the Potential of Physical Visualizations BIBAFull-Text 437-440
  Simon Stusak
Although physical objects have been used for information presentation for a long time, physical visualizations only recently started to attract interest in the HCI and InfoVis communities. While physical visualizations have the quality to evoke user fascination and curiosity, our understanding of their benefits regarding data exploration and the creation of effective representations are still limited. This paper describes several projects in the area of physical visualizations, all with the goal to explore their potential and limitations. First findings show that a promising direction of physical visualizations is the area of personal data, where they can offer a more creative and mindful way to look and reflect on ones' data.
Mediating Group Experiences: Designing the In-Between BIBAFull-Text 441-444
  Stoffel Kuenen
In this paper I present ongoing design research that explores mediating group experiences. The objective of the paper is to introduce subject matter and design research approach, to provide material for an in depth discussion of challenges.
   Several research designs are presented that yield insight in theoretical and conceptual aspects of remote group interactions. Themes emerging from them concern the concept of embodiment, in particular regarding the conceptualization and expression of groups through the mediating system, as well as embodiment of the system for the individual, in the sense of both incorporation and extension of action-perception capacities. To further articulate and express such themes, ongoing and proposed research is presented. Difficulty is brought forward in bringing the various research designs together as one body of work, particularly in relation to theoretical framework, related work and ultimately articulating contributions.
Exploring Effects of Full-body Control in Perspective-based Learning in an Interactive Museum Data Display BIBAFull-Text 445-448
  Jessica Roberts
Many factors are known to mediate museum visitors' learning during their interactions with exhibits, including designed elements of the exhibit itself, the other visitors present in the space, and visitors' own backgrounds and prior knowledge. Research indicates that learners' use of a first-person Actor perspective may confer agency to the learner and allow him to more easily reason about otherwise abstract concepts. Our preliminary research shows that full-body interaction with museum exhibits (specifically, an exhibit presenting a rich interactive data visualization), seems to promote both perspective-taking and improved data reasoning. This research builds on that work to clarify the affordances of perspective taking in mediating learning in this environment by comparing two methods of control of the interactive exhibit -- full-body and handheld -- in order to understand how each condition can support perspective taking and data reasoning.
Designing the "Things" of the IoT BIBAFull-Text 449-452
  Tom Jenkins
Building objects that question implicit assumptions of common systems can help to reframe technological artifacts. This work builds on an inexpensive prototyping platform that augments everyday objects in minimal ways as an early move towards engaging with the Internet of Things as a site for contestation in interaction design. These intend to account for a broader understanding of design as generating political objects -- design things -- that draw from the work of Bruno Latour and Studio Atelier. Finally, it introduces the concept of object ecologies as a way to both analyze existing ecosystems of design objects and generate new, speculative ones.
Material and Meaning in Tangible Interactions BIBAFull-Text 453-456
  Shad Gross
Tangible interactions have incorporated new materials into interaction design as well as new perspectives on how those materials can be made useful. The dissertation research I discuss here examines materials and forms in terms of how they both mediate information but also can represent meanings in their own right. My work emphasizes these meanings as an important aspect of the experience of tangible interactions.
Designing Tangible Interfaces to Support Expression and Sensemaking in Interactive Narratives BIBAFull-Text 457-460
  Jean Ho Chu
Tangible and embodied interactions can provide a means to bring performative and participatory activities that have a physical presence in the real world into the narrated story world. This research investigates how to employ tangible narrative interfaces for learning about and reflecting on cultural practices. The research is informed by tangible interface frameworks, narratology, and existing cultural practices around storytelling with physical objects. The goal of this research is to design interfaces that are cohesively coupled with narrative content and that support meaningful interaction. I adopted tangible manipulation and expressive representation as guiding principles to explain the role of tangible media. Design guidelines are proposed and tested in preliminary research.

Student Design Challenge

From Movement to Mechanism: Exploring Expressive Movement Qualities in Shape-change BIBAFull-Text 461-464
  Matthijs Kwak; Joep W. Frens
This one-day studio revolves around the exploration of expressive movement qualities in shape-change by means of physical sketching and prototyping. It is a hands-on studio where participants first explore expressive movement qualities and interaction scenarios with a generic shape-changing platform and then abstract the explored movement qualities to model them in detail using cardboard modeling techniques combined with an Arduino controlled actuator (the advanced cardboard modeling platform). We recognize and want to zoom in on the potential of the expressiveness of shape-change in the context of human-product interaction as an emerging field in HCI research. In this studio we aim to both acquaint participants with new, low threshold platforms for exploration and give them insight in and a vocabulary of expressive movement qualities in shape-change.
Integrating Theories of Mind with Tangible and Embedded Interaction Design BIBAFull-Text 465-468
  Ilhan Aslan; Verena Fuchsberger; Manfred Tscheligi; Jelle van Dijk
Theories of how the human mind works have inspired but also constrained negatively and positively -- interaction design. Today's interfaces can potentially take any (physical and digital) form. Therefore, there is a need to prevent users from learning necessities for every single interface. To address the issue, interaction designers increasingly constrain their design decisions based on their conceptions of users' capacities and skills that already exist and are based on prior interactions with the real world. These skills, such as hand-eye coordination, are essential for tangible interfaces, and directly relate to cognition. In this one-day workshop, we will discuss the role of theories of mind in contemporary human-computer interaction research, as those might provide us with a substantial understanding of cognition and human skills. The focus will be on embodied and situated theories and possible consequences of adopting an embodied and situated perspective on the design and analysis of tangible and embedded interaction.
Un-Crafting: Exploring Tangible Practices for Deconstruction in Interactive System Design BIBAFull-Text 469-472
  Martin Murer; Anna Vallgårda; Mattias Jacobsson; Manfred Tscheligi
With this studio-workshop we aim to explore and debate how disassembling computational things can yield a potential for design practices. We believe there are significant qualities to be found in extending the mundane 'taking things apart' into an elaborate practice of un-crafting. The studio workshop comprises a series of collaborative disassembly activities with the aim of beginning to identify the key qualities and issues at stake. We also hope to have a diverse crowd, whose interdisciplinary viewpoints will enable us to ground an un-crafting practice in a diverse set of contexts.
Tangible Meets Gestural: Comparing and Blending Post-WIMP Interaction Paradigms BIBAFull-Text 473-476
  Leonardo Angelini; Denis Lalanne; Elise van den Hoven; Ali Mazalek; Omar Abou Khaled; Elena Mugellini
More and more objects of our everyday environment are becoming smart and connected, offering us new interaction possibilities. Tangible interaction and gestural interaction are promising communication means with these objects in this post-WIMP interaction era. Although based on different principles, they both exploit our body awareness and our skills to provide a richer and more intuitive interaction. Occasionally, when user gestures involve physical artifacts, tangible interaction and gestural interaction can blend into a new paradigm, i.e., tangible gesture interaction [5]. This workshop fosters the comparison among these different interaction paradigms and offers a unique opportunity to discuss their analogies and differences, as well as the definitions, boundaries, strengths, application domains and perspectives of tangible gesture interaction. Participants from different backgrounds are invited.
Costumes and Wearables as Game Controllers BIBAFull-Text 477-480
  Joshua Tanenbaum; Karen Tanenbaum; Katherine Isbister; Kaho Abe; Anne Sullivan; Luigi Anzivino
There has been a significant increase in commercial interest in wearable technologies, spearheaded by Google's Glass project, and also by the success of a new generation of fitness oriented biosensors such as the Fitbit, the Bodymedia Fit, and the Misfit Shine. Concurrently, there has been a proliferation of embodied interfaces for digital games such as Nintendo's Wii, Sony's Move controller, and Microsoft's Kinect. These technologies often only scratch the surface of the design possibility space, overlooking nuances of social and emotional experience for wearers/players that are important in other areas of design, such as theatrical costuming and fashion. We propose a studio that offers participants the chance to create wearable game controllers that afford a playful exploration of this design terrain, encouraging transformation, collaboration, and enjoyment of rich spectacle.
Interactive Infrastructures: Towards a Language for Distributed Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 481-484
  Bert Bongers
An interactive infrastructure allows people to have access to the parameters of an interactive environment in real time, potentially leading to an increased productivity, decrease of energy and material consumption, and generally greater satisfaction and experience. However, there is a need for a universal communication language between the elements of such an infrastructure and the real world. A language that can connect the Internet of Things, media contents, and people. The workshop will bring together a number of participants from the field of Tangible and Embedded Interaction, who have ideas, insights and experience in developing communication languages. Rather than a symposium or mini-conference format, the format for the day is that of a working group consisting experts and contributors. This working group will establish the groundwork for the interactive infrastructures language.
Making Storytelling Personal: Finding Your User in Your Story BIBAFull-Text 485-488
  Barbara A. Karanian; Erica S. Savig
Have you ever asked yourself if we blur the lines between the Who in our user's story and the Me in our personal story? This Workshop is based on the premise that finding our personal stories enhances our capacity to step into our user's shoes for deeper insights that fuel design.
   Discover engaging parallel stories using a variety of validated processes. Through a thought-provoking, psychodynamic and design-thinking approach, we will detangle each other's stories to reveal tangible translations on multiple levels. The active workshop will consist of planned imaginative prompts and an assortment of expressive modes such as one-minute interviews, drawing, prototype writing, and simulations.
   The overall process will draw us closer to our users and to ourselves, while creating necessary distance as we discover story overlaps. Each of us will leave with fresh insight into the Why we are designing, and more clarity into the potential impact of our design initiatives.
TEI 2015 Studio Interactive Inflatables: Amplifying Human Behaviors BIBAFull-Text 489-491
  Kristin Niedlinger; Edwin Dertien
In the Interactive Inflatables studio, participants will create bio-responsive inflatable structures to amplify human behaviors. Methods to concept and craft unique expansive designs will be taught. The interactive inflatable structures will respond to special and biological sensors. The studio is organized in stages and will involve and introduction of materials and media, concept generation, hands on making within partners, and a display of new tangible embedded and embodied interfaces.
Input/Output: Paper Prototyping for the Future BIBAFull-Text 493-495
  Joselyn McDonald; Nicole Yi Messier
The I/O: Paper Prototyping for the Future studio will be a hands-on experience that combines art, design, and technology. Participants will learn through a series of escalating exercises how to introduce interactivity via computational crafting techniques to paper in order to heighten the paper prototyping experience.
Wearable Computing, 3D Aug* Reality, Photographic/Videographic Gesture Sensing, and Veillance BIBAFull-Text 497-500
  Steve Mann; Steve Feiner; Soren Harner; Mir Adnan Ali; Ryan Janzen; Jayse Hansen; Stefano Baldassi
Wearable computers and Generation-5 Digital Eye Glass easily recognize a user's own gestures, forming the basis for shared AR (Augmediated Reality). This Studio-workshop presents the latest in wearable AR, plus an historical perspective with new insights. Participants will sculpt 3D objects using hand gestures and create Unity 3D art+game objects using computational lightpainting.
   Participants will also learn how to use 3D gesture-based AR to visualize and understand real-world phenomena, including being able to see sound waves, see radio waves, and see sight itself, through abakographic user-interfaces that interact with "sightfields" (time-reversed lightfields). Participants will also surveilluminescent devices that change color when watched by a camera. Long exposure photographs made with such devices generate "sightpaintings" that show what a camera can "see".
Designing for Humans in a Digital Age: Building Wearable Technology to Convey Information and Emotions BIBAFull-Text 501-504
  Billie Whitehouse; Stanley He
The purpose of our studio is to inspire attendees on what are the most important issues to think about when designing wearable technology products that provides meaningful experiences.
   During the studio, attendees will have the chance to discuss the best approach to design wearable tech products that can convey both meaningful information and emotions. Attendees will also build a prototype for a wearable technology product that solves a real problem, in a team setting. We will encourage attendees to think beyond well-known wearable technology categories such as smart watches, fitness bands, and smart glasses, but rather envision products that fit our body in newly imagined ways, creating new product categories altogether.
   The agenda of the studio will include discussion of "10 Principles of Good Design" by Dieter Rams, and case studies that shows the importance of invisible, unobtrusive design in wearable technology. A majority portion of the studio will be hands on, where attendees will design and prototype their own conceptual wearable tech product.
   The studio will be led by Billie Whitehouse, the co-founder and design director of Wearable Experiments. Since the company's takeoff in 2013, Billie has led multiple innovative wearable technology projects, such as Fundawear and Alert Shirt, which have won a Cannes Lion and Clio Sports Award respectively. Billie has recently made the list of 2014 Silicon Alley 100 by Business Insider. With a strong background in fashion and design, it is Billie's goal to put more intelligence into the clothes we wear every day.
Rapid Prototyping for Wearables: Concept Design and Development for head- and wrist-mounted Wearables (Smart Watches and Google Glass) BIBAFull-Text 505-508
  Mark Billinghurst; Daniela Busse
This half-day hands-on studio will teach how to design and develop effective interfaces for head mounted and wrist worn wearable computers through the application of user-centered design principles. Attendees will learn gain the knowledge and tools needed to rapidly develop prototype applications, and also complete a hands-on design task. They will also learn good design guidelines for wearable systems and how to apply those guidelines. A variety of tools will be used that do not require any hardware or software experience, many of which are free and/or open source. Attendees will also be provided with material that they can use to continue their learning after the studio is over.
Prototyping Social Interactions with DIY Animatronic Creatures BIBAFull-Text 509-512
  Cesar Vandevelde; Maarten Vanhoucke; Jelle Saldien
For some time now, robotics research has shifted its attention from robots that function within their own predefined space to robots that coexist with humans in the human's natural habitats. This evolution has not only driven interest in robot safety and compliance, it has also resulted in the subdomain of Social Robotics, which is concerned with natural interaction between robots and humans. In this studio, we will offer participants the chance to create their own animatronic creature using modular building blocks derived from Ono, our low-cost Do-It-Yourself social robot. In the first part, we will help participants to conceptualize a context and scenario for their social robot. Then, using craft materials (e.g. cardboard, glue, fabrics, foam, etc.) in combination with custom connectors and our animatronic modules, participants will build the physical embodiment of their creature. Finally, they are brought to life by connecting the modules to our electronics platform (Raspberry PI), which is then programmed using an easy to use library.
Engaging Encounters: Sketching the Future of TEI BIBAFull-Text 513-516
  Caroline Hummels
As part of the one-year project "Engaging Encounters: Sketching the Future together", this studio-workshop will explore hands-on how the work and ideas of TEI can influence our interaction with the world in the upcoming decade. It explores the character of the different paradigms underlying the TEI community and their potential influence on our future society and as well as on our TEI community. Especially for this TEI'15 conference, six personal 1.5-hour encounters with TEI participants are organised to discuss, explore and sketch the future of TEI. The results of these encounters will be included on a blog, book and movie about the overall Engaging Encounters project, as well as in a special publication about the future of TEI. Through all the encounters and 'publications', this project aims at inspiring people in their work and perspective on the world, including TEI, and their contribution in shaping the future together.

Work-in-Progress: Poster Presentations

Re-Orientating Time in Product Design: A Phenomenology-inspired Perspective BIBAFull-Text 517-522
  Jelle Stienstra; Bart Hengeveld; Caroline Hummels
This paper presents a work in progress design case that is used to exemplify how a phenomenology-inspired perspective on time can impact the design of highly interactive systems and products. The design presents a calendar with a re-orientated layout that is based on a bodily relationship with time, rather than on the more established linear chronological layout found in most products and systems. The presented design offers a promising perspective as well as emergent technical issues and questions. With this work we hope to inspire interaction designers to consider embodied mechanisms.
Supporting Empathy Through Embodiment in the Design of Interactive Systems BIBAFull-Text 523-528
  Jonny Huck; Paul Coulton; David Gullick; Philip Powell; Jennifer Roberts; Andrew Hudson-Smith; Martin De-Jode; Panagiotis Mavros
Whilst empathy is considered an essential component of what it means to be human, it is frequently absent as a design objective when creating modern communication systems. This paper presents an approach to designing for, as opposed to with, empathy using the example of two design interventions to create embodied rituals reflecting prayers and worries of individuals within a church community. The aim of these interventions is to facilitate conversation and support within the community, thus generating empathy between community members, and inciting prosocial behaviour through embodied cognition.
Situated Apparel: Designing to Reinforce Affective Communication BIBAFull-Text 529-532
  Ye Tao; Hongyu Chen; Fei Meng; Xiaolian Zhang; Fangtian Ying; Cheng Yao
There is a prosperity in wearable media in data monitoring. Since the apparel can show personal tastes, emotions and attitudes, what if our clothes could express affective information throughout different situations? This paper presents a system for enhancing the experience of situated-base affective communication by information visualization. The paper discusses the leading features in a variety of specific contexts such as the information monitoring, the remote communication and the customization.
PhonoBlocks: A Tangible System for Supporting Dyslexic Children Learning to Read BIBAFull-Text 533-538
  Alissa N. Antle; Min Fan; Emily S. Cramer
Dyslexia is defined as severe difficulty learning to read. It affects about 10% of the population in English speaking countries. Severe difficulty learning to read is correlated with tremendous emotional, social and economic costs. In this paper, we describe PhonoBlocks, a tangible user interface to a reading system that uses dynamic colour cues embedded in 3D tangible letters to provide additional decoding information and modalities. PhonoBlocks was developed to support children, aged 5-8 years old, who are having difficulty learning to decode English letter-sound pairs. We present the theoretical foundations as rationale for our core design strategies and decisions. We discuss the assumptions in our design rationale and describe how we will validate our system working with a school for dyslexic children.
SOFTii: Soft Tangible Interface for Continuous Control of Virtual Objects with Pressure-based Input BIBAFull-Text 539-544
  Vinh Nguyen; Pramod Kumar; Sang Ho Yoon; Ansh Verma; Karthik Ramani
We present SOFTii, a flexible input system for topography design and continuous control via external force. Our intent is to provide a tactile metaphor for pressure-based surface input. In this study, two prototypes of SOFTii have been fabricated: (a) The first prototype has one pressure surface for topography design with everyday tangible objects, (b) the second prototype, having two force input surfaces, performs as a deformable controller for video games and continuous shape modeling using a SVM algorithm. Both prototypes of SOFTii are constructed by layering Polymethylsiloxane (PDMS), ITO coated PET film, and conductive fabric and foam. The layer configuration allows the capturing of local pressure on the SOFTii surface via distributed electrodes. Here we further discuss the implementation of the device with possible usage scenarios.
People's Emotional Responses to a Plant's Emotional Expression BIBAFull-Text 545-550
  Jaewon Cho; Sanghoo Park; Been Jeon; Byung-Chull Bae; Jun-Dong Cho
In this paper we investigate how people emotionally respond to the emotional expression of a plant when external stimuli were given to the plant. For this purpose we built a simple LED emoticon-based device as an emotional proxy for delivering inner states of a plant, assuming the inner states of a plant can be changed depending on either positive or negative external stimuli. Our pilot study suggests that people's attitude on plants can be influenced by observing the emotional expressions of a plant.
Exploring the Application of Interactive Video Projection in Physical Education BIBAFull-Text 551-555
  Danica Mast; Jeroen de Krom; Sanne de Vries
This paper describes explorations into related technology and research regarding the application of interactive video projection within physical education and the gym of the future. We discuss the application of exergaming in physical education, spatial augmented reality as a technology and participatory design with teachers and children as a design method to develop new concepts. Based on our initial findings we propose directions for further research. Further work includes developing new applications based on the wishes, needs and ideas of physical education teachers and children, incorporating opportunities provided by recent technological developments.
Assisting Caregivers of Children with Cerebral Palsy: Towards a Self-Feeding Assessment Spoon BIBAFull-Text 557-562
  Oren Zuckerman; Ronit Slyper; Tal Keren-Capelovitch; Ayelet Gal-Oz; Tamar Gal; Patrice L. (Tamar) Weiss
Many children with cerebral palsy (CP) encounter great difficulties mastering self-feeding. We set out to assess the self-feeding skills of young children with CP via a novel instrumented spoon that monitors upper extremity biomechanics involved in eating. We describe the initial stages of an iterative design process, consisting of a focus group with domain experts, and rapid-prototyping. We discuss the physical, assessment and safety requirements for the spoon. In addition, we explain the potential of tangible interfaces to provide professional caregivers with valuable information regarding each child.
Tangibly Enhancing Haptics BIBAFull-Text 563-568
  Philip Feldman; Ravi Kuber
In this paper, we describe the development of a novel, low-cost, compact sensor/actuator that can be integrated with a commercially-available haptic device, such as the Geomagic Touch, to provide additional capability when grasping virtual objects. The focus of this paper is to investigate the impact of modality on a 'picking and placing' task using the prototype. The results of this study suggest that fewer errors were made when grasping objects presented using force-input/vibrotactile output (FV) combined with force-feedback. The multimodal feedback presented via the prototype is thought to offer considerable potential to supporting skilled and semi-skilled workers to perform remote tasks involving fine motor control.
Observing Hand Placement and Measurement on a Tabletop Using a Depth Camera BIBAFull-Text 569-574
  Christopher J. Martinez; Katherine Seggerman; Andy Perez
Tabletop computing is a new emerging interface that can be realized with low cost using depth sensor cameras such as the Microsoft Kinect. The optimization of the touch interface using depth measurements must take into account the size variations of a diverse population. In this study, we examine a sample population to understand the differences in hand measurements a depth camera would detect on a large tabletop computer. We have broken down the hand into three measurements (the three joints in the hand) that may be of interest to research working in the field. The hand measurements have been taken at different locations on the table to account for changes in the hand position caused by the user stretching their arm.
Constructive Play: Designing for Role Play Stories with Interactive Play Objects BIBAFull-Text 575-580
  Guanyun Wang; Ye Tao; Enmao Liu; Yunfan Wang; Cheng Yao; Fangtian Ying
Objects, whether toys or not, are likely to become the center of children's game, which can trigger children's exploration and imagination, and build the world's environmental and psychological statements by manipulating something, to enhance the autonomy of children and inspire their creativity. This paper, based on scaffolding learning theory, puts forward the learning principle of constructive play suitable for learning in play school, suitable for cognitive behaviors of children aged 5 to 8 years old, and aims to encourage children to think creatively in the course of play, rather than learning knowledge and solve problems. We redesign the images, most commonly used by children RPG storytelling, and embed interactive intelligence, to better help children play games, stimulate their imagination and creativity in storytelling, and encourage them share with their companions and parents.
Time and Design: Seven Sensitivities BIBAFull-Text 581-586
  Verena Fuchsberger; Martin Murer; Manfred Tscheligi
In this work in progress, we present a set of seven design sensitivities, which address time in interaction design. We exemplarily illustrate how time affects and is affected by tangible, embodied, or embedded artifacts. Thereby, we discuss slow versus fast technology, time as context of use, time as theme, time as content, ephemerality, historicality, and chronology. Those design sensitivities are an initial step towards a framing of the different notions and aspects in regards to time in interaction design.
Caret Manipulation using Deformable Input in Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 587-591
  Alexander Keith Eady; Audrey Girouard
Caret movement is difficult with touch input because of finger occlusion and the imprecision of interacting with a small display using fingers. We hypothesize that bend might provide a better text manipulation solution. We propose bend gestures to move a single caret or dual carets without requiring hand repositioning. We create a deformable prototype and implement the gestures. We present our bend interactions for caret manipulation and discuss our prototype.
Empathy Objects: Robotic Devices as Conversation Companions BIBAFull-Text 593-598
  Oren Zuckerman; Guy Hoffman
We present the notion of Empathy Objects, ambient robotic devices accompanying human-human interaction. Empathy Objects respond to human behavior using physical gestures as nonverbal expressions of their "emotional states". The goal is to increase people's self-awareness to the emotional state of others, leading to behavior change. We demonstrate an Empathy Object prototype, Kip1, a conversation companion designed to promote non-aggressive conversation between people.
EmotiSphere: From Emotion to Music BIBAFull-Text 599-602
  Galen Chuang; Shelley Wang; Sara Burns; Orit Shaer
EmotiSphere is an interactive sensor-based musical instrument that generates music based on a user's current emotional state. Interactions with EmotiSphere draw upon everyday interactions with physical spherical objects, as well as on familiar interactions with music players. EmotiSphere offers a novel way to understand the relationship between emotion and music, and is aimed at people who want to create music and express themselves but do not necessarily possess skills in music composition. We describe the conceptualization and context of EmotiSphere, as well as its technical implementation.
Touching Notes: A Gesture-Based Game for Teaching Music to Children BIBAFull-Text 603-606
  Manuela Renzi; Stavros Vassos; Tiziana Catarci; Stephen Kimani
In this work we present some findings on how gesture-based interfaces can stimulate and motivate children into learning the basics of music notation. We report on a serious game we developed that relies on a hand detection interface using motion-sensing camera technology. Our initial experiments indicate the accuracy, effectiveness, and user acceptance of the gesture-based interface among children, thereby validating the idea that such interfaces can be used to facilitate the teaching of music concepts.
Wall Relief: A Health-Oriented Interactive Installation for the Workplace Environment BIBAFull-Text 607-611
  Halley Profita; Donald Brinkman; Andy Lim; Ross Smith
Recently, workplace settings are reflecting a shift from traditional work-oriented values to promoting work/life balance and employee well-being. Technology has the ability to contribute to workplace enjoyment through the incorporation of employee activities and health-centric initiatives. Furthermore, tangible computing and interactive media can be used to explore novel interaction methods for positive user-computer experiences. We leverage these concepts to inform the development of a playful and engaging interactive installation aimed at promoting health-oriented experiences in the workplace. In this work, we detail our initial steps and design decisions to address this objective. The result is Wall Relief, a Tai Chi-inspired interactive wall unit developed to create an engaging, ephemeral experience that guides the user through a series of upper-body movements.
Magnetic Files: Exploring Tag Based File Systems Using Embodied Files BIBAFull-Text 613-617
  David Gullick; Paul Coulton; Manfred Lau
The widespread use of the desktop metaphor during the early adoption of computers has promoted the utilization of files and folders. However many people have use cases that are not well suited to the strict nature of these systems. As a result, alternative file system paradigms are being explored by the research community, and by leading software vendors. Tangible interactions for exploring these alternative file systems have largely been unexplored, despite the many benefits that tangible interfaces could bring to such systems. Those that do explore this area are limited in information bandwidth by the number of feedback channels used to represent this information. Therefore, in this paper we introduce two associated works in progress: one that explores the design of a tag based file system affording tangible interaction; and a second that initiates the consideration of ways that we can increase the information bandwidth of such systems using physically embodied files. We believe this research identifies an important area that tangible interaction designers should explore given the dominance of file systems in computing tasks.
Social Textiles: Social Affordances and Icebreaking Interactions Through Wearable Social Messaging BIBAFull-Text 619-624
  Viirj Kan; Katsuya Fujii; Judith Amores; Chang Long Zhu Jin; Pattie Maes; Hiroshi Ishii
Wearable commodities are able to extend beyond the temporal span of a particular community event, offering omnipresent vehicles for producing icebreaking interaction opportunities. We introduce a novel platform, which generates social affordances to facilitate community organizers in aggregating social interaction among unacquainted, collocated members beyond initial hosted gatherings. To support these efforts, we present functional work-in-progress prototypes for Social Textiles, wearable computing textiles which enable social messaging and peripheral social awareness on non-emissive digitally linked shirts. The shirts serve as catalysts for different social depths as they reveal common interests (mediated by community organizers), based on the physical proximity of users. We provide 3 key scenarios, which demonstrate the user experience envisioned with our system. We present a conceptual framework, which shows how different community organizers across domains such as universities, brand communities and digital self-organized communities can benefit from our technology.
Note Code: A Tangible Music Programming Puzzle Tool BIBAFull-Text 625-629
  Vishesh Kumar; Tuhina Dargan; Utkarsh Dwivedi; Poorvi Vijay
We present the design of Note Code -- a music programming puzzle game designed as a tangible device coupled with a Graphical User Interface (GUI). Tapping patterns and placing boxes in proximity enables programming these "note-boxes" to store sets of notes, play them back and activate different sub-components or neighboring boxes. This system provides users the opportunity to learn a variety of computational concepts, including functions, function calling and recursion, conditionals, as well as engage in composing music. The GUI adds a dimension of viewing the created programs and interacting with a set of puzzles that help discover the various computational concepts in the pursuit of creating target tunes, and optimizing the program made.

Work-in-Progress: Poster/Demo Presentations

Process Products: Capturing Design Iteration with Digital Fabrication BIBAFull-Text 631-636
  Tiffany Tseng; Geoff Tsai
This paper introduces the concept of Process Products, or digitally fabricated objects embedded with visual representations of design process. The goal of this work is to use automation to capture the iterative process of designing and manufacturing objects using digital fabrication and encapsulate this information directly on the produced objects themselves. Documenting iteration can help designers communicate the evolution of their design, reveal strategies that designers use to create products, and help manufacturers of digital fabrication technologies understand how their tools are used. We propose three potential forms of Process Products: Process Heatmaps, Process Stacks, and Process Textures, as a way to spark discussion on capturing and representing iteration in the design of physical objects.
Tactile Dialogues: Personalization of Vibrotactile Behavior to Trigger Interpersonal Communication BIBAFull-Text 637-642
  Kimberly Johanna Schelle; Carolina Gomez Naranjo; Martijn ten Bhömer; Oscar Tomico; Stephan Wensveen
This article describes tests that have been conducted with Tactile Dialogues, a textile pillow that can react to touch with vibrotactile stimuli and haptic sensations. Tactile Dialogues is designed to stimulate movement and interpersonal contact for patients in the late stages of dementia, their family members and their caregivers. The most recent prototype of the pillow has been tested during 15 separate visits of family members or caregivers with patients. The aim of these tests is to find out whether personalization of the vibrotactile stimuli is appreciated over a mirroring vibrotactile behavior. We propose a three-scale measurement to help family members and caregivers examine the responses of the patient: muscular relaxation, physical movement and interpersonal contact. Through the semi-structured interviews we identified that family members and caregivers do appreciate the opportunity to personalize the vibrotactile behavior and that the pillow mainly functions as a way to establish communication with the patient.
Physical Construction Toys for Rapid Sketching of Tangible User Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 643-648
  Kristian Gohlke; Michael Hlatky; Bram de Jong
Physical construction toys such as Lego or similar brick-based systems provide a rich space for tangible interactions. In this paper we explore their potential as a readily available prototyping platform for Tangible User Interfaces. The system enables interaction designers and users to create functional control layouts, tangible experience prototypes, custom interface elements, and grid based interactions from Lego bricks. The position, color, orientation and shape of the markerless bricks are tracked using a camera. We have conducted an initial exploration of this design space through an exemplary case study of a tangible interface for music creation: users can construct interactive interface elements such as tangible grids for the arrangement of drum-patterns and different types of continuous controllers for parameter adjustments. The system is currently a work in progress; ongoing efforts are aimed at a more thorough evaluation.
Objects for Change: A Case Study of a Tangible User Interface for Behavior Change BIBAFull-Text 649-654
  Oren Zuckerman
We present Objects for Change (OFC), a set of design considerations based on established behavior change techniques that can serve designers of Tangible User Interfaces (TUI). We highlight empirical findings from behavior change literature, and show how to apply them to inherent TUI properties: (1) visibility and persistency, (2) locality, (3) tangible representation, and (4) affordances. We demonstrate how we applied OFC in the design of a TUI prototype aimed to promote behavior change in planning and organization tasks among youth diagnosed with ADHD.
Touch Wire: Interactive Tangible Electricty Game for Kids BIBAFull-Text 655-659
  Michael Saenz; Joshua Strunk; Sharon Lynn Chu; Jinsil Hwaryoung Seo
This paper presents Touch Wire, a learning environment for teaching the basics of electricity and electronic design to young children. Touch Wire combines a digital touch screen interface with tangible components to bring the concepts of electronic circuitry to the forefront, while removing the tedium of tasks such as wiring for young children. Grounded in constructivist theories of learning, Touch Wire will overlay information about the underlying electrical mechanics on the tablet interface to scaffold children's learning of electronics. Our demonstrations have given us insight into how to best move forward developing the blended tangible and graphical interfaces of Touch Wire to both enhance the fun experience for children and support their learning of electronic circuitry.
Towards an Anthropomorphic Lamp for Affective Interaction BIBAFull-Text 661-666
  Leonardo Angelini; Maurizio Caon; Denis Lalanne; Omar Abou khaled; Elena Mugellini
This paper presents the concept of a lamp that allows displaying and collecting user's emotional states. In particular, it displays the emotional information changing colors and facial expressions; in fact, the lamp is characterized by anthropomorphic form and behavior in order to make the interaction more natural and spontaneous. The user can interact with the lamp through tangible gestures typically used in social interactions by humans. Two different scenarios involving the use of the lamp as a companion and for computer-mediated communication are presented.
Composing Interaction: Exploring Tangible Notation Systems For Design BIBAFull-Text 667-672
  Bart Hengeveld
In this paper we discuss our recent research into notation systems for interaction design. Inspired by music notation -- a standardized yet open system with which a composition (i.e., a musical design) can be communicated -- we suspect that similar notation systems can be designed for interaction design. We describe our research approach to this suspicion and describe several outcomes of our research, which all lean heavily on tangibility, manipulability and shareability.
Tactile Letters: A Tangible Tabletop with Texture Cues Supporting Alphabetic Learning for Dyslexic Children BIBAFull-Text 673-678
  Min Fan; Alissa N. Antle
Dyslexic children have great difficulty in learning to read. While research in HCI suggests that tangible user interfaces (TUIs) have the potential to support children learning to read, few studies have explored how to help dyslexic children learn to read. Even fewer studies have specifically investigated the design space of texture cues in TUIs in supporting learning to read. In this paper, we present Tactile Letters, a multimodal tangible tabletop with texture cues developed to support English letter-sound correspondence learning for dyslexic children aged 5-6 years old. This prototype is used as a research instrument to investigate the role of texture cues in a multimodal TUI in alphabetic learning. We discuss the current knowledge gap, the theoretical foundations that informed our core design strategy, and the subsequent design decisions we made while developing Tactile Letters.
L-Shift: Encoding and Shifting Material Properties and Functionalities with Phase-shifting Liquid BIBAFull-Text 679-684
  Sang-won Leigh; Patrick Johan Nicolaas van Hoof; Krithika Jagannath; Pattie Maes; Hiroshi Ishii
Forces of gravity and the concept of a fixed center of mass severely limit the opportunities for product design and user interaction with those products. In this paper, we present L-Shift, a fictional material in which the weight distribution of physical objects is manipulated dynamically. It is a material that shifts its phase between solid and liquid and, therefore, allows for changes in weight distribution and rigidity. This gives designers many more options, as products can be re-shaped, re-balanced and stiffened as needed. Through prototyping with sodium acetate -- a material that has properties close to the proposed fictional one -- we explore user scenarios and future possibilities. We envision that it is possible to manipulate such physical properties of objects dynamically, which will open up new opportunities for designing interactive and more responsive products.
Collective Sound Checks: Exploring Intertwined Sonic and Social Affordances of Mobile Web Applications BIBAFull-Text 685-690
  Norbert Schnell; Sébastien Robaszkiewicz; Frederic Bevilacqua; Diemo Schwarz
We present the Collective Sound Checks, an exploration of user scenarios based on mobile web applications featuring motion-controlled sound that enable groups of people to engage in spontaneous collaborative sound and music performances. These new forms of musical expression strongly shift the focus of design from human-computer interactions towards the emergence of computer mediated interactions between players based on sonic and social affordances of ubiquitous technologies. At this early stage, our work focuses on experimenting with different user scenarios while observing the relationships between different interactions and affordances.
Costumes as Game Controllers: An Exploration of Wearables to Suit Social Play BIBAFull-Text 691-696
  Katherine Isbister; Kaho Abe
We present an ongoing project exploring the use of costumes as game controllers. This collaboration between an artist and a researcher involves creating and evaluating a game for two players that uses costumes to drive core mechanics and interactions. We aim to give players a sense of transformation and connection, and to create an engaging spectacle for others. We discuss the design of the game, iterations in its form, and our plans for conducting user research with the finished game.
clayodor: Retrieving Scents through the Manipulation of Malleable Material BIBAFull-Text 697-702
  Cindy Hsin-Liu Kao; Ermal Dreshaj; Judith Amores; Sang-won Leigh; Xavier Benavides; Pattie Maes; Ken Perlin; Hiroshi Ishii
clayodor (\klei-o-dor\) is a clay-like malleable material that changes smell based on user manipulation of its shape. This work explores the tangibility of shape changing materials to capture smell, an ephemeral and intangible sensory input. We present the design of a proof-of-concept prototype, and discussions on the challenges of navigating smell though form.
A Study to Empower Children to Design Movable Tactile Pictures for Children with Visual Impairments BIBAFull-Text 703-708
  Jeeeun Kim; Hyunjoo Oh; Tom Yeh
3D Printing has shown a great potential to print tactile picture books, in order to cultivate emergent literacy for children with visual impairments. However, currently available 3D design tools are hard to learn, resulting in children to be excluded from the participatory design of tactile pictures. Also, existing 3D design software lacks of functionality to incorporate mobility and rich textures, which is critical aspect of the effective tactile picture. In this paper, we review our formative studies, presenting a hands-on design process for children to empower their own creativities into 3D tactile pictures design, and to engage them to bring other materials to enhance touch experiences.

Work-in-Progress: Demonstration Presentations

Olegoru: A Soundscape Composition Tool to Enhance Imaginative Storytelling with Tangible Objects BIBAFull-Text 709-714
  Chuan-Che Huang; Yu-Jen Lin; Xinda Zeng; Mark Newman; Sile O'Modhrain
Learning storytelling is beneficial for children's development. Various tools have been proposed to expand the set of materials children can use to compose their stories. However, most previous research focuses on enhancing the visual aspect of storytelling and underexplores the acoustic elements needed for children's stories. In this paper, Olegoru1, a sound composition tool in the form of magic gloves and soul stones, is proposed to augment children's storytelling when using physical objects. Children can create contextual and regional sound effects as well as event-based acoustics through speech, non-verbal and gestural interaction, and could potentially enable children to create more immersive story-worlds. To investigate the technical feasibility of such tool, a preliminary prototype was built that accepts a limited number of vocalized sound effects and vocabulary.
Arduino in Museum Exhibition: Lessons Learned When Working With Design Students Inexperienced in Coding BIBAFull-Text 715-720
  Jennie Schaeffer; Rikard Lindell
This work-in-progress paper describes the lessons learned when introducing Arduino and Processing programming into a museum exhibition design course. 20 information design students from Sweden, with no previous knowledge in programming, participated in the course. The students' task was to create five interactive exhibition stations at a museum in five weeks. As an experiment, Arduino and Processing programming was introduced into the course in 2014. The ambition with the experiment was to enlarge the information design students' repertoire and find ways to develop the interactive aspects of the exhibition medium.
   The aim of the paper is to identify and discuss challenges and strengths when introducing code as design material in information design education. The findings presented are based on the students' reflection stories.
   This work is in progress and we aim in the future to 1) continue the analysis of the material 2) with the findings develop the information design education further and 3) explore the relation between tangible and intangible experience of interactive museum artifacts from a designer's and a museum visitor's perspective. We consider this to be an important matter with branches into the TEI community. We appreciate any feedback on our work.
Tangible Interactive Ambient Display Prototypes to Support Learning Scenarios BIBAFull-Text 721-726
  Dirk Börner; Bernardo Tabuenca; Jeroen Storm; Sven Happe; Marcus Specht
This paper describes the research and development of tangible interactive ambient display prototypes to support learning scenarios. Therefore a prototypical system design called the Feedback Cube is presented. The prototypes combine motion sensors, visual and auditive actuators, as well as wireless communication capabilities in a cubic layout. An initial formative study underpins the prototypes' potential to facilitate interaction and/or indicate feedback. Based on the presented results possible applications scenarios in a learning context are outlined.
"Tangible Lights": In-Air Gestural Control of Home Lighting BIBAFull-Text 727-732
  Tor Sørensen; Oskar D. Andersen; Timothy Merritt
While there has been much focus on tangible lighting interfaces embedded in physical objects and smartphones as remote control, there has not been sufficient attention on how the expressivity of bodily movement can be used when designing interactions with light. Therefore, we investigate interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing knowledge from the tangible world. Tangible Lights has been subject to initial evaluations.
i.Ge: Exploring New Game Interaction Metaphors with Interactive Projection BIBAFull-Text 733-738
  Patrick Oswald; Jordi Tost; Reto Wettach
Video games are traditionally presented and visualized on a screen (flat, portable, touch sensitive or projected) and are mostly restricted by predefined scenarios and character movements. Although the ways in which we interact with games have improved over recent years, the interaction is still limited to their functions and game presets and still happens inside the screen. In this paper we explore new interaction paradigms using i.Ge4, a video game level editor that allows users to interact with their own environment to create game content with every-day physical objects in real time. At this stage, i.Ge explores new ways to interact with the real world by augmenting it with interactive projections, reducing the gap between the real and the digital world in a spatial augmented reality. We also propose other novel naturalistic approaches to create and interact with digital content that involve embodiment and more use of depth.